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Yorkshire
[ temporary import ]
please note:
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{{Other uses}}{{redirect|County of York}}{{short description|Historic county of Northern England}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2019}}{{Use British English|date=July 2018}}







factoids
Note that the area of Yorkshire increases slightly from {{convert|3669510|acre|km2|0}} in 1831 to {{convert|3883979|acre|km2|0}} in 1901 and then reduces to {{convert|2941246|acre|km2|0}} in 1991, so that these three figures relate to different areas.
|PopulationFirstYear= 1831
|AreaFirst= {{convert|3669510|acre|km2|0}}
|AreaFirstYear= 1831
|DensityFirst= {{convert|0.37|PD/acre|PD/km2|abbr=on}}
|DensityFirstYear= 1831
|PopulationSecond= 3,512,838
|PopulationSecondYear= 1901
|AreaSecond= {{convert|3883979|acre|km2|0}}
|AreaSecondYear= 1901
|DensitySecond= {{convert|0.9|PD/acre|PD/km2|abbr=on}}
|DensitySecondYear= 1901
|PopulationThird= 3,978,484
|PopulationThirdYear= 1991
|AreaThird= {{convert|2941247|acre|km2|0}}
|AreaThirdYear= 1991
|DensityThird= {{convert|1.35|PD/acre|PD/km2|abbr=on}}
|DensityThirdYear= 1991
|PopulationLast= 5,288,200{{United Kingdom district population citation}}
|PopulationLastYear= 2011
|AreaLast=
|AreaLastYear=
|DensityLast=
|DensityLastYear=
}}Yorkshire ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|j|ɔːr|k|ʃ|É™r|,_|-|ʃ|ɪər}}; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.MAGAZINE, G., Gibbons, Yorkshire: Britain's Largest County, London, Geographica Ltd., 1969, Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have also been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region.NEWS,weblink BBC, What's so special about Yorkshire?, 1 August 2006, Liam, Allen, 15 July 2008, The name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom and is in common use in the media and the military,NEWS,weblink BBC, New Yorkshire Regiment is formed, 8 October 2008, 6 June 2006, and also features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire.Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire are vast stretches of unspoiled countryside. This can be found in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors and with the open aspect of some of the major cities.NEWS,weblink The Guardian, And the winner of the award for the greenest city in Britain is ... Bradford, 20 October 2007, 24 October 2007, London, Alison, Benjamin, Martin, Wainwright, NEWS,weblink Yorkshire Forward, Green space conference comes to UK's 'greenest city', 23 March 2006, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061118034333weblink">weblink 18 November 2006, Yorkshire has also been nicknamed "God's Own County".NEWS,weblink The Guardian, God's own County, 2 June 2006, 24 October 2007, London, NEWS,weblink 20 April 2016, The Olympics are just what we need to bring Yorkshiremen together as a nation, The Telegraph, The emblem of Yorkshire is the White Rose of the English royal House of York, and the most commonly used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a blue background,NEWS,weblink CRWFlags.nom, Yorkshire (United Kingdom), 25 October 2007, which after nearly fifty years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute on 29 July 2008.NEWS,weblink Proud Yorkshire can finally fly white rose flag without charge, Martin, Wainwright, The Guardian, 29 July 2008, 29 July 2008, London, Yorkshire Day, held annually on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own dialect.NEWS,weblink Army.mod.uk, Yorkshire Day, 18 February 2008, 3 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090114020220weblink">weblink 14 January 2009, dead, Yorkshire is covered by different Government Office Regions. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber while the extreme northern part of the county, such as Middlesbrough, Redcar, Holwick and Startforth, falls within North East England. Small areas in the west of the county are covered by the North West England region.

Toponymy

Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire (administrative area or county) of the city of York or York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking name for the city, Jórvík. The word "Shire" is either from the Old Norse word Skyr or from Old English Scir meaning care or official charge.WEB, Harper, Douglas, Shire,weblink Online Etymology Dictionary, 27 April 2014, The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced {{IPA|/-ʃə/}} "shuh", or occasionally {{IPA|/-ʃiə/}}, a homophone of "sheer".BOOK, Mills, A.D., Oxford Dictionary of British Place Names, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003, 978-0-19-852758-9,

History

Celtic tribes

Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi. The Brigantes controlled territory which later became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England. That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum (now known as Aldborough) was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county.WEB,weblink Roman-Britain.org, The Brigantes, 24 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061231090447weblink">weblink 31 December 2006, Ptolemy, Geographia 2.1, 2.2 The Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul (known today as Paris, France).WEB,weblink Roman-Britain.org, The Parisii, 24 October 2007, Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary. Although the Roman conquest of Britain began in 43 AD, the Brigantes remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua and her husband Venutius. Initially, this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain.WEB,weblink Romans-In-Britain.org.uk, Romans in Britain, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071017195232weblink">weblink 17 October 2007, dead,

Roman period

File:Constantine York Minster.jpg|thumb|left|Statue of Constantine I outside York MinsterYork MinsterQueen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his armour bearer, Vellocatus, setting off a chain of events which changed control of the region. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom; however, her former husband staged rebellions against her and her Roman allies.NEWS,weblink West Yorkshire Archaeology Advisory Service, Cartimandua, 2007, 3 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071009031721weblink">weblink 9 October 2007, dead, At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes in 71 AD.WEB,weblink House Shadow Drake, The Brigantes, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061021090013weblink">weblink 21 October 2006, dead, The fortified city of Eboracum (now known as York) was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint capital of all Roman Britain.WEB,weblink VanderBilt.edu, Lower (Britannia Inferior) and Upper Britain (Britannia Superior), 24 October 2007, The emperor Septimius Severus ruled the Roman Empire from Eboracum for the two years before his death.WEB,weblink York Roman Festival, Roman York – a brief introduction to York's Roman History, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="archive.today/20071002084623weblink">weblink 2 October 2007, Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Eboracum during a visit in 306 AD. This saw his son Constantine the Great, who became renowned for his contributions to Christianity, proclaimed emperor in the city.WEB,weblink Britain Express, Roman York, 25 October 2007, In the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline.

Second Celtic period and Angles

After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in the region, including the Kingdom of Ebrauc around York and the Kingdom of Elmet to the west.WEB,weblink HistoryFiles.co.uk, Ebrauc, 25 October 2007, WEB,weblink HistoryFiles.co.uk, Elmet, 25 October 2007, Elmet remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria expelled its last king, Certic, and annexed the region. At its greatest extent, Northumbria stretched from the Irish Sea to the North Sea and from Edinburgh down to Hallamshire in the south.WEB,weblink BBC, The Anglo-Saxons, 25 October 2007,

Kingdom of Jórvík

Scandinavian York (also referred to as Jórvík) or Danish/Norwegian York is a term used by historians for the south of Northumbria (modern day Yorkshire) during the period of the late 9th century and first half of the 10th century, when it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings; in particular, used to refer to York, the city controlled by these kings.Norse monarchy controlled varying amounts of Northumbria from 875 to 954, however the area was invaded and conquered for short periods by England between 927 and 954 before eventually being annexed into England in 954. It was closely associated with the much longer-lived Kingdom of Dublin throughout this period.(File:EricBloodaxeCoin.png|thumb|right|Coin from Eric Bloodaxe's reign)An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen ArmyWEB,weblink Jorvik-Viking-Centre.co.uk, What Happened to Them?, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071012204846weblink">weblink 12 October 2007, as its enemies often referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD. The Danes conquered and assumed what is now York and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria, roughly equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.WEB,weblink Viking.no, The Viking Kingdom of York, 15 April 2000, 24 October 2007, The Danes went on to conquer an even larger area of England that afterwards became known as the Danelaw; but whereas most of the Danelaw was still English land, albeit in submission to Viking overlords, it was in the Kingdom of Jórvík that the only truly Viking territory on mainland Britain was ever established. The Kingdom prospered, taking advantage of the vast trading network of the Viking nations, and established commercial ties with the British Isles, North-West Europe, the Mediterranean and the Middle East.WEB,weblink Britannia.com, Narrative History of York: Viking Times, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170818202555weblink">weblink 18 August 2017, dead, Founded by the Dane Halfdan Ragnarsson in 875,WEB,weblink NorthEastEngland.net, Part Two – Jorvik and the Viking Age (866 AD – 1066 AD), 25 October 2007, ruled for the great part by Danish kings, and populated by the families and subsequent descendants of Danish Vikings, the leadership of the kingdom nonetheless passed into Norwegian hands during its twilight years. Eric Bloodaxe, an ex-king of Norway who was the last independent Viking king of Jórvík, is a particularly noted figure in history,WEB,weblink HistoryFiles.co.uk, Eric Bloodaxe, 25 October 2007, and his bloodthirsty approach towards leadership may have been at least partly responsible for convincing the Danish inhabitants of the region to accept English sovereignty so readily in the years that followed.After around 100 years of its volatile existence, the Kingdom of Jorvik finally came to an end. The Kingdom of Wessex was now in its ascendant and established its dominance over the North in general, placing Yorkshire again within Northumbria, which retained a certain amount of autonomy as an almost-independent earldom rather than a separate kingdom. The Wessex Kings of England were reputed to have respected the Norse customs in Yorkshire and left law-making in the hands of the local aristocracy.WEB,weblink Britannia.com, Narrative History of York: Late Saxon Times, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080623102237weblink">weblink 23 June 2008, dead,

