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bazaar
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{{short description|Type of public marketplace}}{{distinguish|Bizarre (disambiguation){{!}}Bizarre}}{{about||the version control system|GNU Bazaar|other uses}}File:The Moorish.jpg|thumb|The Moorish Bazaar, painting by Edwin Lord WeeksEdwin Lord WeeksFile:Sebah, Pascal (1823-1886) - Khan el-Khalili, Cairo - ca. 1880s.JPG|thumb|Bazaar at Khan el-Khalili, Cairo by Pascal Sébah from (Georg Ebers]], Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque, Vol. 1, Cassell & Company, New York, 1878){{Use British English|date=October 2017}}(File:Carpet Merchant in the Khan el Khaleel (1878) - TIMEA.jpg|thumb|Carpet Merchant in the Khan el Khaleel, from Georg Ebers, Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque, Vol. 1, Cassell & Company, New York, 1878)A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term originates from the Persian word bāzār. The term bazaar is sometimes also used to refer to the "network of merchants, bankers and craftsmen" who work in that area. Although the current meaning of the word is believed to have originated in Persia, its use has spread and now has been accepted into the vernacular in countries around the world. In Balinese, the word pasar means "market." The capital of Bali province, in Indonesia, is Denpasar, which means "north market." Souq is another word used in the Middle East for an open-air marketplace or commercial quarter.Evidence for the existence of bazaars dates to around 3,000 BCE. Although the lack of archaeological evidence has limited detailed studies of the evolution of bazaars, indications suggest that they initially developed outside city walls where they were often associated with servicing the needs of caravanserai. As towns and cities became more populous, these bazaars moved into the city center and developed in a linear pattern along streets stretching from one city gate to another gate on the opposite side of the city. Over time, these bazaars formed a network of trading centres which allowed for the exchange of produce and information. The rise of large bazaars and stock trading centres in the Muslim world allowed the creation of new capitals and eventually new empires. New and wealthy cities such as Isfahan, Golconda, Samarkand, Cairo, Baghdad and Timbuktu were founded along trade routes and bazaars. Street markets are the European and North American equivalents.Shopping at a bazaar or market-place remains a central feature of daily life in many Middle-Eastern and South Asian cities and towns and the bazaar remains the "beating heart" of Middle-Eastern city and South Asian life. A number of bazaar districts have been listed as World Heritage sites due to their historical and/or architectural significance. Visiting a bazaar or souq has also become a popular tourist pastime.

Etymology and usage

File:Amadeo Preziosi - The Grand Bazaar - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|The Grand Bazaar, Istanbul, by Amadeo PreziosiAmadeo PreziosiThe origin of the word bazaar comes from Persian bāzār.WEB,weblink bazaar - Origin and meaning of bazaar by Online Etymology Dictionary, www.etymonline.com, 29 March 2018, BOOK, John, Ayto, Word Origins,weblink 1 January 2009, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-4081-0160-5, 104, from Middle Persian wāzār,BOOK, Daryaee, Touraj, The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History,weblink 16 February 2012, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-973215-9, 8, from Old Persian vāčar,WEB, Bazaar,weblink Dictionary.com, LLC, 11 March 2015, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *wahā-čarana.BOOK, Benveniste, Émile, Lallot, Jean, Indo-European Language and Society,weblink 1 January 1973, University of Miami Press, 978-0-87024-250-2, Chapter Nine: Two Ways of Buying,weblink Section Three: Purchase, The term, bazaar, spread from Persia into Arabia and ultimately throughout the Middle East.Encyclopedia Britannica,weblink North America, the United Kingdom and some other European countries, the term can be used as a synonym for a "rummage sale", to describe charity fundraising events held by churches or other community organisations in which either donated used goods (such as books, clothes and household items) or new and handcrafted (or home-baked) goods are sold for low prices, as at a church or other organisation's Christmas bazaar, for example.Although Turkey offers many famous markets known as "bazaars" in English, the Turkish word "pazar" refers to an outdoor market held at regular intervals, not a permanent structure containing shops. English place names usually translate "çarşı" (shopping district) as "bazaar" when they refer to an area with covered streets or passages. For example, the Turkish name for the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is "Kapalıçarşı" (gated shopping area), while the Spice Bazaar is the "Mısır Çarşısı" (Egyptian shopping area). The Arabic term, souk (souq or suk) is a synonym for bazaar in Arab-speaking countries.

