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Xinjiang re-education camps
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Expanded in 2016{{Failed verification|date=September 2019}} {{small|(under party secretary Chen Quanguo)}}
TITLE=BRAINWASHING, POLICE GUARDS AND COERCIVE INTERNMENT: EVIDENCE FROM CHINESE GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS ABOUT THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF XINJIANG'S "VOCATIONAL TRAINING INTERNMENT CAMPS" JOURNAL=JOURNAL OF POLITICAL RISK ISSUE=7, 1 July 2019, 1 million – 3 million (Schriver estimate)NEWS,weblink China putting minority Muslims in 'concentration camps,' U.S. says, Stewart, Phil, 4 May 2019, Reuters, 17 September 2019, NEWS,weblink In Push for Trade Deal, Trump Administration Shelves Sanctions Over China's Crackdown on Uighurs, Rappeport, Alan, 4 May 2018, The New York Times, 17 September 2019, Wong, Edward, }}{{Chinese|title=Vocational Education and Training Centers|pic=|piccap=|uig=|usy=|uly=|s=职业技能教育培训中心|t=|l=|w=|p=zhíyè jìnéng jiàoyù péixùn zhōngxīn|s2=|t2=|l2=|w2=|p2=|c=|j=|mi=|ci=|altname=}}{{Chinese|title=Re-education camps|pic=|piccap=|uig=قايتا تەربىيەلەش لاگېرلىرى|usy=Қайта тәрбийәләш лагерлири|uly=Qayta terbiyelesh lagérliri|s=再教育营|t=|l=|w=|p=zàijiàoyùyíng|s2=|t2=|l2=|w2=|p2=|c=|j=|mi=|ci=|altname=}}Vocational Education and Training Centers,WEB,weblink 新疆的反恐、去极端化斗争与人权保障, 18 March 2019, Xinhuanet.com, 20 July 2019, WEB,weblink 新疆维吾尔自治区去极端化条例, shilei, Xjpcsc.gov.cn, 20 July 2019, WEB,weblink Full Text: Vocational Education and Training in Xinjiang, 16 August 2019, Xinhua, Beijing, 17 September 2019, commonly known as re-education camps, are internment campsNEWS,weblink China claims Muslims detention camps are just 'boarding schools', Giordano, Chiara, 12 March 2019, The Independent, 13 March 2019, NEWS,weblink Saudi crown prince defends China's right to put Uighur Muslims in concentration camps, Ensor, Josie, 22 February 2019, The Daily Telegraph, NEWS,weblink China is creating concentration camps in Xinjiang. Here's how we hold it accountable, 24 November 2018, The Washington Post, 29 March 2019, that have been operated by the People's Republic of China Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional government for the purpose of interning Uyghur Muslims since 2014. They have significantly intensified since a hardline party secretary, Chen Quanguo, took charge of the region in August 2016. These camps are reportedly operated outside of the legal system; many Uyghurs have been interned without trial and no charges have been levied against them.NEWS,weblink Arrests skyrocketed in China's Muslim far west in 2017, 25 July 2018, France24, 15 September 2019, AFP, WEB,weblink 'Permanent cure': Inside the re-education camps China is using to brainwash Muslims, Business Insider, 17 May 2018, WEB,weblink China: Big Data Fuels Crackdown in Minority Region, Human Rights Watch, 26 February 2018, Local authorities are reportedly holding hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs and Muslims from other ethnic minorities in these camps, for the stated purpose of countering extremism and terrorism.WEB,weblink China detains thousands of Muslims in re-education camps, ucanews.com, 13 September 2017, WEB,weblink High Numbers of Uyghurs Targeted for Re-Education Camps, Voice of America, 10 October 2017, WEB,weblink Xinjiang's "transformation through education" camps, Michael, Clarke, 25 May 2018, The Interpreter, Lowy Institute, 25 May 2018, WEB,weblink Why are Muslim Uyghurs being sent to 're-education' camps, 8 June 2018, Al Jazeera, 11 June 2018, NEWS,weblink How Should the World Respond to Intensifying Repression in Xinjiang?, Thum, Rian, 4 June 2018, ChinaFile, 4 June 2018, Center on U.S.-China Relations at Asia Society, Harris, Rachel, Leibold, James, Batke, Jessica, Carrico, Kevin, Roberts, Sean R., As of 2018, it is estimated that the Chinese authorities may have detained hundreds of thousands, perhaps a million, of Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Hui (Muslims) and other ethnic Turkic Muslims, Christians as well as some foreign citizens such as Kazakhstanis, who are kept in these secretive internment camps throughout the region.WEB,weblink Rights groups criticise sharp rise in arrests in China's Xinjiang province, The Irish Times, 26 July 2018, NEWS,weblink China's reeducation camps for Muslims are beginning to look like concentration camps, 24 October 2018, Vox, WEB,weblink China steps up surveillance on Xinjiang Muslims, Financial Times, 18 July 2018, WEB,weblink Thousands of Uyghur Muslims detained in Chinese 'political education' camps, CNN, 3 February 2018, WEB,weblink 100 Christians sent to 're-education' camps in Xinjiang, Business Insider, 15 May 2018, NEWS,weblink Muslims forced to drink alcohol and eat pork in China's're-education'camps, former inmate claims, Shih, Gerry, 18 May 2018, The Independent, 18 May 2018, Kang, Dake, In May 2018, Randall Schriver of the United States Department of Defense claimed that "at least a million but likely closer to three million citizens" were imprisoned in detention centers in a strong condemnation of the "concentration camps". In August 2018, a United Nations human rights panel said that it had received many credible reports that 1 million ethnic Uyghurs in China have been held in "re-education camps".WEB,weblink China Uighurs: One million held in political camps, UN told, BBC, 10 August 2018, WEB,weblink U.N. says it has credible reports that China holds million Uighurs in secret camps, 10 August 2018, Reuters, In July 2019, the United Nations ambassadors from 22 nations, including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom, signed a letter condemning China's mass detention of the Uyghurs and other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the camps.WEB,weblink 22 countries sign letter calling on China to close Xinjiang Uyghur camps, CNN, en, NEWS,weblink More than 20 ambassadors condemn China's treatment of Uighurs in Xinjiang, 11 July 2019, The Guardian, 15 September 2019, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Egypt, Russia, North Korea, the Philippines, Pakistan, Iran, Syria and PalestineNEWS,weblink Fifty ambassadors throw weight behind China on Xinjiang, 27 July 2019, Global Times, 28 July 2019, are among 50 other states supported China's policy in Xinjiang.NEWS,weblink Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?, 15 July 2019, The Diplomat, NEWS,weblink Saudi Arabia and Russia among 37 states backing China's Xinjiang policy, Miles, Tom, 13 July 2019, Reuters, 13 July 2019, The crown prince of Saudi Arabia, Mohammed bin Salman, has applauded China for its public safety and counter-terrorism measures, saying that it has a "right to fight against terrorism".NEWS,weblink Saudi crown prince defends China's right to fight 'terrorism', 23 February 2019, Al Jazeera, 21 May 2019, The Organization for Islamic Cooperation has also produced a document which “commends the efforts of the People’s Republic of China in providing care to its Muslim citizens.”NEWS,weblink China Thanks 37 Countries, Including Islamic States, for Praising Its Uighur Policies, Goodenough, Patrick, 15 July 2019, CNS News, 31 August 2019,