Norman conquest

(File:YorkMinsterWest.jpg|thumb|upright=0.65|York Minster, western elevation)In the weeks immediately leading up to the Battle of Hastings in 1066 AD, Harold II of England was distracted by events in Yorkshire. His brother Tostig and Harald Hardrada, King of Norway, attempted a takeover in the North, having won the Battle of Fulford. The King of England marched north where the two armies met at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Tostig and Hardrada were both killed and their army was defeated decisively. However, Harold Godwinson was forced immediately to march his army back down to the South where William the Conqueror was landing. The King was defeated at Hastings, which led to the Norman conquest of England.The people of the North rebelled against the Normans in September 1069 AD, enlisting Sweyn II of Denmark. They tried to take back York, but the Normans burnt it before they could.WEB,weblink The Norman Conquest School Site, Resistance in the North East – 1069, 3 October 2008, What followed was the Harrying of the North ordered by William. From York to Durham, crops, domestic animals, and farming tools were scorched. Many villages between the towns were burnt and local northerners were indiscriminately murdered.WEB,weblink The Norman Conquest School Site, Harrying of the North, 24 October 2007, During the winter that followed, families starved to death and thousands of peasants died of cold and hunger. Orderic Vitalis estimated that "more than 100,000" people from the North died from hunger.WEB,weblink The Norman Conquest School Site, Orderic's reaction, 24 October 2007, In the centuries following, many abbeys and priories were built in Yorkshire. Norman landowners were keen to increase their revenues and established new towns such as Barnsley, Doncaster, Hull, Leeds, Scarborough and Sheffield, among others. Of towns founded before the conquest, only Bridlington, Pocklington, and York continued at a prominent level.WEB,weblink LocalHistories.org, Yorkshire, 24 October 2007, The population of Yorkshire boomed until hit by the Great Famine in the years between 1315 and 1322.In the early 12th century, people of Yorkshire had to contend with the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton with the Scots. Representing the Kingdom of England led by Archbishop Thurstan of York, soldiers from Yorkshire defeated the more numerous Scots.WEB,weblink Britain Express, The Battle of the Standard, 25 October 2007, The Black Death reached Yorkshire by 1349, killing around a third of the population.

Wars of the Roses

{{Further|House of York|Wars of the Roses}}File:King Richard III from NPG.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|right|Yorkist king Richard III grew up at Middleham.WEB,weblink RichardIII.com, Middleham Castle, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070813160526weblink">weblink 13 August 2007, dead, ]]When King Richard II was overthrown in 1399, antagonism between the House of York and the House of Lancaster, both branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, began to emerge. Eventually the two houses fought for the throne of England in a series of civil wars, commonly known as the Wars of the Roses. Some of the battles took place in Yorkshire, such as those at Wakefield and Towton, the latter of which is known as the bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil.BOOK, Gravett, Christopher, Christopher Gravett, Towton 1461: England's Bloodiest Battle, Osprey Publishing,weblink 978-0-415-09378-1, 1999, Richard III was the last Yorkist king.Henry Tudor, sympathiser to the House of Lancaster, defeated and killed Richard at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He then became King Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Yorkist Edward IV, ending the wars.WEB,weblink Stanford.edu, Yorkists, 24 October 2007, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} The two roses of white and red, emblems of the Houses of York and Lancaster respectively, were combined to form the Tudor Rose of England.{{ref label|wars|a|a}}BOOK, Hey, David, History of Yorkshire: County of the Broad Acres, Carnegie Publishing,weblink 1-85936-122-6, 2005, This rivalry between the royal houses of York and Lancaster has passed into popular culture as a rivalry between the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire, particularly in sport (for example the Roses Match played in County Cricket), although the House of Lancaster was based in York and the House of York in London.

Civil War and textile industry

The wool textile industry, which had previously been a cottage industry, centred on the old market towns moved to the West Riding where entrepreneurs were building mills that took advantage of water power gained by harnessing the rivers and streams flowing from the Pennines. The developing textile industry helped Wakefield and Halifax grow.WEB,weblink BBC, William Hirst – Leeds woollen industry pioneer, 25 November 2007, The English Reformation began under Henry VIII and the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536 led to a popular uprising known as Pilgrimage of Grace, started in Yorkshire as a protest. Some Catholics in Yorkshire continued to practise their religion and those caught were executed during the reign of Elizabeth I. One such person was a York woman named Margaret Clitherow who was later canonised.WEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Margaret Clitherow, 25 November 2007, File:Battle of Marston Moor, 1644.png|thumb|left|Battle of Marston MoorBattle of Marston MoorDuring the English Civil War, which started in 1642, Yorkshire had divided loyalties; Hull famously shut the gates of the city on the king when he came to enter a few months before fighting began, while the North Riding of Yorkshire in particular was strongly royalist.WEB,weblink BBC, Seeds of the English Civil War, 25 November 2007, WEB, Historic Cleveland – Timeline,weblink Historic-Cleveland.co.uk, 25 November 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071130064734weblink">weblink 30 November 2007, dead, York was the base for Royalists, and from there they captured Leeds and Wakefield only to have them recaptured a few months later. The royalists won the Battle of Adwalton Moor meaning they controlled Yorkshire (with the exception of Hull). From their base in Hull the Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") fought back, re-taking Yorkshire town by town, until they won the Battle of Marston Moor and with it control of all of the North of England.WEB,weblink British-Civil-Wars.co.uk, The York March and Marston Moor, 25 November 2007, In the 16th and 17th centuries Leeds and other wool-industry-centred towns continued to grow, along with Huddersfield, Hull and Sheffield, while coal mining first came into prominence in the West Riding of Yorkshire.WEB,weblink NUM.org.uk, History of the NUM: 1 – Towards A National Union, 25 November 2007, Canals and turnpike roads were introduced in the late 18th century. In the following century the spa towns of Harrogate and Scarborough flourished, due to people believing mineral water had curative properties.WEB,weblink Great-British.co.uk, Harrogate, Yorkshire Spa town, 25 November 2007, File:St Georges Doncaster.jpg|thumb|left|St George's Minster in Doncaster was built in 1858 and is Grade I listed]]File:Saltaire from Leeds and Liverpool Canal.jpg|thumb|upright=0.85|Titus Salt's mill in Saltaire, Bradford is an UNESCO World Heritage SiteUNESCO World Heritage Site(File:Leeds Dark Arches June 2013-TJBlackwell.webm|thumb|These grandiose Victorian engineering tunnels were built in the 1800s to channel the River Aire underneath the modern-day structure of Leeds railway station.)The 19th century saw Yorkshire's continued growth, with the population growing and the Industrial Revolution continuing with prominent industries in coal, textile and steel (especially in Sheffield, Rotherham and Middlesbrough). However, despite the booming industry, living conditions declined in the industrial towns due to overcrowding. This saw bouts of cholera in both 1832 and 1848.WEB,weblink Thoresby.org.uk, The Historical Society for Leeds and District, 25 November 2007, However, advances were made by the end of the century with the introduction of modern sewers and water supplies. Several Yorkshire railway networks were introduced as railways spread across the country to reach remote areas.File:Number 4468 Mallard in York.jpg|thumb|The LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard built in 203|km/h|mph|abbr=on}} on 3 July 1938.WEB,weblink NRM.org.uk, National Railway Museum, York, 25 November 2007, County councils were created for the three ridings in 1889, but their area of control did not include the large towns, which became county boroughs, and included an increasingly large part of the population.Hampton, W., Local Government and Urban Politics, (1991)During the Second World War, Yorkshire became an important base for RAF Bomber Command and brought the county into the cutting edge of the war.BOOK, Bruce Barrymore, Halpenny, Bruce Barrymore Halpenny, Action Stations: Military Airfields of Yorkshire v. 4, 1982, PSL, 978-0-85059-532-1,

Yorkshire today

In the 1970s there were major reforms of local government throughout the United Kingdom. Some of the changes were unpopular, and controversially Yorkshire and its ridings lost status in 1974WEB,weblink$366613.htm, Politics.co.uk, Local Government Structure, 25 November 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070211094339weblink">weblink 11 February 2007, dead, as part of the Local Government Act 1972.Arnold-Baker, C., Local Government Act 1972, (1973) The East Riding was resurrected with reduced boundaries in 1996 with the abolition of Humberside. With slightly different borders, the Government Office entity which currently contains most of Yorkshire is the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. This region includes a northern slice of Lincolnshire, but does not include the northern part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire (Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland), which is in the North East England region. Other parts of the historic county of Yorkshire are also in other official regions. Saddleworth (now in Greater Manchester); the Forest of Bowland (Lancashire); Sedbergh and Dent (Cumbria) are in the North West England region, and Upper Teesdale (County Durham) is in North East England.HMSO, Aspects of Britain: Local Government, (1996)

Geography

Physical and geological

(File:Yorksgeology.jpg|thumb|left|Geology of Yorkshire)Historically, the northern boundary of Yorkshire was the River Tees, the eastern boundary was the North Sea coast and the southern boundary was the Humber Estuary and Rivers Don and Sheaf. The western boundary meandered along the western slopes of the Pennine Hills to again meet the River Tees.WEB,weblink Genuki.org, Yorkshire Geology, 24 October 2007, It is bordered by several other historic counties in the form of County Durham, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Lancashire and Westmorland.WEB,weblink JLCarr.info, The historic counties of England, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050208092227weblink">weblink 8 February 2005, In Yorkshire there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the geological period in which they were formed. The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age while the Yorkshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands.(File:Yorkshire-Drainage.jpg|thumb|right|The main rivers of Yorkshire)Yorkshire is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary.BOOK, 1992, Yorkshire Rivers: A Canoeists Guide, Menasha Ridge Press, 978-1-871890-16-7, British Canoe Union, Yorkshire, Humberside Region, Access and Recreation Committees, prepared by Mike Twiggs, David Taylor, yes, The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure, which the Swale joins east of Boroughbridge. Near Great Ouseburn the Ure is joined by the small Ouse Gill Beck, and below the confluence the river is known as the Ouse. The River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York and the Ouse. The River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood. The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse and the most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole. Further north and east the River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh.In the far north of the county the River Tees flows eastwards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough. The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby. To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull.The western Pennines are drained by the River Ribble which flows westwards, eventually reaching the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes.

