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{{short description|Form of social organization characterized by submission to authority}}{{About|authoritarianism in political science and organizational studies|authoritarianism in psychology|Authoritarian personality}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{Forms of government}}{{Neo-fascism|expanded=Core}}Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms. Under an authoritarian regime, individual freedoms are subordinate to the state, and there is no constitutional accountability. Authoritarian regimes can be autocratic, with power concentrated in one person, or can be a committee, with power shared among officials and government institutions.BOOK, Government and Politics - Volume I, Sekiguchi, Masashi, EOLSS Publications, 9781905839698, 92,weblink 26 December 2016, 2010-08-27, The political scientist Juan Linz defined authoritarianism in an influential 1964 work as possessing four qualities:Richard Shorten, Modernism and Totalitarianism: Rethinking the Intellectual Sources of Nazism and Stalinism, 1945 to the Present (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), p. 256 (note 67).
  1. Limited political pluralism, realized with constraints on the legislature, political parties, and interest groups;
  2. Political legitimacy based upon appeals to emotion, and identification of the regime as a necessary evil to combat "easily recognizable societal problems, such as underdevelopment, and insurgency";
  3. Minimal political mobilization and suppression of anti-regime activities;
  4. Ill-defined executive powers, often vague and shifting, which extends the power of the executive.Gretchen Casper, Fragile Democracies: The Legacies of Authoritarian Rule, pp. 40–50 (citing Linz 1964).