History

Antireligious campaigns in China

The government of the People's Republic of China officially espouses state atheism,BOOK, Religious Minorities and China, Dillon, Michael, 2001, Minority Rights Group International, English, and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end.BOOK, Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian Perspectives, Buang, Sa'eda, Chew, Phyllis Ghim-Lian, 9 May 2014, Routledge, 978-1-317-81500-6, 75, English, Subsequently, a new China was found on the basis of Communist ideology, i.e. atheism. Within the framework of this ideology, religion was treated as a 'contorted' world-view and people believed that religion would necessarily disappear at the end, along with the development of human society. A series of anti-religious campaigns was implemented by the Chinese Communist Party from the early 1950s to the late 1970s. As a result, in nearly 30 years between the beginning of the 1950s and the end of the 1970s, mosques (as well as churches and Chinese temples) were shut down and Imams involved in forced 're-education'.,

Xinjiang conflict

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Before Chen Quanguo

File:Number of re-education related government procurement bids in Xinjiang.svg|300px|thumb|Number of re-education related government procurement bids in Xinjiang according to the Jamestown FoundationJamestown FoundationBoth prior to and until shortly after the July 2009 Ürümqi riots, Wang Lequan was the Party secretary for the Xinjiang region, effectively the highest subnational role; roughly equivalent to a governor in a Western province or state. Wang worked on modernization programs in Xinjiang, including industrialization, development of commerce, roads, railways, hydrocarbon development and pipelines with neighboring Kazakhstan to eastern China. On the other hand, Wang constrained local culture and religion, replaced the Uyghur language with Standard Mandarin as the medium of education in primary schools, and penalized or banned among government workers (in a region in which the government was a very large employer), the wearing of beards and headscarves, fasting and praying while on the job.NEWS,weblink A Strongman Is China's Rock in Ethnic Strife, Wines, Michael, 10 July 2009, The New York Times, 2 January 2019, NEWS,weblink Security chiefs failed to spot signs calling for Uighur revolt, Swain, Jon, 12 July 2009, The Sunday Times, 12 July 2009, London, WEB,weblink Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang, Human Rights Watch, 11 April 2005, In April 2010, after the Ürümqi riots, Zhang Chunxian replaced Wang Lequan as the Communist Party chief. Zhang Chunxian continued and strengthened Wang's repressive policies. In 2011, Zhang proposed "modern culture [to the exclusion of Uyghur tradition] leads the development in Xinjiang" as his policy statement and started to implement his modern culture propaganda.WEB,weblink Integrating Islam The Key To 'Modern Culture' In Xinjiang – OpEd, eurasiareview.com, 23 August 2012, In 2012, he first mentioned the phrase "de-extremification" () campaigns and started to educate "wild Imams" () and extremists ().WEB,weblink No Tolerance for 'Wild Imams' in China – But 'Weibo Imams' are Thriving, whatsonweibo.com, 16 March 2016, WEB,weblink China Detains, Brainwashes 'Wild' Imams Who Step Out of Line in Xinjiang, Radio Free Asia, 17 October 2016, JOURNAL, Zenz, Adrian, 15 May 2018, New Evidence for China's Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang,weblink Jamestown Foundation, 18, 10, 15 May 2018, China Brief, In 2014, Chinese authorities announced a "People's war on terror" and local government introduced new restrictions and banned "abnormal" long beards, the wearing of veils in public places and naming of children to exaggerate religious fervor (including names such as Muhammad or Fatimah)WEB,weblink China Uighurs: Xinjiang ban on long beards and veils, BBC, 1 April 2017, WEB,weblink China bans burqas and 'abnormal' beards in Muslim province of Xinjiang, The Independent, 30 March 2017, WEB,weblink US-China trade war; More on the Xinjiang "re-education" camps, nb.sinocism.com, 5 July 2018, as a campaign against terrorism and extremism.WEB,weblink Semi-Autonomous Region of China with Terrorist Ties: Xinjiang and the Uyghur, opslens.com, 31 July 2018, WEB,weblink Xinjiang: China ignores lessons from the past, almasdarnews.com, 11 July 2018, Under Zhang, the Communist Party launched its "Strike Hard Campaign against Violent Terrorism" in Xinjiang, leading to many remands, detentions, arrests, and incarcerations.{{cn|date=September 2019}}

Chen Quanguo and the Xinjiang police state

In August 2016, Chen Quanguo, a well-known hardline Communist Party leader in Tibet,WEB,weblink Tibetan self-immolators dismissed as 'criminals' by Chinese officials, The Guardian, 7 March 2012, took charge of the Xinjiang autonomous region. Chen was branded as responsible for a major component of Tibet's "subjugation" by critics.JOURNAL, Zenz, Adrian, Leibold, James, 21 September 2017, Chen Quanguo: The Strongman Behind Beijing's Securitization Strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang,weblink en-US, Jamestown Foundation, 17, 12, 11 October 2017, China Brief, Followed Chen's arrival, local authorities recruited over 90,000 police officers in 2016 and 2017 – twice as many as they recruited in the past seven years,WEB,weblink A Surveillance State Unlike Any the World Has Ever Seen, Der Spiegel, 26 July 2018, and laid out as many as 7300 heavily guarded check points in the region.WEB,weblink BBC, zh-Hans, zh:英媒:新疆铁腕控制 汉人也叫苦连天, 11 November 2017, The province has come to be known as one of the most heavily policed regions of the world. Gradually the concept of "transformation through education" started to expose and came to be systematically used with the "de-extremification" campaigns.WEB,weblink New Evidence for China's Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang, uhrp.org, 15 May 2018, International media have labelled the current regime in Xinjiang as "the most extensive police state in the world".NEWS,weblink China has turned Xinjiang into a police state like no other, 2018-05-31, The Economist, 2019-01-02, 0013-0613, Local media have reported on these facilities and generally referred them as "counter-extremism training centers" ({{zh|s=去极端化培训班|labels=no}}) and "education and transformation training centers" ({{zh|s=教育转化培训中心|labels=no}}). Most of those facilities are converted from existing schools or other official buildings, although some are specifically built for "reeducation" purposes.WEB,weblink China: Free Xinjiang 'Political Education' Detainees, Human Rights Watch, 10 September 2017, The heavily policed region and thousands of check points assisted and accelerated the detainment of locals to the camps. In 2017 the region constituted 21% of all arrests in China despite comprising less than 2% of the national population, eight times more than previous year.WEB,weblink How a Chinese region that accounts for just 1.5% of the population became one of the most intrusive police states in the world, Business Insider, 21 July 2018, NEWS, Chris, Buckley,weblink China's Prisons Swell After Deluge of Arrests Engulfs Muslims, The New York Times, 22 September 2019, The judicial and other government bureaus of many cities and counties started to release a series of procurement and construction bids for those planned camps and facilities. Increasingly, massive detention centers were built up throughout the region and are being used to hold hundreds of thousands of people targeted for their religious practices and ethnicity.WEB,weblink What's happening to Xinjiang's Uighur Muslims?, BBC, 2 August 2018, NEWS,weblink A Summer Vacation in China's Muslim Gulag, 28 February 2018, Foreign Policy, 28 February 2018, WEB,weblink Muslims in China province detained in 're-education camps', Hindustan Times, 17 May 2018, WEB,weblink Passports taken, more police ... new party boss Chen Quanguo acts to tame Xinjiang with methods used in Tibet, South China Morning Post, 12 December 2016, According to political economist Victor Shih of the University of California, San Diego, the mass internments were totally unnecessary—no proportional active insurgency existed. He points out that a great deal of money was spent setting up the various camps, and that the money likely went to associates of the politicians who created the camps.WEB,weblink A Political Economist on How China Sees Trump's Trade War {{!, The New Y… |date=2019-05-23 |website=archive.is |access-date=2019-07-02}}