Natural areas

{{multiple image|perrow = 2|total_width=400
width1=1280|height1=960| caption1 = Nidderdale, Yorkshire Dales| image2 = Sea on the rocks - geograph.org.uk - 386067.jpgWhitby, North Yorkshire>Whitby height2=427| image3 = Ilkley Moor - geograph.org.uk - 1332313.jpgIlkley Moor >width3=640|height3=480| image4 = Kilnsea's Mudflats - geograph.org.uk - 914562.jpgKilnsea, Humber Estuary >width4=640|height4=455| header = Geographic features of Yorkshire}}The countryside of Yorkshire has acquired the common nickname of "God's Own County". Yorkshire includes the North York Moors and Yorkshire Dales National Parks, and part of the Peak District National Park. Nidderdale and the Howardian Hills are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty.WEB,weblink Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, 3 May 2008, Natural England,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081223034302weblink">weblink 23 December 2008, dead, Spurn Point, Flamborough Head and the coastal North York Moors are designated Heritage Coast areas,WEB,weblink Heritage Coasts, 3 May 2008, Natural England,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080625042855weblink">weblink 25 June 2008, dead, and are noted for their scenic views with rugged cliffsWEB,weblink BritainGallery, Yorkshire and Humberside: the North East, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808174914weblink">weblink 8 August 2007, dead, such as the jet cliffs at Whitby, the limestone cliffs at Filey and the chalk cliffs at Flamborough Head.WEB,weblink FileyBay.com, A Filey Walk, 24 October 2007, WEB,weblink Britain Express, North Yorkshire Heritage Coast, 24 October 2007, Moor House – Upper Teesdale, most of which is part of the former North Riding of Yorkshire, is one of England's largest national nature reserves.WEB,weblink Moor House-Upper Teesdale NNR, Natural England, 16 July 2009, The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds runs nature reserves such as the one at Bempton Cliffs with coastal wildlife such as the northern gannet, Atlantic puffin and razorbill.WEB,weblink RSPB.org.uk, About Bempton Cliffs, 24 October 2007, Spurn Point is a narrow {{convert|3|mi|km|adj=on}} long sand spit. It is a national nature reserve owned by the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust and is noted for its cyclical nature whereby the spit is destroyed and re-created approximately once every 250 years.WEB,weblink Spurn Point, A cyclic coastal landform, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071017005437weblink">weblink 17 October 2007, dead, There are seaside resorts in Yorkshire with sandy beaches; Scarborough is Britain's oldest seaside resort dating back to the spa town-era in the 17th century,NEWS,weblink BBC, In pictures: Scarborough, 24 October 2007, 20 August 2006, while Whitby has been voted as the United Kingdom's best beach, with a "postcard-perfect harbour".NEWS,weblink BBC, Report rates the best UK beaches, 24 October 2007, 9 May 2006,

Geography and the historic divisions

Historically, Yorkshire was divided into three ridings and the Ainsty of York. The term 'riding' is of Viking origin and derives from Threthingr meaning a third part. The three ridings in Yorkshire were named the East Riding, West Riding and North Riding.WEB,weblink GENUKI: Yorkshire Genealogy, Colin, Hinson, genuki.org.uk, 2011, 29 June 2011, The East and North Ridings of Yorkshire were separated by the River Derwent and the West and North Ridings were separated by the Ouse and the Ure/Nidd watershed. In 1974, the three ridings of Yorkshire were abolished and York, which had been independent of the three ridings, was incorporated into the new county called North Yorkshire. It later became part of York Unitary Authority.WEB,weblink LGBCE – Yorkshire and the Humber, lgbce.org.uk, 2011, 29 June 2011, {{Clear}}

Cities and towns

{{Largest cities of Yorkshire}}{{Clear}}

Local government

For statistical purposes, Yorkshire is divided, as of 2018, between three regions of England. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber. The extreme northern part of the county, such as Middlesbrough, Redcar, Holwick and Startforth, fall within North East England. Small areas in the west of the historic county, like Saddleworth, Barnoldswick and Sedbergh, fall within North West England. During these processes the geographical or historic boundaries of Yorkshire remained unchanged.Within the regions are both ceremonial counties, and the actual units of local government, such as unitary authorities, as detailed at Local government divisions of Yorkshire and the Humber, Local government divisions of North East England and Local government divisions of North West England.

Economy

{{More citations needed section|date=September 2009}}File:Bridgewater Place from Call Lane.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|Bridgewater PlaceBridgewater PlaceYorkshire has a mixed economy, and accounts for about 8% of UK GDP. The City of Leeds is Yorkshire's largest city and the leading centre of trade and commerce. Leeds is also one of the UK's larger financial centres. Leeds' traditional industries were mixed; service-based industries, textile manufacturing and coal mining being examples. Tourism is also significant. In 2015, the value of tourism was in excess of £7 billion.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140907044648weblink">weblink dead, 7 September 2014, Economy, Yorkshire Universities, 2012–2014, 10 November 2017, Sheffield once had heavy industries, such as coal mining and the steel industry. Since the decline of such industries Sheffield has attracted tertiary and administrative businesses including more retail trade; Meadowhall being an example. However, while Sheffield's heavy industry has declined, the region has reinvented itself as a centre for specialist engineering with Boeing and Maclaren establishing facilities in the city. A cluster of hi-tech facilities including The Welding Institute and the Boeing partnered Advanced Materials Research CentreWEB,weblink amrc.co.uk, Advanced Materials Research Centre, 10 November 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090426235602weblink">weblink 26 April 2009, dead, have all helped to raise the region's profile and to bring significant investment into Yorkshire.{{citation needed|reason=Says who?|date=November 2014}}Bradford, Halifax, Keighley and Huddersfield once were centres of wool milling. Areas such as Bradford, Dewsbury and Keighley have suffered a decline in their economy since.North Yorkshire has an established tourist industry, supported by the presence of two national parks (Yorkshire Dales National Park, North York Moors National Park), Harrogate, York and Scarborough and this industry is also growing in Leeds. Kingston upon Hull is Yorkshire's largest port and has a large manufacturing base, its fishing industry has however declined somewhat in recent years. Harrogate and Knaresborough both have small legal and financial sectors. Harrogate is a European conference and exhibition destination with both the Great Yorkshire Showground and Harrogate International Centre in the town.Coal mining was extremely active in the south of the county during the 19th century and for most of the 20th century, particularly around Barnsley and Wakefield. As late as the 1970s, the number of miners working in the area was still in six figures.WEB,weblink BBC – Bradford and West Yorkshire – A Sense of Place – Coal mining in West Yorkshire: The end of an era, 16 November 2011, The industry was placed under threat on 6 March 1984 when the National Coal Board announced the closure of 20 pits nationwide (some of them in South Yorkshire). By March 2004, a mere three coalpits remained open in the area.NEWS,weblink Watching the pits disappear, BBC News, London, 16 November 2011, 5 March 2004, Three years later, the only remaining coal pit in the region was Maltby Colliery near Rotherham.NEWS,weblink Jobs safeguarded as coal pit sold, BBC News, London, 16 November 2011, 27 February 2007, Yorkshire has been the focus of various industrial promotion and development initiatives, such as Yorkshire Forward, and today various local enterprise partnerships. There are also a number of innovation centres belonging to leading companies, and a range of spin-off companies linked to major universities.Many large British companies are based in Yorkshire or were founded there. These include HSBC (Sheffield), Morrisons (Bradford), Asda (Leeds), Jet2.com (Leeds), Ronseal (Sheffield), Optare (Leeds), Aunt Bessie's (Hull), Birds Eye (Hull), Wharfedale (Leeds), Plaxton (Scarborough), Seven Seas (Hull), Little Chef (Sheffield), Plusnet (Sheffield), Quidco (Sheffield), Fenner plc (Hull), Halifax Bank (Halifax), Rank Organisation (Hull), Yorkshire Bank (Leeds), William Jackson Food Group (Hull), Yorkshire Building Society (Bradford), Ebuyer (Howden), GHD (Leeds), Marks and Spencer (Leeds), Burtons (Leeds), Jaeger (Ilkley), Magnet Kitchens (Keighley), Reckitt and Sons (Hull), McCains (Scarborough), First Direct (Leeds), KCOM Group (Hull), Tetley's Brewery (Leeds), Timothy Taylor Brewery (Keighley), Bradford and Bingley (Bingley), Skipton Building Society (Skipton), Bettys and Taylors of Harrogate, SGS Europe (Hull) and Provident Financial (Bradford).

