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{{Other uses}}{{See also|List of people claimed to be Jesus}}{{Pp-move-indef}}File:Deedsoftheantichrist2580-detail.jpg|thumb|Luca Signorelli's 1501 depiction of the antichrist, from the Orvieto CathedralOrvieto Cathedral(File:Hortus Deliciarum - Antichrist.jpg|thumb|Antichrist (figure on the left, with the attributes of a king) by Herrad von Landsberg (about 1180), Hortus Deliciarum – 12th century)File:Antichrist-from-Osogovo-Monastery.jpg|thumb|Antichrist{{spaced ndash}}detail from a fresco at Osogovo Monastery in the Republic of North MacedoniaRepublic of North MacedoniaIn Christian eschatology, the Antichrist or anti-Christ is someone recognized as fulfilling the Biblical prophecies about one who will oppose Christ and substitute himself in Christ's place before the Second Coming.The term (including one plural form)WEB, KJV Search Results for Antichrists, The Blue Letter Bible,weblink 2014-02-13, is found five times in the New Testament, solely in the First and Second Epistle of translations of 1 John 2:18 The Antichrist is announced as the one "who denies the Father and the Son."WEB, 1 John 2:22, The Blue Letter Bible,weblink 2018-12-17, The similar term pseudokhristos or "false Christs" is found in the Gospels. In Matthew (chapter 24) and Mark (chapter 13), Jesus alerts his disciples not to be deceived by the false prophets, which will claim themselves as being Christ, performing "great signs and wonders".Matthew 24:3-5, 24 (KJV) Two other images often associated with the Antichrist are the "little horn" in Daniel's final vision and the "man of sin" in Paul the Apostle's Second Epistle to the Thessalonians.WEB, Chrysostom, John A. Broadus, John, Homily 4 on Second Thessalonians,weblink From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, First Series, Vol. 13. Edited by Philip Schaff. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1889.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.In Islamic eschatology, Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (المسيح الدجال) is an anti-messiah figure (similar to the Christian concept of an antichrist) who will appear to deceive humanity before the second coming of "Isa", as Jesus is known by Muslims.The concept of an antichrist is absent in traditional Judaism, although in some medieval texts the symbolic figure Armilus appears.


'Antichrist' is translated from the combination of two ancient Greek words (anti + Christos). In Greek, means "anointed one" and the word Christ derives from it.See Strong's Bible Dictionary:χριστος {{Webarchive|url= |date=2012-07-11 }} "" means not only anti in the sense of "against" and "opposite of", but also "in place of".See Strong's Bible Dictionary: αντί {{Webarchive|url= |date=2012-07-16 }}See the Lexicon to Pindar. Related terms as noted by the Catholic Encyclopedia include: antibasileus - a king who fills an interregnum; antistrategos - a propraetor; anthoupatos - a proconsul; antitheos - in Homer, one resembling a god in power and beauty (in other works it stands for a hostile god). Therefore, an antichrist opposes Christ by substituting himself for Christ.


{{Christian Eschatology}}

New Testament

Whether the New Testament contains an individual Antichrist is disputed. The Greek term antikhristos originates in 1 John.BOOK, William, Horbury, William Horbury, Messianism Among Jews and Christians: Biblical and Historical Studies, A&C Black, London, England, 2003, 978-0567088086, 333, Against this background it can be seen that the technical Greek term antichristos, although it is known only from Christian … Antichristos first occurs in the Johannine epistles, and it is not used by other Greek Jewish or early Christian writings ..., The similar term pseudokhristos ("False Messiah") is also first found in the New Testament, but never used by Josephus in his accounts of various false messiahs.BOOK, Ulrich, Mauser, The Gospel of Peace: A Scriptural Message for Today's World, 1992, 70, From Josephus's writings we collect, first of all, without much critical comment, some statements showing the close affinity of the … nowhere in his extensive accounts of the Jewish–Roman war uses the word "pseudo-Christ" (pseudochristos)., The concept of an antikhristos is not found in Jewish writings in the period 500 BC–50 AD. However, Bernard McGinn conjectures that the concept may have been generated by the frustration of Jews subject to often-capricious Seleucid or Roman rule, who found the nebulous Jewish idea of a Satan who is more of an opposing angel of God in the heavenly court insufficiently humanised and personalised to be a satisfactory incarnation of evil and threat.{{sfn|Cabinet|2001}}{{unreliable source?|date=August 2018}}The five uses of the term "antichrist" or "antichrists" in the Johannine epistles do not clearly present a single latter-day individual Antichrist. The articles "the deceiver" or "the antichrist" are usually seen as marking out a certain category of persons, rather than an individual.BOOK, Robert, Yarbrough, 1-3 John, Baker Publishing Group, Baker Academic, Ada, Michigan, 9780801026874, 344, 2008, The articles in front of "deceiver" (ὁ πλάνος, ho planos) and "antichrist" (ὁ ἀντίχριστος, ho antikhristos) should be seen as marking out a certain category of persons (Wallace 1996: 227–30). This is a common Johannine usage (1 John 2:23), Consequently, attention for an individual Antichrist figure focuses on the second chapter of 2 Thessalonians.BOOK, Jeffrey Alan David, Weima, Jeffrey A. D. Weima, Stanley E., Porter, Stanley E. Porter, Annotated Bibliography of 1 & 2 Thessalonians, Brill Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands, 263, 1998, (2) Does the New Testament support the notion of an individual Antichrist in whom all the anti-Christian strife of all ages will be concentrated? 2 Thess 2 answers the second question in the affirmative: an individual Antichrist will bring evil to its ..., BOOK, Anthony A., Hoekma, Anthony A. Hoekema, The Bible and the Future, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 159, 1979, 978-0802808516, Whereas Berkouwer states, "There is no reason to posit with certainty on the basis of the New Testament that the antichrist ... 2. particularly his statements about the "restrainer," compel us to believe that there will be a future, individual antichrist., However, the term "antichrist" is never used in this passage:Although the word "antichrist" (Greek antikhristos) is used only in the Epistles of John, the similar word "pseudochrist" (Greek pseudokhristos, meaning "false messiah") is used by Jesus in the Gospels:

