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{{short description|Curved structure that spans a space and may support a load}}{{About|the architectural construct|other uses of arch or arches|Arch (disambiguation)}}{{Use British English Oxford spelling|date=August 2016}}File:Arch illustration.svg|thumb|A masonry arch {{ordered list |Keystone |Voussoir |Extrados |Impost |Intrados |Rise |Clear span |AbutmentAbutmentAn arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it,"arch, n. 2" Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed. 2009. or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.Arches may be synonymous with vaults, but a vault may be distinguished as a continuous arch"vault, n. 2." The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia Dwight Whitney, ed.. vol. 10. New York. 1911. 6707. Print. forming a roof. Arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture,WEB, Ancient Mesopotamia: Architecture,weblink The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 16 May 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120516204446weblink">weblink 16 May 2012, and their systematic use started with the ancient Romans, who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures.

Basic concepts

An arch is a soft compression form. It can span a large area by resolving forces into compressive stresses and, in turn eliminating tensile stresses. This is sometimes referred to as arch action.BOOK, Vaidyanathan, R, Structural Analysis, Volume 2, 2004, Laxmi Publications, USA, 81-7008-584-5, 127,weblink Google Books, As the forces in the arch are carried to the ground, the arch will push outward at the base, called thrust. As the rise, or height of the arch decreases, the outward thrust increases.BOOK, Ambrose, James, Building Structures, 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 30, In order to maintain arch action and prevent the arch from collapsing, the thrust needs to be restrained, either with internal ties or external bracing, such as abutments.BOOK, Ambrose, James, Building Structures, 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 978-0-470-54260-6, 31,

Fixed vs hinged arch

File:Rossgrabenbruecke 01 09.jpg|thumbnail|Rossgraben bridge (Rüeggisberg) near Bern, Switzerland, showing the hinge at mid-span of this three-hinged arch.]]The most common true arch configurations are the fixed arch, the two-hinged arch, and the three-hinged arch.The fixed arch is most often used in reinforced concrete bridge and tunnel construction, where the spans are short. Because it is subject to additional internal stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction, this type of arch is considered to be statically indeterminate.The two-hinged arch is most often used to bridge long spans. This type of arch has pinned connections at the base. Unlike the fixed arch, the pinned base is able to rotate,WEB, Luebkeman, Chris H., Support and Connection Types,weblink MIT.edu Architectonics: The Science of Architecture, MIT.edu, 3 February 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121028035620weblink">weblink 28 October 2012, allowing the structure to move freely and compensate for the thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in outdoor temperature. However, this can result in additional stresses, so the two-hinged arch is also statically indeterminate, although not to the degree of the fixed arch.The three-hinged arch is not only hinged at its base, like the two-hinged arch, but at the mid-span as well. The additional connection at the mid-span allows the three-hinged arch to move in two opposite directions and compensate for any expansion and contraction. This type of arch is thus not subject to additional stress caused by thermal change. The three-hinged arch is therefore said to be statically determinate.BOOK, Reynolds, Charles E, Reynolds's Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook, 2008, Psychology Press, New York, NY, 0-419-25820-5, 41,weblink Google Books, It is most often used for medium-span structures, such as large building roofs.Another advantage of the three-hinged arch is that the pinned bases are more easily developed than fixed ones, allowing for shallow, bearing-type foundations in medium-span structures. In the three-hinged arch, "thermal expansion and contraction of the arch will cause vertical movements at the peak pin joint but will have no appreciable effect on the bases," further simplifying the foundation design.