Education

Yorkshire has a large base of primary and secondary schools operated by both local authorities and private bodies, and a dozen universities, along with a wide range of colleges and further education facilities. Four universities are based in Leeds, two in Sheffield, two in York, and one each in Bradford, Hull, Middlesbrough and Huddersfield (the last with branches in Barnsley and Oldham). The largest universities by enrolment are Sheffield Hallam University and the University of Leeds, each with over 31,000 students, followed by Leeds Beckett University, and the most recent to attain university status is the Leeds Arts University. There are also branches of institutions headquartered in other parts of England, such as the Open University and Britain's first for-profit university (since 2012), the University of Law. The tertiary sector is in active cooperation with industry, and a number of spin-off companies have been launched.

Transport

File:A1(M) and M62 interchange.jpg|thumb|left|The A1(M) and M62 junction at FerrybridgeFerrybridgeThe most prominent road in Yorkshire, historically called the Great North Road, is known as the A1.WEB,weblink The Motorway Archive, Region: North East – Trunk Road A1 in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071017013308weblink">weblink 17 October 2007, dead, This trunk road passes through the centre of the county and is the prime route from London to Edinburgh.WEB,weblink Motorway Database, 24 April 2008, Marshall, Chris, Clive, Jones, Chris "c2R", John, Mohan, George, Carty, 2008, CBRD,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080511231246weblink">weblink 11 May 2008, dead, Another important road is the more easterly A19 road which starts in Doncaster and ends just north of Newcastle-upon-Tyne at Seaton Burn. The M62 motorway crosses the county from east to west from Hull towards Greater Manchester and Merseyside.WEB,weblink Government of the United Kingdom, M62 Liverpool to Hull, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081121171006weblink">weblink 21 November 2008, dead, The M1 carries traffic from London and the south of England to Yorkshire. In 1999, about {{convert|8|mi|km}} was added to make it swing east of Leeds and connect to the A1.WEB,weblink Motorway Database, 24 April 2008, Marshall, Chris, 2008, CBRD, The East Coast Main Line rail link between Scotland and London runs roughly parallel with the A1 through Yorkshire and the Trans Pennine rail link runs east to west from Hull to Liverpool via Leeds.WEB,weblink Yorkshire Forward, East Coast Mainline Upgrade Could Create 2000 New Jobs, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061111004250weblink">weblink 11 November 2006, Before the advent of rail transport, the seaports of Hull and Whitby played an important role in transporting goods. Historically canals were used, including the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, which is the longest canal in England. Mainland Europe (the Netherlands and Belgium) can be reached from Hull via regular ferry services from P&O Ferries.WEB,weblink BoozeCruise.com, Hull Ferry Port Information, 24 October 2007, Yorkshire also has air transport services from Leeds Bradford International Airport. This airport has experienced significant and rapid growth in both terminal size and passenger facilities since 1996, when improvements began, until the present day.WEB,weblink Airports-Worldwide.com, Leeds Bradford International Airport, 24 October 2007, South Yorkshire is served by the Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, based in Finningley.WEB,weblink RobinHoodAirport.com, History of the Airport, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070723010136weblink">weblink 23 July 2007, dead, Sheffield City Airport opened in 1997 after years of Sheffield having no airport, due to a council decision in the 1960s not to develop one because of the city's good rail links with London and the development of airports in other nearby areas. The newly opened airport never managed to compete with larger airports such as Leeds Bradford International Airport and East Midlands Airport and attracted only a few scheduled flights, while the runway was too short to support low cost carriers. The opening of Doncaster Sheffield Airport effectively made the airport redundant and it officially closed in April 2008.

Public transport statistics

The average amount of time people spend on public transport in Yorkshire on a weekday is 77 minutes. 26.6% of public transport users travel for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transport is 16 minutes, while 24.9% of passengers wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transport is 7 km, while 10% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.WEB, Yorkshire Public Transportation Statistics, Global Public Transit Index by Moovit,weblink 19 June 2017, (File:CC-BY icon.svg|50px) Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Culture

{{See also|Yorkshire dialect and accent}}The culture of the people of Yorkshire is an accumulated product of a number of different civilisations who have influenced its history, including; the Celts (Brigantes and Parisii), Romans, Angles, Norse Vikings, and Normans amongst others.BOOK, Northern Britons, Christopher A., Snyder, 10.1002/9780470758366.ch10, The western part of the historic North Riding had an additional infusion of Breton culture due to the Honour of Richmond being occupied by Alain Le Roux, grandson of Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany.WEB,weblink Everything.com, Earl of Richmond, 24 October 2007, The people of Yorkshire are immensely proud of their county and local culture and it is sometimes suggested they identify more strongly with their county than they do with their country.WEB,weblink Conservatives.com, He's a shrewd, straight-talking Yorkshireman – not English, mind you, Yorkshire,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070617065152weblink">weblink 17 June 2007, 7 May 2015, Yorkshire people have their own Yorkshire dialects and accents and are, or rather were, known as Broad Yorkshire or Tykes, with its roots in Old English and Old Norse.WEB,weblink Tyke: It's all the Vikings' fault (sort of), 14 February 2017, Keane, Peter, BBC Bradford and West Yorkshire, BBC, WEB,weblink
Voices > Glossary >author= work=BBC News, 14 February 2017, Though distinct accents remain, dialects are no longer in everyday use. Some have argued the dialect was a fully fledged language in its own right.BOOK
, Kellett
, Arnold
, The Yorkshire Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore
, Smith Settle
, January 1994
,weblink
, 1-85825-016-1, The county has also produced a set of Yorkshire colloquialisms,WEB,weblink Yorkshire Dialect, Castelow, Ellen, 21 April 2016, Historic UK, Historic UK, 14 February 2017, Nah then,’ow do? – Nobbut middlin’., which are in use in the county. Among Yorkshire's traditions is the Long Sword dance. The most famous traditional song of Yorkshire is On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at ("On Ilkley Moor without a hat"), it is considered the unofficial anthem of the county.WEB,weblink DKSnakes.co.uk, The National Anthem of Yorkshire 'God's own county', 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070912065527weblink">weblink 12 September 2007, dead,

Architecture

File:England1 144.jpg|thumb|right|Castle HowardCastle HowardThroughout Yorkshire many castles were built during the Norman-Breton period, particularly after the Harrying of the North. These included Bowes Castle, Pickering Castle, Richmond Castle, Skipton Castle, York Castle and others.WEB,weblink Castles in Yorkshire, Britain Express, 24 October 2007, Later medieval castles at Helmsley, Middleham and Scarborough were built as a means of defence against the invading Scots.WEB,weblink About Yorkshire, English Heritage, 24 October 2007, Middleham is notable because Richard III of England spent his childhood there. The remains of these castles, some being English Heritage sites, are popular tourist destinations. There are several stately homes in Yorkshire which carry the name "castle" in their title, even though they are more akin to a palace.WEB,weblink Castle Howard, Britain Express, 24 October 2007, The most notable examples are Allerton Castle and Castle Howard,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080527221321weblink">weblink dead, 27 May 2008, Northside, August 2006, NorthernLifestyle.com, 24 October 2007, PDF, both linked to the Howard family.BOOK, Saumarez Smith, Charles, The Building of Castle Howard, University of Chicago Press, 1990,weblink 0-226-76403-6, Castle Howard and the Earl of Harewood's residence, Harewood House, are included amongst the Treasure Houses of England, a group of nine English stately homes.WEB,weblink Welcome to The Treasure Houses of England, TreasureHouses.co.uk, 24 October 2007, There are numerous other Grade I listed buildings within the historic county including public buildings such as Leeds Town Hall, Sheffield Town Hall, Ormesby Hall, the Yorkshire Museum and Guildhall at York, and the Piece Hall in Halifax.WEB,weblink The Piece Hall – Halifax, 13 October 2014, Large estates with significant buildings were constructed at Brodsworth Hall, Temple Newsam and Wentworth Castle. In addition to this there are properties which are conserved and managed by the National Trust, such as Nunnington Hall, the Rievaulx Terrace & Temples and Studley Royal Park.WEB,weblink Yorkshire & the North East, National Trust, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071022022645weblink">weblink 22 October 2007, dead, Religious architecture includes extant cathedrals as well as the ruins of monasteries and abbeys. Many of these prominent buildings suffered from the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII; these include Bolton Abbey, Fountains Abbey, Gisborough Priory, Rievaulx Abbey, St Mary's Abbey and Whitby Abbey among others.WEB,weblink Yorkshire Abbeys – Yorkshire Minsters – Yorkshire Cathedrals, Dalesman.co.uk, 24 October 2007, Notable religious buildings of historic origin still in use include York Minster, the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe, Beverley Minster, Bradford Cathedral and Ripon Cathedral.