Camp facilities

In urban areas, most of the camps are converted from existing vocational schools, communist party schools, ordinary schools or other official buildings, while in suburban or rural areas the majority of camps were specially built for the purposes of re-education.NEWS,weblink China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps', Phillips, Tom, 25 January 2018, The Guardian, 17 September 2018, These camps are guarded by armed forces or special police and equipped with prison-like gates, surrounding walls, security fences, surveillance systems, watchtowers, guard rooms and facilities for armed police etc.WEB,weblink China suggests its camps for Uighurs are just vocational schools, The Economist, 18 August 2018, WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180706221430weblink">weblink Approval opinion for the environmental impact report on Atush vocational skills training center project, archive.org, 6 July 2017, WEB,weblink Patriotic songs and self-criticism: why China is 're-educating' Muslims in mass detention camps, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 25 July 2018, WEB,weblink China's Mass Internment Camps Have No Clear End in Sight, Foreign Policy, 22 August 2018, In November and December 2018, the magazine Bitter Winter released three videos it claimed had been shot inside two camps in the Yining area. The videos show jail-like features and the magazine claimed they proved that the camps are detention facilities rather than "schools".WEB,weblink Camps for Uyghurs, "schools" or jails?, Li, Zaili, 12 November 2018, Bitter Winter, 29 November 2018, WEB,weblink Another "Transformation Through Education" Camp for Uyghurs Exposed in Xinjiang, Introvigne, Massimo, 26 November 2018, Bitter Winter, 29 November 2018, WEB,weblink Yingye'er Re-education Camp Managed Like Prison, Introvigne, Massimo, 11 December 2018, Bitter Winter, 12 December 2018, According to Business Insider, the second "Bitter Winter’s video... matches the descriptions of former detainees and witnesses of other detention facilities in Xinjiang."WEB,weblink Shocking footage purportedly shows cells inside prison camp where China oppresses Muslim minority, Ma, Alexandra, 27 November 2018, Business Insider, 30 November 2018, While there is no public, verifiable data for the number of camps, there have been various attempts to document suspected camps based on satellite imagery and government documents. On 15 May 2017, Jamestown Foundation, a Washington, D.C. based institute, released a list of 73 government bids related to re-education facilities. On 14 May 2018, Radio Free Asia (RFA) reported that there are at least 8 suspected camps in Kargilik County, Kashgar Prefecture alone.WEB,weblink Kargilik County government bid, rfa.com, 14 May 2018, On 1 November 2018, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute's (ASPI) International Cyber Policy Centre (ICPC) reported on suspected camps in 28 locations.WEB,weblink Mapping Xinjiang's 're-education' camps, Ryan, Fergus, Cave, Danielle, 1 November 2018, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, en, 10 March 2019, Ruser, Nathan, On 29 November 2018, Reuters and Earthrise Media reported 39 suspected camps.NEWS,weblink Tracking China's Muslim Gulag, Wen, Phillip, 29 November 2018, Reuters, 10 March 2019, Auyezov, Olzhas,