Authoritarian government and states

Types

Linz distinguished new forms of authoritarianism from personalistic dictatorships and totalitarian states, taking Francoist Spain as an example. Unlike personalistic dictatorships, new forms of authoritarianism have institutionalized representation of a variety of actors (in Spain's case, including the military, the Catholic Church, Falange, monarchists, technocrats and others). Unlike totalitarian states, the regime relies on passive mass acceptance rather than popular support.Todd Landman, Studying Human Rights (Routledge, 2003), p. 71 (citing Linz 1964 and others). Some scholars also mention the emergence of a different type of regime - the hybrid regime - in the post-Cold War era.JOURNAL, Mufti, Mariam, What Do We Know about Hybrid Regimes after Two Decades of Scholarship?, Politics and Governance, 6, 5, 112, 10.17645/pag.v6i2.1400, 2018, Several subtypes of authoritarian regimes have been identified by Linz and others.Mark J. Gasiorowski, [{{Google books |plainurl=yes |id=uxO2QHFzlZsC |page=105 }} The Political Regimes Project], in On Measuring Democracy: Its Consequences and Concomitants (ed. Alex Inketes), 2006, pp. 110–11. Linz identified the two most basic subtypes as traditional authoritarian regimes and bureaucratic-military authoritarian regimes:
  • Traditional authoritarian regimes are those "in which the ruling authority (generally a single person)" is maintained in power "through a combination of appeals to traditional legitimacy, patron-client ties and repression, which is carried out by an apparatus bound to the ruling authority through personal loyalties". An example is Ethiopia under Haile Selassie I.
  • Bureaucratic-military authoritarian regimes are those "governed by a coalition of military officers and technocrats who act pragmatically (rather than ideologically) within the limits of their bureaucratic mentality." Mark J. Gasiorowski suggests that it is best to distinguish "simple military authoritarian regimes" from "bureaucratic authoritarian regimes" in which "a powerful group of technocrats uses the state apparatus to try to rationalize and develop the economy" such as South Korea under Park Chung-hee.
Subtypes of authoritarian regime identified by Linz are: corporatist or organic-statistic, racial and ethnic "democracy" and post-totalitarian.
  • Corporatist authoritarian regimes "are those in which corporatism institutions are used extensively by the state to coopt and demobilize powerful interest groups". This type has been studied most extensively in Latin America.
  • Racial and ethnic "democracies" are those in which "certain racial or ethnic groups enjoy full democratic rights while others are largely or entirely denied those rights", such as in South Africa under apartheid.
  • Post-totalitarian authoritarian regimes are those in which totalitarian institutions (such as the party, secret police and state-controlled mass mediaJOURNAL, Heinrich, Andreas, Pleines, Heiko, The Meaning of 'Limited Pluralism' in Media Reporting under Authoritarian Rule, Politics and Governance, 6, 2, 103, 10.17645/pag.v6i2.1238, 2018, ) remain, but where "ideological orthodoxy has declined in favor of routinization, repression has declined, the state's top leadership is less personalized and more secure, and the level of mass mobilization has declined substantially". Examples include the People's Republic of China, Russian Federation, and Soviet Eastern bloc states in the mid-1980s.
Another type of authoritarian regime is the "competitive authoritarian" regime, a "civilian regimes in which formal democratic institutions exist and are widely viewed as the primary means of gaining power, but in which incumbents' abuse of the state places them at a significant advantage vis-à-vis their opponents."BOOK, Levitsky, Steven, Way, Lucan A., Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War, 2010, Cambridge University Press,weblink 5–7, 9781139491488, The term was coined by Steven Levitsky and Lucan A. Way in their 2010 book of the same name to discuss a type of hybrid regime that emerged during and after the Cold War.NEWS, Tomasky, Michael, Do the Republicans Even Believe in Democracy Anymore?,weblink 3 July 2019, New York Times, 1 July 2019, Competitive authoritarian regimes differ from fully authoritarian regimes in that elections are regularly held, the opposition can openly operate without a high risk of exile or imprisonment, and "democratic procedures are sufficiently meaningful for opposition groups to take them seriously as arenas through which to contest for power." However, competitive authoritarian regimes lack one or more of the three characteristics of democracies: free elections (i.e., elections untainted by substantial fraud or voter intimidation); protection of civil liberties (i.e., the freedom of speech, press, and association), and an even playing field (in terms of access to resources, the media, and legal recourse).Levitsky & Way (2010), pp. 7-12.Authoritarian regimes are also sometimes subcategorized by whether they are personalistic or populist. Personalistic authoritarian regimes are characterized by arbitrary rule and authority exercised "mainly through patronage networks and coercion rather than through institutions and formal rules". Personalistic authoritarian regimes have been seen in post-colonial Africa. By contrast, populist authoritarian regimes "are mobilizational regimes in which a strong, charismatic, manipulative leader rules through a coalition involving key lower-class groups". Examples include Argentina under Perón, Egypt under Nasser and Venezuela under Chávez and Maduro.Juan de Onis, "After Chavez, Authoritarianism Still Threatens Latin America", World Affairs (May 15, 2013): "the followers of the late President Hugo Chávez continue to apply the playbook of authoritarian populism throughout Latin America in their pursuit of more power...one of the Mercosur partners are challenging the basic political practices of authoritarian populism implanted in Venezuela."Kurt Weyland, "Latin America's Authoritarian Drift: The Threat from the Populist Left", Journal of Democracy, Vol. 23, Issue 3 (July 2013), pp. 18–32.Authoritarianism is characterized by highly concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression and the exclusion of potential challengers. It uses political parties and mass organizations to mobilize people around the goals of the regime.Theodore M. Vesta, [{{Google books |plainurl=yes |id=XWXtXOl56KkC&c |page=17 }} Ethiopia: A Post-Cold War African State]. Greenwood, 1999, p. 17. Adam Przeworski has theorized that "authoritarian equilibrium rests mainly on lies, fear and economic prosperity".BOOK, Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America,weblink Cambridge University Press, 1991-07-26, 9780521423359, Adam, Przeworski, Authoritarianism also tends to embrace the informal and unregulated exercise of political power, a leadership that is "self-appointed and even if elected cannot be displaced by citizens' free choice among competitors", the arbitrary deprivation of civil liberties and little tolerance for meaningful opposition.A range of social controls also attempt to stifle civil society, while political stability is maintained by control over and support of the armed forces, a bureaucracy staffed by the regime and creation of allegiance through various means of socialization and indoctrination.Authoritarian political systems may be weakened through "inadequate performance to demands of the people". Vestal writes that the tendency to respond to challenges to authoritarianism through tighter control instead of adaptation is a significant weakness and that this overly rigid approach fails to "adapt to changes or to accommodate growing demands on the part of the populace or even groups within the system". Because the legitimacy of the state is dependent on performance, authoritarian states that fail to adapt may collapse.Authoritarianism is marked by "indefinite political tenure" of the ruler or ruling party (often in a one-party state) or other authority. The transition from an authoritarian system to a more democratic form of government is referred to as democratization.John Duckitt suggests a link between authoritarianism and collectivism, asserting that both stand in opposition to individualism.JOURNAL, Duckitt, J., Authoritarianism and Group Identification: A New View of an Old Construct, 3791588, Political Psychology, 10, 1, 63–84, 1989, 10.2307/3791588, Duckitt writes that both authoritarianism and collectivism submerge individual rights and goals to group goals, expectations and conformities.JOURNAL, Kemmelmeier, M., Burnstein, E., Krumov, K., Genkova, P., Kanagawa, C., Hirshberg, M. S., Erb, H. P., Wieczorkowska, G., Noels, K. A., Individualism, Collectivism, and Authoritarianism in Seven Societies, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 3, 304, 2003, 10.1177/0022022103034003005,