Literature and art

(File:Painting of Brontë sisters.png|upright=0.8|thumb|left|The Brontë sisters)Although the first Professor of English Literature at Leeds University, F.W. Moorman, claimed the first extant work of English literature, Beowulf, was written in Yorkshire,BOOK, F. W., Moorman, English Place Names and the Teutonic Sagas, Oliver, Elton, English Association Essays and Studies, 5, Oxford, Clarendon, 1914, 75f, this view does not have common acceptance today. However, when Yorkshire formed the southern part of the kingdom of Northumbria there were several notable poets, scholars and ecclesiastics, including Alcuin, Cædmon and Wilfrid.WEB,weblink Whitby-Abbey.co.uk, Whitby Abbey, 25 October 2007, The most esteemed literary family from the county are the three Brontë sisters, with part of the county around Haworth being nicknamed Brontë Country in their honour.WEB,weblink BronteFamily.org, Biography of Family, 25 October 2007, Their novels, written in the mid-19th century, caused a sensation when they were first published, yet were subsequently accepted into the canon of great English literature.WEB,weblink UniversalTeacher.org.uk, A brief history of English literature, 25 October 2007, Among the most celebrated novels written by the sisters are Anne Brontë's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre and Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights. Wuthering Heights was almost a source used to depict life in Yorkshire, illustrating the type of people that reside there in its characters, and emphasising the use of the stormy Yorkshire moors. Nowadays, the parsonage which was their former home is now a museum in their honour.WEB,weblink Bronte Parsonage events and listings, digyorkshire.com, 18 June 2009, Bram Stoker authored Dracula while living in WhitbyWEB,weblink Dracula-in-Whitby.com, Bram Stoker and Whitby, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071028103605weblink">weblink 28 October 2007, dead, and it includes several elements of local folklore including the beaching of the Russian ship Dmitri, which became the basis of Demeter in the book.WEB,weblink BBC, Coast: Point 6 – Stoker, 25 October 2007, The novelist tradition in Yorkshire continued into the 20th and 21st centuries, with authors such as J. B. Priestley,WEB,weblink Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk, J. B. Priestley, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514055015weblink">weblink 14 May 2011, dead, Alan Bennett, Stan Barstow, Dame Margaret Drabble, A S Byatt, Barbara Taylor Bradford,NEWS,weblink The Guardian, The 50 greatest Yorkshire people?, 25 October 2007, London, Martin, Wainwright, 19 October 2005, Marina Lewycka and Sunjeev Sahota being prominent examples. Taylor Bradford is noted for A Woman of Substance which was one of the top-ten best selling novels in history.WEB,weblink The Book Show, Barbara Taylor-Bradford: The best-selling author on the latest in the Ravenscar saga, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071115075552weblink">weblink 15 November 2007, dead, Another well-known author was children's writer Arthur Ransome, who penned the Swallows and Amazons series. James Herriot, the best selling author of over 60 million copies of books about his experiences of some 50 years as a veterinarian in Thirsk, North Yorkshire, the town which he refers to as Darrowby in his booksWEB,weblink Hello Yorkshire, Thirsk Tourist Information, 8 June 2009, (although born in Sunderland), has been admired for his easy reading style and interesting characters.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, James Herriot, 78, writer, Dies; Animal Stories Charmed People, 24 February 1995, 6 April 2010, Mary B. W., Tabor, Poets include Ted Hughes, W. H. Auden, William Empson, Simon Armitage, David Miedzianik and Andrew Marvell.WEB,weblink Luminarium.org, The Life of Andrew Marvell (1621–1678), 25 October 2007, WEB,weblink TheOtherPages.org, Poets' Corner – Andrew Marvell – Selected Works IV, 25 October 2007, WEB,weblink Simon Armitage Biography, 5 November 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130113034616weblink">weblink 13 January 2013, dead, WEB,weblink The Poetry of David Miedzianik, 7 October 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061010083520weblink">weblink 10 October 2006, dead, Three well known sculptors emerged in the 20th century; contemporaries Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth, and Leeds-raised eco artist Andy Goldsworthy. Some of their works are available for public viewing at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park.WEB,weblink Haworth-Village.org.uk, Visiting Yorkshire Sculpture Park – Bretton Hall, 25 October 2007, There are several art galleries in Yorkshire featuring extensive collections, such as Ferens Art Gallery, Leeds Art Gallery, Millennium Galleries and York Art Gallery.WEB,weblink My-Yorkshire.co.uk, Yorkshire Art Galleries, 25 October 2007, WEB,weblink List of art galleries in Yorkshire, digyorkshire.com, 18 June 2009, WEB,weblink RedRagGallery.co.uk, Yorkshire Art Gallery and Galleries, 25 October 2007, Some of the better known local painters are William Etty and David Hockney;WEB,weblink Artchive.com, David Hockney, 25 October 2007, many works by the latter are housed at Salts Mill 1853 Gallery in Saltaire.WEB,weblink 1853 Gallery, Visit Bradford, 28 May 2008,