Brief history

File:Street Scene in India.JPG|thumb|left|Troopers in the Bazaar, India, by Edwin Lord WeeksEdwin Lord WeeksBazaars originated in the Middle East, probably in Persia. Pourjafara et al., point to historical records documenting the concept of a bazaar as early as 3000 BC.Pourjafara, M., Aminib, M., Varzanehc, and Mahdavinejada, M., "Role of bazaars as a unifying factor in traditional cities of Iran: The Isfahan bazaar," Frontiers of Architectural Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 2014,weblink pp 10–19; Mehdipour, H.R.N, "Persian Bazaar and Its Impact on Evolution of Historic Urban Cores: The Case of Isfahan," The Macrotheme Review [A multidisciplinary Journal of Global Macro Trends], Vol. 2, no. 5, 2013, p.13 By the 4th century (CE), a network of bazaars had sprung up alongside ancient caravan trade routes. Bazaars were typically situated in close proximity to ruling palaces, citadels or mosques, not only because the city afforded traders some protection, but also because palaces and cities generated substantial demand for goods and services.Harris, K., "The Bazaar" The United States Institute of Peace, Bazaars located along these trade routes, formed networks, linking major cities with each other and in which goods, culture, people and information could be exchanged.Hanachi, P. and Yadollah, S., "Tabriz Historical Bazaar in the Context of Change," ICOMOS Conference Proceedings, Paris, 2011The Greek historian, Herodotus, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth.Thamis, "Herodotus on the Egyptians." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 18 Jan 2012. Web. 20 Aug 2017. He also described The Babylonian Marriage Market.Herodotus: The History of Herodotus, Book I (The Babylonians), c. 440BC, translated by G.C. Macaulay, c. 1890Prior to the 10th century, bazaars were situated on the perimeter of the city or just outside the city walls. Along the major trade routes, bazaars were associated with the caravanserai. From around the 10th century, bazaars and market places were gradually integrated within the city limits. The typical bazaar was a covered area where traders could buy and sell with some protection from the elements.Gharipour, M., "The Culture and Politics of Commerce," in The Bazaar in the Islamic City: Design, Culture, and History, Mohammad Gharipour (ed.), New York, The American University in Cairo Press, 2012 pp 14–15 Over the centuries, the buildings that housed bazaars became larger and more elaborate. The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is often cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating, purpose-built market; its construction began in 1455.File:Teemcheh.jpg|thumb|Timcheh Amin-o-Dowleh, Kashan Bazaar, Iran, c. 1800]]City bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city, typically stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city. The bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world.Mehdipour, H.R.N, "Persian Bazaar and Its Impact on Evolution of Historic Urban Cores: The Case of Isfahan," The Macrotheme Review [A multidisciplinary Journal of Global Macro Trends], Vol. 2, no. 5, 2013, p.14 Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised.Moosavi, M. S. Bazaar and its Role in the Development of Iranian Traditional Cities [Working Paper], Tabriz Azad University, Iran, 2006In pre-Islamic Arabia, two types of bazaar existed: permanent urban markets and temporary seasonal markets. The temporary seasonal markets were held at specific times of the year and became associated with particular types of produce. Suq Hijr in Bahrain was noted for its dates while Suq 'Adan was known for its spices and perfumes. In spite of the centrality of the Middle East in the history of bazaars, relatively little is known due to the lack of archaeological evidence. However, documentary sources point to permanent marketplaces in cities from as early as 550 BCE.Gharipour, M., "The Culture and Politics of Commerce," in The Bazaar in the Islamic City: Design, Culture, and History, Mohammad Gharipour (ed.), New York, The American University in Cairo Press, 2012, pp 4–5Nejad has made a detailed study of early bazaars in Iran and identifies two distinct types, based on their place within the economy, namely:Nejad, R. M., “Social bazaar and commercial bazaar: comparative study of spatial role of Iranian bazaar in the historical cities in different socio-economical context,” 5th International Space Syntax Symposium Proceedings, Netherlands: Techne Press, D., 2005,
* Commercial bazaars (or retail bazaars): emerged as part of an urban economy not based on a merchant system * Socio-commercial bazaars: formed in economies based on a merchant system, socio-economic bazaars are situated on major trade routes and are well integrated into the city's structural and spatial systems
In the 1840s, Charles White described the Yessir Bazary of Constantinople in the following terms:Cited in: Stewart, F., Shackles of Iron: Slavery Beyond the Atlantic: Critical Themes in World History, 2016
"The interior consists of an irregular quadrangle. In the center is a detached building, the upper portion serving as a lodging for slavedealers, and underneath are cells for newly imported slaves. To this is attached a coffee-house, and near to it a half-ruined mosque. Around the three habitable sides of the court runs an open colonnade, supported by wooden columns, and approached by steps at an angle. Under the colonnade are platforms, separated from each other by low railings and benches. Upon these, dealers and customers may be seen during business hours smoking and discussing prices.
Behind these platforms are ranges of small chambers, divided into two compartments by a trellice-work. The habitable part is raised about three feet from the ground; the remainder serves as passage and cooking place. The front portion is generally tenanted by black, and the rear by white slaves. These chambers are exclusively devoted to females. Those to the north and west are destined for second hand negresses or white women – that is, for slaves who have been previously purchased and instructed, and are sent to be resold. The hovels to the east are reserved for newly imported negresses, or black and white women of low price.
The platforms are divided from the chambers by a narrow alley, on the wall side of which are benches, where women are exposed for sale. This alley serves as a passage of communication and walk for the brokers, who sell slaves by auction and on commission. In this case, the brokers walk around, followed by the slaves, and announce the price offered. Purchasers, seated on the platforms, then examine, question and bid, as suits their fancy, until at length the woman is sold or withdrawn."