Camp detainees

Background

File:Xinjiang Re-education Camp Lop County.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Detainees listening to speeches in a re-education camp in (Lop County]], Xinjiang, April 2017.WEB,weblink Knocking the door of the mind with emotion, use reasons to ease the mood of the people, Web.archive.org, 14 April 2017, WEB,weblink The Repression of Uyghurs Is Now an All-Out War Against a People, thediplomat.com, 24 August 2018, )Many media reports said that hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs-as well as Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and other ethnic minoritiesNEWS,weblink China tightens grip on Xinjiang region: Report, ÅžimÅŸek, Ayhan, 2 August 2018, Anadolu Agency, 2 August 2018, NEWS,weblink What Really Happens in China's 'Re-education' Camps, Thum, Rian, 15 May 2018, The New York Times, 15 May 2018, WEB,weblink China Operates Political and Ideological Re-Education Camps in Xinjiang, unpo.org, 14 September 2017, WEB,weblink Re-education camps make a comeback in China's far-west, nchrd.org, 24 October 2017, are being detained without trial in "re-education camps" in the province.{{cn|date=September 2019}} In January 2018, China Digital Times reported that an estimated 120,000 members of the Uyghurs are currently being held in political re-education camps in Kashgar prefecture alone.WEB,weblink RFA: 120,000 Uyghurs Held in Kashgar for Re-education, China Digital Times, 25 January 2018, NEWS, June, Cheng,weblink China's reeducation camps, World (magazine), World, God's World Publications, 29 March 2018, WEB,weblink Human Rights Activists Say Xinjiang Uighur Reeducation Camps Overflowing, 26 January 2018, Sputnik News Agency, Radio Free Asia claimed the camps are estimated to hold as much as 10 percent of the Uyghur population.WEB,weblink One in 10 Uyghur Residents of Xinjiang Township Jailed or Detained in 'Re-Education Camp', Radio Free Asia, 29 June 2018, WEB,weblink China: one in five arrests take place in 'police state' Xinjiang, The Guardian, 25 July 2018, The United States-based Uyghur politician Rebiya Kadeer, who has been in exile since 2005, has had as many as 30 relatives detained or disappeared, including her sisters, brothers, children, grandchildren, and siblings;WEB,weblink URGENT ACTION: 30 RELATIVES OF UIGHUR ACTIVIST ARBITRARILY DETAINED (CHINA: UA 251.17), Amnesty International.org, 11 April 2017, WEB,weblink A New Gulag in China, National Review, 22 May 2018, and it is unclear when they were taken away.WEB,weblink 'More Than 30' Relatives of Uyghur Exile Leader Rebiya Kadeer Detained in Xinjiang, Radio Free Asia, 27 October 2017, WEB,weblink Uyghur Activist Rebiya Kadeer's Relatives Detained, China Digital Times, 15 November 2017, In the past few years, dozens of family members of six Radio Free Asia Uyghur Service reporters have been locked up in re-education camps due to their job in the United States. These reporters spent years in exile for documenting human rights abuses under the Chinese government's rule in their homeland. They also shared the fate of many others who are being held without due process for ill-defined reasons.WEB,weblink RFA'S UYGHUR REPORTERS TELL THE STORIES OF THEIR FAMILY MEMBERS' DETENTIONS, Radio Free Asia, 21 April 2018, WEB,weblink Overcrowded Political Re-Education Camps in Hotan Relocate Hundreds of Uyghur Detainees, Radio Free Asia, 26 January 2018, On 13 July 2018, Sayragul Sauytbay, an ethnic Kazakh Chinese national and former employee of the Chinese state, appeared in a court in the city of Zharkent, Kazakhstan for being accused of illegally crossing the border between the two countries. During the trial she talked about her forced work at a re-education camp for 2,500 ethnic Kazakhs.WEB,weblink Kazakh Trial Sheds Light on Interned Chinese Muslims, Transitions Online, 19 July 2018, NEWS,weblink China's 'prison-like re-education camps' strain relations with Kazakhstan as woman asks Kazakh court not to send her back, 17 July 2018, 17 July 2018, AFP, South China Morning Post, Her lawyer believed that if she is extradited to China, she would face the death penalty for exposing re-education camps in Kazakh court.WEB,weblink Kazakhstan-China deportation case sparks trial of public opinion, nikkei.com, 26 July 2018, Her testimony for the re-education camps have become the focus of a court case in Kazakhstan,NEWS,weblink Ethnic Kazakh's life in balance as deportation to China looms, Kumenov, Almaz, 17 July 2019, Eurasianet, 17 July 2018, which is also testing the country's ties with Beijing.WEB,weblink Kazakh trial throws spotlight on China's internment centres, Financial Times, 31 July 2018, WEB,weblink Chinese 'reeducation camps' in spotlight at Kazakh trial, Yahoo! News, 17 July 2018, On 1 August 2018, Sayragul Sauytbay, who fled one of the Chinese re-education camps, was released with a six-month suspended sentence and direction to regularly check in with police. She has applied for asylum in Kazakhstan and will not be deported to China.WEB,weblink Kazakh court frees woman who fled Chinese re-education camp, The Guardian, 1 August 2018, WEB,weblink Sauytbay Trial Ends in Kazakhstan With Surprising Release, thediplomat.com, 1 August 2018, WEB,weblink Cheers as Kazakh court thwarts deportation of Chinese woman who fled 're-education camp' in Xinjiang, South China Morning Post, 2 August 2018, Gene Bunin created the Xinjiang Victims DatabaseWEB,weblink Database of Xinjiang Victims, Shahit.biz, 2019-03-10, to collect public testimonies on people detained in the camps. Each page lists basic demographic information including dates and suspected cause of detention, location, in addition to supplementary videos, photos and documents.Writing in the Journal of Political Risk in July 2019, independent researcher Adrian Zenz estimated the upper speculative limit to the number of people detained in Xinjiang re-education camps at 1.5 million.JOURNAL, Zenz, Adrian, Brainwashing, Police Guards and Coercive Internment: Evidence from Chinese Government Documents about the Nature and Extent of Xinjiang's "Vocational Training Internment Camps",weblink Journal of Political Risk, 7, 7, 1 July 2019,

Radio Free Asia interviews

{{Prose|section|date=September 2019}}Radio Free Asia, a US government-funded non-profit, conducted a series of telephone interview with local judicial and police officials.
  • On 20 November 2017, Radio Free Asia conducted a telephone interview with an official from the Bulaksu Township judicial station in Konasheher County, who claimed: "In Bulaksu township, 2514 people were imprisoned and 806 people were sent to re-education centers."WEB,weblink Judicial Bureau official: In Bulaksu township 2514 people were imprisoned and 806 people were sent to reeducation centers, www rfa.org, 20 November 2017,
  • On 21 June 2018, in a telephone interview, an official from the Tuwet Township judicial station in Karakax County, said: "In Tuwet township 1731 people were imprisoned and 1721 people were sent to re-education centers."WEB,weblink Judicial Bureau official: In Bulaksu township 1731 people were imprisoned and 1721 people were sent to reeducation centers, www.rfa.org, 21 June 2018,
  • On 2 August 2018, in a telephone interview with an official from the Hankitam Township police station in Kuqa County, the police said: "We've sent approximately 5000 people to the re-education centers and no one has been released until now."WEB,weblink Police Station: "We approximately sent 5000 people to the reeducation centers", www rfa.org, 2 August 2018,
  • On 17 August 2018, in a telephone interview with some police officials of Toksu County, the police said: "In this county approximately 22,000 people are in re-education centers."WEB,weblink Police: "In this county approximately 22,000 people are in reeducation centers", www.rfa.org, 17 August 2018,
  • On 21 August 2018, in a telephone interview with police officials of Onsu County, the police told RFA that: "There are 4 re-education centers in this county and currently 30,000 people are in them."WEB,weblink Police: "There has 4 reeducation centers in this county and currently 30,000 people are in education centers", www.rfa.org, 20 August 2018,
  • On 21 August 2018, Radio Free Asia interviewed some police officials of Keriya County. The police said: "There are 4 re-education centers in this county. The first one is the original detention center. The second one is a newly built camp near the detention center. The third and fourth re-education centers are located in an industrial park. Currently almost 30,000 people are in education centers."WEB,weblink Keriya County Police: "Almost 30 thousand people are in reeducation centers", www.rfa.org, 30 August 2018, The next day, RFA conducted telephone interviews with judicial officials in the Yingibagh Township of the same Keriya County. The official claimed that "Among 242 of the people who were sent to the re-education camps, they have bank loans. Seven of them, aged 31 to 42, died in the education centers. Three of them bank loans were exempted, and the other four's bank loans were in the process of issuing exemptions."WEB,weblink Keriya County official: "seven people who currently have bank loans died in reeducation centers", www.rfa.org, Radio Free Asia, ug, 31 August 2018,
  • On 18 December 2018, Radio Free Asia reported that Chinese authorities arrested an ethnic Uyghur senior court official Ghalip Qurban (in China's judicial system) after he expressed concern over the mass incarceration of members of his ethnic group in recent years.WEB,weblink Xinjiang Authorities Arrest Uyghur Court Official Who Denounced Political Re-education Camps, Radio Free Asia, en, 2018-12-25, Qurban, the deputy head of the Intermediate People’s Court in the XUAR capital Ãœrümqi, was "distressed by the vast number of Uyghurs and other Muslim ethnic minorities who had been detained in political re-education camps throughout the XUAR since April 2017 after being accused of harboring 'strong religious views' and 'politically incorrect' ideas." Qurban was reportedly called in for multiple "chats" with officials from the State Security Department after speaking out about the policy. Uyghur senior court officials are required to sign off on sentences issued in cases concerning crimes of "terrorism" and "religious extremism" in Xinjiang, and Qurban may have believed he might later be judged to have been a party to crimes against humanity. The report stated that Qurban's family and friends only learned of his arrest a month after he was taken into custody. A staff member at the Urumqi Intermediate People’s Court told RFA that Qurban had been removed from his post "quite a long time ago—six months or a year," when asked to confirm his arrest, but was unsure whether he had been imprisoned or sent to a re-education camp.