Types of arches

Arches have many forms, but all fall into three basic categories: circular, pointed, and parabolic. Arches can also be configured to produce vaults and arcades.Arches with a circular form, also referred to as rounded arches, were commonly employed by the builders of ancient, heavy masonry arches.BOOK, Ambrose, James, Building Structures, 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 978-0-470-54260-6, 32, Ancient Roman builders relied heavily on the rounded arch to span large, open areas. Several rounded arches placed in-line, end-to-end, form an arcade, such as the Roman aqueduct.BOOK, Oleson, John, The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World, 2008, Oxford University Press, USA, 0-19-518731-8, 299, File:InsideGWWatchtower.jpg|thumb|Semi-circular arches using brick and/or stone block construction at the Great WallGreat WallFile:Pont du gard panoramique.jpg|thumbnail|Roman aqueduct near Nîmes, France: an arcade, employing the circular arch]]File:Arches and columns, Great Mosque of Kairouan.jpg|thumbnail|Horseshoe arches in the 9th-century Mosque of Uqba, in KairouanKairouanPointed arches were most often used by builders of Gothic-style architecture.BOOK, Crossley, Paul, Gothic Architecture, 2000, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 0-300-08799-3, 58,weblink Google Books, The advantage to using a pointed arch, rather than a circular one, is that the arch action produces less thrust at the base. This innovation allowed for taller and more closely spaced openings, typical of Gothic architecture.BOOK, Hadrovic, Ahmet, STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS IN ARCHITECTURE, 2009, On Demand Publishing, 1-4392-5944-5, 289, WEB, MHHE, STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS IN ARCHITECTURE,weblink MHHE.com, 3 February 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130313101430weblink">weblink 13 March 2013, File:SteGudule.jpg|thumbnail|Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula in Brussels, Belgium, with a central pointed arch window, typical of Gothic architectureGothic architectureVaults are essentially "adjacent arches [that] are assembled side by side." If vaults intersect, complex forms are produced with the intersections. The forms, along with the "strongly expressed ribs at the vault intersections, were dominant architectural features of Gothic cathedrals."File:Notre-dame-de-paris-vue-interieure-salle-nord.jpg|thumbnail|Interior vaulted ceiling of Notre Dame de Paris, showing the ribs at the intersection of several arches]]The parabolic arch employs the principle that when weight is uniformly applied to an arch, the internal compression resulting from that weight will follow a parabolic profile. Of all arch types, the parabolic arch produces the most thrust at the base, but can span the largest areas. It is commonly used in bridge design, where long spans are needed.File:Tyne Bridge - Newcastle Upon Tyne - England - 2004-08-14.jpg|thumbnail|Tyne Bridge in Newcastle upon Tyne, (England]]: a parabolic arch used in bridge design)File:Pont d'arcades de Móra d'Ebre (Ribera d'Ebre, Catalonia).jpg|thumbnail|A series of parabolic arches on the Móra d'Ebre bridge, CataloniaCataloniaThe catenary arch has a shape different from the parabolic curve. The shape of the curve traced by a loose span of chain or rope, the catenary is the structurally ideal shape for a freestanding arch of constant thickness.Types of arches displayed chronologically, roughly in the order in which they were developed:File:Triangular arch.svg|Triangular archFile:Rundbåge.png|Round arch, or semi-circular archFile:Segmentbåge.png|Segmental arch is less than a semicircleFile:Stigande båge.png|Unequal round arch, or round archFile:Lansettbåge.png|Lancet archFile:Spetsbåge.png|Equilateral pointed archFile:Skulderbåge.png|Shouldered flat arch (see also: jack arch)File:Trepassbåge.png|Trefoil arch, or three-foiled cusped archFile:Hästskobåge.png|Horseshoe archFile:Korgbåge.png|Three-centered archFile:Ellipsbåge.png|Elliptical archFile:Draperibåge.png|Inflexed archFile:Ogee-shaped arch.svg|Ogee archFile:Karnisbåge.png|Reverse ogee archFile:Tudorbåge.png|Tudor archFile:Parabelbåge.png|Parabolic arch