Sport

Yorkshire has a long tradition in the field of sports, with participation in cricket, football, rugby league and horse racing being the most established sporting ventures.NEWS,weblink Yorkshire Post, Yorkshire clubs aim to cash in on jackpot, 3 October 2008, 3 October 2008, WEB,weblink YorkshireRugbyLeague.co.uk, Rugby League in Yorkshire, 25 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070822131613weblink">weblink 22 August 2007, WEB,weblink Napit.co.uk, Yorkshire County Cricket Club, 25 October 2007, BOOK, Ellerington, Alison, The Kiplingcotes Derby, Hyperion Books, 1989, 978-0-948929-32-8, Yorkshire County Cricket Club represents the historic county in the domestic first class cricket County Championship; with a total of 33 championship titles (including one shared), 13 more than any other county, Yorkshire is the most decorated county cricket club. Some of the most highly regarded figures in the game were born in the county,WEB,weblink Dalesview.co.uk, Yorkshire Win County Championship, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060421081836weblink">weblink 21 April 2006, amongst them Geoffrey Boycott, Brian Close, George Hirst, Len Hutton, Stanley Jackson, Ray Illingworth, Wilfred Rhodes, Jonny Bairstow, Joe Root, Herbert Sutcliffe, Fred Trueman and Hedley Verity.England's oldest horse race, which began in 1519, is run each year at Kiplingcotes near Market Weighton. Continuing this tradition in the field of horse racing, there are currently (:Category:Horse racing venues in Yorkshire|nine established racecourses) in the county.WEB,weblink My-Yorkshire.co.uk, Yorkshire Racecourses, 25 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716025959weblink">weblink 16 July 2011, Britain's oldest organised fox hunt is the Bilsdale, founded in 1668.NEWS,weblink A short history of the foxhunt, The Guardian, 19 November 2004, 2 November 2008, London, NEWS,weblink Three centuries of hunting foxes
date = 16 September 1999, 2 November 2008, File:Original laws of the game 1863.jpg|thumb|195px|The original hand-written 'Laws of the Game' drafted for and on behalf of The Football Association by Ebenezer Cobb MorleyEbenezer Cobb MorleyYorkshire is officially recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football,WEB,weblink FIFA, Sheffield FC: 150 years of history, 25 October 2007, WEB,weblink FIFA, FIFA marks Sheffield FC's anniversary, 25 October 2007, as Sheffield FC founded in 1857 are certified as the oldest association football club in the world.WEB,weblink SheffieldFC.com, Famous sons and daughters, 25 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927210342weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, The world's first inter-club match and local derby was competed in the county, at the world's oldest ground Sandygate Road.WEB,weblink BBC, The Ultimate A-Z of Sheffield, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070220051324weblink">weblink 20 February 2007, The Laws of the Game, used worldwide, were drafted by Ebenezer Cobb Morley from Hull.BOOK, Harvey, Adrian, Football, the First Hundred Years: The Untold Story of the People's Game, Routledge, January 2005,weblink 0-415-35018-2, Football clubs founded in Yorkshire include Barnsley, Bradford City, Doncaster Rovers, Huddersfield Town, Hull City, Leeds United, Middlesbrough, Rotherham United, Sheffield United, Sheffield Wednesday and York City, four of which have been the league champions. Huddersfield were the first club to win three consecutive league titles.WEB,weblinkaccessdate=25 October 2007, Middlesbrough came to prominence by reaching the 2006 UEFA Cup FinalHTTP://WWW.UEFA.COM/COMPETITIONS/UEFACUP/HISTORY/SEASON=2005/INTRO.HTML >TITLE=UEFA EUROPA LEAGUE – ACCESSDATE=5 AUGUST 2011, and winning the 2004 League Cup.HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/SPORT1/HI/FOOTBALL/LEAGUE_CUP/3507795.STM >WORK=BBC NEWS DATE=29 FEBRUARY 2004, 6 April 2010, Leeds United are arguably the biggest team in Yorkshire, reaching the semi-finals of the UEFA Champions League in 2001 and having a period of dominance in the 1970s; this position is often paralleled with Sheffield Wednesday who have had similar spells of dominance, most recently in the early 1990s. Noted players from Yorkshire who have influenced the game include World Cup-winning goalkeeper Gordon Banks and two time European Footballer of the Year award winner Kevin Keegan.WEB,weblink IFHOF.com, Gordon Banks, 25 October 2007, WEB,weblink Norman Phillips Organisation, Kevin Keegan Biography, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070422172356weblink">weblink 22 April 2007, dead, Prominent managers include Herbert Chapman, Brian Clough, Bill Nicholson, George Raynor and Don Revie.NEWS,weblink The Times, The top 50 managers of all time, 25 October 2007, 12 September 2007, London, Matt, Dickinson, The Yorkshire International Football Association was founded in 2017.NEWS,weblink How Yorkshire has launched its own international team, Henson, Mike, 5 December 2017, BBC Sport, 4 March 2018, It organises the Yorkshire football team and is a member of the Confederation of Independent Football Associations (CONIFA).WEB, Yorkshire,weblink Members, CONIFA, 4 March 2018, The Rugby Football League and with it the sport of rugby league was founded in 1895 at the George Hotel, Huddersfield, after a North-South schism within the Rugby Football Union.WEB,weblink Napit.co.uk, The History of Rugby League, 25 October 2007, The top league is the Super League and the most decorated Yorkshire clubs are Huddersfield Giants, Hull FC, Bradford Bulls, Hull Kingston Rovers, Wakefield Trinity Wildcats, Castleford Tigers and Leeds Rhinos.WEB,weblink RLHallofFame.org.uk, League Champions, 25 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071214214410weblink">weblink 14 December 2007, In total six Yorkshiremen have been inducted into the Rugby Football League Hall of Fame amongst them is Roger Millward, Jonty Parkin and Harold Wagstaff.WEB,weblink RLHallofFame.org.uk, Rugby League Hall of Fame, 25 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011022141weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, In the area of boxing "Prince" Naseem Hamed from Sheffield achieved title success and widespread fame,NEWS,weblink BBC, Naseem Hamed profile, 25 October 2007, 12 May 2006, in what the BBC describes as "one of British boxing's most illustrious careers". Along with Leeds-born Nicola Adams who in 2012 became the first female athlete to win a boxing gold medal at the Olympics.Nicola Adams Makes Olympic Boxing History Sky News, 9 August 2012.Yorkshire also has an array of racecourses: in North Yorkshire there are Catterick, Redcar, Ripon, Thirsk and York; in the East Riding of Yorkshire there is Beverley; in West Yorkshire there are Pontefract and Wetherby; while in South Yorkshire there is Doncaster.The sport of Knurr and Spell was unique to the region, being one of the most popular sports in the area during the 18th and 19th centuries, before a decline in the 20th century to virtual obscurity.EPISODE, Countryfile, Knurr and Spell,weblink BBC One, 30 January 2011, NEWS, BBC News,weblink Yorkshire game of 'knurr and spell' rediscovered for TV, 28 January 2011, WEB, Kirklees Council, Tolson Museum Top Ten – Knurrs, spell and pommel, Holland, Isobel, April 2010,weblink 28 January 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150324191805weblink">weblink 24 March 2015, dead, A number of athletes from or associated with Yorkshire took part in the 2012 Summer Olympics as members of Team GB; the Yorkshire Post stated that Yorkshire's athletes alone secured more gold medals than those of Spain.NEWS,weblink Yorkshire Post, Campbell is Yorkshire's last action hero as Hull fighter secures seventh gold for the White Rose, 15 August 2012, 13 August 2012, Notable Yorkshire athletes include Jessica Ennis-Hill and the Brownlee brothers, Jonathan and Alastair. Jessica Ennis-Hill is from Sheffield and won gold at the 2012 Olympics in London and silver at the 2016 Olympics in Rio. Triathletes Alastair and Jonny Brownlee have won two golds and a silver and bronze respectively.Yorkshire is considered to be particularly fond of cycling. In 2014 the County hosted the Grande Depart of the Tour de France. Spectator crowds over the two days were estimated to be of the order of 2.5 million people, making it the highest attended event in the UK.NEWS,weblink Tour de France: Yorkshire stages watched by 2.5m, 6 July 2014, BBC News, 13 October 2014, The inaugural Tour de Yorkshire was held from 1–3 May 2015,NEWS,weblink Tour de Yorkshire cycle race is confirmed, 26 September 2014, BBC News, 9 January 2015, with start and finishes in Bridlington, Leeds, Scarborough, Selby, Wakefield and York,NEWS,weblink Tour de Yorkshire bosses reveal start and finish locations, 22 December 2014, 7 January 2014, BBC News, watched by 1.2 million.WEB, Tour de Yorkshire: More than 1.2m turn out for cycle race,weblink BBC News, 3 May 2015, 13 May 2015, Yorkshire will host the 2019 UCI Road World Championships between September 22 and 29, which will be held in Harrogate.WEB,weblink The Races, Pete, Wilson, Yorkshire 2019 UCI Road World Championships, 19 August 2019,

Cuisine

File:Roastbeef with yorkshire puddings.jpg|thumb|left|Yorkshire puddings, served as part of a traditional Sunday roastSunday roastThe traditional cuisine of Yorkshire, in common with the North of England in general, is known for using rich-tasting ingredients, especially with regard to sweet dishes, which were affordable for the majority of people.WEB,weblink Amanda Persey, Favourite Yorkshire Recipes, 25 October 2007, There are several dishes which originated in Yorkshire or are heavily associated with it. Yorkshire pudding, a savoury batter dish, is by far the best known of Yorkshire foods, and is eaten throughout England. It is commonly served with roast beef and vegetables to form part of the Sunday roast but is traditionally served as a starter dish filled with onion gravy within Yorkshire.WEB,weblink inpursuitofperfection, The Ultimate Yorkshire Pudding recipe, 7 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140223062513weblink">weblink 23 February 2014, dead, Yorkshire pudding is the base for toad in the hole, a dish containing sausage.WEB,weblink about.com, Individual Toad in the Hole Recipe, 7 August 2012, Other foods associated with the county include Yorkshire curd tart, a curd tart recipe with rosewater;WEB,weblink BBC, Yorkshire curd tart, 16 November 2014, parkin, a sweet ginger cake which is different from standard ginger cakes in that it includes oatmeal and treacle;WEB,weblink AboutFood.com, Right good food from the Ridings, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070607194557weblink">weblink 7 June 2007, and Wensleydale cheese, a cheese made with milk from Wensleydale and often eaten as an accompaniment to sweet foods.WEB,weblink Wensleydale.org, Yorkshire Recipes: Ginger Beer, 25 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071009023533weblink">weblink 9 October 2007, The beverage ginger beer, flavoured with ginger, came from Yorkshire and has existed since the mid-18th century. Liquorice sweet was first created by George Dunhill from Pontefract, who in the 1760s thought to mix the liquorice plant with sugar.WEB,weblink Wakefield Council, Liquorice in Pontefract, 27 November 2014, Yorkshire and in particular the city of York played a prominent role in the confectionery industry, with chocolate factories owned by companies such as Rowntree's, Terry's and Thorntons inventing many of Britain's most popular sweets.NEWS,weblink Yorkshire Post, Safeguard for chocolate heritage, 20 September 2007, 25 October 2007, NEWS,weblink VisitYork.org, Chocolate is to York what mustard is to Norwich, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080131165503weblink">weblink 31 January 2008, dead, Another traditional Yorkshire food is pikelets, which are similar to crumpets but much thinner.WEB,weblink Seymour-Recipes.com, Yorkshire Pikelets, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090112003627weblink">weblink 12 January 2009, dead, The Rhubarb Triangle is a location within Yorkshire which supplies most of the rhubarb to locals.In recent years curries have become popular in the county, largely due to the immigration and successful integration of Asian families. There are many famous curry empires with their origins in Yorkshire, including the 850-seater Aakash restaurant in Cleckheaton, which has been described as "the world's largest curry house".NEWS,weblink New owner for world's largest curry house, Roberts, John, 20 October 2006, Yorkshire Post, 22 March 2009,

Beer and brewing

Yorkshire has a number of breweries including Black Sheep, Copper Dragon, Cropton Brewery, John Smith's, Sam Smith's, Kelham Island Brewery, Theakstons, Timothy Taylor, Wharfedale Brewery and Leeds Brewery.WEB,weblink Breweries in the Historic County of Yorkshire, quaffale.org.uk, 3 May 2009, WEB
,weblink
, About Leeds Brewery
, leedsbrewery.co.uk
, 7 August 2012
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120723124905weblink">weblink
, 23 July 2012
, The beer style most associated with the county is bitter.WEB,weblink Yorkshire Beer Guide – Sally Howard freelance writer, sallyhoward.net, 3 May 2009,
As elsewhere in the North of England, when served through a handpump, a sparkler is used giving a tighter, more solid head.
WEB,weblink Roosters brewery – Frequently asked questions, roosters.co.uk, 3 May 2009
weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080612055702weblink">weblink >archivedate = 12 June 2008, Brewing has taken place on a large scale since at least the 12th century, for example at the now derelict Fountains Abbey which at its height produced 60 barrels of strong ale every ten days.WEB,weblink beer, by holy orders – St Albans Ale, Beer-pages.com, 5 August 2011, Most current Yorkshire breweries date from the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th century.