Early Church

{{See also|Early Christianity}}The only one of the late 1st/early 2nd century Apostolic Fathers to use the term is Polycarp (c. 69 – c. 155) who warned the Philippians that everyone who preached false doctrine was an antichrist.s:Polycarp's letter to the Philippians (Lightfoot translation)|Polycap's Letter to the Philippians]], paragraph 7 His use of the term Antichrist follows that of the New Testament in not identifying a single personal Antichrist, but a class of people.BOOK, Paul, Trebilco, The Early Christians In Ephesus From Paul To Ignatius, William B. Eerdmans Publishing, Leiden, Netherlands, 268, 2004, 978-0802807694, Finally, Hartog notes that the Johannine Letters are the only NT writings to use the term "antichrist" (1 Jn 2:18, 22; 4:3; 2 Jn 7) and Polycarp is also the only Apostolic Father to use the term. He notes "Thus, the tests of 'density' and 'singularity' ..., Irenaeus (2nd century AD – c. 202) wrote Against Heresies to refute the teachings of the Gnostics. In Book V of Against Heresies he addresses the figure of the Antichrist referring to him as the "recapitulation of apostasy and rebellion." He uses "666", the Number of the Beast from Revelation 13:18, to numerologically decode several possible names. Some names that he loosely proposed were "Evanthos", "Lateinos" ("Latin" or pertaining to the Roman Empire). In his exegesis of Daniel 7:21, he stated that the ten horns of the beast will be the Roman empire divided into ten kingdoms before the Antichrist's arrival. However, his readings of the Antichrist were more in broader theological terms rather than within a historical context.BOOK, Hughes, Kevin L., Constructing antichrist : Paul, biblical commentary, and the development of doctrine in the early Middle Ages, 2005, Catholic University of America Press, Washington, D.C., 9780813214153,weblink 29–31, The non-canonical Ascension of Isaiah presents a detailed exposition of the Antichrist as Belial and Nero.BOOK, Geoffrey W., Bromiley, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 140, 1979, 978-0802837813, The fullest exposition of the ideas associated with the antichrist in the early decades of Christian history is to be found in the Ascension of Isaiah. In this we are told that "Beliar" (Belial) would enter into "the matricide king" (Nero), who would work great wonders and do much evil., Tertullian (c. 160 – c. 220 AD) held that the Roman Empire was the restraining force written about by Paul in 2 Thessalonians 2:7–8. The fall of the Western Roman Empire and the disintegration of the ten provinces of the Roman Empire into ten kingdoms were to make way for the Antichrist.}}Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170 – c. 236) held that the Antichrist would come from the tribe of Dan and would rebuild the Jewish temple on the Temple Mount in order to reign from it. He identified the Antichrist with the Beast out of the Earth from the book of Revelation.Origen (185–254) refuted Celsus' view of the Antichrist. Origen utilized Scriptural citations from Daniel, Paul, and the Gospels. He argued:}}

Post-Nicene Christianity

{{See also|First seven Ecumenical Councils}}Cyril of Jerusalem, in the mid-4th century, delivered his 15th Catechetical lecture about the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, in which he also lectures about the Antichrist, who will reign as the ruler of the world for three and a half years, before he is killed by Jesus Christ right at the end of his three-and-a-half-year reign, shortly after which the Second Coming of Jesus Christ will happen.Athanasius of Alexandria (c. 298–373) wrote that Arius of Alexandria is to be associated with the Antichrist, saying, "And ever since [the Council of Nicaea] has Arius's error been reckoned for a heresy more than ordinary, being known as Christ's foe, and harbinger of Antichrist."from Athanasius' "Four Discourses"John Chrysostom (c. 347–407) warned against speculating about the Antichrist, saying, "Let us not therefore enquire into these things". He preached that by knowing Paul's description of the Antichrist in 2 Thessalonians, Christians would avoid deception.Chrysostom s:Nicene and Post-Nicene FathJerome (c. 347–420) warned that those substituting false interpretations for the actual meaning of Scripture belonged to the "synagogue of the Antichrist".{{harvnb|Jerome|1893b|p=334}} "He that is not of Christ is of Antichrist", he wrote to Pope Damasus I.{{harvnb|Jerome|1893|p=19}} He believed that "the mystery of lawlessness" written about by Paul in 2 Thessalonians 2:7 was already in action when "every one chatters about his views."{{harvnb|Jerome|1893c|p=449}} To Jerome, the power restraining this mystery of lawlessness was the Roman Empire, but as it fell this restraining force was removed. He warned a noble woman of Gaul:}}In his Commentary on Daniel, Jerome noted, "Let us not follow the opinion of some commentators and suppose him to be either the Devil or some demon, but rather, one of the human race, in whom Satan will wholly take up his residence in bodily form." Instead of rebuilding the Jewish Temple to reign from, Jerome thought the Antichrist sat in God's Temple inasmuch as he made "himself out to be like God." He refuted Porphyry's idea that the "little horn" mentioned in Daniel chapter 7 was Antiochus IV Epiphanes by noting that the "little horn" is defeated by an eternal, universal ruler, right before the final judgment.{{harvnb|Jerome|1958|pp=}} Instead, he advocated that the "little horn" was the Antichrist:Circa 380, an apocalyptic pseudo-prophecy falsely attributed to the Tiburtine Sibyl describes Constantine as victorious over Gog and Magog. Later on, it predicts:}}Augustine of Hippo (354–430) wrote "it is uncertain in what temple [the Antichrist] shall sit, whether in that ruin of the temple which was built by Solomon, or in the Church."WEB,weblink CHURCH FATHERS: City of God, Book XX (St. Augustine), Pope Gregory I wrote to the Byzantine Emperor Maurice in A.D. 597, concerning the titles of bishops, "I say with confidence that whoever calls or desires to call himself 'universal priest' in self-exaltation of himself is a precursor of the Antichrist."quote from McGinn, Bernard, Visions of the End. Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages, New York: ColumbiaUniversity, 1979. p. 64,.found in Brug's A Scriptural and Historical Survey of the Doctrine of the Antichrist {{webarchive |url= |date=November 30, 2010 }}By the end of the tenth century, Adso of Montier-en-Der, a Benedictine monk, compiled a biography of Antichrist based on a variety of exegetical and Sibylline sources; his account became one of the best-known descriptions of Antichrist in the Middle Ages.BOOK, Richard Kenneth, Emmerson, Antichrist in the Middle Ages, U of Washington P, Seattle, 1981, The Life and Deeds of Antichrist, 74–107, JOURNAL, Antichrist as Anti-Saint: The Significance of Abbot Adso's Libellus de Antichristo, Richard Kenneth, Emerson, American Benedictine Review, 175–90, 1979, 30, 2,

