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altitude (triangle)

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**altitude**of a triangle is a line segment through a vertex and perpendicular to (i.e., forming a right angle with) a line containing the base (the side opposite the vertex). This line containing the opposite side is called the

*extended base*of the altitude. The intersection of the extended base and the altitude is called the

*foot*of the altitude. The length of the altitude, often simply called "the altitude", is the distance between the extended base and the vertex. The process of drawing the altitude from the vertex to the foot is known as

*dropping the altitude*at that vertex. It is a special case of orthogonal projection.Altitudes can be used in the computation of the area of a triangle: one half of the product of an altitude's length and its base's length equals the triangle's area. Thus, the longest altitude is perpendicular to the shortest side of the triangle. The altitudes are also related to the sides of the triangle through the trigonometric functions.(File:Rtriangle.svg|thumb|right|In a right triangle, the altitude from each acute angle coincides with a leg and intersects the opposite side at (has its foot at) the right-angled vertex, which is the orthocenter.)In an isosceles triangle (a triangle with two congruent sides), the altitude having the incongruent side as its base will have the midpoint of that side as its foot. Also the altitude having the incongruent side as its base will be the angle bisector of the vertex angle.It is common to mark the altitude with the letter

*h*(as in

*height*), often subscripted with the name of the side the altitude is drawn to.In a right triangle, the altitude drawn to the hypotenuse

*c*divides the hypotenuse into two segments of lengths

*p*and

*q*. If we denote the length of the altitude by

*h*

*c*, we then have the relation

h_c=sqrt{pq} (Geometric mean theorem)

(File:Orthocenter of obtuse triangle.svg|thumb|The altitudes from each of the acute angles of an obtuse triangle lie entirely outside the triangle, as does the orthocenter H.)For acute and right triangles the feet of the altitudes all fall on the triangle's sides (not extended). In an obtuse triangle (one with an obtuse angle), the foot of the altitude to the obtuse-angled vertex falls in the interior of the opposite side, but the feet of the altitudes to the acute-angled vertices fall on the opposite extended side, exterior to the triangle. This is illustrated in the adjacent diagram: in this obtuse triangle, an altitude dropped perpendicularly from the top vertex, which has an acute angle, intersects the extended horizontal side outside the triangle.## Orthocenter

{{See also|Orthocentric system}}(File:Triangle.Orthocenter.svg|right|thumb|Three altitudes intersecting at the orthocenter)The three (possibly extended) altitudes intersect in a single point, called the**orthocenter**of the triangle, usually denoted by {{mvar|H}}.{{harvnb|Smart|1998|loc = p. 156}}{{harvnb|Berele|Goldman|2001|loc=p. 118}} The orthocenter lies inside the triangle if and only if the triangle is acute (i.e. does not have an angle greater than or equal to a right angle). If one angle is a right angle, the orthocenter coincides with the vertex at the right angle.Let {{math|

*A*,

*B*,

*C*}} denote the vertices and also the angles of the triangle, and let {{math|1=

*a*= {{!}}

*BC*{{!}},

*b*= {{!}}

*CA*{{!}},

*c*= {{!}}

*AB*{{!}}}} be the side lengths. The orthocenter has trilinear coordinatesClark Kimberling's Encyclopedia of Triangle Centers WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-04-19, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120419171900weblink">weblink 2012-04-19, sec A:sec B:sec C = cos A-sin B sin C:cos B-sin C sin A:cos C-sin Asin B,and barycentric coordinates

displaystyle (a^2+b^2-c^2)(a^2-b^2+c^2) : (a^2+b^2-c^2)(-a^2+b^2+c^2) : (a^2-b^2+c^2)(-a^2+b^2+c^2)

Since barycentric coordinates are all positive for a point in a triangle's interior but at least one is negative for a point in the exterior, and two of the barycentric coordinates are zero for a vertex point, the barycentric coordinates given for the orthocenter show that the orthocenter is in an acute triangle's interior, on the right-angled vertex of a right triangle, and exterior to an obtuse triangle.In the complex plane, let the points {{math|
=tan A:tan B:tan C.