History

True arches, as opposed to corbel arches, were known by a number of civilizations in the ancient Near East and the Levant, but their use was infrequent and mostly confined to underground structures, such as drains where the problem of lateral thrust is greatly diminished.{{harvnb|Rasch|1985|p=117}} An example of the latter would be the Nippur Arch.John P. Peters, University of Pennsylvania Excavations at Nippur. II. The Nippur Arch, The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 352-368, (Jul. - Sep., 1895) Rare exceptions arean arched mudbrick home doorway in circa 2000BC Tell Taya and the Bronze Age arched Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon in modern-day Israel, dating to {{circa|1850}} B.C.WEB,weblink 21 January 2018, Oldest arched gate in the world restored, Etgar, Lefkovits, 8 April 2008, Jerusalem, The Jerusalem Post,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130814034938weblink">weblink 14 August 2013, yes, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Tell Taya (1967): Summary Report, 10.2307/4199854, Iraq, 1 January 1968, 30, 2, 10.2307/4199854, J. E., Reade, An early example of a voussoir arch appears in the Greek Rhodes Footbridge.{{harvnb |Galliazzo |1995 |p=36}}; {{harvnb|Boyd|1978|p=91}} Corbel arches were found in other parts of ancient Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. In 2010, a robot discovered a long arch-roofed passageway underneath the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, which stands in the ancient city of Teotihuacan north of Mexico City, dated to around 200 AD.WEB, Jorge Barrera,weblink Teotihuacan ruins explored by a robot, AP report in the Christian Science Monitor, 12 November 2010, Csmonitor.com, 12 November 2010, 2013-06-08, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511020341weblink">weblink 11 May 2013, In ancient Persia, the Achaemenid Empire built small barrel vaults (essentially a series of arches built together to form a hall) known as iwan, which became massive, monumental structures during the later Parthian Empire.Brosius, Maria (2006), The Persians: An Introduction, London & New York: Routledge, p. 128, {{ISBN|0-415-32089-5}}.Garthwaite, Gene Ralph (2005), The Persians, Oxford & Carlton: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd., p. 84, {{ISBN|1-55786-860-3}}.Schlumberger, Daniel (1983), "Parthian Art", in Yarshater, Ehsan, Cambridge History of Iran, 3.2, London & New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 1049, {{ISBN|0-521-20092-X}}. This architectural tradition was continued by the Sasanian Empire, which built the Taq Kasra at Ctesiphon in the 6th century, the largest free-standing vault until modern times.Wright, G. R. H., Ancient building technology vol. 3. Leiden, Netherlands. Koninklijke Brill NV. 2009. p. 237. Print.The ancient Romans learned the arch from the Etruscans, refined it and were the first builders in Europe to tap its full potential for above ground buildings:The Romans were the first builders in Europe, perhaps the first in the world, to fully appreciate the advantages of the arch, the vault and the dome.Robertson, D.S.: Greek and Roman Architecture, 2nd edn., Cambridge 1943, p.231 Throughout the Roman empire, their engineers erected arch structures such as bridges, aqueducts, and gates. They also introduced the triumphal arch as a military monument. Vaults began to be used for roofing large interior spaces such as halls and temples, a function that was also assumed by domed structures from the 1st century BC onwards.The segmental arch was first built by the Romans who realized that an arch in a bridge did not have to be a semicircle,{{harvnb|Galliazzo|1995|pp=429–437}}{{harvnb|O'Connor|1993|p=171}} such as in Alconétar Bridge or Ponte San Lorenzo. They were also routinely used in house construction, as in Ostia Antica (see picture).In ancient China, most architecture was wooden, including the few known arch bridges from literature and one artistic depiction in stone-carved relief.Needham, Joseph (1986), Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics, Taipei: Caves Books, pp 161-188, {{ISBN|0-521-07060-0}}.Needham, Joseph (1986), Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology; Part 2, Mechanical Engineering, Taipei: Caves Books, pp 171-172 {{ISBN|0-521-05803-1}}.Liu, Xujie (2002), "The Qin and Han dynasties", in Steinhardt, Nancy S., Chinese Architecture, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 56, {{ISBN|0-300-09559-7}}. Therefore, the only surviving examples of architecture from the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) are rammed earth defensive walls and towers, ceramic roof tiles from no longer existent wooden buildings,Wang, Zhongshu (1982), Han Civilization, translated by K.C. Chang and Collaborators, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp 1, 30, 39-40, {{ISBN|0-300-02723-0}}.Chang, Chun-shu (2007), The Rise of the Chinese Empire: Volume II; Frontier, Immigration, & Empire in Han China, 130 B.C. – A.D. 157, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp 91-92, {{ISBN|0-472-11534-0}}.Morton, William Scott; Lewis, Charlton M. (2005), China: Its History and Culture (Fourth ed.), New York City: McGraw-Hill, p. 56, {{ISBN|0-07-141279-4}}. stone gate towers,Liu, Xujie (2002), "The Qin and Han dynasties", in Steinhardt, Nancy S., Chinese Architecture, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 55, {{ISBN|0-300-09559-7}}.Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (2005), "Pleasure tower model", in Richard, Naomi Noble, Recarving China's Past: Art, Archaeology, and Architecture of the 'Wu Family Shrines, New Haven and London: Yale University Press and Princeton University Art Museum, pp. 279–280, {{ISBN|0-300-10797-8}}. and underground brick tombs that, although featuring vaults, domes, and archways, were built with the support of the earth and were not free-standing.Wang, Zhongshu (1982), Han Civilization, translated by K.C. Chang and Collaborators, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp 175-178, {{ISBN|0-300-02723-0}}.Watson, William (2000), The Arts of China to AD 900, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 108, {{ISBN|0-300-08284-3}}. China's oldest surviving stone arch bridge is the Anji Bridge, built between 595 and 605 during the Sui Dynasty; it is the oldest open-spandrel segmental arch bridge in stone.Knapp, Ronald G. (2008). Chinese Bridges: Living Architecture From China's Past. Singapore: Tuttle Publishing. pp. 122–127. {{ISBN|978-0-8048-3884-9}}.Needham, Joseph. The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press, 1994. {{ISBN|0-521-29286-7}}. Pages 145-147. However, the ancient Romans had virtually all of these components beforehand; for example, Trajan's Bridge had open spandrels built in wood on stone pillars.This title strictly applies only to the sum of attributes given (O’Connor, Colin: Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press 1993, {{ISBN|0-521-39326-4}}, p.171): Various Roman stone pillar bridges featured wooden open-spandrel segmental arches as early as the 2nd century CE, among them Trajan's bridge, the longest bridge of the world to have been built for over a thousand years. Also, a dozen or more Roman close-spandrel stone segmental arch bridges are known from the 1st century BC onwards, such as the Ponte San Lorenzo (Padua), Alconétar Bridge and the Makestos Bridge (Turkey), the last having half-open spandrels. The 27 segmental arches of the Bridge at Limyra (300 ce) feature span to rise ratios between 5.3 and 6.5 to 1, making it an earlier example of a stone quarter circle segmental arch bridge. This leaves the Anji bridge the title of "the oldest open-spandrel stone quarter circle segmental arch bridge in the world".File:Porte Caracalla - Tébessa باب كركلا - تبسة 3.jpg|thumb|Arch of Caracalla at ThevesteThevesteThe first example of an early Gothic arch in Europe is in Sicily in the Greek fortifications of Gela. The semicircular arch was followed in Europe by the pointed Gothic arch or ogive, whose centreline more closely follows the forces of compression and which is therefore stronger. The semicircular arch can be flattened to make an elliptical arch, as in the Ponte Santa Trinita. Parabolic arches were introduced in construction by the Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí, who admired the structural system of the Gothic style, but for the buttresses, which he termed "architectural crutches". The first examples of the pointed arch in the European architecture are in Sicily and date back to the Arab-Norman period.The horseshoe arch is based on the semicircular arch, but its lower ends are extended further round the circle until they start to converge. The first known built horseshoe arches are from the Kingdom of Aksum in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea, dating from ca. 3rd–4th century. This is around the same time as the earliest contemporary examples in Roman Syria, suggesting either an Aksumite or Syrian origin for the type.Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 199{{Page needed|date=September 2010}}In India, Bhitargaon temple (450 AD) and Mahabodhi temple (7th century AD) built in by Gupta Dynasty are the earliest surviving examples of the use of voussoir arch vault system in India.BOOK,weblink Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia, Chihara, Daigorō, 1996, BRILL, 9004105123, en, Google Books, 1 April 2018,weblink 2 July 2018, yes, dmy-all, The earlier uses semicircular arch, while the later contains examples of both gothic style pointed arch and semicircular arches. Although introduced in the 5th century, arches didn't gain prominence in the Indian architecture until 12th century after Islamic conquest. The Gupta era arch vault system was later used extensively in Burmese Buddhist temples in Pyu and Bagan in 11th and 12th centuries.BOOK,weblink Buddhist Architecture, Le, Huu Phuoc, 2010, Grafikol, 9780984404308, en, no,weblink 2 April 2018, Google Books,