Pre-Reformation Western Church accusers

File:AntichristSOF.jpg|thumb|WoodcutWoodcutArnulf, archbishop of Reims disagreed with the policies and morals of Pope John XV. He expressed his views while presiding over the Council of Reims in A.D. 991. Arnulf accused John XV of being the Antichrist while also using the 2 Thessalonians passage about the "man of lawlessness" (or "lawless one"), saying: "Surely, if he is empty of charity and filled with vain knowledge and lifted up, he is Antichrist sitting in God's temple and showing himself as God." This incident is history's earliest record of anyone identifying a pope with the Antichrist (see Christian Historicism).BOOK, Bernard, McGinn, Anti-Christ: Two Thousand Years of the Human Fascination With Evil, Columbia University Press, New York City, 2000, 978-0231119771, 100, {{harvnb|Schaff|Schley Schaff|1885|p=291}}Pope Gregory VII (c. 1015 or 1029 – 1085), struggled against, in his own words, "a robber of temples, a perjurer against the Holy Roman Church, notorious throughout the whole Roman world for the basest of crimes, namely, Wilbert, plunderer of the holy church of Ravenna, Antichrist, and arch-heretic."BOOK, The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII, Ephraim, Emerton, Ephraim Emerton, Columbia University Press, New York City, 1990, 978-0231096270, 162, Cardinal Benno, on the opposite side of the Investiture Controversy, wrote long descriptions of abuses committed by Gregory VII, including necromancy, torture of a former friend upon a bed of nails, commissioning an attempted assassination, executions without trials, unjust excommunication, doubting the Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and even burning it.From long quotations in {{harvnb|Foxe|1583|p=121}} Benno held that Gregory VII was "either a member of Antichrist, or Antichrist himself."JOURNAL, David M., Whitford,weblink The Papal Antichrist: Martin Luther and the Underappreciated Influence of Lorenzo Valla, Renaissance Quarterly, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 61, 26–52, Spring 2008, Eberhard II von Truchsees, Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg in 1241, denounced Pope Gregory IX at the Council of Regensburg as "that man of perdition, whom they call Antichrist, who in his extravagant boasting says, I am God, I cannot err."JOURNAL, Editorial Departments,weblink The Methodist Review, J. Soule and T. Mason, New York City, XLIII, 3, 305, He argued that the ten kingdoms that the Antichrist is involved with{{bibleverse-nb||Daniel|7:23-25|31}}{{bibleverse-nb||Revelation|13:1-2|31}}{{bibleverse-nb||Revelation|17:3-18|31}} were the "Turks, Greeks, Egyptians, Africans, Spaniards, French, English, Germans, Sicilians, and Italians who now occupy the provinces of Rome."ENCYCLOPEDIA, John Mee, Fuller, Antichrist,weblink A Dictionary of the Bible, John Murray (publisher), John Murray, London, England, 1893, 147, He held that the papacy was the "little horn" of Daniel 7:8:{{bibleverse-nb||Daniel|7:8|31}}