Music

File:Kate Rusby live.jpg|thumb|right|Kate RusbyKate RusbyYorkshire has a heritage of folk music and folk dance including the Long Sword dance.BOOK, C. J., Sharp, Sword Dances of Northern England Together with the Horn Dance of Abbots Bromley, Kessinger Publishing, 2003, Yorkshire folk song was distinguished by the use of dialect, particularly in the West Riding and exemplified by the song 'On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at', probably written in the late 19th century, using a Kent folk tune (almost certainly borrowed via a Methodist hymnal),{{Citation needed|date=July 2015}} seen as an unofficial Yorkshire anthem.BOOK, A., Kellett, On Ilkla Mooar baht 'at: the Story of the Song, Smith Settle, 1988, Famous folk performers from the county include the Watersons from Hull, who began recording Yorkshire versions of folk songs from 1965;BOOK, R., Nidel, World Music: The Basics,weblink registration, London, Routledge, 2005, 90, Heather Wood (born 1945) of the Young Tradition; the short-lived electric folk group Mr Fox (1970–72), The Deighton Family; Julie Matthews; Kathryn Roberts; and Kate Rusby. Yorkshire has a flourishing folk music culture, with over forty folk clubs and thirty annual folk music festivals.WEB, Folk and Roots',weblink Yorkshire based Artists and Groups, 15 December 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130209201537weblink">weblink 9 February 2013, The 1982 Eurovision Song Contest was held in the Harrogate International Centre. In 2007 the Yorkshire Garland Group was formed to make Yorkshire folk songs accessible online and in schools.NEWS, Folk songs of traditional Yorkshire to be celebrated on group's heritage website, Yorkshire Post,weblink 1 September 2007, 12 February 2009, In the field of classical music, Yorkshire has produced some major and minor composers, including Frederick Delius, George Dyson, Edward Bairstow, William Baines, Kenneth Leighton, Eric Fenby, Haydn Wood, Arthur Wood, Arnold Cooke, Gavin Bryars, and in the area of TV, film and radio music, John Barry and Wally Stott.The county is home to successful brass bands such as Black Dyke, Brighouse & Rastrick, Carlton Main Frickley, Hammonds Saltaire, and Yorkshire Imperial.File:Arctic Monkeys Orange RF07.jpg|thumb|left|Arctic MonkeysArctic MonkeysDuring the 1970s David Bowie, himself of a father from Tadcaster in North Yorkshire,EPISODE,weblink Episode for 29 November 2003, Parkinson (TV series), Parkinson, 29 November 2003, hired three musicians from Hull: Mick Ronson, Trevor Bolder and Mick Woodmansey; together they recorded Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, an album considered by a magazine article as one of a 100 greatest and most influential of all time.NEWS,weblink Time, The All-TIME 100 Albums, 25 October 2007, 2 November 2006, In the following decade, Def Leppard, from Sheffield, achieved worldwide fame, particularly in America. Their 1983 album Pyromania and 1987 album Hysteria are among the most successful albums of all time.{{citation needed|date=July 2015}} Yorkshire had a very strong post-punk scene which went on to achieve widespread acclaim and success, including: The Sisters of Mercy, The Cult, Vardis, Gang of Four, ABC, The Human League, New Model Army, Soft Cell, Chumbawamba, The Wedding Present and The Mission.WEB,weblink BBC, Will the gods come from Leeds?, 25 October 2007, Pulp from Sheffield had a massive hit in "Common People" during 1995; the song focuses on working-class northern life.WEB,weblink BBC, Common People, 25 October 2007, In the 21st century, indie rock and post-punk revival bands from the area gained popularity, including the Kaiser Chiefs, The Cribs and the Arctic Monkeys, the last-named holding the record for the fastest-selling debut album in British music history with Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not.NEWS, BBC News,weblink Arctic Monkeys win Mercury Prize, 25 October 2007, 5 September 2006,

Film and television productions

Among prominent British television shows filmed in (and based on) Yorkshire are the sitcom Last of the Summer Wine, the drama series Heartbeat, and the soap operas Emmerdale and Downton Abbey. Last of the Summer Wine in particular is noted for holding the record of longest-running comedy series in the world, from 1973 until 2010.WEB,weblink Summer-Wine.com, Summer Wine – The Story, 3 October 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080501132716weblink">weblink 1 May 2008, Other notable television series set in Yorkshire include All Creatures Great and Small, The Beiderbecke Trilogy, Rising Damp, Fat Friends and The Royal. Several noted films are set in Yorkshire, including Kes, This Sporting Life, Room at the Top, Brassed Off, Mischief Night, Rita, Sue and Bob Too and Calendar Girls. The Full Monty, a comedy film set in Sheffield, won an Academy Award and was voted the second best British film of all time by ANI.WEB,weblink Yahoo!, Monty Python's 'Life of Brian' tops Best British Movie list, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080105090427weblink">weblink 5 January 2008, Yorkshire has remained a popular location for filming in more recent times.WEB,weblink Yorkshire on Film and TV, 2016, Yorkshire Net, Yorkshire Net, 10 February 2017, WEB,weblink Yorkshire wins funding to grow film hub, Daniels, Nia, 2 October 2016, The Knowledge Online, Media Business Insight Limited, 10 February 2017, Yorkshire has been announced by the BFI as the winner of National Lottery funding, aimed at encouraging emerging screen sector hubs, For example, much of ITV's highly acclaimed Victoria was filmed in the region, at locations such as Harewood House in Leeds and Beverley Minster; the latter was used to depict Westminster Abbey and St James’ Palace.NEWS,weblink Victoria, ITV: cast, locations, and four other things you need to know about the period drama, Travis, Ben, 28 August 2016, London Evening Standard, 10 February 2017, It was mostly filmed in Yorkshire. Recreating the opulence of royalty was achieved by a mix of locations and studio shoots., NEWS, Jacobs, Sherelle, 6 October 2016, Victoria: filming locations in Yorkshire and where to stay,weblink The Daily Telegraph, London, 10 February 2017, West Yorkshire has particularly benefited from a great deal of production activity.WEB,weblink Productions at North Light Film Studios, 2017, North Light Film Studios, North Light Film Studios, 10 February 2017, NEWS, Film & TV,weblink Examiner, Huddersfield, 29 October 2016, 10 February 2017, For example, portions of the BBC television series Happy Valley and Last Tango in Halifax were filmed in the area, in Huddersfield and other cities; in addition to exteriors, some of the studio filming for Happy Valley was done at North Light Film Studios at Brookes Mill, Huddersfield. As well, the BBC's Jamaica Inn, for the BBC's Remember Me and for ITV series Black Work, were also filmed at the studios and in nearby West Yorkshire locations.NEWS, Ballinger, Lauren, 5 December 2014, North Light Film Studios – Remember Me filming locations,weblink Examiner, Huddersfield, 10 February 2017, NEWS,weblink Sally Wainwright: not the same old, The Guardian, 3 November 2013, 19 January 2014, Rees, Caroline, NEWS,weblink Last Tango in Halifax actress Sarah Lancashire begins shooting new crime drama in Yorkshire, Radio Times, 11 December 2013, 19 January 2014, Bremner, Jade, NEWS,weblink Creative England provides filming location and crew support to new BBC drama Happy Valley when filming in Yorkshire, Creative England, 29 April 2014, 12 June 2014, More recently, many of the exteriors of the BBC series Jericho were filmed at the nearby Rockingstone Quarry and some interior work was done at North Light Film Studios.NEWS, Gildea, Samantha, 1 February 2016, Jericho filming locations,weblink Examiner, Huddersfield, 10 February 2017,

Politics and identity

Representation

File:Wilberforce john rising.jpg|thumb|William Wilberforce, leading abolitionist, was the MP for Yorkshire in 1784–1812.]]From 1290, Yorkshire was represented by two members of parliament of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England. After the union with Scotland, two members represented the county in the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. In 1832 the county benefited from the disfranchisement of Grampound by taking an additional two members.WEB,weblink Election. Demon.co.uk, Parliamentary Constituencies in the unreformed House, 25 October 2007, Yorkshire was represented at this time as one single, large, county constituency. Like other counties, there were also some county boroughs within Yorkshire, the oldest of which was the City of York, which had existed since the ancient Montfort's Parliament of 1265. After the Reform Act 1832, Yorkshire's political representation in parliament was drawn from its subdivisions, with members of parliament representing each of the three historic Ridings of Yorkshire; East Riding, North Riding, and West Riding constituencies.For the 1865 general elections and onwards, the West Riding was further divided into Northern, Eastern and Southern parliamentary constituencies, though these only lasted until the major Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.WEB,weblink Revision-Notes.co.uk, 1885 Redistribution Act, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071012082430weblink">weblink 12 October 2007, This act saw more localisation of government in the United Kingdom, with the introduction of 26 new parliamentary constituencies within Yorkshire, while the Local Government Act 1888 introduced some reforms for the county boroughs, of which there were eight in Yorkshire by the end of the 19th century.WEB,weblink Government of the United Kingdom, Local Government Act 1888, 25 October 2007, With the Representation of the People Act 1918 there was some reshuffling on a local level for the 1918 general election, revised again during the 1950s.WEB,weblink Parliament.co.uk, Representation of the People Act 1918, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070311003222weblink">weblink 11 March 2007, The most controversial reorganisation of local government in Yorkshire was the Local Government Act 1972,WEB,weblink Government of the United Kingdom, Local Government Act 1972, 25 October 2007, put into practice in 1974. Under the act, the Ridings lost their lieutenancies, shrievalties, and administrative counties. County boroughs and their councils were abolished, to be replaced by metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties with vastly changed borders. Although some government officialsWEB,weblink AroundSaddleworth.co.uk, White Rose or Red, 25 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728172415weblink">weblink 28 July 2011, dead, and Prince CharlesWEB,weblink The Guardian, Elsewhere (reprint of original article), 23 September 2004, 30 December 2010,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20090316081249weblink">weblink 16 March 2009, dead, have asserted such reform is not meant to alter the ancient boundaries or cultural loyalties, there are pressure groups such as the Yorkshire Ridings Society who want greater recognition for the historic boundaries.WEB,weblink Yorkshire Ridings Society, About, 3 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120805051852weblink">weblink 5 August 2012, dead, In 1996 the East Riding of Yorkshire was reformed as a unitary authority area and a ceremonial county. The Yorkshire and the Humber region of Government Office covers most, but not all of the historic county. Yorkshire and the Humber is a constituency for European elections, returning six MEPs to the European Parliament.