Construction

Since it is a pure compression form, the arch is useful because many building materials, including stone and unreinforced concrete, can resist compression, but are weak when tensile stress is applied to them.BOOK, Reid, Esmond, Understanding Buildings: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 1984, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 0-262-68054-8, 12,weblink no,weblink 2 June 2016, An arch is held in place by the weight of all of its members, making construction problematic. One answer is to build a frame (historically, of wood) which exactly follows the form of the underside of the arch. This is known as a centre or centring. Voussoirs are laid on it until the arch is complete and self-supporting. For an arch higher than head height, scaffolding would be required, so it could be combined with the arch support. Arches may fall when the frame is removed if design or construction has been faulty. The first attempt at the A85 bridge at Dalmally, Scotland suffered this fate, in the 1940s{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}}. The interior and lower line or curve of an arch is known as the intrados.Old arches sometimes need reinforcement due to decay of the keystones, forming what is known as bald arch.In reinforced concrete construction, the principle of the arch is used so as to benefit from the concrete's strength in resisting compressive stress. Where any other form of stress is raised, such as tensile or torsional stress, it has to be resisted by carefully placed reinforcement rods or fibres.BOOK, Allen, Edward, Fundamentals of Building Construction, 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 978-0-470-07468-8, 529, ">

Other types{| align"right" style"border-spacing: 10px;

thumb|Delicate Arch, a natural arch in Arches National Park near Moab, UtahMoab, UtahthumbRock balancing>rock balanceRock balancing>rock balance
A
blind arch is an arch infilled with solid construction so it cannot function as a window, door, or passageway.A special form of the arch is the triumphal arch, usually built to celebrate a victory in war. A famous example is the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France.Rock formations may form natural arches through erosion, rather than being carved or constructed.BOOK,weblink Cambridge IGCSE Geography Revision Guide Student's Book, Davies, David, 2014-04-17, Cambridge University Press, 9781107674820, en, Google Books, Structures such as this can be found in Arches National Park.Some rock balance sculptures are in the form of an arch.The arches of the foot support the weight of the human body.{{clear}}