Treatment

In January 2018, Abdurahman Hasan, a Uyghur businessman from Kashgar, was interviewed by BBC News in Turkey and asked the Chinese government to shoot his 68-year-old mother and 22-year-old wife after learning of the inhuman torture conducted in one of the camps in Kashgar.WEB,weblink China Xinjiang police state: Fear and resentment, BBC, 1 February 2018, Kayrat Samarkand, a Kazakh citizen who migrated from Xinjiang, was detained in one of the "re-education camps" in the region for three months for visiting neighboring Kazakhstan. On 15 February 2018, Kazakh Foreign Minister Kairat Abdrakhmanov sent a diplomatic note to the Chinese Foreign Ministry, the same day as Kayrat Samarkand was freed from custody.WEB,weblink Kazakh Man Recounts 'Reeducation' In Western Chinese Camp, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty/Radio Liberty, 26 April 2018, After his release, Samarkand shared his distressing experience and claimed that he faced endless brainwashing and humiliation, and that he was forced to study communist propaganda for hours every day and chant slogans giving thanks and wishing for a long life to Xi Jinping, current General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.WEB,weblink Muslim inmates in China detention camp forced to eat pork, drink alcohol and physically tortured as some commit suicide, muslimcouncil.org.hk, 19 May 2018, Mihrigul Tursun, an Uyghur woman detained in China, after escaping one of these camps, described details of torture and beatings. Educated in Egypt, Tursun had traveled to China in 2015 to spend time with her family and was immediately detained and separated from her infant children. When Tursun was released three months later, one of the triplets had died and the other two had developed health problems. Tursun said the children had been operated on. She was arrested for a second time about two years later. Several months later, she was detained a third time and spent three months in a cramped, suffocating prison cell with 60 other women, having to sleep in turns, use the toilet in front of security cameras and sing songs praising China’s Communist Party.Tursun said she and other inmates were forced to take unknown medication, including pills that made them faint and a white liquid that caused bleeding in some women and loss of menstruation in others. Tursun said nine women from her cell died during her three months there. One day, Tursun recalled, she was led into a room and placed in a high chair, and her legs and arms were locked in place. "The authorities put a helmet-like thing on my head, and each time I was electrocuted, my whole body would shake violently and I would feel the pain in my veins," Tursun said in a statement read by a translator. "I don’t remember the rest. White foam came out of my mouth, and I began to lose consciousness," Tursun said. "The last word I heard them saying is that you being an Uyghur is a crime." She was eventually released so that she could take her children to Egypt, but she was ordered to return to China. Once in Cairo, Tursun contacted U.S. authorities and, in September, came to the United States and settled in Virginia.WEB,weblink Woman describes torture, beatings in Chinese detention camp, 27 November 2018, Associated Press News, 27 November 2018, The authorities attempt to indoctrinate people in settings that resemble military prisons. Detainees endure physical and mental torture to suppress dissident religious beliefs and separatist movements. Former inmates claim that they are "forced to study communist propaganda for hours and give thanks to the general secretary (paramount leader) by chanting 'Long live Xi Jinping'",NEWS,weblink China Has Been Forcing Muslims To Drink Alcohol And Eat Pork In 'Reeducation Camps', Goldfarb, Kara, 18 May 2018, allthatsinteresting.com, 18 May 2018, as well as learn to sing the national anthem of China and communist songs. Punishments, like being placed in handcuffs for hours, waterboarding, or being strapped to "tiger chair" (a metal contraption) for long periods of time, are used on those who fail to follow.NEWS,weblink Former inmates of China's Muslim 'reeducation' camps tell of brainwashing, torture, Denyer, Simon, 17 May 2018, The Washington Post, 17 May 2018, NEWS,weblink NGO reports custodial deaths, tortures in China's Xinjiang, 24 August 2018, Business Standard, 24 August 2018, According to detainees, they were also forced to drink alcohol and eat pork, which are forbidden in Islam. Some detainees receive unknown medicines and others attempted suicide.NEWS,weblink Former detainees recount abuse in Chinese re-education centres, The Globe and Mail, 3 July 2018, The side effects of those treatments can be very serious, sometimes even causing scholars like Muhammad Salih Haji's,WEB,weblink Chinese torture allegedly kills Islamic scholar, aa.com.tr, 8 June 2018, WEB,weblink Uyghur Human Rights Project Condemns Death in Custody of Scholar Muhammad Salih Hajim, uhrp.org, 29 January 2018, Dolkun Isa's mother Ayhan Memet'sWEB,weblink THE WUC NOTES THE PASSING OF AYXAN MEMET, MOTHER OF WUC PRESIDENT DOLKUN ISA, 11 June 2018, uyghurcongress.org, 11 June 2018, WEB,weblink Uyghur Exile Group Leader's Mother Died in Xinjiang Detention Center, Radio Free Asia, 2 July 2018, and other people have died in these facilities.WEB,weblink Elderly Uyghur Woman Dies in Detention in Xinjiang 'Political Re-Education Camp', Radio Free Asia, 24 May 2018, WEB,weblink Uyghur Teenager Dies in Custody at Political Re-Education Camp, Radio Free Asia, 14 March 2018, WEB,weblink Uyghur Man Buried Amid Strict Security After Latest Xinjiang Reeducation Camp Death, Radio Free Asia, 8 June 2018, WEB,weblink A Uyghur Muslims die in re-education camps, go crazy in psychiatric hospitals, asianews.it, 13 April 2018,

International reactions

(File:Xinjiang_reactions.png|thumb|300x300px|Reactions to China's Xinjiang policies {{Legend inline|#4a4|Against}} {{Legend inline|#b20|In Favor}} {{Legend inline|#ff0|China}})