21st century

In the Middle East, the bazaar is considered to be "the beating heart of the city and a symbol of Islamic architecture and culture of high significance."Karimi, M., Moradi, E. and Mehr, R., "Bazaar, As a Symbol of Culture and the Architecture of Commercial Spaces in Iranian-Islamic Civilization," Today, bazaars are popular sites for tourists and some of these ancient bazaars have been listed as world heritage sites or national monuments on the basis of their historical, cultural or architectural value.The Medina of Fez, Morocco, with its labyrinthine covered market streets was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981.UNESCO, Medina of Fez,weblink Al-Madina Souq is part of the ancient city of Aleppo, another UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1986.WEB, eAleppo:Aleppo city major plans throughout the history,weblink Arabic, The Bazaar complex at Tabriz, Iran was listed in 2010.UNESCO, Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex,weblink The Bazaar of Qaisiyariye in Laar, Iran is on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.LarWEB, Centre, UNESCO World Heritage, Bazaar of Qaisariye in Laar - UNESCO World Heritage Centre,weblink whc.unesco.org, en,

In art and literature

{{See|Orientalism}}During the 18th and 19th centuries, Europeans conquered and excavated parts of North Africa and the Levant. These regions now make up what is called the Middle East, but in the past were known as the Orient. Europeans sharply divided peoples into two broad groups – the European West and the East or Orient; us and the other. Europeans often saw Orientals as the opposite of Western civilisation; the peoples could be threatening- they were "despotic, static and irrational whereas Europe was viewed as democratic, dynamic and rational."Nanda, S. and Warms, E.L., Cultural Anthropology, Cengage Learning, 2010, p. 330 At the same time, the Orient was seen as exotic, mysterious, a place of fables and beauty. This fascination with the other gave rise to a genre of painting known as Orientalism. Artists focused on the exotic beauty of the land – the markets, caravans and snake charmers. Islamic architecture also became favorite subject matter. European society generally frowned on nude painting – but harems, concubines and slave markets, presented as quasi-documentary works, satisfied European desires for pornographic art. The Oriental female wearing a veil was a particularly tempting subject because she was hidden from view, adding to her mysterious allure.Nanda, S. and Warms, E.L., Cultural Anthropology, Cengage Learning, 2010, pp 330–331French painter Jean-Étienne Liotard visited Istanbul in the 17th century and painted pastels of Turkish domestic scenes. British painter John Frederick Lewis who lived for several years in a traditional mansion in Cairo, painted highly detailed works showing realistic genre scenes of Middle Eastern life. Edwin Lord Weeks was a notable American example of a 19th-century artist and author in the Orientalism genre. His parents were wealthy tea and spice merchants who were able to fund his travels and interest in painting. In 1895 Weeks wrote and illustrated a book of travels titled From the Black Sea through Persia and India. Other notable painters in the Orientalist