Authoritarianism and totalitarianism

{{Revolution sidebar}}Totalitarianism is an extreme version of authoritarianism. Authoritarianism primarily differs from totalitarianism in that social and economic institutions exist that are not under governmental control. Building on the work of Yale political scientist Juan Linz, Paul C. Sondrol of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs has examined the characteristics of authoritarian and totalitarian dictators and organized them in a chart:JOURNAL, Sondrol, P. C., Totalitarian and Authoritarian Dictators: A Comparison of Fidel Castro and Alfredo Stroessner, Journal of Latin American Studies, 23, 3, 599, 2009, 10.1017/S0022216X00015868, {|class="wikitable"!!Totalitarianism!Authoritarianism
|Charisma|High|Low
|Role conception|Leader as function|Leader as individual
|Ends of power|Public|Private
Political corruption>Corruption|Low|High
|Official ideology|Yes|No
Pluralism (political philosophy)>pluralism|No|Yes
|Legitimacy|Yes|No
Sondrol argues that while both authoritarianism and totalitarianism are forms of autocracy, they differ in "key dichotomies":Compared to totalitarianism, "the authoritarian state still maintains a certain distinction between state and society. It is only concerned with political power and as long as that is not contested it gives society a certain degree of liberty. Totalitarianism, on the other hand, invades private life and asphyxiates it".Radu Cinpoes, Nationalism and Identity in Romania: A History of Extreme Politics from the Birth of the State to EU Accession, p. 70. Another distinction is that "authoritarianism is not animated by utopian ideals in the way totalitarianism is. It does not attempt to change the world and human nature". Carl Joachim Friedrich writes that "a totalist ideology, a party reinforced by a secret police, and monopoly control of ... industrial mass society" are the three features of totalitarian regimes that distinguish them from other autocracies.

Authoritarianism and democracy

{{Communitarianism sidebar}}Authoritarianism and democracy are not fundamentally opposed to one another, as it is possible for democracies to possess authoritarian elements.JOURNAL, Frantz, Erica, Authoritarian Politics: Trends and Debates, Politics and Governance, 6, 2, 87, 10.17645/pag.v6i2.1498, 2018, An illiberal democracy (or procedural democracy) is distinguished from liberal democracy (or substantive democracy) in that illiberal democracies lack features such as the rule of law, protections for minority groups and an independent judiciary.
  • Thomas H. Henriksen, American Power after the Berlin Wall (Palgrave Macmillan: 2007), p. 199: "experts emphasize that elections alone, without the full democratic panoply of an independent judiciary, free press, and viable political parties, constitute, in reality, illiberal democracies, which still menace their neighbors and destabilize their regions."
  • David P. Forsythe, Human Rights in International Relations (Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 231: "Illiberal democracies may have reasonably free and fair national elections based on broad suffrage, but they do not counteract the tyranny of the majority with effective protections for ethnic and religious minorities or various types of dissenters."
  • Rod Hague & Martin Harrop, Political Science: A Comparative Introduction (7th ed.: Palgrave Macmillan: 2007), p. 259: "The gradual implementation of the rule of law and due process is an accomplishment of liberal politics, provide a basis for distinguishing liberal from illiberal democracies, and both from authoritarian regimes."
  • Vladimir Popov, "Circumstances versus Policy Choices: Why Has the Economic Performance of the Soviet Successor States Been So Poor" in After the Collapse of Communism: Comparative Lessons of Transition (eds. Michael McFaul & Kathryn Stoner-Weiss: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 20: "The least efficient institutions are in illiberal democracies combining poor rule of law with democracy ... Less democratic regimes with weak rule of law ... appear to do better than illiberal democracies in maintaining institutional capacity."
A further distinction that liberal democracies have rarely made war with one another; research has extended the theory and finds that more democratic countries tend to have few wars (sometimes called militarized interstate disputes) causing fewer battle deaths with one another and that democracies have far fewer civil wars.JOURNAL, Hegre, Håvard, Tanja Ellington, Scott Gates, Nils Petter Gleditsch, yes, Towards A Democratic Civil Peace? Opportunity, Grievance and Civil War 1816-1992, American Political Science Review, 2001, 95, 33–48,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040406173943weblink">weblink 2004-04-06, BOOK, Ray, James Lee, A Lakatosian View of the Democratic Peace Research Program From Progress in International Relations Theory, Colin Elman, Miriam Fendius Elman,weblink MIT Press, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060625203811weblink">weblink 2006-06-25, Some commentators, such as Seymour Martin Lipset, believed that low-income authoritarian regimes have certain technocratic "efficiency-enhancing advantages" over low-income democracies, helping authoritarian regimes generate development.Morton H. Halperin, Joseph T. Siegle, & Michael M. Weinstein, The Democracy Advantage: How Democracies Promote Prosperity and Peace (Council on Foreign Relations/Psychology Press, 2005). Morton H. Halperin, Joseph T. Siegle and Michael M. Weinstein (2005) counter this belief, arguing that the evidence has shown that there is no "authoritarian advantage" and that there is a "democratic advantage" instead. Halperin et al. argue that democracies "realize superior development performance" over authoritarianism. They point out that poor democracies are more likely to have steadier economic growth and less likely to experience economic and humanitarian catastrophes than authoritarian regimes; that civil liberties act as a curb on corruption and misuse of resources; and that democracies are more adaptable. Halperin point out that the vast majority of refugee crises and financial catastrophes occur in authoritarian regimes.Studies suggest that several health indicators (life expectancy and infant and maternal mortality) have a stronger and more significant association with democracy than they have with GDP per capita, size of the public sector or income inequality.JOURNAL, Franco, Á., Álvarez-Dardet, C., Ruiz, M. T., Effect of democracy on health: ecological study, BMJ, 329, 1421–23, 2004, 10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1421, 535957, 15604165, 7480, Prominent economist Amartya Sen has theorized that no functioning liberal democracy has ever suffered a large-scale famine.JOURNAL, Sen, A. K., Democracy as a Universal Value, Journal of Democracy, 10, 3, 3–17, 1999, 10.1353/jod.1999.0055, Research shows that the democratic nations have much less democide or murder by government. Those were also moderately developed nations before applying liberal democratic policies.BOOK, R. J. Rummel, R. J. Rummel, Power kills: democracy as a method of nonviolence, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States U.S.A, 1997, 978-1-56000-297-0, Research by the World Bank suggests that political institutions are extremely important in determining the prevalence of corruption and that parliamentary systems, political stability and freedom of the press are all associated with lower corruption.Daniel Lederman, Norman Loayza, & Rodrigo Res Soares, "Accountability and Corruption: Political Institutions Matter", World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2708 (November 2001). One study has concluded that terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom. The nations with the least amount of terrorism are the most and least democratic nations.WEB, Harvard News Office,weblink Harvard Gazette: Freedom squelches terrorist violence, News.harvard.edu, 2004-11-04, 2012-02-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150919050732weblink">weblink 2015-09-19,

