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black-winged stilt

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black-winged stilt
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{{For|the Australasian species|Pied stilt}}{{Speciesbox| image = Black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus).jpg| image_caption = H. h. meridionalis (South Africa)| image2 = Front and back black-winged stilts.jpg| image2_caption = at Ameenpur lake, Telangana, India| status = LC| status_system = IUCN3.1
BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL HIMANTOPUS HIMANTOPUS > JOURNAL = IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES PAGE = E.T22727969A86541570 IUCN > YEAR = 2016 DOI = 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22727969A86541570.EN, 10 May 2017, | taxon = Himantopus himantopusCarl Linnaeus>Linnaeus, 1758)| synonyms = *Charadrius himantopus Linnaeus, 1758}}The black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus) is a widely distributed very long-legged wader in the avocet and stilt family (Recurvirostridae). The scientific name H. himantopus was formerly applied to a single, almost cosmopolitan species. It is now normally applied to the form that is widespread in Eurasia and Africa and which was formerly regarded as the nominate subspecies of Himantopus himantopus sensu lato. The scientific name Himantopus comes from the Greek meaning "strap foot" or "thong foot". Most sources today accept 2–4 species. It is sometimes called pied stilt, but that name is now reserved for the Australian species, Himantopus leucocephalus.

Description

{{unreferenced section|date = March 2013}}Adults are {{convert|33|–|36|cm|in|abbr=on}} long. They have long pink legs, a long thin black bill and are blackish above and white below, with a white head and neck with a varying amount of black. Males have a black back, often with greenish gloss. Females' backs have a brown hue, contrasting with the black remiges. In the populations that have the top of the head normally white at least in winter, females tend to have less black on head and neck all year round, while males often have much black, particularly in summer. This difference is not clear-cut, however, and males usually get all-white heads in winter.Immature birds are grey instead of black and have a markedly sandy hue on the wings, with light feather fringes appearing as a whitish line in flight.{{Listen|filename=Black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus himantopus).ogg|title= Flight Call of H. h. himantopus|description=Recorded in India|type=sound|pos=left}}

Taxonomy and systematics

The taxonomy of this bird is still somewhat contentious. It is one of five distinct species which were previously considered subspecies of H. himantopus. H. himantopus sensu lato, is made up of one species and 5–7 subspecies, and was sometimes referred to as common stilt. The name black-winged stilt refers to H. himantopus sensu stricto, with two subspecies H.h. himantopus from the Palearctic and H.h. meridionalis from the Afrotropical region.WEB,weblink Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus (Linnaeus, 1758), 19 August 2017, Denis Lepage, Avibase,

Ecology and status

The breeding habitat of all these stilts is marshes, shallow lakes and ponds. Some populations are migratory and move to the ocean coasts in winter; those in warmer regions are generally resident or short-range vagrants. In Europe, the black-winged stilt is a regular spring overshoot vagrant north of its normal range, occasionally remaining to breed in northern European countries. Pairs have successfully bred in Britain in 1987, and after a 27-year hiatus, two instances of successful breeding in Southern England in 2014.WEB, RSPB, 27-year first as rare black-winged stilt chicks hatch at RSPB reserves in southern England,weblink RSPB Website, 16 November 2015, 13 young were fledged in southern England in 2017.WEB,weblink UK's rare black-winged stilt numbers soar, 20 August 2017, BBC, Countryfile Magazine, These birds pick up their food from sand or water. They mainly eat insects and crustaceans.The nest site is a bare spot on the ground near water. These birds often nest in small groups, sometimes with avocets.File:Himantopus himantopus MHNT.jpg|thumb|Egg of Himantopus himantopus, MHNTMHNTThe black-winged stilt is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies.Himantopus himantopus fledgling-pjt-2.jpg|Fledgling (Laguna di Venezia, Italy)Black Winged Stilt Chick.jpg|Juvenile, Perth ZooBlack-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus) immature.jpg|immatureKazinga Channel, UgandaHimantopus himantopus P5150181.jpg|Nestling of himantopus. The other taxa look the same at this age.Himantopus himantopus-pjt.jpg|In flight (Laguna di Venezia, Italy)Black-winged stilts in flight.jpg|Adults in flight (India)Blackwingstilt.jpg|Adult in Water (Western India)At Basai Dhankot, India on 20th Nov 16 with Canon 550D by Sumita Roy Dutta Bird image9.jpg|Black-winged stilts Himantopus himantopus in flight at Basai Wetland, IndiaBlack-winged stilts (Himantopus himantopus) fighting.jpg|adults fightingKazinga Channel, UgandaBlack-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus) India.jpg|Rajastan, IndiaBlack-winged stilt looking for a breakfast.jpg|

References

{{Reflist|refs={{IUCN2008 |assessor=BirdLife International |assessor-link=BirdLife International |year=2008a |id=144081 |title=Himantopus himantopus |downloaded=2 January 2009}}{{IUCN2008|assessor=BirdLife International|assessor-link=BirdLife International|year=2008b |id=144082 |title=Himantopus leucocephalus |downloaded=2 January 2009}}{{IUCN2008 |assessor=BirdLife International |assessor-link=BirdLife International |year=2008c |id=151162 |title=Himantopus mexicanus |downloaded=2 January 2009}}WEB, BirdLife International (BLI), 2008d,weblink Species factsheet: Black-necked Stilt, 24 September 2008, WEB, BirdLife International (BLI), 2008e,weblink Species factsheet: Black-winged Stilt, 24 September 2008, WEB, BirdLife International (BLI), 2008f,weblink Species factsheet: White-headed Stilt, 24 September 2008, JOURNAL, Boyd, Bill, 1987, The Black-winged Stilts at Holme Norfolk Naturalists' Trust reserve, Twitching (magazine), Twitching, 1, 6, 148–150, BOOK, Jobling, James, Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names,weblink 2010, Helm, London, 191, }}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Hayman, Peter, Marchant, John, Prater, Tony, 1986, Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 0-395-60237-8,

External links

{{Commons|Himantopus himantopus}}{{Wikispecies|Himantopus himantopus}}
  • {{InternetBirdCollection|black-winged-stilt-himantopus-himantopus}}
  • Black-winged Stilt species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds.
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141202061959weblink">Ageing and sexing (PDF; 2.7 MB) by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze
  • {{Avibase|name=Himantopus himantopus}}
  • {{VIREO|Black-winged+stilt}}
  • {{IUCN_Map|22727969|Himantopus himantopus}}
  • {{Xeno-canto species|Himantopus|himantopus|Black-winged stilt}}
{{Taxonbar|from=Q178821}}


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