genre who included scenes of street life and market-based trade in their work are Jean-Léon Gérôme Delacroix (1824–1904), Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps (1803–1860), Frederic Leighton (1830–1896), Eugène Alexis Girardet 1853–1907 and William Holman Hunt (1827–1910), who all found inspiration in Oriental street scenes, trading and commerce.Davies, K., Orientalists: Western Artists in Arabia, the Sahara, Persia, New York, Laynfaroh, 2005; Meagher, J., "Orientalism in Nineteenth-Century Art," [The Metropolitan Museum of Art Essay], Online:weblink proliferation of both Oriental fiction and travel writing occurred during the early modern period.Houston, C., New Worlds Reflected: Travel and Utopia in the Early Modern Period, Routledge, 2016 British Romantic literature in the Orientalism tradition has its origins in the early eighteenth century, with the first translations of The Arabian Nights (translated into English from the French in 1705–08). The popularity of this work inspired authors to develop a new genre, the Oriental tale. Samuel Johnson's History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia, (1759) is mid-century example of the genre.WEB, The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Romantic Age: Topic 4: Overview,weblink www.wwnorton.com, Byron's Oriental Tales, is another example of the Romantic Orientalism genre.Kidwai, A.R., Literary Orientalism: A Companion, New Delhi, Viva Books, 2009, {{ISBN|978-813091264-6}}Many English visitors to the Orient wrote narratives around their travels. Although these works were purportedly non-fiction, they were notoriously unreliable. Many of these accounts provided detailed descriptions of market places, trading and commerce.MacLean, G., The Rise of Oriental Travel: English Visitors to the Ottoman Empire, 1580–1720, Palgrave, 2004, p. 6 Examples of travel writing include: Les Mysteres de L'Egypte Devoiles by Olympe Audouard published in 1865Audouard, O. (de Jouval), Les Mystères de l'Égypte Dévoilés, (French Edition) (originally published in 1865), Elibron Classics, 2006 and Jacques Majorelle's Road Trip Diary of a Painter in the Atlas and the Anti-Atlas published in 1922Marcilhac, F., La Vie et l'Oeuvre de Jacques Majorelle: 1886–1962,'' [The Orientalists Volume 7], ARC Internationale edition, 1988.File:Marriage Procession in a Bazaar.jpg|Marriage Procession in a Bazaar, unknown, 1645File:David Roberts silk mercers bazaar.jpg|Silk Mercers' Bazaar, Cairo by David Roberts, Cairo, 1838File:David Roberts Bazaar El Moo Ristan.jpg|Bazaar El Moo Ristan, by David Roberts, 1838File:David Roberts bazaar coppersmiths.jpg|Bazaar of the Coppersmiths by David Roberts, 1838File:Alexandre Defaux - The Bazaar, 1856.jpg|The Bazaar, by Alexandre Defaux, 1856File:Forcella, Nicola - Dans le souk aux cuivres - before 1868 (hi res).jpg|Dans le Souk aux Cuivres by Nicola Forcella, before 1868File:Vereshchagin Bazaar.JPG|Bazaar by Vasily Vereshchagin, c. 1870File:Edward Angelo Goodall Copper market Cairo 1871.jpg|Copper Market, Cairo by Edward Angelo Goodall, 1871File:Weeks, Edwin Lord - A Market in Isphahan - 1887.gif|A Market in Isphahan by Edwin Lord Weeks, 1887File:Weeks Edwin The Metalsmiths Shop.jpg|The Metalsmiths Shop, Edwin Lord Weeks, late 19th centuryFile:Weeks