Characteristics

Systemic weakness and resilience

Andrew J. Nathan notes that "regime theory holds that authoritarian systems are inherently fragile because of weak legitimacy, overreliance on coercion, overcentralization of decision making, and the predominance of personal power over institutional norms....Few authoritarian regimes—be they communist, fascist, corporatist, or personalist—have managed to conduct orderly, peaceful, timely, and stable successions".Andrew J. Nathan, "Authoritarian Resilience", Journal of Democracy, 14.1 (2003), pp. 6–17. One exception to this general trend is the endurance of the authoritarian rule of the Chinese Communist Party, which has been unusually resilient among authoritarian regimes. Nathan posits that this can be attributed to four factors: (1) "the increasingly norm-bound nature of its succession politics"; (2) "the increase in meritocratic as opposed to factional considerations in the promotion of political elites"; (3) "the differentiation and functional specialization of institutions within the regime"; and (4) "the establishment of institutions for political participation and appeal that strengthen the CCP's legitimacy among the public at large".

Gender and authoritarianism

According to a study by Brandt and Henry, there is a direct correlation between the rates of gender inequality and the levels of authoritarian ideas in the male and female populations. It was found that in countries with less gender equality where individualism was encouraged and men occupied the dominant societal roles, women were more likely to support traits such as obedience which would allow them to survive in an authoritarian environment and less likely to encourage ideas such as independence and imagination. In countries with higher levels of gender equality, men held less authoritarian views. It is theorized that this occurs due to the stigma attached to individuals who question the cultural norms set by the dominant individuals and establishments in an authoritarian society as a way to prevent the psychological stress caused by the active ostracizing of the stigmatized individuals.JOURNAL, Mark J., Brandt, P. J., Henry, Gender Inequality and Gender Differences in Authoritarianism, 2012, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 10, 1301–15, 10.1177/0146167212449871, 22733982,

Examples

There is no precise definition of authoritarianism, but several annual measurements are attempted, including Freedom House’s annual Freedom in the World report.

