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calque
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{{Short description|Loaned translation of an expression}}{{distinguish|literal translation|claque}}{{Refimprove|article|date=March 2011}}In linguistics, a calque {{IPAc-en|k|æ|l|k}} or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation. Used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components, so as to create a new lexeme in the target language."Calque" itself is a loanword from the French noun {{wikt-lang|fr|calque}} ("tracing; imitation; close copy"); the verb {{wikt-lang|fr|calquer}} means "to trace; to copy, to imitate closely"; {{wikt-lang|fr|papier calque}} is "tracing paper".The New Cassell's French Dictionary: French-English, English-French, New York, Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1962, p. 122. The word "loanword" is itself a calque of the German word {{wikt-lang|de|Lehnwort}}, just as "loan translation" is a calque of {{wikt-lang|de|Lehnübersetzung}}.Robb: German English Words germanenglishwords.comProving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword because, in some cases, a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently. This is less likely to be the case when the grammar of the proposed calque is quite different from that of the borrowing language, or when the calque contains less obvious imagery.Calquing is distinct from phono-semantic matching.BOOK, Zuckermann, Ghil'ad, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew,weblink Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, 1-4039-1723-X, While calquing includes semantic translation, it does not consist of phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existing word or morpheme in the target language).

Types

One system classifies calques into five groups:May Smith, The Influence of French on Eighteenth-century Literary Russian, pp. 29–30.
  • the phraseological calque, with idiomatic phrases being translated word-for-word. For example, "(:wiktionary:go without saying|it goes without saying)" calques the French .Foreign Words. Fowler, H. W. 1908. The King's English
  • the syntactic calque, with syntactic functions or constructions of the source language being imitated in the target language, in violation of their meaning. For example, in Spanish the legal term for “to find guilty” is properly (“to declare guilty”). Informal usage, however, is shifting to : a syntactic mapping of "to find" without a semantic correspondence in Spanish of “find” to mean “determine as true”.If my Calqueulations are Correct, Paul Weston
  • the loan-translation, with words being translated morpheme-by-morpheme or component-by-component into another language. The two morphemes of the Swedish word {{wikt-lang|sv|tonÃ¥ring}} calque each part of the English "teenager": {{wikt-lang|sv|femton|femton}} "fifteen" and {{wikt-lang|sv|Ã¥ring}} "year-old" (as in the phrase "twelve-year-old").
  • the semantic calque, with additional meanings of the source word being transferred to the word with the same primary meaning in the target language. This is also called a "semantic loan". As described below, the "computer mouse" was named in English for its resemblance to the animal; many other languages have extended their own native word for "mouse" to include the computer mouse.
  • the morphological calque, with the inflection of a word being transferred.
This terminology is not universal. Some authors call a morphological calque a "morpheme-by-morpheme translation".Claude Gilliot, "The Authorship of the Qur'ān" in Gabriel Said Reynolds, The Qur'an in its Historical Context, p. 97Other linguists refer to the phonological calque, where the pronunciation of a word is imitated in the other language.Specialised Dictionaries for Learners edited by Pedro Antonio Fuertes Olivera, p. 187 For example, the English word "radar" becomes the similar-sounding Chinese word {{wikt-lang|zh|雷达}} (pinyin "léi dá").

{{anchor|Loan blend}}Loan blend

Loan blends or partial calques translate some parts of a compound, but not others.Philip Durkin, The Oxford Guide to Etymology, sec. 5.1.4 For example, the name of the Irish digital television service Saorview is a partial calque of that of the UK service Freeview, translating the first half of the word from English to Irish but leaving the second half unchanged. Other examples are: "liverwurst" (< German {{wikt-lang|de|Leberwurst}}), "apple strudel" (< German {{wikt-lang|de|Apfelstrudel}}).

Examples

Loan translation: "flea market"

