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Zhangjiakou
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{{Redirect|Kalgan|other uses|Kalgan (disambiguation)}}{{more citations needed|date=December 2011}}







factoids
|official_name = |other_name =0.1em}}}}|nickname =|settlement_type = Prefecture-level city|total_type = |motto =|image_skyline = Mount Dongtaiping, Zhangjiakou, June 10, 2010.jpg|imagesize = 250px|image_caption = General view of Zhangjiakou|image_flag =|flag_size =|image_seal =|seal_size =|image_shield =|shield_size =|image_blank_emblem =|blank_emblem_type =|blank_emblem_size =|image_map = Location_of_Zhangjiakou_Prefecture_within_Hebei_(China).png|mapsize = 250px|map_caption = Location of Zhangjiakou City jurisdiction in Hebei|image_map1 =|mapsize1 =|map_caption1 =|image_dot_map =|dot_mapsize =|dot_map_caption =dot_y =|pushpin_map = Hebei|pushpin_label_position = left|pushpin_map_caption = Location of the city centre in Hebei|subdivision_type = CountryChina>People's Republic of ChinaProvince (China)>Province|subdivision_name1 = Hebei|subdivision_type2 =|subdivision_name2 =|seat_type =|seat =|parts_type =|parts_style = |parts = |p1 =|p2 = |government_footnotes =|government_type =CPC Party Chief>Party SecretaryXing Guohui (politician)>Xing Guohui ()|leader_title1 = MayorHou Liang (politician)>Hou Liang ()|established_title = |established_date =|area_magnitude =|unit_pref = |area_footnotes =|area_total_km2 = 36861.56|area_land_km2 = |area_water_km2 =|area_water_percent =|area_metro_km2 =1412.7|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m = 716|elevation_max_m =|elevation_min_m =|population_as_of =2010 census|population_footnotes =|population_note =|population_total =4345485|population_metro =838978|pop_est_as_of =|population_density_km2 =auto|population_density_metro_km2 =autoChina Standard Time>China Standard|utc_offset1 = +8|coor_pinpoint = Zhangjiakou government40.769114.886type:adm2nd_region:CN-33_source:Gaodedisplay=it}}Postal code of China>Postal code|postal_code =|area_code =CN-HE-07)www.zjk.gov.cn}}|footnotes =Vehicle registration plates of China>Licence plate prefixes



factoids



|mong=ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭᠠᠨ|monr=Kalgan}}File:2022 Winter Olympics clusters location map-en.svg|right|220px|thumb|Location of the 2022 Winter Olympics2022 Winter OlympicsZhangjiakou ({{IPAc-en|'|dʒ|ɑː|ŋ|dʒ|i|'|ɑː|'|k|oʊ}};WEB, Zhangjiakou pronunciation,weblink Dictionary.com, 25 April 2015, {{zh|s=张家口|p=Zhāngjiākǒu}}; {{small|Mandarin pronunciation:}} {{IPAc-cmn|zh|ang|1|-|j|ya|1|-|k|ou|3}}) also known by several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. At the 2010 census, its population was 4,345,485 inhabitants on {{convert|36861.56|km2}}, divided into 17 Counties and Districts. The built-up (or metro) area made of Qiaoxi, Qiaodong Districts and Wanquan County largely being conurbated had 838,978 inhabitants in 2010 on {{convert|1412.7|km2|abbr=on}}. Due to its position on several important transport arteries, it is a critical transport node for travel between Hebei and Inner Mongolia and connecting northwest China, Mongolia, and Beijing.Zhangjiakou will be one of the host cities at the 2022 Winter Olympics.

Names

Zhangjiakou is written in simplified Chinese and in traditional Chinese. It is Zhāngjiākǒu in pinyin, the name meaning "Zhang family gate." Older names for the town in Chinese include Zhāngyuán (), used in the Republican era, and Zhāngjiāpù ().Zhangjiakou was historically known to Europeans as Kalgan (, Kālāgàn) until the mid 20th century. This name derives from the Mongolian name of the city, (File:Cighulaltu qaghalgha.svg|40px), "Čiɣulaltu qaɣalɣa" (Classical Mongolian), "Chuulalt haalga" (modern Mongolian) or shorter, (File:Qaghalghan.svg|20px), "Qaghalghan" (Classical Mongolian), "Haalgan" (modern Mongolian), which means "the gate" (in the Great Wall). In Manchu, the city is known as (File:Imiyangga Jase.svg|18px) (Imiyangga jase).Because of its strategic position above and northwest of Beijing, Zhangjiakou has been nicknamed "Beijing's Northern Door".

