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Xi'an
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{{Redirect|Xian}}{{For|the Dowager Empress China|Ci'an}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2019}}{{stack begin}}







factoids
| official_name = 0.1em}}}}| other_name = SianPrefecture-level city>Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city| image_skyline = Xi'an montage.png| imagesize = Terracotta Army>Xian Terracotta Warriors Museum, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Drum Tower of Xi'an, Bell Tower of Xi'an, City wall of Xi'an, Tang Paradise at night| image_flag = | image_seal = | nickname = | motto = frame=yestype=shapestroke-color=#000000|zoom=7}}| image_map1 = Location of Xi'an Prefecture within Shaanxi (China).png| mapsize1 = | map_caption1 = Location of Xi'an City jurisdiction in Shaanxi| pushpin_map = China| pushpin_label_position = | pushpin_mapsize = | pushpin_map_caption = Location in China| coor_pinpoint = Shaanxi provincial government34.265108.954format=dmsdisplay=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>CountryChina>People's Republic of ChinaProvinces of China>Province| subdivision_name1 = ShaanxiCommunist Party of China>Party SecretaryWang Hao (politician)>Wang Hao| leader_title1 = Mayor| leader_name1 = Li Mingyuan (acting)| area_magnitude = 1 E9| area_total_km2 = 9983| area_total_sq_mi = | area_land_sq_mi = | area_water_percent = | area_urban_sq_mi = | area_urban_km2 = 1088LAST=COXPUBLISHER=DEMOGRAPHIALOCATION=ST. LOUISACCESS-DATE=NOVEMBER 16, 2017ARCHIVE-DATE=MAY 3, 2018, live, | population_urban = 7135000| population_urban_footnotes =  (2018)| area_metro_km2 = 3866.25| area_metro_sq_mi = | area_blank1_sq_mi = | elevation_m = 405| population_total = 12,000,600| population_as_of = 2017| population_density_km2 = auto| population_density_urban_km2 = auto| population_metro = 12900000| population_metro_footnotes = | population_density_metro_km2 = autoPostal code of China>Postal code| postal_code = 710000–710090| area_code = 29CN-SN-01)weblink}}| footnotes = China Standard Time>CST| utc_offset = +8Gross domestic product>GDP| blank_info = (2017)| blank1_name = – TotalRenminbi>CNY748.52 billion(US$118.8 billion)| blank2_name = – Per capitaRenminbi>CNY71,853 (US$10,823)Licence plates of the People's Republic of China>License plate prefixesPomegranate flower| blank5_name = City tree| blank5_info = Pagoda tree}}