Distinctive identity and devolution campaigns

A number of claims have been made for the distinctiveness of Yorkshire, as a geographical, cultural and political entity, and these have been used to demand increased political autonomy. In the early twentieth century, F. W. Moorman, the first professor of English Language at Leeds University, claimed Yorkshire was not settled by Angles or Saxons following the end of Roman rule in Britain, but by a different Germanic tribe, the Geats. As a consequence, he claimed, it is possible the first work of English literature, Beowulf, believed to have been composed by Geats, was written in Yorkshire, and this distinctive ethnic and cultural origin is the root of the unique status of Yorkshire today. One of Moorman's students at Leeds University, Herbert Read, was greatly influenced by Moorman's ideas on Yorkshire identity, and claimed that until recent times Yorkshire was effectively an island, cut off from the rest of England by rivers, fens, moors and mountains. This distancing of Yorkshire from England led Read to question whether Yorkshire people were really English at all.NEWS, Herbert, Read, Review of Frederic Richard Pearson, Yorkshire, The Times Literary Supplement, 31 January 1929, 79, Combined with the suggested ethnic difference to the rest of England, Read quoted Frederic Pearson, who wrote:During the premiership of William Pitt the Younger the hypothetical idea of Yorkshire becoming independent was raised in the British parliament in relation to the question whether Ireland should become part of the United Kingdom. This resulted in an anonymous pamphlet being published in London in 1799 arguing at length that Yorkshire could never be an independent state as it would always be reliant on the rest of the United Kingdom to provide it with essential resources.Anonymous pamphlet, Thoughts on national independence, suggested by Mr. Pitt's speeches on the Irish union by a member of the honourable society of Lincoln's Inn, (London: Printed Privately, 1799), pp.25–27Although in the devolution debates in the House of Commons of the late 1960s, which paved the way for the 1979 referenda on the creation of a Scottish parliament and Welsh assembly, parallel devolution for Yorkshire was suggested, this was opposed by the Scottish Nationalist Party Member of Parliament for Hamilton, Winifred Ewing. Ewing argued that it was offensive to Scots to argue that an English region had the same status as an 'ancient nation' such as Scotland.Hansard Parliamentary Papers, HC Deb, 14 February 1969, vol. 777, cc1725-76The relationship between Yorkshire and Scottish devolution was again made in 1975 by Richard Wainwright, MP for Colne Valley, who claimed in a speech in the House of Commons:In more recent years, in 1998 the Campaign for Yorkshire was established to push for the creation of a Yorkshire regional assembly,BOOK, Robert, Hazell, The State and the Nations: The First Year of Devolution in the United Kingdom, London, Imprint Academic, 2000, 118, sometimes dubbed the Yorkshire Parliament.NEWS, Where there's muck, The Independent, 18 March 1999, 3, In its defining statement, the Campaign for Yorkshire made reference to the historical notions that Yorkshire had a distinctive identity:The Campaign for Yorkshire was led by Jane Thomas as DirectorNEWS, New Director for Campaign Group, Scunthorpe Evening Telegraph, 13 October 1999, 5, and Paul Jagger as chairman. Jagger claimed in 1999 that Yorkshire had as much right to a regional parliament or assembly as Scotland and Wales because Yorkshire 'has as clear a sense of identity as Scotland or Wales.'NEWS, Martin, Wainwright, Revolutionary Yorkshiremen edge towards devolution, The Guardian, 18 March 1999, 11, One of those brought into the Campaign for Yorkshire by Jane Thomas was Herbert Read scholar Michael Paraskos, who organised a series of events in 2000 to highlight the distinctiveness of Yorkshire culture. This included a major exhibition of Yorkshire artists.NEWS, Andrew, Martin, Arts: Where There's Muck, There's Art, The Independent, 4 August 2000, 9, Paraskos also founded a Yorkshire Studies degree course at Hull University.NEWS, Robin, Yound, Ee by gum! Yorkshire gets its own degree, The Times, London, 8 March 2001, Interviewed by The Guardian newspaper, Paraskos linked the start of this course to the contemporary devolution debates in Yorkshire, Scotland and Wales, claiming:}}In March 2013, the Yorkshire Devolution Movement was founded as an active campaign group by Nigel Sollitt, who had administrated the social media group by that name since 2011, Gareth Shanks, a member of the social media group, and Stewart Arnold, former Chair of the Campaign for Yorkshire. In September 2013, the Executive Committee was joined by Richard Honnoraty and Richard Carter (as an advisor), who had also been involved in the Campaign for Yorkshire. The Movement campaigns for a directly elected parliament for the whole of the traditional county of Yorkshire with powers second to no other devolved administration in the UK.NEWS, Dean, Kirby, Campaigners want to ditch George Osborne's Yorkshire devolution plans and create Northern Powerhouse, The Independent, 26 August 2015,weblink 19 June 2019, WEB, What we Want,weblink Yorkshire Devolution Movement, 19 June 2019, In 2014, Richard Carter, Stewart Arnold and Richard Honnoraty, founded Yorkshire First, a political party campaigning for the creation of a Yorkshire parliament by 2050 based on the Scottish Parliament. It was later renamed the Yorkshire Party.NEWS, Grant, Woodward, The grass roots party putting Yorkshire first, Yorkshire Post, 6 July 2015,

Monarchy and peerage

File:TheSingleWhiteRose.jpg|thumb|The White Rose of YorkWhite Rose of YorkWhen the territory of Yorkshire began to take shape as a result of the invasion of the Danish vikings, they instituted a monarchy based at the settlement of Jórvík, York.WEB,weblink Viking.no, The Rulers of Jorvik (York), 24 October 2007, The reign of the Viking kings came to an end with the last king Eric Bloodaxe dying in battle in 954 after the invasion and conquest by the Kingdom of England from the south. Jórvík was the last of the independent kingdoms to be taken to form part of the Kingdom of England and thus the local monarchal title became defunct.WEB,weblink Viking.no, Jorvik – who Ruled it and When?, 24 October 2007, Though the monarchal title became defunct, it was succeeded by the creation of the Earl of York title of nobilityWEB,weblink NorthEastEngland.talktalk.net, Timeline of North East History, 24 October 2007, by king of England Edgar the Peaceful in 960. (The earldom covered the general area of Yorkshire and is sometimes referred to as the Earl of Yorkshire.) The title passed through the hands of various nobles, decided upon by the king of England. The last man to hold the title was William le Gros, however the earldom was abolished by Henry II as a result of a troubled period known as The Anarchy.WEB,weblink SQA.org.uk, Murder in the Cathedral: Crown, Church and People 1154–1173, 24 October 2007, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080527221320weblink">weblink 27 May 2008, dead, The peerage was recreated by Edward III in 1385, this time in the form of the prestigious title of Duke of York which he gave to his son Edmund of Langley. Edmund founded the House of York; later the title was merged with that of the King of England. Much of the modern-day symbolism of Yorkshire, such as the White Rose of York, is derived from the Yorkists,WEB,weblink YorkshireHistory.com, The White Rose of Yorkshire, 24 October 2007, giving the house a special affinity within the culture of Yorkshire. Especially celebrated is the Yorkist king Richard III who spent much of his life at Middleham Castle in Yorkshire.WEB,weblink Richard III Society – Yorkshire Branch, Why a Yorkshire Branch Site?, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071124043401weblink">weblink 24 November 2007, dead, Since that time the title has passed through the hands of many, being merged with the crown and then recreated several times. The title of Duke of York is given to the second son of the British monarch.WEB,weblink UKDukes.co.uk, The Dukes of the Peerage of the United Kingdom: Duke of York, 24 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080319081521weblink">weblink 19 March 2008, dead,

Notable people

See also

{{Div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

Notes

{{note label|wars|a|a}} Though the Wars of the Roses were fought between royal houses bearing the names of York and Lancaster, the wars took place over a wide area of England. They were a dynastic clash between cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet. The most prominent family in Yorkshire, below the monarchy, the Nevilles of Sheriff Hutton and Middleham, fought for the Yorkists, as did the Scropes of Bolton, the Latimers of Danby and Snape, as well as the Mowbrays of Thirsk and Burton in Lonsdale. Yet some fought for the Lancastrians, such as the Percies, the Cliffords of Skipton, Ros of Helmsley, Greystock of Henderskelfe, Stafford of Holderness, and Talbot of Sheffield.

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

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