Current

The following is a non-exhaustive list of examples of states which are currently (or frequently) characterized as authoritarian:
  • {{flag|Angola}} under the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola Party (1975–)NEWS,weblink 19 April 2018, Freedom in the World Angola Report,
  • {{flag|Azerbaijan}} under Heydar Aliyev (1993-2003) and Ilham Aliyev (2003–)NEWS, Vincent, Rebecca, When the music dies: Azerbaijan one year after Eurovision,weblink 10 June 2013, 19 May 2013, Al Jazeera, Over the past several years, Azerbaijan has become increasingly authoritarian, as the authorities have used tactics such as harassment, intimidation, blackmail, attack and imprisonment to silence the regime’s critics, whether journalists, bloggers, human rights defenders, political activists or ordinary people taking to the streets in protest.,
  • {{flag|Bahrain}} under the House of Khalifa (1746–)Nebil Husayn, Authoritarianism in Bahrain: Motives, Methods and Challenges, AMSS 41st Annual Conference (September 29, 2012); Parliamentary Elections and Authoritarian Rule in Bahrain (January 13, 2011), Stanford University
  • {{flag|Belarus}} under Alexander Lukashenko (1994–)NEWS,weblink 7 August 2014, Belarus: inside Europe's last dictatorship, London, The Guardian, Sigrid, Rausing, 7 October 2012, NEWS,weblink Reuters, Belarus's Lukashenko: "Better a dictator than gay", ...German Foreign Minister's branding him 'Europe's last dictator', Berlin, 4 March 2012, on account of Lukashenko's self-described authoritarian style of governmentNEWS, Profile: Alexander Lukashenko,weblink 7 August 2014, BBC News, BBC, 9 January 2007, ..an authoritarian ruling style is characteristic of me [Lukashenko], WEB,weblink Essential Background â€“ Belarus, 26 March 2006, 2005, Human Rights Watch, WEB,weblink Human rights by country â€“ Belarus, 22 December 2007, 2007, Amnesty International Report 2007, Amnesty International,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071212011715weblink">weblink 12 December 2007, no,
  • {{flag|Bosnia and Herzegovina}} / {{flag|Republika Srpska}} under Milorad Dodik (2006–)JOURNAL, Bieber, Florian, Patterns of competitive authoritarianism in the Western Balkans, East European Politics, July 2018, 38, 3, 337–54, 10.1080/21599165.2018.1490272, WEB,weblink Milorad Dodik Wants to Carve Up Bosnia. Peacefully, if Possible, 16 February 2018, The New York Times
DATE=28 SEPTEMBER 2018ACCESSDATE=5 JANUARY 2019,