Protestant Reformation

{{See also|Anti-Catholicism|Great Apostasy|History of Protestantism}}File:The Papal Belvedere.jpg|thumb|right|From a series of woodcuts (1545) usually referred to as the Papstspotbilder or Papstspottbilder in German or Depictions of the Papacy in English,BOOK,weblink The Impact of the Reformation: Essays, Heiko Augustinus, Oberman, 1 January 1994, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, Google Books, 9780802807328, by Lucas Cranach, commissioned by Martin Luther.Luther's Last Battles: Politics And Polemics 1531-46 By Mark U. Edwards, Jr. Fortress Press, 2004. {{ISBN|978-0-8006-3735-4}} Title: Kissing the Pope's Feet.In Latin, the title reads "Hic oscula pedibus papae figuntur" German peasants respond to a papal bull of (Pope Paul III]]. Caption reads: "Don't frighten us Pope, with your ban, and don't be such a furious man. Otherwise we shall turn around and show you our rears.""Nicht Bapst: nicht schreck uns mit deim ban, Und sey nicht so zorniger man. Wir thun sonst ein gegen wehre, Und zeigen dirs Bel vedere"Mark U. Edwards, Jr., Luther's Last Battles: Politics And Polemics 1531-46 (2004), p. 199)File:Antichrist1.jpg|thumb|right|Passional Christi und Antichristi, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, from Luther's 1521 Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist.Passional Christi und Antichristi Full view on Google Books The Pope as the Antichrist, signing and selling indulgenceindulgenceProtestant Reformers, including John Wycliffe, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, Roger Williams, Cotton Mather, and John Wesley, as well as most Protestants of the 16th-18th centuries, felt that the Early Church had been led into the Great Apostasy by the Papacy and identified the Pope with the Antichrist.BOOK, Johnstone, Nathan, June 2009, The Devil and Demonism in Early Modern England, The synagogue of Satan: anti-Catholicism, false doctrine and the construction of contrariety, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 27–59, 10.1017/CBO9780511495847.002, 9780511495847, BOOK, Joseph A. Burgess, Jeffrey Gros, Building Unity,weblink Paulist Press, 1989, New York City, New York, 140, 0-8091-3040-8, Luther declared that not just a pope from time to time was Antichrist, but the Papacy was Antichrist because they were "the representatives of an institution opposed to Christ".Roland H. Bainton, The Reformation of the SixteenthCentury (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1952), 43, 44. The Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume Magdeburg Centuries to discredit the Catholic Church and lead other Christians to recognize the Pope as the Antichrist. So, rather than expecting a single Antichrist to rule the earth during a future Tribulation period, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other Protestant Reformers saw the Antichrist as a present feature in the world of their time, fulfilled in the Papacy.{{Sfn |Froom|1948| pp= 244–45 | ps =: "The reformers were unanimous in its acceptance. And it was this interpretation of prophecy that lent emphasis to their reformatory action. It led them to protest against Rome with extraordinary strength and undaunted courage. [...] This was the rallying point and the battle cry that made the Reformation unconquerable."}}Among the others who interpreted the Biblical prophecy historistically there were many Church Fathers; Justin Martyr wrote about the Antichrist: "He Whom Daniel foretells would have dominion for a time and times and an half, is even now at the door".Dialogue with Trypho, ch. 32, in Ante-Nic. Fath. I:210. Irenaeus wrote in Against Heresies about the coming of the Antichrist: "This Antichrist shall ... devastate all things ... But then, the Lord will come from Heaven on the clouds ... for the righteous".Against Heresies, III: 7:2, in Ante-Nic. Fath. Ib., V:30:3-4. Tertullian looking to the Antichrist wrote: "He is to sit in the temple of God, and boast himself as being god. In our view, he is Antichrist as taught us in both the ancient and the new prophecies; and especially by the Apostle John, who says that 'already many false-prophets are gone out into the world' as the fore-runners of Antichrist".Against Marcion, V:16, in Ante-Nic. Fath. III:463f. Hippolytus of Rome in his Treatise on Christ and Antichrist wrote: "As Daniel also says (in the words) 'I considered the Beast, and look! There were ten horns behind it – among which shall rise another (horn), an offshoot, and shall pluck up by the roots the three (that were) before it.' And under this, was signified none other than Antichrist."Treatise on Christ and Antichrist, chs. 25 to 63, in Ante-Nic. Fath. V:209-18.Fragments from Commentaries, 2:1-3, in Ante-Nic. Fath. V:178. Athanasius of Alexandria clearly hold to the historical view in his many writings; in The Deposition of Arius, he wrote: "I addressed the letter to Arius and his fellows, exhorting them to renounce his impiety.... There have gone forth in this diocese at this time certain lawless men – enemies of Christ – teaching an apostasy which one may justly suspect and designate as a forerunner of Antichrist".The Deposition of Arius, paras. 2 & 4, in Nic. & Post-Nic. Fath., 2nd Ser., IV:69. Jerome wrote: "Says the apostle [Paul in the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians], 'Unless the Roman Empire should first be desolated, and antichrist proceed, Christ will not come.'"BOOK, D. Standish, Colin, R. Standish, Russell, The Antichrist is here, Hartland Publications, 0-923309-22-5, 32, November 1988, He also identifies the Little horn of {{Bibleverse||Daniel|7:8|ESV}} and {{Bibleverse-nb||Daniel|7:24–25|ESV}} which "He shall speak as if he were God."BOOK, Adam, Clarke, Commentary on the Old Testament, 4, World Publishing, Rapidan, Virginia, 1997, 978-0529106346, 596, Some Franciscans had considered the Emperor Frederick II a positive Antichrist who would purify the Catholic Church from opulence, riches and clergy.BOOK, Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches: The Riddles of Culture, Marvin, Harris, Marvin Harris, Vintage Books, New York City, 978-0679724681, 196, Historicist interpretations of Book of Revelation usually included the identification of one or more of the following: The Protestant Reformers tended to hold the belief that the Antichrist power would be revealed so that everyone would comprehend and recognize that the Pope is the real, true Antichrist and not the vicar of Christ. Doctrinal works of literature published by the Lutherans, the Reformed Churches, the Presbyterians, the Baptists, the Anabaptists, and the Methodists contain references to the Pope as the Antichrist, including the Smalcald Articles, Article 4 (1537),WEB,weblink Smalcald Articles - Book of Concord, the Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope written by Philip Melanchthon (1537),Philip Melanchthon, Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope (full text) in the Triglot translation of the Book of Concord. the Westminster Confession, Article 25.6 (1646), and the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith, Article 26.4. In 1754, John Wesley published his Explanatory Notes Upon the New Testament, which is currently an official Doctrinal Standard of the United Methodist Church. In his notes on the Book of Revelation (chapter 13), he commented: "The whole succession of Popes from Gregory VII are undoubtedly Antichrists. Yet this hinders not, but that the last Pope in this succession will be more eminently the Antichrist, the Man of Sin, adding to that of his predecessors a peculiar degree of wickedness from the bottomless pit."weblink" title="">Archived copy at the Library of Congress (May 8, 2009).WEB,weblink : the official online ministry of The United Methodist Church, The identification of the Pope with the Antichrist was so ingrained in the Reformation Era, that Luther himself stated it repeatedly:
John Calvin similarly wrote:John Knox wrote on the Pope:Thomas Cranmer on the Antichrist wrote:John Wesley, speaking of the identity given in the Bible of the Antichrist, wrote:Roger Williams wrote about the Pope:The identification of the Roman Catholic Church as the apostate power written of in the Bible as the Antichrist became evident to many as the Reformation began, including John Wycliffe, who was well-known throughout Europe for his opposition to the doctrine and practices of the Catholic Church, which he believed had clearly deviated from the original teachings of the early Church and to be contrary to the Bible. Wycliffe himself tells (Sermones, III. 199) how he concluded that there was a great contrast between what the Church was and what it ought to be, and saw the necessity for reform. Along with John Hus, they had started the inclination toward ecclesiastical reforms of the Catholic Church.When the Swiss Reformer Huldrych Zwingli became the pastor of the Grossmünster in Zurich (1518) he began to preach ideas on reforming the Catholic Church. Zwingli, who was a Catholic priest before he became a Reformer, often referred to the Pope as the Antichrist. He wrote: "I know that in it works the might and power of the Devil, that is, of the Antichrist".Principle Works of Zwingli, Vol. 7, p. 135.The English Reformer William Tyndale held that while the Roman Catholic realms of that age were the empire of Antichrist, any religious organization that distorted the doctrine of the Old and New Testaments also showed the work of Antichrist. In his treatise The Parable of the Wicked Mammon, he expressly rejected the established Church teaching that looked to the future for an Antichrist to rise up, and he taught that Antichrist is a present spiritual force that will be with us until the end of the age under different religious disguises from time to time.Tyndale, William, Parable of the Wicked Mammon, c. 1526, (facsimile copy of later printing, no ISBN number, Benediction Classics, 2008) at pages 4-5. Tyndale's translation of 2 Thessalonians, chapter 2, concerning the "Man of Lawlessness" reflected his understanding, but was significantly amended by later revisers,"Tyndale's Doctrine of Antichrist and His Translation of 2 Thessalonians 2", R. Davis, New Matthew Bible Project; a shorter version of this article was also published in the Tyndale Society Journal No. 36, Spring 2009, under the title Tyndale, the Church, and the Doctrine of Antichrist). including the King James Bible committee, which followed the Vulgate more closely.In 1973, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Committee on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs and the USA National Committee of the Lutheran World Federation in the official Catholic–Lutheran dialogue officially signed an agreement on Papal Primacy and the Universal Church, including this passage:In 1988 Ian Paisley, Evangelical minister and founder of the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, made headlines in an infamous manner by accusing Pope John Paul II as the Antichrist during one of the pope's speeches before the European Parliament, which at the time Paisley was member of. His accusation, and the reaction of both Pope John Paul II and his fellow members of the European Parliament were all recorded on video,WEB,weblink Papal Audience, 16 October 1988, The New York Times, and a clip of this incident on YouTube has 189,648 views as of December 2018.Ian Paisley Heckles the Pope (1988)The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod states about the Pope and the Catholic Church:}}Currently, many Protestant and Restorationist denominations still officially maintain that the Papacy is the Antichrist, such as the conservative Lutheran ChurchesWEB,weblink Doctrinal Statements: Antichrist, 2018, Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 17 August 2018, We reject the idea that the teaching that the Papacy is the Antichrist rests on a merely human interpretation of history or is an open question. We hold rather that this teaching rests on the revelation of God in Scripture which finds its fulfillment in history. The Holy Spirit reveals this fulfillment to the eyes of faith (cf. The Abiding Word, Vol. 2, p. 764). Since Scripture teaches that the Antichrist would be revealed and gives the marks by which the Antichrist is to be recognized ({{Bibleverse, 2 Thessalonians, 2:6-8, ESV, ), and since this prophecy has been clearly fulfilled in the history and development of the Roman Papacy, it is the Scripture which reveals that the Papacy is the Antichrist.}}Nolting, Paul F., The Antichrist (part 1) {{Webarchive|url= |date=2013-05-22 }}A Brief Statement of our Doctrinal Position, 1932 and the Seventh-day Adventists.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = 666 Truth}}.{{Citation | date = 6 July 2002 | first = Samuele | last = Bacchiocchi | place = Berrien Springs, MI | url =weblink | title = Islam and The Papacy in Prophecy | journal = Endtime Issues | number = 86 | publisher = Biblical perspectives | access-date = 16 August 2018 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 22 August 2013 | url-status = dead }}.{{Citation | title = September 11 and God's Mysterious Mercy | journal = End Time Issues | number = 90 | date = 17 October 2002 | first1 = Jon | last1 = Paulien | last2 = Bacchiocchi | first2 = Samuele | place = Berrien Springs, MI | publisher = Biblical perspectives | url =weblink}}.{{Citation | contribution = Reformed | title = Eschatology | url =weblink | publisher = Mountain Retreat}}.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Antichrist Today | journal = Present Truth | volume = XVII | number = 2}}.