factoids
: {{IPA-all>ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴.ŋã²¹|}}| lang1 = Xi'an dialect (Zhongyuan Mandarin)AUDx1an|1}}| gr = Shi'an| bpmf = ㄒㄧ   ã„¢| myr = Syīān| j = Sai1-on1| y = Sāi-ōns1on|1}}| wuu = Siå¹³oeå¹³| tl = Se-an| l = "Western Peace"| psp = Sianfu| altname = Cháng'ān"Perpetual Peace"}}| p2 = Cháng'ān| w2 = ChÊ»ang2-an1AUDch2an|1}}| gr2 = Charng'an| bpmf2 = ㄔㄤˊ   ã„¢| j2 = Coeng4-on1| y2 = Chèuhng-ōn| tl2 = TnÌ‚g-an| mc2 = É–jang-an| t = | s = }}{{stack end}}Xi'an ({{IPAc-en|ʃ|j|ɑː|n}} {{respell|SHYAHN}}, also {{IPAc-en|UK|ËŒ|ʃ|iː|ˈ|æ|n}} {{respell|shee|AN}}, {{IPAc-en|US|ËŒ|ʃ|iː|ˈ|ɑː|n}} {{respell|shee|AHN}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Xi'an, April 14, 2019, WEB,weblink Xi'an, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, April 14, 2019,weblink April 14, 2019, live, "Xian" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190414100748weblink |date=April 14, 2019 }} (US) and OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Xian, April 14, 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Xi'an, April 14, 2019, Chinese: {{IPAc-cmn|AUD|Zh-Xi'an.ogg|x|i|1|.|an|1}}), also known as Sian, is the capital of Shaanxi Province. A sub-provincial city on the Guanzhong Plain in northwest China,WEB, Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions,weblink PRC Central Government Official Website, 2014-05-17,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141224074859weblink">weblink December 24, 2014, live, it is one of the oldest cities in China, and the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history,WEB,weblink Xi'an, Encarta. 1993–2008, September 3, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080228105855weblink">weblink February 28, 2008, February 6, 2016, dead, including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, and Tang. Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and space exploration. Xi'an currently holds sub-provincial status, administering 9 districts and 4 counties.WEB,weblink zh:中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号, 豆丁网, Archived copy, May 28, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140529084536weblink">weblink May 29, 2014, dead, |date=1995-02-19 |accessdate=2014-05-28 |url-status=dead|archiveurl= |archivedate=2014-05-29 }} {{As of|2018}} Xi'an has a population of 12,005,600, and the Xi'an–Xianyang metropolitan area a population of 12.9 million. It is the most populous city in Northwest China, as well as one of the three most populous cities in Western China, the other two being Chongqing and Chengdu.WEB, zh:最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查),weblink www.elivecity.cn, 2012, 2014-05-27, Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150303135707weblink">weblink March 3, 2015, live, In 2012, it was named as one of the 13 emerging megacities, or megalopolises, in China.WEB,weblink Supersized cities: China's 13 megalopolises, July 20, 2012,weblink July 21, 2012, live, {{anchor|Toponymy|Etymology|Names}}

Name

"Xi'an" is the atonal pinyin romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of its name , which means "Western Peace". (The apostrophe – known in Chinese as a , ' – should be included to distinguish its pronunciation from the single syllable xian.) The name was adopted in 1369 under the early Ming dynasty. Jesuit missionaries recorded its name as {{nowrap|"Si-ngan"}} or "Si-ngan-fou"{{harvp|Du Halde|1736|pp=220–1}}; {{harvp|Du Halde|1741|pp=227–8}}. from its status as the seat of a prefecture (,{{nbsp}}fǔ). This form still appears in the Latin name of the Catholic diocese of Xi'an, . The name was later romanized as {{nowrap|"Hsi-an"}} by Wade & Giles and as "Sianfu'''"{{harvp|Stanford|1917|p=13 & Index, p. 11}}. or "Sian" by the Qing imperial post office, both of which were common until the general adoption of pinyin.The area of present-day Xi'an has been the site of several important former Chinese cities. The capital of the Western Zhou were the twin cities of Feng and Hao, known collectively as Fenghao, located on opposite banks of the Feng River at its confluence with the southern bank of the Wei in the western suburbs of present-day Xi'an.{{citation |script-title=zh:《中国古今地名大词典》 |trans-title=The Big Dictionary of Old and Current Chinese Placenames |date=2005 |location=Shanghai |publisher=Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe |p=1540 }}. The Qin capital Xianyang was erected north of the Wei during the Warring States period and was succeeded by the Western Han capital of Chang'an (), meaning "Perpetual Peace", which was located south of the Wei and covered the central area of present-day Xi'an. During the Eastern Han, Chang'an was also known as Xijing () or the "Western Capital", relative to its position to the main capital at Luoyang. Under the Sui, its name became Daxing (, "Greatly Prosperous") in AD 581. Under the Tang, the name reverted to Chang'an in 618.WEB,weblink Xi'an, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008-09-03,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081204121315weblink">weblink December 4, 2008, live, Under the Mongolian Yuan dynasty (13th & 14th centuries), it held a succession of names: Fengyuan {{nowrap|(),}} Anxi {{nowrap|(,}} "Peaceful West"), and Jingzhao {{nowrap|().}} The Ming name "Xi'an" was changed back to Xijing ("Western Capital", as above) between 1930 and 1943.Xi'an currently does not have a widely accepted one-character abbreviation as many other Chinese cities do. Its license plates are simply marked with {{nowrap|}}, based on the name of its province. and it is the best place to be