*A*,

*B*}} and {{mvar|C}} represent the numbers z_A, z_B and, respectively, z_C and assume that the circumcenter of triangle {{mvar|ABC}} is located at the origin of the plane. Then, the complex number

z_H=z_A+z_B+z_C

is represented by the point {{mvar|H}}, namely the orthocenter of triangle {{mvar|ABC}}.Andreescu, Titu; Andrica, Dorin, "Complex numbers from A to...Z". BirkhÃ¤user, Boston, 2006, {{ISBN|978-0-8176-4326-3}}, page 90, Proposition 3 From this, the following characterizations of the orthocenter {{mvar|H}} by means of free vectors can be established straightforwardly:
vec{OH}=sumlimits_{scriptstylerm cyclic}vec{OA},qquad2cdotvec{HO}=sumlimits_{scriptstylerm cyclic}vec{HA}.

The first of the previous vector identities is also known as the *problem of Sylvester*, proposed by James Joseph Sylvester.DÃ¶rrie, Heinrich, "100 Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics. Their History and Solution". Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1965, {{ISBN|0-486-61348-8}}, page 142

### Properties

Let {{math|*D*,

*E*}}, and {{math|

*F*}} denote the feet of the altitudes from {{math|

*A*,

*B*}}, and {{math|

*C*}} respectively. Then:

- The product of the lengths of the segments that the orthocenter divides an altitude into is the same for all three altitudes:{{harvnb|Johnson|2007|loc=p. 163, Section 255}}WEB,weblink "Orthocenter of a triangle", 2012-05-04,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120705102919weblink">weblink 2012-07-05, yes,

AH cdot HD = BH cdot HE = CH cdot HF.
The circle centered at {{mvar|H}} having radius the square root of this constant is the triangle's polar circle.{{harvnb|Johnson|2007|loc=p. 176, Section 278}}

- The sum of the ratios on the three altitudes of the distance of the orthocenter from the base to the length of the altitude is 1:Panapoi,Ronnachai, "Some properties of the orthocenter of a triangle", University of Georgia].] (This property and the next one are applications of a more general property of any interior point and the three cevians through it.)

frac{HD}{AD} + frac{HE}{BE} + frac{HF}{CF} = 1.

- The sum of the ratios on the three altitudes of the distance of the orthocenter from the vertex to the length of the altitude is 2:

frac{AH}{AD} + frac{BH}{BE} + frac{CH}{CF} = 2.

- The isogonal conjugate of the orthocenter is the circumcenter of the triangle.{{harvnb|Smart|1998|loc=p. 182}}

- The isotomic conjugate of the orthocenter is the symmedian point of the anticomplementary triangle.Weisstein, Eric W. "Isotomic conjugate" From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.weblink

- Four points in the plane, such that one of them is the orthocenter of the triangle formed by the other three, is called an orthocentric system or orthocentric quadrangle.

### Relation with circles and conics

Denote the circumradius of the triangle by {{math|*R*}}. ThenWeisstein, Eric W. "Orthocenter." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.{{harvnb|Altshiller-Court|2007|loc=p. 102}}

a^2+b^2+c^2+AH^2+BH^2+CH^2 = 12R^2.

In addition, denoting {{math|*r*}} as the radius of the triangle's incircle, {{math|

*r*

**'a****,**

*r**'b*}}, and {{math|

*r*

*c*}} as the radii of its excircles, and {{math|

*R*}} again as the radius of its circumcircle, the following relations hold regarding the distances of the orthocenter from the vertices:Bell, Amy, "Hansen's right triangle theorem, its converse and a generalization",

*Forum Geometricorum*6, 2006, 335â€“342.

r_a+r_b+r_c+r=AH+BH+CH+2R,
r_a^2+r_b^2+r_c^2+r^2=AH^2+BH^2+CH^2+(2R)^2.

If any altitude, for example, {{math|*AD*}}, is extended to intersect the circumcircle at {{math|

*P*}}, so that {{math|

*AP*}} is a chord of the circumcircle, then the foot {{math|

*D*}} bisects segment {{math|

*HP*}}:

HD = DP.

The directrices of all parabolas that are externally tangent to one side of a triangle and tangent to the extensions of the other sides pass through the orthocenter.Weisstein, Eric W. "Kiepert Parabola." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.weblink circumconic passing through the orthocenter of a triangle is a rectangular hyperbola.Weisstein, Eric W. "Jerabek Hyperbola." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource.weblink### Relation to other centers, the nine-point circle

The orthocenter {{math|*H*}}, the centroid {{math|

*G*}}, the circumcenter {{math|

*O*}}, and the center {{math|

*N*}} of the nine-point circle all lie on a single line, known as the Euler line.{{harvnb|Berele|Goldman|2001|loc=p. 123}} The center of the nine-point circle lies at the midpoint of the Euler line, between the orthocenter and the circumcenter, and the distance between the centroid and the circumcenter is half of that between the centroid and the orthocenter:{{harvnb|Berele|Goldman|2001|loc=pp. 124-126}}

OH=2NH,

2OG=GH.