Gallery

File:Restored Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon (14341997262).jpg|Restored Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon, Ashkelon, Israel (2014)File:Ishtar gate in Pergamon museum in Berlin..jpg|Reconstructed Ishtar Gate of Babylon in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin (2014)File:Ctesiphon-ruin 1864.jpg|Taq Kasra (Archway of Ctesiphon), Salman Pak, Iraq (1864)File:Arch of Augustus at Ariminum, dedicated to the Emperor Augustus by the Roman Senate in 27 BC, the oldest Roman arch which survives, Rimini, Italy (19760798740).jpg|Arch of Augustus, Rimini, Emilia-Romagna, Italy (2015)File:Arco di Gallieno o Porta Esquilina - lato interno - Panairjdde.jpg|Arch of Gallienus, Rome (2006)File:Attica 06-13 Athens 24 Arch of Hadrian.jpg|Arch of Hadrian, Athens, Greece (2013)File:Arch.of.constantine.threequarter.view.arp.jpg|Arch of Constantine, Rome, commemorating a victory by Constantine I in 312 AD (2007)File:Arc de triomphe frontsimple.jpg|The Arc de Triomphe, Paris; a 19th-century triumphal arch modelled on the classical Roman design (1998)File:Washington Square by Matthew Bisanz.JPG|Washington Square Arch, Greenwich Village, Manhattan, New York City (2010)File:The Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Arch at Grand Army Plaza.jpg|Soldiers' and Sailors' Arch in the Grand Army Plaza, Brooklyn, New York City (2007)File:St Louis night expblend cropped.jpg|Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri; a sculpture based on a catenary arch (2011)File:Pont Flavien Saint Chamas.jpg|Pont Flavien over the River Touloubre in Saint-Chamas, Bouches-du-Rhône, France (2008)File:선암사.jpg|Bridge of Seonamsa Temple, Suncheon, South Jeolla Province, South Korea (1979)File:Grosvenor Bridge Chester3.JPG|Grosvenor Bridge over the River Dee in Chester, Cheshire, England, UK (2007)File:Union Arch Bridge MD 2008.jpg|Union Arch Bridge carrying the Washington Aqueduct and MacArthur Boulevard (formerly named Conduit Road) in Cabin John, Montgomery County, Maryland (2008)File:Zhaozhou Bridge.jpg|Anji Bridge over the Xiaohe River, Hebei Province, China (2007)File:Velia.jpg|The dry stone bridge, so called Porta Rosa (4th century BC), in Elea, Province of Salerno, Campania, Italy (2005)File:Venice(Bridge of Sighs).JPG|Bridge of Sighs, Venice, Italy (2001)File:Pont du Gard BLS.jpg|Pont du Gard, a Roman aqueduct in Vers-Pont-du-Gard, Gard, France (2014)File:Krumlov13(js).jpg|Bridge in Český Krumlov, Czech Republic (2004)File:Rialto bridge 2011.jpg|Rialto Bridge over the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy (2011)File:Pont de Bercy Paris FRA 001.JPG|Pont de Bercy over the River Seine, Paris, carrying the Paris Métro on its upper deck and a boulevard extension on its lower deck (2006)File:Memorial Bridge sunrise.jpg|Arlington Memorial Bridge over the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. (2007)File:Key Bridge, Washington D.C.jpg|Francis Scott Key Bridge over the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. (2006)File:2007 04 25 - WWB 44.JPG|Woodrow Wilson Memorial Bridge carrying Interstate 95 (I-95) and the Capital Beltway over the Potomac River between Alexandria, Virginia and Oxon Hill, Maryland (2007)File:Pont Arc.JPG|Rainbow Bridge over the Niagara River connecting Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada (2012)File:Tyne Bridge - Newcastle Upon Tyne - England - 2004-08-14.jpg|Tyne Bridge over the River Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK (2004)File:Hell Gate Bridge by Dave Frieder.jpg|Hell Gate Bridge over the East River, New York CityFile:Sydney Harbour Bridge from Circular Quay.jpg|Sydney Harbour Bridge, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (2010)File:Beschädigte Brücke.jpg|Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine River, Remagen, Germany, showing damage before collapse during the Battle of Remagen in World War II (1945)File:Lianxiang bridge.jpg|Lianxiang bridge over the Xiang River, Xiangtan, Hunan Province, China (2007)File:Живописный мост (4543078369).jpg|Zhivopisny Bridge over the Moskva River, Moscow, Russia (2009)File:The Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge.jpg|Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge over the Trinity River in Dallas, Texas (2012)File:BSB Ponte JK Panorama 05 2007 266.jpg|Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge crossing Paranoá Lake, Brasília, Brazil (2007)Image:Millenium.jpg|Gateshead Millennium Bridge over the River Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK (2005)File:Tour Eiffel Wikimedia Commons (cropped).jpg|Eiffel Tower, Paris (2009)Tour Eiffel Nov 2015 inferieur.jpg|Arch supporting the Eiffel Tower, Paris (2015)File:Wembley Stadium closeup.jpg|The second Wembley Stadium in London, built in 2007 (2007)File:San Mames Stadium.JPG|The first San Mamés Stadium, in Bilbao, arch built in 1953, demolished 2013 (2013)File:20110602 London 05.JPG|St Pancras railway station, London (2011)File:St Pancras railway station, 6 March 2010.jpg|Train shed in St Pancras railway station, London (2010)File:Victoria Station - geograph.org.uk - 268162.jpg|Train shed in Victoria Station, London (2006)File:LucerneStation.jpg|Lucerne railway station, Switzerland (2010)File:FS ETR 610 012 Luzern 101216 EC310 1.jpg|Train shed in Lucerne railway station, Switzerland (2016)File:Hauptbahnhof-ffm010.jpg|Central railway station, Frankfurt, Germany (2008)File:Frankfurt am Main - Hauptbahnhof - Neues Dach.jpg|Train shed in Central railway station, Frankfurt, Germany (2005)File:Image-Grand central Station Outside Night 2.jpg|Grand Central Terminal, Manhattan, New York City (2008)File:NYC Grand Central 2.JPG|Arches in Main Concourse, Grand Central Terminal, Manhattan, New York City (2014)File:Union Station Washington DC.jpg|Washington Union Station, Washington, D.C. (2015)File:Union-Sta-interior.jpg|Interior arches in Washington Union