Counter Reformation

In the Counter-Reformation, the views of Preterism and Futurism were advanced by Catholic Jesuits beginning in the 16th century in response to the identification of the Papacy as Antichrist. These were rival methods of prophetic interpretation: the futurist and the preterist systems both are in conflict with the historicist method of interpretation.Historically, preterists and non-preterists have agreed that the Jesuit Luis de Alcasar (1554–1613) wrote the first systematic preterist exposition of prophecy—Vestigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsi (published in 1614)—during the Counter-Reformation.

Christian views

Eastern Orthodox

In a Christmas 2018 interview on Russian state television, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow warned that "The Antichrist is the person that will be at the head of the world wide web controlling all of humanity. That means that the structure itself poses a danger. There shouldn't be a single centre, at least not in the foreseeable future, if we don't want to bring on the apocalypse." He exhorted listeners not to "fall into slavery to what's in your hands"..."You should remain free inside and not fall under any addiction, not to alcohol, not to narcotics, not to gadgets."WEB,weblink Smartphones are paving way for the Antichrist, says head of Russian church, The Telegraph,

Roman Catholicism

Officially, the church teaches that priests may not "preach or declare a fixed time for...the coming of antichrist..."PapalEncyclicals: Lateran Council V, Session 11 They are in no way to presume to preach or declare a fixed time for future evils, the coming of antichrist or the precise day of judgment; for Truth says, it is not for us to know times or seasons which the Father has fixed by his own authority. Let it be known that those who have hitherto dared to declare such things are liars, and that because of them not a little authority has been taken away from those who preach the truth . The church also teaches that it must undergo trials before the Second Coming,Catechism of the Catholic Church 769 and that the church's ultimate trial will be the mystery of iniquity.Catechism of the Catholic Church 675 In Judaism, iniquity is a sin done out of moral failing.Jewish Encyclopedia: Sin The mystery of iniquity, according to the church, will be a religious deception: Christians receiving alleged solutions to their problems at the cost of apostasy.Catechism of the Catholic Church 675 The supreme religious deception, according to the church, will be the Antichrist's messianism: mankind glorifying himself rather than God and Jesus.Catechism of the Catholic Church 675 The church teaches that this supreme deception is committed by people who claim to fulfill Israel's messianic hopes, such as millenarianism and secular messianicism.Catechism of the Catholic Church 675