Reactions by country in the UNHRC

In July 2019, 22 countries including U.K., Germany, France, Spain, Canada, Japan and Australia signed a joint letter to the UN Human Rights Council urging China to close the camps in Xinjiang.NEWS,weblink China Rebuked by 22 Nations Over Xinjiang Repression, Cumming-Bruce, Nick, 2019-07-10, The New York Times, 2019-07-14, en-US, 0362-4331, In reaction to this, 50 countries including Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, UAE, Sudan, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, DRC, North Korea, Russia, Venezuela, Philippines, Myanmar, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Palestine have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC praising China's "remarkable achievements in Xinjiang."
Signed the letter criticizing China
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Signed the letter supportive of China
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Other reactions by country

{{Flagu|Kazakhstan}}
  • In November 2017, Kazakhstan's Ambassador to China Shahrat Nuryshev met with Chinese Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs Li Huilai regarding Kazakh diaspora issues.WEB,weblink Carefully, Kazakhstan Confronts China About Kazakhs in Xinjiang Re-Education Camps, thediplomat.com, 14 June 2018,
  • On 15 February 2018, Kazakh Foreign Minister Kairat Abdrakhmanov sent a diplomatic note to the Chinese Foreign Ministry, the same day Samarkand, a Kazakhstan citizen, was released from re-education camp. From 17 to 19 April, Kazakh First Deputy Foreign Minister Mukhtar Tleuberdi visited Xinjiang to meet with local officials.
{{Flagu|Saudi Arabia}}File:Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud - 2017.jpg|thumb|upright|Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammad bin SalmanMohammad bin Salman
  • In February 2019, Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman defended camps, saying "China has the right to carry out anti-terrorism and de-extremisation work for its national security."NEWS,weblink Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman Defends China's Use of Concentration Camps for Muslims During Visit to Beijing, 22 February 2019, Newsweek, NEWS,weblink Saudi crown prince defended China's imprisonment of a million Muslims in internment camps, giving Xi Jinping a reason to continue his 'precursors to genocide', 23 February 2019, Business Insider,
  • Saudi Arabia is one of the countries which signed a letter praising China's "remarkable achievements in Xinjiang."
{{Flagu|Turkey}}
  • In February 2019, the Spokesperson for the Turkish Foreign Ministry denounced China for "violating the fundamental human rights of Uyghur Turks and other Muslim communities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region."NEWS,weblink Why Is Turkey Breaking Its Silence on China's Uyghurs?, 12 February 2019, The Diplomat, JOURNAL, Yellinek, Roie, 5 March 2019, Islamic Countries Engage with China Against the Background of Repression in Xinjiang,weblink live, en-US, Jamestown Foundation, 19, 5, 9 September 2019, China Brief,
  • In July 2019, when Turkish President ErdoÄŸan visited China, he said “It is a fact that the people of all ethnicities in Xinjiang are leading a happy life amid China's development and prosperity.”WEB,weblink China says Turkey president offered support over restive Xinjiang, 2019-07-02, Reuters, 2019-07-05, Erdogan also said that some people were seeking to "abuse" the Xinjiang crisis to jeopardize Turkey and China's economic relationship.WEB,weblink Erdogan says Xinjiang camps shouldn't spoil Turkey-China relationship, 2019-07-02, CNN, 2019-07-05, WEB,weblink The last major opponent of China's Muslim oppression has retreated into silence. Here's why that's a big deal., Ma, Alexandra, Business Insider, 2019-08-18, WEB,weblink Erdogan says solution possible for China’s Muslims, 2019-07-04, South China Morning Post, en, 2019-08-18,
{{Flagu|United Kingdom}}
  • On 3 July 2018, at UK Parliamentary roundtable, the Rights Practice helped to organise a Parliamentary Round-table on increased repression and forced assimilation in Xinjiang. Rahima Mahmut, an Uyghur singer and human rights activist, gave a personal testimony about the violations suffered by the Uyghur community. Dr. Adrian Zenz, European School of Culture and Theology, (Germany), outlined the evidence of a large scale and sophisticated political re-education network designed to detain people for long periods of time and which the Chinese government officially denies.WEB,weblink K Parliamentary Roundtable on Xinjiang, rights-practice.org, 3 July 2018,
{{Flagu|United States}}
  • On 3 April 2018, U.S. Senator Marco Rubio and Representative Chris Smith sent a letter urging Ambassador to China Terry Branstad to launch an investigation into the reported mass detention of Uyghurs in political re-education camps in Xinjiang.WEB,weblink Chairs Urge Ambassador Branstad to Prioritize Mass Detention of Uyghurs, Including Family Members of Radio Free Asia Employees, Congressional-Executive Commission on China, 3 April 2018, 22 September 2019, NEWS,weblink Tens of thousands detained in China's Xinjiang, U.S. diplomat says, Philip, Wen, Reuters, Beijing, 18 April 2018, 22 September 2019,
  • On 26 July 2018, Vice President of the United States Mike Pence raised the re-education camps issue at Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom. He said that "Sadly, as we speak as well, Beijing is holding hundreds of thousands, and possibly millions, of Uyghur Muslims in so-called 're-education camps', where they're forced to endure around-the-clock political indoctrination and to denounce their religious beliefs and their cultural identity as the goal."WEB,weblink Remarks by Vice President Pence at Ministerial To Advance Religious Freedom, White House, 26 July 2018, WEB,weblink Religious Freedom forum draws attention to persecution, false imprisonment and re-education camps, The Washington Times, 24 July 2017, WEB,weblink Secretary of State Mike Pompeo: Religious persecution in Iran, China must end now, USA Today, 24 July 2018,
  • On 26 July 2018, the Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC), an independent agency of the U.S. government which monitors human rights and rule of law developments in the People's Republic of China, released a report that said as many as a million people are or have been detained in what are being called "political re-education" centers, the largest mass incarceration of an ethnic minority population in the world today.WEB,weblink Surveillance, Suppression, and Mass Detention: Xinjiang's Human Rights Crisis, cecc.gov, 26 July 2018, WEB,weblink Congressional Hearing: US Tech Giants Fueling Emerging Xinjiang Human Rights Disaster, 29 July 2018, theepochtimes.com, 29 July 2018, On 27 July 2018, The U.S. Embassy & Consulate in China released Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom Statement on China, which mentioned the detention of hundreds of thousands, and possibly millions, of Uyghurs and members of other Muslim minority groups in "political re-education camps", and called the Chinese government to release immediately all those arbitrarily detained.WEB,weblink Ministerial to Advance Religious Freedom Statement on China, china.usembassy-china.org.cn, 27 July 2018,
  • On 28 August 2018, U.S. senator Marco Rubio and 16 other members of Congress urged the United States to impose sanctions under the Global Magnitsky Act against Chinese officials who are responsible for human rights abuses in Xinjiang.NEWS,weblink Group of U.S. lawmakers urges China sanctions over Xinjiang abuses, 30 August 2018, Reuters, 30 August 2018, Reuters, In a letter to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, they called for the sanctions on Chen Quanguo who is the current Communist Party Secretary of the Xinjiang (the highest post in an administrative unit of China) and six other Chinese officials and two businesses that make surveillance equipment in Xinjiang.WEB,weblink Lawmakers urge Trump administration to sanction China over Muslim crackdown, ABC News, 29 August 2018, WEB,weblink American Lawmakers Push to Sanction Chinese Officials Over Xinjiang Camps, The Wall Street Journal, 29 August 2018, WEB,weblink India Times: US lawmakers call for sanctions over Xinjiang camps, The Times of India, 30 August 2018, WEB,weblink US lawmakers call for sanctions over Xinjiang camps, Channel NewsAsia, 30 August 2018,
  • U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo criticized Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei for his refusal to condemn the Chinese government’s repressions against the Uyghurs.NEWS,weblink Iran's Careful Approach to China's Uyghur Crackdown, 18 September 2018, The Diplomat,