Edwin Moroccan Market Rabat.jpg|Moroccan Market, Rabat, by Edwin Lord Weeks, 1880File:Cashmere Travellers in a Street of Delhi.jpg|Cashmere Travellers in a Street of Delhi by Edwin Lord Weeks 1880File:Grain Market in Fez by Jules Van Biesbroeck, undated - Museum M - Leuven, Belgium - DSC05445.JPG|Grain Market in Fez by Jules Pierre van Biesbroeck, undatedFile:Untitled (Moroccan Market Scene) by Louis Comfort Tiffany, undated, oil on canvas - New Britain Museum of American Art - DSC09658.JPG|Moroccan Market Scene by Louis Comfort Tiffany, undatedFile:A bazaar. Oil painting. Wellcome V0017599.jpg|A Bazaar, Oil painting, WellcomeFile:Preziosi - Vendors in the Covered Bazaar Istanbul 1851.jpg|Vendors in the Covered Bazaar Istanbul by Vittorio Amadeo Preziosi,1851File:Preziosi - A Turkish Bazaar 1854.jpg|A Turkish Bazaar by Amadeo Preziosi, 1854File:Vittorio Amadeo Preziosi The Spice Sellers.jpg|The Spice Sellers by Vittorio Amadeo Preziosi, 19th centuryFile:Preziosi - Figures in the Bazaar Constantinople.jpg|Figures in the Bazaar Constantinople, by Amedeo Preziosi, 19th centuryFile:Amadeo Preziosi - The Silk Bazaar - Google Art Project.jpg|The Silk Bazaar by Amedeo Preziosi, late 19th centuryFile:Heyden Bazaar.jpg|Bazaar by Otto Heyden, 1869File:Nizhny Novgorod. Lower Bazaar.jpg|Nizhny Novgorod, Lower Bazaar by Alexey Bogolyubov, 1878File:Stanisław Chlebowski - Souk w Konstantynopolu.jpg|Souk at Konstantynopolu by Stanisław Chlebowski, 19th centuryFile:Charles Wilda - Inside the Souk, Cairo 1892.jpg|Inside the Souk, Cairo by Charles Wilda, 1892File:Gigo Gabashvili. Bazaar in Samarkand.jpg|Bazaar in Samarkand, by Gigo Gabashvili, 1896File:'Claudius Bombarnac' by Léon Benett 28.jpg|Bazaar in Samarkand, illustration by Léon Benett for a Jules Verne novel, 1893File:Enrique Simonet - El barbero del zoco - 1897.jpg|The Barber at the Souk by Enrique Simonet, 1897File:The Tentmakers' Bazaar, Cairo. (1907) - TIMEA.jpg|The Tentmakers' Bazaar, Cairo, 1907File:Souk Silah, the Armourers' Bazaar, Cairo. (1907) - TIMEA.jpg|Souk Silah, the Armourers' Bazaar, Cairo, from D.S. Margoliouth, Cairo, Jerusalem, & Damascus: three chief cities of the Egyptian Sultans, 1907File:Midan El-Adaoui (Maidan El-Adawi). (1907) - TIMEA.jpg|People on the Street of a Bazaar at Midan El-Adaoui from D.S. Margoliouth, Cairo, Jerusalem, & Damascus: three chief cities of the Egyptian Sultans, 1907File:The Hamareh (Suk Ali Pasha), Damascus. (1907) - TIMEA.jpg|Bazaar at the Souk Hamareh, Damascus by from D.S. Margoliouth, Cairo, Jerusalem, & Damascus: three chief cities of the Egyptian Sultans, 1907File:Kulikov Bazaar with bagels 1910.jpg|Bazaar with Bagels by Ivan Koulikov, 1910File:The Silk Bazaar, Damascus - Australians buying goods Art.IWMART1564.jpg|The Silk Bazaar, Damascus – Australians buying goods, 1918File:John Gleich - Scenery at a North African Bazaar.jpg|Scenery at a North African Bazaar, by John Gleich, 20th centuryFile:The bazaar at Constantinople. Watercolour by J. F. Lewis. Wellcome V0017600.jpg|The Bazaar at Constantinople, watercolour by J. F. Lewis, WellcomeFile:The Char-Chatta Bazaar of Kabul.jpg|The Char-Chatta Bazaar of Kabul by A. Gh. Brechna, 1932File:Ludwig Blum painting – Bazaar in the old city (4).JPG|Bazaar in the Old City, by Ludwig Blum, 1944