Pope Pius IX in the encyclical Quartus Supra, quoting Cyprian, said Satan disguises the Antichrist with the title of Christ.Papal Encyclicals: Quartus Supra, 2 Pope Pius X in the encyclical E Supremi said that the distinguishing mark of the Antichrist is claiming to be God and taking his place.Vatican.Va: Pius X encyclical Supremi, 5 Pope John Paul II, in his August 18, 1985 address on his apostolic journey to Africa, said 1 John 4:3 ("Every spirit which does not confess Jesus is not of God. This is the spirit of antichrist") evokes the danger of theology divorced from holiness and theological culture divorced from serving Christ.Vatican.Va: John Paul II, August 18, 1985 Address Pope Benedict XVI said in the Sunday Angelus of March 11, 2012 that violence is the tool of the Antichrist.Vatican.Va: Benedict XVI, Angelus 11 March 2012 In the General Audience of Nov 12, 2008, Benedict XVI said Christian tradition had come to identify the son of perdition as the Antichrist.Vatican.Va: Benedict XVI, General Audience of March 11, 2012 Pope Francis, in his morning meditation of February 2, 2014, said that Christian faith is not an ideology, but that "the Apostle James says that ideologues of the faith are the Antichrist."Vatican.Va: Francis' morning meditation, 2-2-14 In his morning meditation of September 19, 2014, Francis said the Antichrist must come before the final resurrection.Vatican.Va: Francis' morning meditation, 9-19-14 In his morning meditation of January 7, 2016, he said the evil spirit spoken of in 1 John 4:6 is the Antichrist.Vatican.Va: Pope Francis Morning Meditation 1-7-16 In his morning meditation on November 11, 2016, Francis said whoever says the criteria of Christian love is not the Incarnation is the Antichrist.Vatican.Va: Francis, Letter of Love (11 November 2016)


The Prophecy of the Popes claims Rome will be destroyed during the pontificate of the last Pope, implying a connection to the Antichrist. Fulton J. Sheen, a Roman Catholic bishop, wrote in 1951:BOOK, Sheen, Fulton J., Communism and the Conscience of the West,weblink 24 October 2015, 1951, Country Life Press, 17, NEWS, Joseph, Pronechen, Fulton Sheen’s Clear Warning About the Anti-Christ,weblink National Catholic Register, EWTN, Irondale, Alabama, February 10, 2019, October 7, 2019, {{quotation|The Antichrist will not be so called; otherwise he would have no followers... he will come disguised as the Great Humanitarian; he will talk peace, prosperity and plenty not as means to lead us to God, but as ends in themselves... He will tempt Christians with the same three temptations with which he tempted Christ... He will have one great secret which he will tell to no one: he will not believe in God. Because his religion will be brotherhood without the fatherhood of God, he will deceive even the elect. He will set up a counterchurch... It will have all the notes and characteristics of the Church, but in reverse and emptied of its divine content. It will be a mystical body of the Antichrist that will in all externals resemble the mystical body of Christ.}}

Old Believers

After Patriarch Nikon of Moscow reformed the Russian Orthodox Church during the second half of the 17th century, a large number of Old Believers held that Peter the Great, the Tsar of the Russian Empire until his death in 1725, was the Antichrist because of his treatment of the Orthodox Church, namely subordinating the church to the state, requiring clergymen to conform to the standards of all Russian civilians (shaved beards, being fluent in French), and requiring them to pay state taxes.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Peter I, czar of Russia, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Columbia University, New York City, 1935,weblink" title="">weblink 12 February 2008, live,

Age of Enlightenment

Bernard McGinn noted that complete denial of the Antichrist was rare until the Age of Enlightenment. Following frequent use of "Antichrist" laden rhetoric during religious controversies in the 17th century, the use of the concept declined during the 18th century due to the rule of enlightened absolutists, who as European rulers of the time wielded significant influence over official state churches. These efforts{{explain|date=June 2018|reason= why?}} to cleanse Christianity of "legendary" or "folk" accretions effectively removed the Antichrist from discussion in mainstream Western churches.{{sfn|Cabinet|2001}}


In Mormonism, the "Antichrist" is anyone or anything that counterfeits the true gospel or plan of salvation and that openly or secretly is set up in opposition to Christ. The great antichrist is Lucifer, but he has many assistantsKorihor is directly referred to in The Book of Mormon as an anti-Christ (Alma 30:6) both as spirit beings and as mortals."WEB, LDS, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Bible Dictionary: Antichrist,weblink Intellectual Reserve, Inc, Latter-day Saints use the New Testament scriptures, 1 John 2:18, 22; 1 John 4:3–6; 2 John 1:7 and the Book of Mormon, Jacob 7:1–23, Alma 1:2–16, Alma 30:6–60, in their exegesis or interpretation of the Antichrist.

Seventh-day Adventists

Seventh-day Adventists teach that the "Little Horn Power", which (as predicted in the Book of Daniel) rose after the break-up of the Roman Empire, is the Papacy. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century. In 533, Justinian I, the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (which historians have labelled the Byzantine Empire), legally recognized the bishop (pope) of Rome as the head of all the Christian churches.BOOK, Levillain, Philippe, The Papacy: An Encyclopedia,weblink 2, Psychology Press, 2002, 832, 9780415922302, 2015-07-17, [Pope John II] received from Justinian a letter dated 6 June 533 [...]. In his letter, Justinian proclaimed that the Holy See is the leader of all the holy churches and confirmed the need for all churches to join together with Rome [...]., Because of the Arian domination of some of the Roman Empire by barbarian tribes, the bishop of Rome could not fully exercise such authority. In 538, Belisarius, one of Justinian's generals, succeeded in withstanding a siege of the city of Rome by Arian Ostrogoth besiegers, and the bishop of Rome could begin establishing universal civil authority. So, by the military intervention of the Eastern Roman Empire, the bishop of Rome became all-powerful throughout the area of the old Roman Empireweblink The Ostrogoths promptly re-captured the city of Rome eight years later in 546, and again in 550.Seventh-day Adventists understand the 1260 days as lasting AD 538 to 1798 as the (supposed) duration of the papacy's domination over Rome.The Great Controversy by Ellen White, p266. "Chap. 15 - The Bible and the French Revolution".BOOK, Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed), Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2005, 1-57847-041-2, 184–185, This period is seen as starting from one of the defeats of the Ostrogoths by the general Belisarius and as ending with the successes of French general Napoleon Bonaparte, specifically, with the capture of Pope Pius VI by general Louis Alexandre Berthier in 1798.Like many Reformation-era Protestant leaders, the Adventist pioneer Ellen G. White (1827–1915) spoke of the Catholic Church as a fallen church in preparation for its nefarious eschatological role as the antagonist against God's true church; she saw the pope as the Antichrist. Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther, John Knox, William Tyndale and others held similar beliefs about the Catholic Church and the papacy when they broke away from the Catholic Church during the Reformation.WEB,weblink Articles - White Horse Media, White Horse Media, Ellen White writes,}}Seventh-day Adventists view the length of time the apostate church's unbridled power was permitted to rule as shown in Daniel 7:25: "The little horn would rule a time and times and half a time" - or 1,260 years. They regard papal rule as supreme in Europe from 538 (when the Arian Ostrogoths retreated from Rome into temporary oblivion) until 1798 (when the French general Louis-Alexandre Berthier took Pope Pius VI captive)—a period of 1,260 yearsPaulien, John (2006) - "The 1260 Days in the Book of Revelation"
- including the 67 years of the Avignon Captivity (1309-1376).