The common English phrase "flea market" is a loan translation of the French {{wikt-lang|fr|marché aux puces}} ("market with fleas")."flea market", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, 2000 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070311115056weblink |date=2007-03-11 }} Other national variations include:{{div col |colwidth = 30em }}
  • Cebuano: {{wikt-lang|ceb|taboán sa tuma}}
  • Chinese: {{wikt-lang|zh|跳蚤市场}}
  • Czech: {{wikt-lang|cs|bleší trh}}
  • Danish {{wikt-lang|da|loppemarked}}
  • Dutch: {{wikt-lang|nl|vlooienmarkt}}
  • Finnish: {{wikt-lang|fi|kirpputori}}
  • German: {{wikt-lang|de|Flohmarkt}}
  • Hebrew: {{wikt-lang|he|שוק פשפשים}}
  • Hungarian: {{wikt-lang|hu|bolhapiac}}
  • Italian: {{wikt-lang|it|mercato delle pulci}}
  • Japanese: {{wikt-lang|ja|蚤の市}}
  • Korean: {{wikt-lang|ko|벼룩시장}}
  • Makedonian: {{wikt-lang|mk|болвин пазар}} ({{transl|mk|bolvin pazar}})
  • Norwegian: {{wikt-lang|no|loppemarked}}
  • Polish: {{wikt-lang|pl|pchli targ}}
  • Russian: {{wikt-lang|ru|блошиный рынок}} ({{transl|ru|bloÅ¡inyj rynok}})
  • Serbian: {{wikt-lang|sr|buvlja pijaca}}
  • Spanish: {{wikt-lang|es|mercado de pulgas}}
  • Swedish: {{wikt-lang|sv|loppmarknad}}
  • Turkish: {{wikt-lang|tr|bit pazarı}} ("louse market")
  • Ukrainian: {{wikt-lang|uk|блошиний ринок}} ({{transl|uk|bloÅ¡ynyj rynok}})
{{div col end}}

Loan translation: "skyscraper"

An example of a common morpheme-by-morpheme loan-translation in a multitude of languages is that of the English word (wikt:skyscraper|skyscraper):{{div col|colwidth=30em}}
  • Albanian: {{wikt-lang|sq|qiellgërvishtës}} ("sky-scraper")
  • Afrikaans: {{wikt-lang|af|wolkekrabber}} ("clouds-scraper")
  • Arabic: {{wikt-lang|ar|ناطحة سحاب|rtl=yes}} ({{transl|ar|nāṭiḥat saḥāb}}, "cloud-butter")
  • Armenian: {{wikt-lang|hy|Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Õ¶Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Ö€}} ({{transl|hy|yerk-n-a-ker}}, "sky-scratcher")
  • Azerbaijani: {{wikt-lang|az|göydÉ™lÉ™n}} ("sky-piercer")
  • Belarusian: {{wikt-lang|be|хмарачос}} ({{transl|be|khmaračos}}, "cloud-scraper")
  • Bengali: {{wikt-lang|bn|আকাশঝাড়ু}} ({{transl|bn|akash-jharu}}, "sky-sweeper") or {{wikt-lang|bn|গগনচুম্বী}} ({{transl|bn|gagan-chumbi}}, "sky-kisser")
  • Bulgarian: {{wikt-lang|bg|небостъргач}} ({{transl|bg|nebostargach}}, "sky-scraper")
  • Catalan: {{wikt-lang|ca|gratacel}} ("scrapes-sky")
  • Cebuano: {{wikt-lang|ceb|kiskislangit}} ("sky scraper or sky rubber")
  • Chinese: {{wikt-lang|zh|摩天楼}} ({{transl|zh|mótiānlóu}}, "touch-the-sky building")
  • Czech: {{wikt-lang|cs|mrakodrap}} ("cloud-scraper")
  • Danish: {{wikt-lang|da|skyskraber}} ("cloud-scraper")
  • Dutch: {{wikt-lang|nl|wolkenkrabber}} ("clouds-scratcher")
  • Estonian: {{wikt-lang|et|pilvelõhkuja}} ("cloud-breaker")
  • Finnish: {{wikt-lang|fi|pilvenpiirtäjä}} ("cloud-sketcher")