Examples

Albania

In Albania, two distinct types of bazaar can be found; Bedesten (also known as bezistan, bezisten, bedesten) which refers to a covered bazaar and an open bazaar.{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}

Australia

  • Ingleburn Bazaar (held annually during the Ingleburn Festival)

Afghanistan

{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}File:Kandahar City during 1839-42.jpg|City of Kandahar, its principal bazaar and citadel, taken from the Nakkara Khauna from Lieutenant James Rattray, AfghanistanFile:An Afghan elder and his cat sit outside his store at the Anaba bazaar in Panjshir province, Afghanistan.jpg|An Afghan elder sits outside his store at the Anaba bazaar in Panjshir, AfghanistanFile:Widok bazaru - Qajsār - 001617s.jpg|In Faryab ProvinceFile:Ka Farushi Kabul.jpg|Ka Foroshi, the bird market in Kabul

Azerbaijan

{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}File:Big Bazaar Lankaran, Azerbaijan.jpg|Big Bazaar, Lankaran, Azerbaijan

Bangladesh

In Nepal, India and Bangladesh, a Haat bazaar (also known as hat or haat or hatt) refers to a regular produce market, typically held once or twice per week.Crow, B., Markets, Class and Social Change: Trading Networks and Poverty in Rural South Asia, Palgrave, 2001, [Glossary] p. xvii{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}File:Dhaka Town Chowk - 1904.jpg|Dhaka Town Chowk, 1904File:Basantapur Bazaar Chowk.JPG|Basantapur Bazaar Chowk at Madhi, Chitwan

Bosnia and Herzegovina

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China

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Egypt

File:Shopping in the spotlight (Cairo).jpg|Two Egyptian women shopping at a market next to the Al-Ghouri Complex in Cairo, Egypt.File:Khan el khalili.jpg|Khan el khalili, Cairo (interior)File:Khan al-khalili, bab al-qutn.jpg|Khan al-khalili, bab al-qutn (gate)File:Shop of a Turkish Merchant in the Soo'ck called Kha'n El-Khalee'lee. (1836) - TIMEA.jpg|Shop of a Turkish Merchant in Kha'n El-Khalee'lee, 1836File:Egypt, Arabic Window and Native Bazaar, Cair.jpg|Arabic Window and Native Bazaar, Cairo

Hong Kong

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Israel

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India

{{See also|Category:Bazaars in India}}In India, and also Pakistan, a town or city's main market is known as a Saddar Bazaar.

Border bazaars

These are mutually agreed border bazaars and haats of India on borders of India with its neighbours.

Assam

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Bangalore, Karnataka

Chennai, Tamil Nadu

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Delhi and NCR

In Delhi
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In National Capital Region (NCR)
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Hyderabad, Telangana

{{See also|Old City (Hyderabad, India)#Bazaars|List of Bazaars of Hyderabad|Meena Bazaar|In the Bazaars of Hyderabad}}{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}

Indore

Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Kashmir (Azad Kashmir, Pakistan)

Kerala, Keralam

Kolkata, West Bengal

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Mumbai, Maharashtra

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Munger, Bihar

Odisha

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Punjab

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Uttar Pradesh

{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}{{paragraph break}}File:Weeks Edwin Lord A Street Market Scene India 1887 Oil On Canvas.jpg|Women purchasing copper utensils in a bazaar by Edwin Lord Weeks, late 19th centuryFile:Almora Bazaar. c1860.jpg|Almora Bazaar, Uttarakhand, c1860File:Laad Bazaar.jpg|Laad Bazaar near Charminar, Hyderabad, IndiaFile:Paltan Bazaar Crowds (5275269340).jpg|Paltan Bazaar, Assam, IndiaFile:Cheh Tuti Chowk or Six Tuti Chowk, Main Bazar, Paharganj.jpg|Cheh Tuti Chowk or Six Tuti Chowk, Main Bazaar, PaharganjFile:Gateway to Hooseinabad Bazaar, Lucknow, India.jpg|Gateway to Hooseinabad Bazaar, Lucknow, c. 1863File:BombayKalbadevieRoad1890.jpg|Bazaar along Kalbadevie Road, Bombay (now Mumbai), 1890File:Antiques, Old Movie Posters.jpg|Antiques and old posters at Chor Market in Mumbai