The orthocenter is closer to the incenter {{math|*I*}} than it is to the centroid, and the orthocenter is farther than the incenter is from the centroid:

HI < HG,

HG > IG.

In terms of the sides {{math|*a, b, c*}}, inradius {{math|

*r*}} and circumradius {{math|

*R*}},Marie-Nicole Gras, "Distances between the circumcenter of the extouch triangle and the classical centers",

*Forum Geometricorum*14 (2014), 51-61. weblink

OH^2 = R^2 -8R^2 cos A cos B cos C=9R^2-(a^2+b^2+c^2),Smith, Geoff, and Leversha, Gerry, "Euler and triangle geometry",

*Mathematical Gazette*91, November 2007, 436â€“452.{{rp|p. 449}}
HI^2 = 2r^2 -4R^2 cos A cos B cos C.

## Orthic triangle

(File:Altitudes and orthic triangle SVG.svg|thumb|279px|Triangle {{math|*abc*}} (respectively, {{mvar|DEF}} in the text) is the orthic triangle of triangle {{math|

*ABC*}})If the triangle {{math|

*ABC*}} is oblique (does not contain a right-angle), the pedal triangle of the orthocenter of the original triangle is called the

**orthic triangle**or

**altitude triangle**. That is, the feet of the altitudes of an oblique triangle form the orthic triangle, {{mvar|DEF}}. Also, the incenter (the center of the inscribed circle) of the orthic triangle {{mvar|DEF}} is the orthocenter of the original triangle {{mvar|ABC}}.BOOK, Continuous symmetry: from Euclid to Klein, William H. Barker, Roger Howe,weblink Â§ VI.2: The classical coincidences, 0-8218-3900-4, American Mathematical Society, 2007, 292, See also: Corollary 5.5, p. 318.Trilinear coordinates for the vertices of the orthic triangle are given by

- {{math|1=
*D*= 0 : sec*B*: sec*C*}} - {{math|1=
*E*= sec*A*: 0 : sec*C*}} - {{math|1=
*F*= sec*A*: sec*B*: 0}}.

*Mathematical Gazette*82, July 1998, 298-299.The tangent lines of the nine-point circle at the midpoints of the sides of {{mvar|ABC}} are parallel to the sides of the orthic triangle, forming a triangle similar to the orthic triangle.{{citation|first=David C.|last=Kay|title=College Geometry / A Discovery Approach|year=1993|publisher=HarperCollins|isbn=0-06-500006-4|page=6}}The orthic triangle is closely related to the tangential triangle, constructed as follows: let {{math|

*L*

**'A****}} be the line tangent to the circumcircle of triangle {{math|**

*ABC*}} at vertex {{math|*A*}}, and define {{math|*L**'B*}} and {{math|

*L*

**'C****}} analogously. Let {{math|1=**

*A"*=*L**'B*âˆ©

*L*

**'C****}}, {{math|1=**

*B"*=*L**'C*âˆ©

*L*

**'A****}}, {{math|1=**

*C"*=*L**'C*âˆ©

*L*

*A*}}. The tangential triangle is {{math|

*A"B"C"*}}, whose sides are the tangents to triangle {{mvar|ABC}}'s circumcircle at its vertices; it is homothetic to the orthic triangle. The circumcenter of the tangential triangle, and the center of similitude of the orthic and tangential triangles, are on the Euler line.{{rp|p. 447}}Trilinear coordinates for the vertices of the tangential triangle are given by

- {{math|1=
*A"*= âˆ’*a*:*b*:*c*}} - {{math|1=
*B"*=*a*: âˆ’*b*:*c*}} - {{math|1=
*C"*=*a*:*b*: âˆ’*c*}}.

## Some additional altitude theorems

### Altitude in terms of the sides

For any triangle with sides {{math|*a, b, c*}} and semiperimeter {{math|1=

*s*= (

*a*+

*b*+

*c*) / 2}}, the altitude from side {{math|

*a*}} is given by

h_a=frac{2sqrt{s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)}}{a}.

This follows from combining Heron's formula for the area of a triangle in terms of the sides with the area formula (1/2)Ã—baseÃ—height, where the base is taken as side {{math|*a*}} and the height is the altitude from {{math|

*A*}}.