  • French: {{wikt-lang|fr|gratte-ciel}} ("scrapes-sky")
  • Georgian: {{wikt-lang|ka|ცათამბჯენი}} ("sky-upleaning", "sky-uppropping"), {{wikt-lang|ka|ცათამწვდომი}} ("sky-reaching")
  • German: {{wikt-lang|de|Wolkenkratzer}} ("cloud-scraper")
  • Greek: {{wikt-lang|el|ουρανοξύστης}} ({{transl|el|uranoxístis}}, "sky-scraper")
  • Hebrew: {{wikt-lang|he|גורד שחקים|rtl=yes}} ({{transl|he|goréd šħaqím}}, "scraper of skies")
  • Hindi: {{wikt-lang|hi|गगनचुंबी}} ({{transl|hi|gagan-chumbi}}, "sky-kisser")
  • Hungarian: {{wikt-lang|hu|felhÅ‘karcoló}} ("cloud-scraper")
  • Icelandic: {{wikt-lang|is|skýjakljúfur}} ("cloud-splitter")
  • Indonesian: {{wikt-lang|id|pencakar langit}} ("sky-clawer")
  • Irish: {{wikt-lang|ga|scríobaire spéire}} ("sky-scraper")
  • Italian: {{wikt-lang|it|grattacielo}} ("scrapes-sky")
  • Japanese: {{wikt-lang|ja|摩天楼}} ({{transl|ja|matenrō}}, "sky-scraping tower")
  • Korean: {{wikt-lang|ko|마천루}} ({{transl|ko|macheollu}}, "sky-scraping tower")
  • Latvian: {{wikt-lang|lv|debesskrāpis}} ("sky-scraper")
  • Lithuanian: {{wikt-lang|lt|dangoraižis}} ("sky-scraper")
  • Macedonian: {{wikt-lang|mk|облакодер}} ({{transl|mk|oblakoder}}, "cloud-scraper")
  • Malay: {{wikt-lang|ms|pencakar langit}} ("sky-clawer")
  • Malayalam: {{wikt-lang|ml|അംബരചുംബി}} ({{transl|ml|ambaracumbi}}, "sky-kisser")
  • Mongolian: {{wikt-lang|mn|тэнгэр баганадсан барилга}} ({{transl|mn|tenger baganadsan barilga}}, "sky-pillaring building")
  • Norwegian: {{wikt-lang|no|skyskraper}} ("cloud-scraper")
  • Persian: {{wikt-lang|fa|آسمان‌خراش|rtl=yes}} ({{transl|fa|âsmânkhrâsh}}, "sky-scraper")
  • Polish: {{wikt-lang|pl|drapacz chmur}} ("cloud-scraper")
  • Portuguese: {{wikt-lang|pt|arranha-céu}} ("scratch-sky")
  • Romanian: {{wikt-lang|ro|zgârie-nori}} ("scrapes-clouds")
  • Russian: {{wikt-lang|ru|небоскрёб}} ({{transl|ru|neboskrjob}}, "sky-scraper")
  • Serbo-Croatian: {{wikt-lang|sh|neboder}} ("sky-ripper"), {{wikt-lang|sh|oblakoder}} ("cloud-ripper")
  • Slovak: {{wikt-lang|sk|mrakodrap}} ("cloud-scraper")
  • Slovene: {{wikt-lang|sl|nebotičnik}} ("sky-rubber, -toucher")
  • Spanish: {{wikt-lang|es|rascacielos}} ("scrapes-skies")
  • Swedish: {{wikt-lang|sv|skyskrapa}} ("sky-scraper")
  • Tagalog: {{wikt-lang|tl|pangkaskáslangit}} ("sky scraper") or {{wikt-lang|tl|gusaling tukudlangit}} ("building poking the sky")
  • Tamil: {{wikt-lang|ta|வானளாவி}} ({{transl|ta|vāṉaḷāvi}}, "sky-reacher")
  • Thai: {{wikt-lang|th|ตึกระฟ้า}} ({{transl|th|tụkraf̂ā}}, "sky-scraping building")
  • Turkish: {{wikt-lang|tr|gökdelen}} ("sky-piercer")
  • Ukrainian: {{wikt-lang|uk|хмарочос}} ({{transl|uk|hmaročos}}, "cloud-scratcher")
  • Vietnamese: {{wikt-lang|vi|nhà chọc trời}} ("sky-poking building")
  • Welsh: {{wikt-lang|cy|cwmwlgrafwr}} ("cloud scraper") or {{wikt-lang|cy|nendwr}} ("sky tower")
{{div col end}}