History

(File:Kalgan 1698.jpg|thumb|View of Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) in 1698)In August 1211, during the Battle of Yehuling, Genghis Khan's 90,000 strong force destroyed the 450,000 strong Jin dynasty army.The water-scarce city was historically the chief northern gate in the Great Wall to China for Europeans travelling along the Northern Tea Road (such as Ivan Petlin (1619)"A Relation of two Russe Cossacks travailes, out of Siberia to Catay, and other Countries adjoyning thereunto. Also a Copie of the last Patent from the Muscovite. A Copie of a Letter written to the Emperor from his Governors out of Siberia". Published as Chapter XI in: Samuel Purchas, Haklutyus Posthumus (or, Purchas His Pilgrimes), vol. XIV, p. 280. 1625. Full Text on archive.org. The city name reported by Petlin appears in Purchas' English translation as "Shirokalga". or Nicolae Milescu), often through the Juyong Pass.From at least 1571 it was an important horse market for Mongolian mounts imported into China. From 1727 it was an important station for the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China. In early autumn long lines of camels would come in from all quarters for the conveyance of the tea chests from "Kalgan" (Zhangjiakou) to Kyakhta across the Gobi Desert. Each caravan usually made three journeys in the winter. In the 19th century some Russian merchants had permanent residences and warehouses just outside the gate.In October 1909, Kalgan was connected by railway with Peking. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica noted that, in Kalgan, "the ordinary houses have an unusual appearance, from the fact that they are mostly roofed with earth and become covered with green-sward" and that "on the way to Peking the road passes over a beautiful bridge of seven arches, ornamented with marble figures of animals".In 1937 the Japanese occupied the region and made Kalgan the capital of the autonomous Cha-nan (South Chahar) Province. The Federated Mengjiang Commission was set up to supervise the economic affairs, banking, communications, and industry of Japanese-occupied Inner Mongolia (Mengjiang).In the early 1960s at the height of Sino-Soviet tensions, Zhangjiakou was considered one of the most important cities in China for military strategy reasons. Zhangjiakou was aptly nicknamed, "Beijing's Northern Door", because whoever controlled Zhangjiakou was in a good position to either attack (in the case of the Soviets) or defend (in the case of the Chinese) Beijing.Zhangjiakou will host some of the events in the 2022 Winter Olympics.WEB,weblink Beijing and Zhangjiakou launch a joint bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympic Games, Insidethegames.biz, 2013-11-05, 2014-03-28,

Tourism

Lying in between the Mongolian Plateau and the North China Plain, Zhangjiakou has a somewhat rugged topography characterized by high mountains, deep valleys, and rocky pathways. As a result, it serves as a perfect natural screen for Beijing, which has made it a strategic priority militarily since ancient times. It is called "The Gateway to Beijing" and "The Mountain City beyond the Great Wall". The grand Yan Mountain, the towering Taihang Mountain, the vast grasslands, and the meandering Sangyang River converge here. The city government has regarded tourism as a major driving force of the city's economy and continues to develop the industry.{{citation needed|date=February 2014}}

Economy

(File:20060416050427.jpg|thumb|A corner in downtown Zhangjiakou)The vicinity of Zhangjiakou is rich in coal and iron ore, making it an ideal location for developing iron and steel industry. Apart from metallurgy, the city is home to one of China's most important grape wine industries, with the Great Wall Wine Company being located in Shacheng, Huailai County. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060916035045weblink |date=September 16, 2006 }}

Transportation

Military

Zhangjiakou is headquarters of the 65th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Beijing Military Region responsible for defending China's capital.

Education

Zhangjiakou is home to Hebei North University. The university has been improving its international network and many foreign students are now studying there.