Organizations

{{Flagu|European Union}} {{Flagu|United Nations}}
  • On 21 May 2018, during the resumed session of the Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations in UN, Kelley Currie, the U.S. representative to the U.N. for economic and social affairs, raised the mass detention of Uyghurs in re-education camps, and she said that "reports of mass incarcerations in the Xinjiang were documented by looking at Chinese procurement requests on Chinese websites requesting Chinese companies to tender offers to build political re-education camps".WEB,weblink US Rejects China's Request For UN to Cut Ties With NGO Linked to Exiled Uyghur Leader, 22 March 2018, WEB,weblink U.S. Once Jailed Uighurs, Now Defends Them at U.N., 25 March 2018,
  • On 10 August 2018, United Nations human rights experts expressed alarm over many credible reports that China had detained a million or more ethnic Uyghurs in Xinjiang.NEWS,weblink U.N. Panel Confronts China Over Reports That It Holds a Million Uighurs in Camps, Cumming-Bruce, Nick, 10 August 2018, The New York Times, 10 August 2018, Gay McDougall, a member of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, said that "In the name of combating religious extremism, China had turned Xinjiang into something resembling a massive internment camp, shrouded in secrecy, a sort of no-rights zone".WEB,weblink UN Expert: China Holds Millions of Ethnic Uighurs in 'Re-Education Camps', 15 August 2018, cnsnews.com, 15 August 2018, WEB,weblink We can't ignore this brutal cleansing in Chin, The Washington Post, 14 August 2018, WEB,weblink Credible reports China holds 1 million Uighurs in 'massive internment camp' – UN, The Irish Times, 10 August 2018,
  • On 10 September 2018, U.N. human rights chief Michelle Bachelet called on China to ease restrictions on her and her office's team, urging China to allow observers into Xinjiang and expressing concern about the situation there. She said, "The UN rights group had shown that Uyghurs and other Muslims are being detained in camps across Xinjiang and I expect discussions with Chinese officials to begin soon".WEB,weblink U.N. rights chief Bachelet takes on China, other powers in first speech, 10 September 2018, Reuters,

Human Rights Organisations

(File:Hrw logo.svg|frameless|23x23px) Human Rights Watch
  • On 10 September 2017, Human Rights Watch released a report that said "The Chinese government should immediately free people held in unlawful 'political education' centers in Xinjiang and shut them down."
  • On 9 September 2018, Human Rights Watch released a 117-page report, "'Eradicating Ideological Viruses': China's Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang's Muslims",WEB,weblink Eradicating Ideological Viruses: China's Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang's Muslims, Human Rights Watch, 9 September 2018, which accused China of the systematic mass detention of tens of thousands of ethnic Uyghurs and other Muslims in political re-education camps without being charged or tried and presented new evidence of the Chinese government's mass arbitrary detention, torture, and mistreatment, and the increasingly pervasive controls on daily life.WEB,weblink China: Massive Crackdown in Muslim Region, Human Rights Watch, 9 September 2018, WEB,weblink Interview: China's Crackdown on Turkic Muslims, Human Rights Watch, 9 September 2018, The report also urged foreign governments to pursue a range of multilateral and unilateral actions against China for its actions, including "targeted sanctions" against those responsible.WEB,weblink Human Rights Watch Assails Chinese Treatment of Muslim Uyghur Minority, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty/Radio Liberty, 10 September 2018,

Other

In a July 2018 article, the Foreign Policy reported:}}A Radio Free Asia report from 12 December 2018 says that authorities in Xinjiang are 'making preparations' in advance of anticipated eventual international inspection teams visiting, which they anticipate "within weeks".WEB,weblink Xinjiang Authorities 'Preparing' Re-education Camps Ahead of Expected International Monitors, Radio Free Asia, en, 2018-12-25, The report received from its source a "confidentiality agreement" that authorities in Awat County are reportedly requiring camp detainees to sign, which states that they will "not discuss the workings of the camps, accept any interviews, or use communication channels such as social media or SMS messaging to disseminate information about the camp system." Violations there-of are subject to "accountability according to related national laws." One interviewee, who chose to be anonymous for fear of reprisals, said that officials have been going house to house, and that "People are taught [by officials] what to say, and they were warned not to mention the difficulties they are facing." The anonymous source says people are told to "praise the [Communist] Party’s policies" and to "say only good things about the government," and that there "may be foreigners among [the inspection teams]," so they should refrain from mentioning anything about re-education camps. Authorities threatened residents that any negative comments could lead to imprisonment or detention in the re-education camps, he added, while those who complain about the situation in the region will have "three generations of their family blacklisted," and the government "will not leave them alone."In 2019, The Art Newspaper reported that "hundreds" of writers, artists, and academics had been imprisoned, in what the magazine qualified as an attempt to "punish any form of religious or cultural expression" among Uyghurs."WEB,weblink 'Hundreds' of cultural figures caught up in China's Uyghur persecution, Movius, Lisa, The Art Newspaper, 3 January 2019, Additionally, The Washington Post published an article about the camps used by China to persecute Uyghurs and make them a minority in their ancestral homeland, the same way China did against Tibetans in Tibet.NEWS,weblink The West Ignored Crimes Against Humanity in the 1930s; It's Happening Again Now, The Washington Post, The US-based journal Center for World Indigenous Studies has labeled these policies as "cultural genocide".NEWS,weblink Indigenous Uyghurs: Genocide Case, Rÿser, Rudolph C., 30 January 2018, Center for World Indigenous Studies, 25 December 2018, Vox Media, The Washington Post, The Daily Telegraph and Dolkun Isa have referred to these camps as concentration camps.NEWS, Q&A with Dolkun Isa, president of the World Uyghur Congress,weblink Deutsche Welle, 12 March 2019, 29 March 2019,