Other Christian interpretations

Martin Wight

Devout Christian and political theorist Martin Wight, writing immediately after World War Two, favoured the revival of the Antichrist doctrine; not as a person, but as a recurrent situation featuring 'demonic concentrations of power'.BOOK, Ian, Hall, The International Thought of Martin Wight, Palgrave Macmillan, London, England, 2006, 978-1403969279, 37,

As "man of lawlessness"

The Antichrist has been equated with the "man of lawlessness" or "lawless one" of 2 Thessalonians 2:3, though commentaries on the identity of the "man of lawlessness" greatly vary.BOOK, W.F., Schink, The Scriptural Doctrine of the Antichrist, Our Great Heritage: Vol. 3, Lyle, Lange, Jerome G., Albrecht, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod#Publishing, Northwestern Publishing House, 1991, 978-0810003798, 572, The "man of lawlessness" has been identified with Caligula, Nero,St. John Chrysostom, Homilies on II Thess., Nicene-Post Nicene Fathers and the end times Antichrist. Some scholars believe that the passage contains no genuine prediction, but represents a speculation of the apostle's own, based on contemporary ideas of the Antichrist.Net Bible: Man of sin {{webarchive |url= |date=July 7, 2009 }}

As "being in league with other figures"

Several American evangelical and fundamentalist theologians, including Cyrus Scofield, have identified the Antichrist as being in league with (or the same as) several figures in the Book of Revelation including the Dragon (or Serpent), the Beast, the False Prophet, and the Whore of Babylon.See footnotes in Revelation 7 and 13 in the Scofield Reference Bible, 1917 Voices in the Emerging Church, such as Rob Bell, reject the identification of the Antichrist with any one person or group. They believe a loving Christ would not view anyone as an enemy.Bell, Rob; Golden, Don Jesus Wants to Save Christians 2008.

As Satan

Bernard McGinn described multiple traditions detailing the relationship between the Antichrist and Satan. In the dualist approach, Satan will become incarnate in the Antichrist, just as God became incarnate in Jesus. However, in Orthodox Christian thought, this view was problematic because it was too similar to Christ's incarnation. Instead, the "indwelling" view became more accepted. It stipulates that the Antichrist is a human figure inhabited by Satan, since the latter's power is not to be seen as equivalent to God's.{{sfn|Cabinet|2001}}

Non-Christian views



There are warnings against false prophets in the Hebrew Bible, but no personal anti-Messiah figure.G. W. Lorein (2003). The Antichrist Theme in the Intertestamental Period. p. 31. "Deuteronomy 13:1–6.... The functional equation of the religious aspect of the Beast, of the False Prophet and of the Antichrist in the book of Revelation is already being prepared here. There are also remarkable links with the Antichrist passage in the First Epistle of John.172 b."A parodic anti-Messiah type figure known as Armilus, said to be the offspring of Satan and a virgin, appears in some non-legalistic, philosophical schools of Jewish eschatology, such as the 7th century CE Sefer Zerubbabel and 11th century CE Midrash Vayosha (also: "Midrash wa-Yosha"). He is described as "a monstrosity, bald-headed, with one large and one small eye, deaf in the right ear and maimed in the right arm, while the left arm is two and one-half ells long." Being Gog's successor, his inevitable destruction by a "Messiah ben Joseph" (Messiah, son of Joseph (son of Jacob)), symbolizes the ultimate victory of good over evil in the Messianic Age.Jewish Encyclopedia: Armilus: This is confronted with the medieval Christian Antichrist and Islamic Dajjal, who will conquer Jerusalem and persecute the Jews.


Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (, literally "The Deceiving Messiah"), is an important figure in Islamic eschatology, often compared to the Antichrist. Absent in the Quran, this figure developed within the formative stages, probably influenced by Christian eschatological ideas. Like in Christianity, the Dajjal is said to emerge in the east, although the specific location varies among the sources.David Cook Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic The Darwin Press, Inc. Princeton, New Jersey {{ISBN|0878501428}} pp. 99-104As a figure similar to the Antichrist, he will try to imitate the miracles performed by Jesus, such as healing the sick and raising the dead, the latter done with aid of demons (Shayatin). He will deceive many people, such as weavers, magicians, half-castes and children of prostitutes, but the majority of his followers will be Jews. Depicting the Jews as the most loyal supporters of the Dajjal is probably a remnant from Christian Antichrist legends. But eventually the Dajjal will be killed by Isa, who will causing him to dissolve by just looking at him.David Cook Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic The Darwin Press, Inc. Princeton, New Jersey {{ISBN|0878501428}} pp. 99-104


Prophecies concerning the emergence of the Antichrist (Al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl) are interpreted in Ahmadiyya teachings as designating a specific group of nations centred upon falsehood instead of an individual, with the reference to the Antichrist as an individual indicating its unity as a class or system rather than its personal individuality. As such, Ahmadis identify the Antichrist collectively with the missionary expansion and colonial dominance of European Christianity throughout the world that was propelled by the Industrial Revolution.BOOK, Glassé, Cyril, Smith, Huston, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, 2003, Altamira Press, 0-7591-0190-6,weblink 33, BOOK, Valentine, Simon, Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat: history, belief, practice, 2008, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-70094-8, 148, Muhammad Ali. (1992) The Antichrist and Gog and Magog, Ohio: Ahmadiyya Anjuman-i Ishāʿat-i Islām Mirza Ghulam Ahmad wrote extensively on this topic identifying the Antichrist principally with colonial missionaries who, according to him, were to be countered through argumentation rather than by physical warfare, and whose power and influence was to wane gradually.Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, (2005), The Essence of Islam, Vol. III, Tilford: Islam International, p.279-93