Historical

Examples of states which were historically authoritarian include{|class="wikitable"!width=180px|State!Time period!Ruling group or person!Notes
Algeria}}HTTPS://FREEDOMHOUSE.ORG/REPORT/FREEDOM-WORLD/2017/ALGERIA>ACCESSDATE=19 APRIL 2018, Freedom in the World Algeria Report, |1999-2019|Abdelaziz Bouteflika|
{{Flag|Argentina}}Todd L. Edwards, Argentina: A Global Studies Handbook (2008), pp. 45–46; Steven E. Sanderson, The Politics of Trade in Latin American Development (1992), Stanford University Press, p. 133; William C. Smith, Reflections on the Political Economy of Authoritarian Rule and Capitalist Reorganization in Contemporary Argentina, in Generals in Retreat: The Crisis of Military Rule in Latin America (1985), eds. Philip J. O'Brien & Paul A. Cammack, Manchester University Press.Guillermo A. O'Donnell, Bureaucratic Authoritarianism: Argentina, 1966–1973, in Comparative Perspective (University of California Press, 1988); James M. Malloy, Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America: The Modal Pattern, in Democracy in Latin America: Patterns and Cycles (1996; ed. Roderic A. Camp), p. 122; Howard J. Wiards, Corporatism and Comparative Politics: The Other Great "ism" (1997), pp. 113–14.|1966–1973|Military government|Argentine Revolution period of military rule
|1973–1974
Peronism>Justicialista rule of Juan Perón|Ideology is populist authoritarianism
|1976–1983
Free trade and Deregulation>deregulatory rule of Jorge Rafael Videla|National Reorganization Process period of military rule
{{flagicon image|Flag of Brazil (1889-1960).svg}} BrazilJames M. Malloy, Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America: The Modal Pattern, in Democracy in Latin America: Patterns and Cycles (ed. Roderic A. Camp), p. 122; Thomas E. Skidmore, The Political Economy of Policy-making in Authoritarian Brazil, 1967–70, in Generals in Retreat: The Crisis of Military Rule in Latin America (1985), eds. Philip J. O'Brien & Paul A. Cammack, Manchester University Press.|1937–1945|Getúlio VargasEstado Novo (Brazil)>Estado Novo period
1964 Brazilian coup d'état>1964–1985Brazilian military government>Military government|
Flag of Myanmar (1974-2010).svg}} BurmaThomas Carothers, Q&A: Is Burma Democratizing? (April 2, 2012), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; President Discusses Burma/Myanmar in Transition at World Affairs Council Sacramento (April 3, 2013), Asia Foundation; Louise Arbour, In Myanmar, Sanctions Have Had Their Day (March 5, 2012), The New York Times.1962 Burmese coup d'état>1962–2011 Burma Socialist Programme Party>Socialist Programme Party|
Chile}}Steven E. Sanderson, The Politics of Trade in Latin American Development (1992), Stanford University Press, p. 133; Carlos Huneeus, Political Mass Mobilization Against Authoritarian Rule: Pinochet's Chile, 1983–88, in Civil Resistance and Power Politics:The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (2009), Oxford University Press (eds. Adam Roberts & Timothy Garton Ash).1973 Chilean coup d'état>1973–1990|Augusto Pinochet|
Croatia}}HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/NEWS/1999/DEC/13/GUARDIANOBITUARIES.IANTRAYNOR>TITLE=FRANJO TUDJMAN, AUTHORITARIAN LEADER WHOSE COMMUNIST PAST AND NATIONALIST OBSESSIONS FUELLED HIS RUTHLESS PURSUIT OF AN INDEPENDENT CROATIAPUBLISHER=THE GUARDIANPUBLISHER=ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA, 5 January 2019, |1990–1999|Franjo Tuđman|
Czechoslovakia}}|1938–1939Party of National Unity (Czechoslovakia)>Party of National Unity|
Egypt}}Maye Kassem, Egyptian Politics: The Dynamics of Authoritarian Rule (2004); Andrea M. Perkins, Mubarak's Machine: The Durability of the Authoritarian Regime in Egypt (M.A. thesis, April 8, 2010, University of South Florida).|1952–2011|Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak|
Indonesia}}1997 Asian Crisis>1998|Suharto|
Flag of Libya (1977-2011).svg}}LibyaGaddafi's 41-Year-Long Rule, The Washington Post; Martin Asser, The Muammar Gaddafi Story (October 21, 2011), BBC News; Alistair Dawber, One Libyan in three wants return to authoritarian rule (February 16, 2012), Independent.2011 Libyan Civil War>2011|Muammar Gaddafi|
Lithuania}}MISIUNAS>FIRST=ROMUALD J.TITLE=FASCIST TENDENCIES IN LITHUANIAVOLUME=48PAGES=88–109, 4206165, 1940 Soviet ultimatum to Lithuania>1940|Antanas Smetona|
Macedonia}}Matthew Brunwasser, Concerns Grow About Authoritarianism in Macedonia, The New York Times, October 13, 2011.Andrew MacDowall, Fears for Macedonia's fragile democracy amid 'coup' and wiretap claims, The Guardian, February 27, 2015.|2006–2016|Nikola Gruevski|
{{FlagYEAR=2006JOURNAL=DEMOCRATIZATIONISSUE=2DOI=10.1080/13510340500523895, Working paper.|1926–1933|Military governmentDitadura Nacional (Portugal)>National Dictatorship
Carnation Revolution>1974|António de Oliveira Salazar and Marcelo CaetanoEstado Novo (Portugal)>Estado Novo regime
Flag of Spain (1945 - 1977).svg}} SpainRichard Gunther, The Spanish Model Revisited, in The Politics and Memory of Democratic Transition: The Spanish Model, (eds. Diego Muro & Gregorio Alonso), Taylor & Francis 2010, p. 19.Spanish transition to democracy>1975|Francisco Franco|
Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg}} South AfricaTracy Kuperus, Building a Pluralist Democracy: An Examination of Religious Associations in South Africa and Zimbabwe, in Race and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Multicultural Dialogue in Comparative Perspective (eds. William E. Van Vugt & G. Daan Cloete), Lexington Books, 2000.The South Africa Reader: History, Culture, Politics (eds. Clifton Crais & Thomas V. McClendon; Duke University Press, 2014), p. 279.|1948–1994National Party (South Africa)>National Party|Regime ended with the end of apartheid
{{FlagThe Other R.O.K.: Memories of Authoritarianism in Democratic South Korea (October 11, 2011), Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; Sangmook Lee, Democratic Transition and the Consolidation of Democracy in South Korea {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121224195621weblink|date=December 24, 2012}} July 2007, Taiwan Journal of Democracy, Volume 3, No. 1, pp. 99–125.Hyug Baeg Im, The Rise of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism in South Korea, World Politics Vol. 39, Issue 2 (January 1987), pp. 231–57|1948–1960|Syngman Rhee|
|1962–1987|Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan|
Sudan}}FREEDOM HOUSE>TITLE=FREEDOM IN THE WORLD 2016: ANXIOUS DICTATORS, WAVERING DEMOCRACIES: GLOBAL FREEDOM UNDER PRESSUREURL=HTTPS://FREEDOMHOUSE.ORG/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/FH_FITW_REPORT_2016.PDF, |1989–2019|Omar al-Bashir|
Taiwan}}LENG>FIRST1=SHAO-CHUANFIRST2=CHENG-YITITLE=POLITICAL CHANGE ON TAIWAN: TRANSITION TO DEMOCRACY?THE CHINA QUARTERLY>VOLUME=136PAGES=805–39ISSN=0305-7410, 655592, ; Shirley A. Kan, Congressional Research Service, Democratic Reforms in Taiwan: Issues for Congress (May 26, 2010); Taiwan's Electoral Politics and Democratic Transition: Riding the Third Wave (1996), eds. Charles Chi-Hsiang Chang & Hung-Mao Tien; Edward S. Steinfeld, Playing Our Game:Why China's Rise Doesn't Threaten the West (2010), Oxford University Press, pp. 217–22.|1945–1990|Kuomintang|
Turkey}}Erik J. Zürcher, Turkey: A Modern History (I.B. Tauris: rev. ed. 1997), pp. 176–206.Ayse Gül Altinay, The Myth of the Military-Nation: Militarism, Gender, and Education in Turkey (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), pp. 19–20.|1925–1945Republican People's Party (Turkey)>Republican People's Party|
Yugoslavia}}ANDJELIC>FIRST=NEVENPUBLISHER=FRANK CASSPAGE=36McGoldrickp=17}}Death and state funeral of Josip Broz Tito>1980|Josip Broz Tito|
FR Yugoslavia}}HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/2/HI/EUROPE/931018.STM>TITLE=MILOSEVIC: SERBIA'S FALLEN STRONGMANY PUBLISHER=BBCPUBLISHER=PROJECT MUSE, Overthrow of Slobodan Milošević>2000|Slobodan Milošević|
Zimbabwe}}Daniel Compagnon, A Predictable Tragedy: Robert Mugabe and the Collapse of Zimbabwe (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).|1980–2017|Robert Mugabe|