Indonesia

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Iran

{{See also|List of tourist attractions in Tehran Province#List of Bazaars}}{{Columns-list|colwidth=30em|
  • Ardabil Bazaar
  • Bazaar of Borujerd
  • Bazaar of Tabriz in Tabriz – an historic site that originally developed along the ancient silk routes; listed as a World Heritage SiteAhour, I., which dates to saljuqid era 11th century. its extension occurred in the safavid and kajar era. it is largest roofed bazar of the world. "The Qualities of Tabriz Historical Bazaar in Urban Planning and the Integration of its Potentials into Megamalls," Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 199–215, 2011, and for a contemporary account of the Bazaar see: Le Montagner, B., "Strolling through Iran's Tabriz Bazaar," The Guardian, 12 November 2014 WEB, Montagner, Boris Le, Strolling through Iran's Tabriz bazaar - in pictures,weblink The Guardian, 12 November 2014,
  • Isfahan Bazaar in Isfahan – historic site which dates to Safavid era.Assari, A., Mahesh, T.M., Emtehani, M.E. and Assari, E., "Comparative Sustainability of Bazaar in Iranian Traditional Cities: Case Studies of Isfahan and Tabriz," International Journal on "Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering", Vol. 3, no. 9, 2011, pp 18–24; Iran Chamber of Commerce,WEB, Iran: Iranian Architecture and Monuments: Bazaar of Isfahan,weblink www.iranchamber.com,
  • Behjat Abad Market, Tehran
  • Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh Qazvin, Iran
  • Ganjali Khan Complex, Kerman, Iran
  • Kashan Bazaar in Kashan
  • Khan Bazaar, Yazd
  • Kerman Bazaar, Kerman
  • Kermanshah Bazaar, Kermanshah
  • Kohneh Bazaar, Abadeh
  • Qeysarie Bazaar Bazaar, Isfahan
  • Tajrish, Shemiranat County, Tehran Province, Iran
  • Tehran Bazaar, Tehran
  • Sanandaj Bazaar, Sanandaj
  • Saraye Moshir, Shiraz, Southern Iran
  • Vakil Bazaar, Shiraz
  • Amol Bazaar in Amol
}}{{paragraph break}}File:Carpet Bazaar of Tabriz.JPG|Mozaffarieh: An alley in Tabriz Bazaar devoted to carpet sellingFile:Tehran Bazaar old.jpg|Bazaar in old Tehran, 1873File:Bazar Shiraz as seen by Jane Dieulafoy, 1881.jpg|Vakil Bazaar from Jane Dieulafoy, Perzië, Chaldea en Susiane, 1881File:Vakil Bazaar بازار وکیل 33.jpg|Vakil BazaarFile:Bazar Haji Seid Hussein Kashan by Pascal Coste.jpg|Bazar of Kashan by Pascal Coste, 1840File:Antiguo Bazar de Kashan, Kashan, Irán, 2016-09-19, DD 86.jpg|Bazaar ofe Kashan, Kashan, IránFile:Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh.jpg|Caravanserai of Sa'd al-SaltanehFile:Bazaar de Teherán, Teherán, Irán, 2016-09-17, DD 45.jpg|Bazaar de Teherán, Teherán, Irán

Kazakhstan

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Kuwait

  • Souq Almubarikiyya Souq Avenues

Iraq

A Qaysari Bazaar is a type of covered bazaar typical of Iraq.

Kyrgyzstan

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Lebanon

After sustaining irreparable damage during the country's civil war, Beirut's ancient souks have been completely modernised and rebuilt while maintaining the original ancient Greek street grid, major landmarks and street names.{{Columns-list|colwidth=30em|

Macedonia

In the Balkans, the term, 'Bedesten' is used to describe a covered market or bazaar.{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}{{paragraph break}}File:Old Bazaar2.jpg|The BazaarFile:Beogradska ulica u Staroj čaršiji u Skoplju.JPG|Belgrade streetFile:Skopje OldBazaar.jpg|The BazaarFile:Skopje čaršija.jpg|Street stairsFile:Skopje čaršijata.jpg|A streetFile:Street in Skopje 2.jpg|A streetFile:Ulaz u nekadašnji bezistan u Skoplju.JPG|The entrance to the BezistenFile:Skopje, bezistan.jpg|The BezistenFile:Чаршијата - празна 03.jpg|The Bazaar by night