### Inradius theorems

Consider an arbitrary triangle with sides {{math|*a, b, c*}} and with correspondingaltitudes {{math|

*h*

**'a****,**

*h**'b*}}, and {{math|

*h*

*c*}}. The altitudes and the incircle radius {{math|

*r*}} are related byDorin Andrica and Dan S Ì§tefan Marinescu. "New Interpolation Inequalities to Eulerâ€™s R â‰¥ 2r".

*Forum Geometricorum*, Volume 17 (2017), pp. 149â€“156. weblink{{rp|Lemma 1}}

displaystyle frac{1}{r}=frac{1}{h_a}+frac{1}{h_b}+frac{1}{h_c}.

### Circumradius theorem

Denoting the altitude from one side of a triangle as {{math|*ha*}}, the other two sides as {{math|

*b*}} and {{math|

*c*}}, and the triangle's circumradius (radius of the triangle's circumscribed circle) as {{math|

*R*}}, the altitude is given by{{harvnb|Johnson|2007|loc=p. 71, Section 101a}}

h_a=frac{bc}{2R}.

### Interior point

If {{math|*p*1,

*p*2}}, and {{math|

*p*3}} are the perpendicular distances from any point {{math|

*P*}} to the sides, and {{math|

*h*1,

*h*2}}, and {{math|

*h*3}} are the altitudes to the respective sides, then{{harvnb|Johnson|2007|loc=p. 74, Section 103c}}

frac{p_1}{h_1} +frac{p_2}{h_2} + frac{p_3}{h_3} = 1.

### Area theorem

Denoting the altitudes of any triangle from sides {{math|*a*,

*b*}}, and {{math|

*c*}} respectively as h_a, h_b, and h_c, and denoting the semi-sum of the reciprocals of the altitudes as H = (h_a^{-1} + h_b^{-1} + h_c^{-1})/2 we haveMitchell, Douglas W., "A Heron-type formula for the reciprocal area of a triangle,"

*Mathematical Gazette*89, November 2005, 494.

mathrm{Area}^{-1} = 4 sqrt{H(H-h_a^{-1})(H-h_b^{-1})(H-h_c^{-1})}.

### General point on an altitude

If {{math|*E*}} is any point on an altitude {{math|

*AD*}} of any triangle {{math|

*ABC*}}, thenAlfred S. Posamentier and Charles T. Salkind,

*Challenging Problems in Geometry*, Dover Publishing Co., second revised edition, 1996.{{rp|77â€“78}}

AC^2+EB^2=AB^2+CE^2.

### Special case triangles

#### Equilateral triangle

For any point {{mvar|P}} within an equilateral triangle, the sum of the perpendiculars to the three sides is equal to the altitude of the triangle. This is Viviani's theorem.#### Right triangle

{{right_angle_altitude.svg}}In a right triangle the three altitudes {{math|*h*

**'a****,**

*h**'b*}}, and {{math|

*h*

*c*}} (the first two of which equal the leg lengths {{math|

*b*}} and {{math|

*a*}} respectively) are related according toVoles, Roger, "Integer solutions of a^{-2}+b^{-2}=d^{-2},"

*Mathematical Gazette*83, July 1999, 269â€“271.Richinick, Jennifer, "The upside-down Pythagorean Theorem,"

*Mathematical Gazette*92, July 2008, 313â€“317.

frac{1}{h_a ^2}+frac{1}{h_b ^2}=frac{1}{h_c ^2}.

## See also

{{clear}}## Notes

{{Reflist|30em}}## References

- {{citation|last=Altshiller-Court|first=Nathan|authorlink=Nathan Altshiller Court|title=College Geometry|publisher=Dover Publications|year=2007|origyear=1952}}
- {{citation|first1=Allan|last1=Berele|first2=Jerry|last2=Goldman|title=Geometry / Theorems and Constructions|year=2001|publisher=Prentice Hall|isbn=0-13-087121-4}}
- {{citation|first=Roger A.|last=Johnson|title=Advanced Euclidean Geometry|year=2007|origyear=1960|publisher=Dover|isbn=978-0-486-46237-0}}
- {{citation|first=James R.|last=Smart|title=Modern Geometries|year=1998|edition=5th|publisher=Brooks/Cole|isbn=0-534-35188-3}}

## External links

- {{MathWorld|title=Altitude|urlname=Altitude}}
- Orthocenter of a triangle With interactive animation
- Animated demonstration of orthocenter construction Compass and straightedge.
- Fagnano's Problem by Jay Warendorff, Wolfram Demonstrations Project.

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