Chinese government response

{{Prose|section|date=November 2018}}The Chinese government has denied the existence of re-education camps in Xinjiang, until October 2018 when it officially legalized them.NEWS,weblink China legalizes Xinjiang 're-education camps' after denying they exist, Westcott, Ben, 11 October 2018, CNN, 21 August 2019, Xiong, Yong, When international media asked about the re-education camps, China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that it "had not heard" of this situation.NEWS,weblink Reeducation Returns to China, Zenz, Adrian, 20 June 2018, Foreign Affairs, 20 June 2018, On 12 August 2018, a Chinese state-run tabloid, Global Times, defended the crackdown in XinjiangNEWS,weblink Protecting peace, stability is top of human rights agenda for Xinjiang, 12 August 2018, Global Times, after a U.N. anti-discrimination committee raised concerns over China's treatment of Uyghurs. According to the Global Times, China prevented Xinjiang from becoming 'China's Syria' or 'China's Libya', and local authorities' policies saved countless lives and avoided a 'great tragedy'.NEWS,weblink China newspaper defends Xinjiang Muslim crackdown, 13 August 2018, The Washington Post, dead,weblink 13 August 2018, Associated Press, NEWS,weblink China has prevented 'great tragedy' in Xinjiang, state-run paper says, 13 August 2018, Reuters, 17 September 2019, Beijing, The paper published another editorial the day after, titled "Xinjiang policies justified".NEWS,weblink Xinjiang policies justified, Liu, Xin, 13 August 2018, Global Times, 27 August 2018, On 13 August 2018, at a UN meeting in Geneva, the delegation from China told the UN human rights committee that "There is no such thing as re-education centers in Xinjiang and it is completely untrue that China put 1 million Uyghurs into re-education camps".NEWS,weblink China flat out denies the mass incarceration of Xinjiang's Uyghurs as testimonies trickle out, Steger, Isabella, 13 August 2018, Quartz (publication), Quartz, 13 August 2018, NEWS,weblink China says claims 1 million Uyghurs put in camps 'completely untrue', Griffiths, James, 14 August 2018, CNN, 14 August 2018, Westcott, Ben, NEWS,weblink China Uighurs: Beijing denies detaining one million, 13 August 2018, BBC, 13 August 2018, A Chinese delegation said that "Xinjiang citizens, including the Uyghurs, enjoy equal freedom and rights." They claimed that "Some minor offenders of religious extremism or separatism have been taken to 'vocational education' and employment training centers with a view to assisting in their rehabilitation".NEWS,weblink China denies violating minority rights amid detention claims, Kuo, Lily, 13 August 2018, The Guardian, 13 August 2018, On 14 August 2018, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Lu Kang said "anti-China forces had made false accusations against China for political purposes and a few foreign media outlets misrepresented the committee's discussions and were smearing China's anti-terror and crime-fighting measures in Xinjiang" after a U.N. human rights committee raised concern over reported mass detentions of ethnic Uyghurs.NEWS,weblink China Denies Detaining One Million Uighurs in 'Re-education' Camps, 14 August 2018, Time, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180814125620weblink">weblink 14 August 2018, Associated Press, NEWS,weblink Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang answered questions from reporters, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, 14 August 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180814232723weblink">weblink 14 August 2018, zh, On 21 August 2018, Liu Xiaoming, the Ambassador of China to the United Kingdom, wrote an article in response to a Financial Times report entitled "Crackdown in Xinjiang: Where have all the people gone?".WEB,weblink Crackdown in Xinjiang: Where have all the people gone?, Financial Times, 5 August 2018, Liu's response said: "The education and training measures taken by the local government of Xinjiang have not only effectively prevented the infiltration of religious extremism and helped those lost in extremist ideas to find their way back, but also provided them with employment training in order to build a better life."WEB,weblink Harmony in Xinjiang Is Based on Three Principles, chineseembassy.org, 22 August 2018, On 10 September 2018, China's Foreign Ministry spokesperson Geng Shuang condemned a report about the re-education camps issued by Human Rights Watch. He said: "This organisation has always been full of prejudice and distorting facts about China." Geng also added that: "Xinjiang is enjoying overall social stability, sound economic development and harmonious co-existence of different ethnic groups. The series of measures implemented in Xinjiang are meant to improve stability, development, solidarity and people’s livelihood, crack down on ethnic separatist activities and violent and terrorist crimes, safeguard national security, and protect people’s life and property."WEB,weblink China calls Human Rights Watch 'full of prejudice' after criticism of Xinjiang policy, globalnews.ca, 10 September 2018, WEB,weblink China says Human Rights Watch report on Xinjiang suppression 'full of prejudice and distorted facts', Hongkong Free Press, 11 September 2018, On 11 September 2018, China called for U.N. human rights chief Michelle Bachelet to "respect its sovereignty", after she urged China to allow monitors into Xinjiang and expressed concern about the situation there.NEWS,weblink China tells U.N. rights chief to respect its sovereignty after Xinjiang comments, 11 September 2018, Reuters, 11 September 2018, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang said: "China urges the U.N. human rights high commissioner and office to scrupulously abide by the mission and principles of the U.N. charter, respect China's sovereignty, fairly and objectively carry out its duties, and not listen to one-sided information".WEB,weblink China urges UN human rights chief Michelle Bachelet to respect its sovereignty after comments on Xinjiang, firstpost.com, 11 September 2018, WEB,weblink China to UN rights chief Bachelet: 'Respect our sovereignty', Al Jazeera, 11 September 2018, In March 2019, against the background of the US considering imposing sanctions against Chen Quanguo, who is the region's most senior Communist Party official, Xinjiang governor Shohrat Zakir denied the existence of the camps.On 18 March 2019, the Chinese government released a white paper about the counterterrorism, de-radicalization in Xinjiang. The white paper claims "A country under the rule of law, China respects and protects human rights in accordance with the principles of its Constitution." The white paper also claims Xinjiang has not had violent terrorist cases for more than two consecutive years, extremist penetration has been effectively curbed, and social security has improved significantly.WEB,weblink China strikes at terrorism, extremism in accordance with law: white paper, 2019-03-18, www.xinhuanet.com, 2019-03-23, In July 2019, the Chinese government released another white paper that claims "The Uygur people adopted Islam not of their own volition … but had it forced upon them by religious wars and the ruling class."WEB,weblink Xinjiang Uygurs didn't choose to be Muslims, China says, 2019-07-21, South China Morning Post, en, 2019-07-26, A Global Times article on 31 July claimed that the re-eduction camps employed "the advanced version of normal social govern" and said the process is "the victory of all the Chinese people including Xinjiang people".NEWS,weblink Global Times, 2019-08-01, zh-cn, zh:大量教培学员结业,新疆局势软着陆,

Response from exiled dissidents

On 10 August 2018, about 47 Chinese intellectuals and others, in exile, issued an appeal against what they describe as "shocking human rights atrocities perpetrated in Xinjiang".WEB,weblink A Call for a UN Investigation, And US Sanctions, On The Human Rights Disaster Unfolding in Xinjiang, China Change, 9 September 2018,

See also

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References

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External links

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