The Antichrist is considered to subvert the religion of God from the inner reality of man as 'Abdu'l-Baha narrates: "Christ was a divine Center of unity and love. Whenever discord prevails instead of unity, wherever hatred and antagonism take the place of love and spiritual fellowship, Antichrist reigns instead of Christ."WEB, 'Abdu'l-Baha, Abbas Effendi, Some Answered Questions,weblink, 20 April 2017,

In popular culture

On February 1900, the Christian Russian philosopher and mystic Vladimir Solovyov published the apocalyptic A Short Tale of the Antichrist, showing his prophetic vision about the incoming 20th century and the end of the human historyWEB, card. Giacomo Biffi, G. Biffi,weblink Russia Will Punish the World – 3rd Secret of Fatima Revealed, en,,, The cardinal speaks often on the theme of the Antichrist. The Times of London reported in 2004 that the Cardinal described the Antichrist as “walking among us”.,weblink 2018-09-07, dead, WEB, J. Pronechen,weblink Vladimir Soloviev, the Mystic Admired by Popes, Feb 24, 2017,, Sep 5, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink March 2, 2017, live, . The antichrist is prophetized as a lawyer which will present himself to the whole humanity like a pacifist, ecologist and ecumenist, "will convoke an ecumenical council and will seek the consensus of all the Christian confessions, granting something to each one."

See also

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  • BOOK, Foxe, John, John Foxe, The Acts and Monuments, Book II, 1583,weblink 2010-06-06, harv,
  • BOOK, Jerome, Philip, Schaff, Philip Schaff, Henry Wace (priest), Henry Wace, A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 2010-06-07, VI, 1893, 347-420, The Christian Literature Company, New York, 19, 2nd series, Letter to Pope Damasus,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Jerome, Philip, Schaff, Henry Wace, A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 2010-06-07, VI, 1893b, 347-420, The Christian Literature Company, New York, 334, The Dialogue against the Luciferians,weblink 2nd series, harv,
  • BOOK, Jerome, Philip, Schaff, Henry Wace, A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 2010-06-07, VI, 1893c, 347-420, The Christian Literature Company, New York, 449, Against the Pelagians, Book I,weblink 2nd series, harv,
  • BOOK, Jerome, Philip, Schaff, Henry Wace, A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 2010-06-08, VI, 1893d, 347-420, The Christian Literature Company, New York, 236–7, Letter to Ageruchia,weblink 2nd series, harv,
  • BOOK, Jerome, Gleason L., Archer, Jerome's Commentary of Daniel,weblink 2010-06-07, Translation, 1958, 347-420, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 26 May 2010, live,
  • BOOK, Bernard, McGinn, Antichrist: Two Thousand Years of the Human Fascination With Evil, 1994, HarperCollins, New York,
  • JOURNAL, Cabinet, Kristofer Widholm and Bernard McGinn, Antichrist: An Interview with Bernard McGinn, Cabinet (magazine), Cabinet Magazine, 2001, Issue 5 Evil Winter,weblink Cabinet Magazine, harv,
  • BOOK, Origen, Rev. Alexander, Roberts, James Donaldson, Ante-Nicene Christian Library, Writings of the Fathers, 2010-06-06, XXIII, 1872, T&T Clark, Edinburgh, 385–8, Writings of Origen, vol 2,weblink 185–254, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Philip, Schaff, David, Schley Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2009-01-18, 1885, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Cohn, Norman, The Pursuit of the Millennium, 1970, Oxford University Press, New York, 9780195004564,weblink Norman Cohn, Rev. and expanded., harv,
  • BOOK, Hazlitt, William (1778-1830) Translator, William Hazlitt, Martin Luther on The Antichrist, 2007, Diggory, Liskeard, 9781846858048,
  • BOOK, Lindsey, Hal, The Late, Great Planet Earth, 1970, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 9780310277712, Hal Lindsey, Carole C. Carlson, The Late, Great Planet Earth,
  • BOOK, Miceli, Vincent P., Vincent Miceli, The Antichrist, 1981, Roman Catholic Books, Harrison, New York, 9780912141022,
  • BOOK, Schneemelcher, Wilhelm, Wilhelm Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha: Writings relating to the Apostles; Apocalypses and related subjects, Vol. 2, 2003, Westminster John Knox, [S.l.], 9780664227227,weblink sixth German edition 1989, 1992, 2003, Robert McLachlan (trans.), Wilson, harv,

External links

{{wiktionary-inline|antichrist}}{{Commons category-inline|Antichrist}}
  • Of Antichrist and His Ruin (1692) by John Bunyan. Online as part of the Acacia John Bunyan Online Library.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Lerner, Robert E., 22 March 2007, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink Antichrist, online,
  • WEB, Irenaeus, Trans. by Alexander Roberts and William Rambaut, Against Heresies: Book V: Chapter 25,weblink Ante-Nicene Fathers (book), Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 1., Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight, Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885.,
  • JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ginzberg, Louis, Antichrist,weblink
  • weblink" title="">Lutheran Scholarly Works on the Antichrist
  • weblink" title="">OrthodoxWiki: Antichrist
  • {hide}Wikisource-inline|list=
    • EB9, Davidson, Samuel, Antichrist, 2, 124–127, x, x,
    • EB1911, Bousset, Wilhelm, Antichrist, 1, 121–123, x, x,
    • CE1913, Maas, Anthony John, Antichrist, 1, x, x,
    • EBD, Antichrist, x, x,
    • BIBLICA, s:Encyclopaedia Biblica/Antichrist-ApocalypseANTICHRIST, Antichrist]], 1, x, x,
    • BOOK, Nietzsche, Friedrich, 2006, 1918, Friedrich Nietzsche, The Antichrist: Curse on Christianity, Mencken, Henry Louis, s:The Antichrist,
{edih}{{Christian theology}}

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Eastern Philosophy
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