Malaysia

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  • Bukit Beruang Bazaar, Malacca
  • Bazar Bukakbonet Gelang Patah, Johor Bahru
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Nepal

{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}File:Asan, Kathmandu (northeast view).jpg|Asan, Kathmandu (northeast view)File:Fikkal bazaar.JPG|Fikkal bazaar, a weekly haat in NepalFile:Surunga bazaar.JPG|Surunga bazaar, Nepal

Norway

Pakistan

{{See also|Haat bazaar}}

Hyderabad, Pakistan

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Karachi

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Lahore

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Peshawar

Punjab, Pakistan

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Rajdhani

Sargodha

{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}File:Qissa Khwani Bazaar, Peshawar, Pakistan - panoramio - franek2 (2).jpg|Qissa Khwani Bazaar, Peshawar, PakistanFile:Karachi - Pakistan-market-RGadd.jpg|Bazaar, Karachi, PakistanFile:Rawalpindi Bazaar.jpg|Rawalpindi Bazaar, Rawalpindi, Punjab

Serbia

South Africa

Sri Lanka

Syria

{{See also|Al-Madina Souq}}{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em|
  • Al-Buzuriyah Souq in Damascus
  • Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus
  • Souq Atwail in Damascus
  • Souq Al Buzria in Damascus
  • Mathaf Al Sulimani in Damascus
  • Midhat Pasha Souq in Damascus
  • Souq Al-Attareen (Perfumers' Souq) in Aleppo
  • Souq Khan Al-Nahhaseen (Coopery Souq) in Aleppo
  • Souq Al-Haddadeen (Blacksmiths' Souq) in Aleppo
  • Suq Al-Saboun (Soap Souq) in Aleppo
  • Suq Al-Atiq (the Old Souq) in Aleppo
  • Al-Suweiqa (Suweiqa means "small souq" in Arabic) in Aleppo
  • Suq Al-Hokedun (Hokedun means "spiritual house" in Armenian) in Aleppo
{edih}File:Syria THE FRUIT BAZAAR. DAMASCUS. 1908. Old Vintage Color Print..JPG|The Fruit Bazaar, Damascus, painting by Margaret Thomas and reproduced in John E. Kelman, From Damascus to Palmyra, 1908File:The Silk Bazaar, Damascus - Australians buying goods Art.IWMART1564.jpg|The Silk Bazaar, Damascus – Australians buying goods, 1918File:HESSE-WARTEGG(1881) p133 ENTRANCE TO BAZAAR, GAZA.jpg|Entrance to the Bazaar, GazaFile:HESSE-WARTEGG(1881) p085 THE BAZAAR OF EL HARISH.jpg|The Bazaar of El Harish, 1881

Tanzania

Tunisia

Turkmenistan

File:Tolkuchka bazaar (3406779200).jpg|Altyn Asyr Bazaar, Turkmenistan

Turkey

In Turkey, the term 'bazaars' is used in the English sense, to refer to a covered market place. In Turkish the term for bazaar is "çarşı."{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}File:Kızlarağası hanı-Kemeraltı-İzmir - panoramio.jpg|Kemeraltı (bazaar district), İzmir, TurkeyFile:Arasta Bazaar, Istanbul.jpg|Arasta Bazaar, IstanbulFile:Istanbul grand bazar 1.jpg|Grand Bazaar, IstanbulFile:Spice market Istanbul 2013 6.jpg|Spice Bazaar, Istanbul

Belarus

Uzbekistan

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See also

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References

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Further reading

  • The Persian Bazaar: Veiled Space of Desire (Mage Publications) by Mehdi Khansari
  • The Morphology of the Persian Bazaar (Agah Publications) by Azita Rajabi.
  • JOURNAL, Assari, Ali, T.M.Mahesh, Compararative Sustainability of Bazaar in Iranian Traditional Cities: Case Studies in Isfahan and Tabriz, International Journal on Technical and Physical Problems of Engineering, December 2011, 3, 9, 18–24,weblink 6 January 2013,

External links

{{Wiktionary}}{{Commons category|Bazaars}}{{Commons category|Bazaars in Art}}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071230174333weblink">Iran Chamber Society on Architecture of the Bazaar at Isfahan
  • EB1911, Bazaar, 3, 559,
{{Islamic architecture}}

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