Historical trends

Anti-authoritarianism

Both World War II (ending in 1945) and the Cold War (ending in 1991) resulted in the replacement of authoritarian regimes by either democratic regimes or regimes that were less authoritarian.World War II saw the defeat of the Axis powers by the Allied powers. All the Axis powers — Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan — had totalitarian or authoritarian governments, and two of the three were replaced by governments based on democratic constitutions. The Allied powers were an alliance of Democratic states and (later) the Communist Soviet Union. At least in Western Europe the initial post-war era embraced pluralism and freedom of expression in areas that had been under control of authoritarian regimes. The memory of fascism and Nazism was denigrated. The new Federal Republic of Germany banned its expression. In reaction to the centralism of the Nazi state, for example, the new constitution of West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany) exercised "separation of powers" and placed "law enforcement firmly in the hands" of the sixteen Länder or states of the republic, not with the federal German government (at least not at first).The Federal Police. Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community of GermanyCulturally there was also a strong sense of anti-authoritarianism based on anti-fascism in Western Europe. This was attributed to the active resistance from occupation and to fears arising from the development of superpowers.BOOK, Sign Wars: The Culture Jammers Strike Back!, Cox, David, 2005, LedaTape Organisation, 978-0-9807701-5-5, 108, {{Google books, yes, zKo8DrmamAwC, |accessdate=22 October 2011}} Anti-authoritarianism also became associated with countercultural and bohemian movements such as the Beat Generation in the 1950s,WEB,weblink Retired Site PBS Programs, pbs.org, 4 September 2016, the hippies in the 1960s"The way of the hippie is antithetical to all repressive hierarchical power structures since they are adverse to the hippie goals of peace, love and freedom ... Hippies don't impose their beliefs on others. Instead, hippies seek to change the world through reason and by living what they believe."{{harvnb|Stone|1994|loc="The Way of the Hippy"}} and punks in the 1970s.BOOK, McLaughlin, Paul, Anarchism and Authority, Ashgate, Aldershot, 2007, 978-0-7546-6196-2, 10, In South America, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Chile and Uruguay moved away from dictatorships to democracy between 1982 and 1990.JOURNAL, The challenge of the past, The Economist, 22 October 1998,weblink 17 October 2018, With the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the Soviet Union in 1991, the other authoritarian/totalitarian "half" of the Allied Powers of World War II collapsed. This led not so much to revolt against authority in general, but to the belief that authoritarian states (and state control of economies) were outdated. NEWS, Tharoor, Ishaan, The man who declared 'the end of history' fears for democracy's future,weblink 4 October 2018, Washington Post, 9 February 2017, The idea that "liberal democracy was the final form toward which all political striving was directed", became very popular in Western countries and was celebrated in Francis Fukuyama's book The End of History and the Last Man. According to Charles H. Fairbanks, Jr., "all the new states that stumbled out of the ruins of the Soviet bloc, except Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, seemed indeed to be moving toward democracy in the early 1990s," as where the countries of East Central Europe and the Balkans.WEB, Fairbanks, Jr., Charles H., Causes of Authoritarianism in the Former Soviet Republics,weblink Heinrich Boell Stiftung, 5 October 2018, 16 January 2014, In late 2010, the "Arab Spring" arose in response to unrest over economic stagnation but also in opposition to oppressive authoritarian regimes, first in TunisiaWEB,weblink Peddler's martyrdom launched Tunisia's revolution. Reuters, {{dead link|date=November 2018|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}WEB,weblink Uprisings in the region and ignored indicators. Payvand Iran News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110214002754weblink">weblink 2011-02-14, yes, and spreading to Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain, and elsewhere. Regimes were toppled in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and partially in Yemen, and other countries saw riots, civil wars or insurgencies.JOURNAL, Ruthven, Malise, How to Understand ISIS, New York Review of Books, 23 June 2016, 63, 11,weblink 12 June 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160807014415weblink">weblink 7 August 2016,