History

Prehistory

Xi'an has a rich and culturally significant history. The Lantian Man was discovered in 1963 in Lantian County, {{convert|50|km|abbr=on}} southeast of Xi'an, and dates back to at least 500,000 years before the present time. A 6,500-year-old Neolithic village, Banpo, was discovered in 1953 on the eastern outskirts of the city proper, which contains the remains of several well organized Neolithic settlements carbon dated to 5600–6700 years ago.BOOK, 10.1007/978-90-481-8716-4_8, Climate Change and Desertification with Special Reference to the Cases in China, Changing Climates, Earth Systems and Society, 2010, Yang, Xiaoping, 978-90-481-8715-7, 177–187, BOOK,weblink East Asian plant domestication, 77–95, Archaeology of Asia, 9781405153034, Stark, Miriam T, 2008-04-15, JOURNAL,weblink A Critical Assessment of Early Agriculture in East Asia, with emphasis on Lower Yangzte Rice Domestication, Fuller, Dorian Q, Qin, Ling, Harvey, Emma, Pragdhara, 2008, 17–52, May 28, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924031215weblink">weblink September 24, 2015, live, JOURNAL, 21592462, 2011, Meng, Y, Zhang, HQ, Pan, F, He, ZD, Shao, JL, Ding, Y, Prevalence of dental caries and tooth wear in a Neolithic population (6700-5600 years BP) from northern China, 56, 11, 1424–35, 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.04.003, Archives of Oral Biology, The site is now home to the Xi'an Banpo Museum, built in 1957 to preserve the archaeological collection.WEB,weblink Banpo Museum in Xi'an, chinamuseums.com, 2013-07-29,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180131145303weblink">weblink January 31, 2018, dead,

Ancient era

File:Western Zhou dynasty Carriages pit2 Xi'an.JPG|thumb|right|200px|Remains of carriages and horses in Fenghao during the Western ZhouWestern ZhouXi'an became a cultural and political centre of China in the 11th century BC with the founding of the Zhou dynasty. The capital of Zhou was established in the twin settlements of Fengjing () and Haojing, together known as Fenghao, located southwest of contemporary Xi'an. The settlement was also known as Zhōngzhōu to indicate its role as the capital of the vassal states.Third scroll of the Chang'an Annals (长安志) interpreted by Huangfu Mi in his Age of Kings (book) (帝王世紀) In 770 BC, the capital was moved to Luoyang due to political unrest.WEB,weblink China's six major historical capitals – Xi'an's cultural history, 2011-02-22,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110724085442weblink">weblink dead, 2011-07-24,