Station, Washington, D.C. (2006)File:CHICAGO'S UNION STATION IN THE HEART OF THE CITY. AMTRAK IS RENOVATING MANY OF THE TERMINALS IN AN EFFORT TO UPGRADE... - NARA - 556077.jpg|Chicago Union Station, Chicago, Illinois (1974)File:Chicago (ILL) Union Station, great Hall, 1925.jpg|Arches in Great Hall, Chicago Union Station, Chicago, Illinois (2010)File:Berlin Kongresshalle BW 1.jpg|Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, Germany (2011)File:Roma06(js).jpg|The Colosseum in Rome (2013)File:Rome (29096723).jpg|Arches inside the Colosseum in Rome (2005)File:Amir Chakhmaq left leg arches.jpg|Amir Chakhmaq Complex, Yazd, Iran (2014)File:Bl-burg-innenhof-oben.jpg|Stonework arches seen in a ruined stonework building – Burg Lippspringe, Germany (2005)File:DirkvdM havana casa bolivar.jpg|Arches in the Casa-Museo del Libertador Simón Bolívar in Havana, Cuba (2006)WEB,weblink Casa-Museo Simón Bolívar, Havana Guide, lahabana.com, 2 July 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180702121901weblink">weblink 2 July 2018, yes, dmy-all, File:Kings College Cambridge Great Court Panorama.jpg|Kings College, University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England (2007)File:Kings dining hall.JPG|Arches in dining hall at Kings College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England (2007)File:Detroit Photographic Company (0379).jpg|Memorial Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (circa 1897-1924 photochrom post card)File:Memorial Transept, Memorial Hall, Harvard.jpg|Arches inside transept, Memorial Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2016)File:Annenberg Hall, Memorial Hall, Harvard.jpg|Arches inside Annenberg Hall, Memorial Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2016)File:Healy Hall 08 2009 Georgetown U 6990.JPG|Healy Hall, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. (2009)File:Georgetown University -39.JPG|Arches inside Healy Hall, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. (2010)File:Erasmus Hall High School central tower.jpg|Central Tower, Erasmus Hall High School, Brooklyn, New York City (2013)File:Neuschwanstein001.jpg|Neuschwanstein Castle, Bavaria, Germany (2006)File:Neuschwanstein throne room 00180u.jpg|Arches in throne room of Neuschwanstein Castle, Bavaria, Germany (1886 photochrom print)File:Dawn Charles V Palace Alhambra Granada Andalusia Spain.jpg|The Alhambra, Granada, Andalusia, Spain (2014)File:Alhambra - Patio de Leones - Status 2012.jpg|Arches in the Court of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Andalusia, Spain (2012)File:Alhambra-Patio de los Arrayanes.jpg|External arches in the Court of the Myrtles, Alhambra, Granada, Andalusia, Spain (2009)File:Serallo, Salon de Embajadores 05 (4400455761).jpg|Arches inside the North Gallery, Court of the Myrtles, Alhambra, Granada, Andalusia, Spain (2010)File:Igreja, Mosteiro Alcobaça.jpg|Arches in the nave of the church in monastery of Alcobaça, Portugal (2008)File:Loire Eure Chartres2 tango7174.jpg|North facade of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (2008)File:Chartres - Cathédrale 16.JPG|Arches in choir of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France (2013)File:Westminster-Abbey.JPG|Western facade, Westminster Abbey, City of Westminster, London (2013)File:Westminster Abbey Interior.jpg|Arches in nave of Westminster Abbey, City of Westminster, London (2006)File:WashingtonNationalCathedralHighsmith15393v.jpg|Washington National Cathedral in Washington, D.C. (Between 1990 and 2006)File:Arches.jpg|Arches inside the Washington National Cathedral, Washington, D.C. (2005)File:Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano September 2015-1a.jpg|Main facade of St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, Rome (2015)File:Vatican-StPierre-Intérieur1.jpg|Interior arches in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City (2009)File:Hagia Sophia Mars 2013.jpg|Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey (2013)File:Ayasofya-Innenansicht.jpg|Arches inside the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey (1983)File:Istanbul.Hagia Sophia055.jpg|Arches inside the western upper gallery, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey (2007)File:Insideofmasjedolharam3.JPG|Interior arches in Masjid al-Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia (2008)File:Roof of Masjid al-Haram 02.jpg|Roof of Masjid al-Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia (2008)File:Dome of the Rock - 5274885553.jpg|Dome of the Rock, Old City of Jerusalem (2010)File:Jérusalem - Dôme du Rocher - mosaïque intérieure.jpg|Arches inside Dome of the Rock, Old City of Jerusalem (2014)File:Taj Mahal N-UP-A28-a.jpg|Taj Mahal in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India (2009)Image:B6a agra700.jpg|The Great Gate (Darwaza-i-rauza): Entrance to grounds of Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India (2004)File:Inside the Taj Mahal in Agra, India Wellcome V0046065.jpg|Arches inside the Taj Majal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaFile:Capitol Building 3.jpg|East side of United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. (2005)File:W corr1 us capitol.jpg|Arches in corridor of United States Capitol, Washington, D.C. (2006)File:Library of Congress (1).jpg|Thomas Jefferson Building, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (2008)File:LOC Main Reading Room Highsmith.jpg|Arches in Main Reading Room, Thomas Jefferson Building, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (2009)File:Great Hall, Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C. View of first and second floors, with Minerva mosaic in background. (LOC).jpg|Arches in Great Hall, Thomas Jefferson Building, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. (2007)File:Chrysler building- top.jpg|Art Deco arches on Chrysler Building, Manhattan, New York City (2005)File:Loz-ny-library-3.png|New