Loan translation: and

The Latin word {{wikt-lang|la|translātiō}} "a transferring" derives from {{wikt-lang|la|transferō}} "to transfer", from {{wikt-lang|la|trans}} "across" + {{wikt-lang|la|ferō}} "bear". The Germanic languages and some Slavic languages calqued their words for "translation" from the Latin word , substituting their respective Germanic or Slavic root words for the Latin roots.The remaining Slavic languages instead calqued their words for "translation" from an alternative Latin word , itself derived from {{wikt-lang|la|trādūcō}} ("to lead across" or "to bring across", from "across" + {{wikt-lang|la|dūcō}}, "to lead" or "to bring").The West Slavic languages adopted the pattern. The East Slavic languages (except for Belarusian and Ukrainian) and the South Slavic languages adopted the pattern.The Romance languages, deriving directly from Latin, did not need to calque their equivalent words for "translation". Instead, they simply adapted the second of the two alternative Latin words, . Thus, Aragonese: {{wikt-lang|an|traducción}}; Catalan: {{wikt-lang|ca|traducció}}; French: {{wikt-lang|fr|traduction}}; Italian: {{wikt-lang|it|traduzione}}; Portuguese: {{wikt-lang|pt|tradução}}; Romanian: {{wikt-lang|ro|traducere}}; and Spanish: {{wikt-lang|es|traducción}}. The English verb "to translate" was borrowed from the Latin , rather than being calqued.Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", The Polish Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, p. 83. Were the English verb "translate" calqued, it would be "overset", akin to the calques in other Germanic languages.Following are the Germanic- and Slavic-language calques for "translation":{{col-begin}}{{col-3}}
Germanic languages (from )
  • Danish: {{wikt-lang|da|oversættelse}}
  • Dutch: {{wikt-lang|nl|overzetting}}{{NoteTag| (noun) and (verb) in the sense of "translation" and "to translate", respectively, are considered (wiktionary:archaicAdjective|archaic). While may still be found in early modern literary works, it has been replaced entirely in modern Dutch by {{wikt-lang|nl|vertaling}}.}}"overzetting" in Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal, IvdNT
  • German: {{wikt-lang|de|Ãœbersetzung}}
  • Norwegian (BokmÃ¥l): {{wikt-lang|no|oversettelse}}
  • Norwegian (Nynorsk): {{wikt-lang|nn|omsetjing}}
  • Swedish: {{wikt-lang|sv|översättning}}
  • West Frisian: {{wikt-lang|fy|oersetting}}
{{col-3}}
Slavic languages (from )
  • Belarusian: {{wikt-lang|be|пераклад}} ({{transl|be|peraklad}})
  • Czech: {{wikt-lang|cs|pÅ™eklad}}
  • Polish: {{wikt-lang|pl|przekÅ‚ad}}
  • Slovak: {{wikt-lang|sk|preklad}}
  • Ukrainian: {{wikt-lang|uk|переклад}} ({{transl|uk|pereklad}})
{{col-3}}
Slavic languages (from )
  • Bulgarian: {{wikt-lang|bg|превод}} ({{transl|bg|prevod}})
  • Macedonian: {{wikt-lang|mk|превод}} ({{transl|mk|prevod}})
  • Russian: {{wikt-lang|ru|перевод}} ({{transl|ru|perevod}})
  • Serbo-Croatian: {{wikt-lang|sh|prevod}}, {{wikt-lang|sh|prijevod}}
  • Slovene: {{wikt-lang|sl|prevod}}
{{col-end}}

Semantic calque: mouse

The computer mouse was named in English for its resemblance to the animal. Many other languages have extended their own native word for "mouse" to include the computer mouse. {{div col|colwidth=18em}}
  • Armenian: {{wikt-lang|hy|Õ´Õ¯Õ¶Õ«Õ¯}} ({{transl|hy|mknik}}, diminutive of {{wikt-lang|hy|Õ´Õ¸Ö‚Õ¯}} "mouse")
  • Bulgarian: {{wikt-lang|bg|мишка}} ({{transl|bg|mishka}})
  • Burmese: {{wikt-lang|my|ကြွက်}} ({{transl|my|krwak}})
  • Cebuano: {{wikt-lang|ceb|bagtok-bagtok}} (diminutive of {{wikt-lang|ceb|bagtok}} "mouse")
  • Czech: {{wikt-lang|cs|myÅ¡}}
  • Dutch: {{wikt-lang|nl|muis}}
  • Estonian: {{wikt-lang|fi|hiir}}
  • European Portuguese: {{wikt-lang|pt|rato}}
  • Finnish: {{wikt-lang|fi|hiiri}}
  • French: {{wikt-lang|fr|souris}}
  • German: {{wikt-lang|de|Maus}}
  • Greek: {{wikt-lang|el|ποντίκι}} ({{transl|el|pontíki}})
  • Hebrew: {{wikt-lang|he|עכבר}} ({{transl|he|akhbár}})
  • Hungarian: {{wikt-lang|hu|egér}}
  • Icelandic: {{wikt-lang|is|mús}}
  • Latvian: {{wikt-lang|lt|pele}}
  • Lingala: {{wikt-lang|ln|mpóko}}
  • Lithuanian: {{wikt-lang|lt|pelÄ—}}
  • Macedonian: {{wikt-lang|mk|глушец}} ({{transl|ru|gluÅ¡ec}})
  • Malay: {{wikt-lang|ms|tetikus}}
  • Mongolian: {{wikt-lang|mn|хулгана}} ({{transl|mn|hulgana}})
  • Polish: {{wikt-lang|pl|mysz}}
  • Russian: {{wikt-lang|ru|мышь}} ({{transl|ru|myšʹ}})
  • Serbian: {{wikt-lang|sr|miÅ¡}}
  • Slovak: {{wikt-lang|sk|myÅ¡}}
  • Spanish: {{wikt-lang|es|ratón}}
  • Swahili: {{wikt-lang|sw|kipanya}}
  • Swedish: {{wikt-lang|sv|mus}}
  • Turkish: {{wikt-lang|tr|fare}}
  • Vietnamese: {{wikt-lang|vi|chuá»™t}}
  • Welsh: {{wikt-lang|cy|llygoden}}
{{div col end}}

See also

{{div col|colwidth=22em}} {{div col end}}

Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

External links

{{Wiktionary}}{{Wiktionary category|category=English calques}} {{-}}{{Appropriation in the arts}}

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