Authoritarian revival

From 2005 to 2015 observers noted what some called a "democratic recession"JOURNAL, Ignatieff, Michael, Are the Authoritarians Winning?, New York Review of Books, 10 July 2014, 4 October 2018,weblink JOURNAL, Levitsky, Steven, Way, Lucan, The Myth of Democratic Recession, Journal of Democracy, January 2015, 26, 1, 45–58, 4 October 2018,weblink 10.1353/jod.2015.0007, (although some — Steven Levitsky and Lucan Way — have disputed this theory). In 2018 Freedom House declared that from 2006 to 2018, "113 countries" around the world showed "a net decline" in "political rights and civil liberties" while "only 62" experienced "a net improvement."WEB, Freedom in the World 2018 Democracy in Crisis,weblink Freedom House, 4 October 2018, Writing in 2018, U.S. political journalist David Frum stated: The hopeful world of the very late 20th century—the world of NAFTA and an expanding NATO; of the World Wide Web 1.0 and liberal interventionism; of the global spread of democracy under leaders such as Václav Havel and Nelson Mandela—now looks battered and delusive."JOURNAL, Frum, David, The Republican Party Needs to Embrace Liberalism, Atlantic, November 2018, 4 October 2018,weblink Michael Ignatieff wrote that Fukuyama's idea of liberalism vanquishing authoritarianism "now looks like a quaint artifact of a vanished unipolar moment", and Fukuyama himself expressed concern. By 2018 only one Arab Spring uprising — in Tunisia — resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance, and a "resurgence of authoritarianism and Islamic extremism" in the regionWEB, Yun Ru Phua,weblink After Every Winter Comes Spring: Tunisia's Democratic Flowering – Berkeley Political Review, Bpr.berkeley.edu, 2017-02-11, was dubbed the "Arab Winter".WEB,weblink Middle East review of 2012: the Arab Winter, The Telegraph, July 19, 2014, WEB, The Jerusalem Post,weblink Analysis: Arab Winter is coming to Baghdad, The Telegraph, October 8, 2014, WEB,weblink Expert Warns of America's Coming 'Arab Winter', CBN, October 8, 2014, WEB,weblink The Arab Winter, The New Yorker, October 8, 2014, WEB,weblink Arab Spring or Arab Winter?, The New Yorker, October 8, 2014, Explanations offered for the new spread of authoritarianism by supporters include excessive immigration into European and Western countries, and the "primary and existential fear" of the "surrender" by liberal democracy of "national sovereignty and independence".WEB, BUCHANAN, PATRICK J., Why the Authoritarian Right is on the Rise,weblink American Conservative, 4 October 2018, April 20, 2018, Others credit the downside of globalization,WEB, Bhagavan, Manu, We are witnessing the rise of global authoritarianism on a chilling scale,weblink Qz.com, 4 October 2018, and the success of the Beijing Consensus, i.e. the authoritarian model of the People's Republic of China.WEB, Cowen, Tyler, China's Success Explains Authoritarianism's Allure,weblink Bloomberg, 4 October 2018, April 3, 2017, In at least one country, (the U.S.) factors blamed for the growth of authoritarianism include the Financial crisis of 2007–2008 and slower real wage growth;WEB, Cowen, Tyler, Why is authoritarianism on the rise?,weblink marginalrevolution.com, 4 October 2018, 4 April 2017, and social media's elimination of "gatekeepers" of knowledge, so that a large fraction of the population considers to be opinion what were once "viewed as verifiable facts” – everything from the danger of global warming to the preventing the spread of disease through vaccination.WEB, Can it Happen Here? review: urgent studies in rise of authoritarian America (Review of Cass Sunstein book Can It Happen Here?: Authoritarianism in America),weblink The Guardian, 4 October 2018, 8 Apr 2018,

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|30em}}

Works cited

  • Juan J. Linz, "An Authoritarian Regime: The Case of Spain", in Cleavages, Ideologies and Party Systems (eds. Eric Allard & Yrjo Littunen) (Helsinki: Academic, 1964)

External links

{{Fascism}}{{Authoritarian types of rule}}{{Forms of government footer}}{{Social and political philosophy}}

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