York Public Library Main Branch, Manhattan, New York City (2016)File:New York Public Library - 02.jpg|Arches inside entrance of New York Public Library Main Branch, Manhattan, New York City (2012)File:Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg|Metropolitan Museum of Art, Manhattan, New York City (2012)File:The Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg|Arches in Great Hall, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Manhattan, New York City (2012)File:DCgallerywest.jpg|Arches in Sculpture Gallery, West Building, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (2007)File:Palace Legion Honor SF.jpg|Legion of Honor, Lincoln Park, San Francisco, California (2006)File:California Palace of the Legion of Honour, architecture.JPG|Arches inside the Legion of Honor, Lincoln Park, San Francisco, California (2010) File:Winter Palace Panorama 4.jpg|Winter Palace, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia (2016)File:Jordan Staircase 8.JPG|Arches near the Jordan Staircase, Winter Palace, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia (2015)File:Ermitage Pavilion Hall 11.jpg|Arches in Pavilion Hall, Small Hermitage, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia (2015)File:Louvre Cour Carrée June 2010.jpg|Cour Carrée, Louvre Palace, Paris (2010)File:Palais du Louvre - Salle du Manège -0a.jpg|Arches in Salle du Manège, Louvre Palace, Paris (2007)File:Château de Versailles (vue du parc, Versailles).JPG|Palace of Versailles, Versailles, Yvelines, France (2012)File:Château de Versailles - Galerie des Batailles.jpg|Arches in Galerie des Batailles, Palace of Versailles, Versailles, Yvelines, France (2013)File:Chateau Versailles Galerie des Glaces.jpg|Arches in Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, Versailles, Yvelines, France (2011)File:London Big Ben - panoramio (2).jpg|Palace of Westminster, City of Westminster, London (2010)File:Westminster Hall 25 May 2011.png|Arches in Westminster Hall, Palace of Westminster, City of Westminster, London (2011)File:Houses of Parliament St. Stephens Hall (Interior) London England.jpg|Arches in St. Stevens Hall, Palace of Westminster, City of Westminster, London (2007)File:Aljafería2.JPG|Aljafería Palace in Zaragoza, Spain (2005)Image:La Aljafería - Oratorio 01.JPG|Horseshoe arch inside Aljafería Palace, Zaragoza, Spain (2004)Image:La Aljafería - Palacio taifa 02.JPG|Multifoil arches inside Aljafería Palace, Zaragoza, Spain (2004)File:Casa Mila interior arches.jpg|Catenary arches inside Casa Milà in Barcelona, Spain by Antoni Gaudí (2010}File:Badi Mahal.jpg|Rajasthani style arches inside the 16th-century City Palace, Udaipur, India (2013)File:Itamaraty.jpg|Main façade of the Itamaraty Palace in Brasília, Brazil, decorated with many arches (2005)File:Smithsonian Building NR.jpg|Smithsonian Institution Building ("The Castle"), Washington, D.C. (2007)File:Ahmetsnn 2.JPG|Arches inside the Smithsonian Institution Building ("The Castle"), Washington, D.C. (2012)File:National law enforcement officers memorial.jpg|National Building Museum (formerly Pension Building), Washington, D.C. (2005)File:National Building Museum - 6.jpg|Arches inside the National Building Museum (formerly Pension Building), Washington, D.C. (2007)File:Old Post Office Building, Washington, D.C.jpg|Main facade of the Old Post Office Building (now the Trump International Hotel) in Washington, D.C. (2012)File:Front entrance of Old Post Office, decorated for Christmas.JPG|Front entrance of the Old Post Office Building in Washington, D.C. (2006)File:Old Post Office (3436194497).jpg|Arches inside Old Post Office Building in Washington, D.C. (2009)File:Bankstownreservoir.jpg|Bankstown Reservoir, Bankstown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia (2018)File:Overview of Arches.jpg|Arches in Merzouga, Morocco (2011)File:Rom, Calixtus-Katakomben, Krypta der Päpste.jpg|Crypt of the Popes in the Catacomb of Callixtus, Rome (2007)File:Eastern Han tomb, Luoyang 3.jpg|Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb chamber, Luoyang (2008)File:Tomb of George Washington - Mount Vernon.jpg|Entrance to Washington family tomb at Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, Virginia (2014)File:Natural Bridge, Rockbridge County, VA.jpg|Natural Bridge in Rockbridge County, Virginia (2014)File:LandscapeArchPano.jpg|Landscape Arch, Arches National Park, Utah (2009)File:Double-O-Arch Arches National Park 2.jpg|Double O Arch, Arches National Park, Utah (2007)File:Rainbow Bridge Natural Arch Utah USA.jpg|Rainbow Bridge, Rainbow Bridge National Monument, Utah (2012)File:Aloba T15b 5831b Stefan Kroepelin.JPG|Aloba Arch, Ennedi-Est Region, Chad (2015)File:Gray290.png|Medial longitudinal arch of the human foot (Gray's Anatomy)

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • {{Citation


| last = Boyd
| first = Thomas D.
| title = The Arch and the Vault in Greek Architecture
| journal = American Journal of Archaeology
| volume = 82
| issue = 1
| year = 1978
| pages = 83–100 (91)
| doi = 10.2307/503797
}}
  • {{Citation


| last = Galliazzo
| first = Vittorio
| title = I ponti romani
| volume = Vol. 1
| year = 1995
| publisher = Edizioni Canova
| location = Treviso
| isbn = 88-85066-66-6
}}
  • {hide}Citation


| last = O'Connor
| first = Colin
| title = Roman Bridges
| publisher = Cambridge University Press
| year = 1993
| isbn = 0-521-39326-4
{edih}
  • {{Citation


| last = Rasch
| first = Jürgen
| year = 1985
| title = Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur. Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion
| periodical = Architectura
| volume = 15
| pages = 117–139
}}
  • BOOK, Roth, Leland M, Understanding Architecture: Its Elements History and Meaning, Oxford, UK, Westview Press, 1993, 0-06-430158-3, pp. 27–8

External links

{{Commons|Arch}}{{Commons category|Arches}} {{Room}}{{Authority control}}

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