Geography and climate

Zhangjiakou is located in the northwest part of Hebei province, and is defined by mostly rough terrain created by the Yin Mountains, with elevations increasing from southeast to northwest. The east of the prefecture marks the Yan Mountains The bordering prefectures in the province are Chengde to the northeast and Baoding to the south. It also borders Shanxi to the west and southwest and Inner Mongolia to the northwest. The prefecture's latitude ranges from 39° 30' to 42° 10' N, or {{convert|289.2|km}}, while its longitude spans 113° 50' to 116° 30' E, or {{convert|216.2|km}}.Zhangjiakou City is divided into three topographical regions: plateau, mountains, and basin. The former has elevations generally above {{convert|1400|m}}, and consists of all of Guyuan and Kangbao Counties as well as part of Shangyi and Zhangbei Counties. This area is part of the southern end of the Inner Mongolia Plateau () and accounts for one-third of the prefecture's area.WEB,weblink zh:地理环境, zh-hans,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090707184331weblink">weblink July 7, 2009, yes, The basin area has elevations of {{convert|500|to|1000|m|ft|sigfig=2}} and supports a few rivers.Zhangjiakou has a monsoon-influenced, continental semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with long, cold, dry, and windy winters due to the Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers driven by the East Asian monsoon; in between spring and autumn are dry and brief. Conditions are much cooler than in Beijing due in part to the elevation. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from {{convert|−8.3|°C|1}} in January to {{convert|23.7|°C|1}} in July, and the annual mean is {{convert|8.81|°C|1}}.{{Weather box|metric first=y|single line=y |location = Zhangjiakou (1971−2000)|Jan high C = −2.2|Feb high C = 1.5|Mar high C = 8.4|Apr high C = 17.9|May high C = 24.8|Jun high C = 28.5|Jul high C = 29.4|Aug high C = 27.7|Sep high C = 23.2|Oct high C = 16.3|Nov high C = 6.6|Dec high C = −0.4|Jan mean C = -8.3|Feb mean C = -5.0|Mar mean C = 2.0|Apr mean C = 10.9|May mean C = 17.8|Jun mean C = 22.1|Jul mean C = 23.7|Aug mean C = 22.0|Sep mean C = 16.6|Oct mean C = 9.6|Nov mean C = 0.5|Dec mean C = -6.2|year mean C= 8.8|Jan low C = −12.9|Feb low C = −10.0|Mar low C = −3.6|Apr low C = 4.6|May low C = 11.2|Jun low C = 16.0|Jul low C = 18.7|Aug low C = 17.2|Sep low C = 11.2|Oct low C = 4.3|Nov low C = −4.0|Dec low C = −10.5|Jan record high C = 9.7|Feb record high C = 18.2|Mar record high C = 22.6|Apr record high C = 31.5|May record high C = 36.8|Jun record high C = 37.7|Jul record high C = 39.2|Aug record high C = 36.0|Sep record high C = 33.5|Oct record high C = 27.7|Nov record high C = 20.4|Dec record high C = 14.0|Jan record low C = −24.6|Feb record low C = −21.9|Mar record low C = −16.5|Apr record low C = −7.7|May record low C = -1.3|Jun record low C = 5.1|Jul record low C = 12.5|Aug record low C = 7.2|Sep record low C = 1.1|Oct record low C = −9.1|Nov record low C = −17.5|Dec record low C = −22.2year low C= 3.5year low F = 38.4|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 2.0|Feb precipitation mm = 4.1|Mar precipitation mm = 9.1|Apr precipitation mm = 14.0|May precipitation mm = 33.1|Jun precipitation mm = 60.6|Jul precipitation mm = 109.9|Aug precipitation mm = 100.5|Sep precipitation mm = 45.0|Oct precipitation mm = 16.9|Nov precipitation mm = 6.3|Dec precipitation mm = 2.1|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan precipitation days = 1.7|Feb precipitation days = 2.5|Mar precipitation days = 4.6|Apr precipitation days = 4.8|May precipitation days = 7.6|Jun precipitation days = 10.2|Jul precipitation days = 13.4|Aug precipitation days = 12.8|Sep precipitation days = 9.1|Oct precipitation days = 4.3|Nov precipitation days = 2.6|Dec precipitation days = 1.7|source 1 = Weather ChinaWEB
,weblink zh:张家口城市介绍以及气候背景分析
, Weather China
, zh-hans
, 2013-04-29, |date=December 2011}}

Administrative divisions{| class"wikitable" style"font-size:90%; margin:auto;"

! colspan="7" style="text-align:center;"| Map {{Image label begin|image=Administrative Division Zhangjiakou 2.png|width=480|link=}} {{Image label|x=930|y=1540|scale=480/2220|text=Qiaodong}}{{Image label|x=870|y=1460|scale=480/2220|text=1}}{{Image label|x=1000|y=1680|scale=480/2220|text=Xuanhua}}{{Image label|x=1130|y=1770|scale=480/2220|text=Xiahuayuan}}{{Image label|x=560|y=1440|scale=480/2220|text=Wanquan}}{{Image label|x=1070|y=1250|scale=480/2220|text=Chongli}}{{Image label|x=750|y=970|scale=480/2220|text=ZhangbeiCounty}}{{Image label|x=590|y=410|scale=480/2220|text=KangbaoCounty}}{{Image label|x=1420|y=660|scale=480/2220|text=GuyuanCounty}}{{Image label|x=210|y=1130|scale=480/2220|text=ShangyiCounty}}{{Image label|x=700|y=2520|scale=480/2220|text=YuCounty}}{{Image label|x=400|y=2210|scale=480/2220|text=YangyuanCounty}}{{Image label|x=520|y=1770|scale=480/2220|text=Huai'anCounty}}{{Image label|x=1470|y=1990|scale=480/2220|text=HuailaiCounty}}{{Image label|x=1120|y=2270|scale=480/2220|text=ZhuoluCounty}}{{Image label|x=1680|y=1320|scale=480/2220|text=ChichengCounty}}{{Image label|x=1560|y=2470|scale=480/2220|text=1. Qiaoxi}}! Name! Hanzi! Hanyu Pinyin! Population (2004 est.)! Area (km²)! Density (/km²)DistrictsQiaoxi District, Zhangjiakou>Qiaoxi DistrictQiaodong District, Zhangjiakou>Qiaodong District|Xuanhua District|Xiahuayuan District|Wanquan District|Chongli DistrictCounties|Zhangbei County|Kangbao CountyGuyuan County, Hebei>Guyuan County|Shangyi CountyYu County, Hebei>Yu County|Yangyuan CountyHuai'an County, Hebei>Huai'an County|Huailai County|Zhuolu County|Chicheng County

Sports

Zhangjiakou will host Freestyle and Nordic skiing and snowboarding excluding big air for the 2022 Winter Olympics.

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Commons category}} {{-}}{{Hebei topics}}{{Hebei}}{{Authority control}}

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