Imperial era

{{Multiple image
| align = right
| direction = vertical
| width = 200
| image1 = History of Xi'an.jpg
| caption1 = A map of the city walls of settlements in Xi'an from the Zhou to Qing dynasties
| image2 = Xian guerreros terracota general.JPG
| caption2 = Terracotta Army inside the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum, 3rd century BC.
| image3 = Chang'an of Tang.jpg
| caption3 = Map of Chang'an under the Tang (7th–10th{{nbsp}}cent.)
}}Following the Warring States period, China was unified under the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) for the first time, with the capital located at Xianyang, just northwest of modern Xi'an.BOOK, zh:中国古今地名大词典, 2005, Shanghai, 上海辞书出版社, 2134, zh-hans, The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Terracotta Army and his mausoleum just to the east of Xi'an almost immediately after his ascension to the throne.MAGAZINE,weblink Emperor Qin's Terracotta Army, O. Louis Mazzatenta, National Geographic, 2009-10-09, May 28, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140528231305weblink">weblink May 28, 2014, live, In 202 BC, the founding emperor Liu Bang of the Han dynasty established his capital in Chang'an County; his first palace, Changle Palace (, "Perpetual Happiness") ,built across the river from the ruin of the Qin capital. That is traditionally regarded as the founding date of Chang'an. Two years later, Liu Bang built Weiyang Palace (, "Never Ending Palace") north of modern Xi'an. Weiyang Palace was the largest palace ever built on Earth, covering {{convert|4.8|km2|acres|abbr=off}}, which is 6.7 times the size of the current Forbidden City and 11 times the size of the Vatican City.WEB,weblink Weiyang Palace: the Largest Palace Ever Built on Earth, November 4, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303213031weblink">weblink March 3, 2016, dead, The original Xi'an city wall was started in 194 BC and took 4 years to finish. Upon completion, the wall measured {{convert|25.7|km|2|abbr=on}} in length and {{convert|12|to(-)|16|m|2|abbr=on}} in thickness at the base, enclosing an area of {{convert|36|km²|2|abbr=on}}. In the year 190, amidst uprisings and rebellions just prior to the Three Kingdoms Period, a powerful warlord named Dong Zhuo moved the court from Luoyang to Chang'an in a bid to avoid a coalition of other powerful warlords against him.Following several hundred years of unrest, the Sui dynasty united China again in 582. The emperor of Sui ordered a new capital to be built southeast of the Han capital, called Daxing. It consisted of three sections: the Imperial City, the palace section, and the civilian section, with a total area of {{convert|84|km2|abbr=on}} within the city walls. At the time, it was the largest city in the world. The city was renamed Chang'an by the Tang dynasty.WEB,weblink History of Xi'an, zh-hans, 2011-02-22,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110211123827weblink">weblink live, 2011-02-11, In the mid-7th century, after returning from his pilgrimage to India, the Buddhist monk Xuanzang established a translation centre for Sanskrit scriptures.Construction of the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda began in 652. This pagoda was {{convert|64|m|2|abbr=on}} in height, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras obtained from India by Xuanzang. In 707, construction of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda began. This pagoda measured {{convert|45|m|2|abbr=on}} tall at the time of completion, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras by Yijing. The massive 1556 Shaanxi earthquake eventually damaged the tower and reduced its height to {{convert|43.4|m|2|abbr=on}}.Kiang, 12.The Nestorian Stele is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 that documents 150 years of early Christianity in China.Hill, Henry, ed (1988). Light from the East: A Symposium on the Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian Churches. Toronto, Canada. pp. 108–109 It is a 279 cm tall limestone block with text in both Chinese and Syriac describing the existence of Christian communities in several cities in northern China. It reveals that the initial Nestorian Christian church had met recognition by the Tang Emperor Taizong, due to efforts of the Christian missionary Alopen in 635.BOOK, Peter, Jenkins, 2008, The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia – and How It Died, New York, Harper Collins, 978-0-06-147280-0, 65, registration,weblink Chang'an was devastated at the end of the Tang dynasty in 904. Residents were forced to move to the new capital city in Luoyang. Only a small area in the city continued to be occupied thereafter. During the Ming dynasty, a new wall was constructed in 1370 and remains intact to this day. The wall measures {{convert|11.9|km|abbr=on}} in circumference, {{convert|12|m|2|abbr=on}} in height, and {{convert|15|to(-)|18|m|2|abbr=on}} in thickness at the base; a moat was also built outside the walls. The new wall and moat would protect a much smaller city of {{convert|12|km2|abbr=on}}.

Modern era

In October 1911, during the Xinhai revolution, revolutionaries attacked the Manchu fort in Xi'an city. Xinhai forces stormed the fort, killing some 20,000 Manchus, therefore successfully liquidated the entire population of Manchus in Xi'an city.Ernest Frank Borst-Smith, Caught in the Chinese Revolution: a record of risks and rescue. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1912.BOOK, Crossley, Pamela Kyle, Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World, 1991, Princeton University Press, 0691008779, 197, illustrated, reprint,weblink The Hui Muslim community of northwestern China was divided in its support for the 1911 Xinhai Revolution. The Hui Muslims of Shaanxi supported the revolutionaries and the Hui Muslims of Gansu supported the Qing. The native Hui Muslims (Mohammedans) of Xi'an joined the Han Chinese revolutionaries in slaughtering the Manchus.BOOK, Backhouse, Sir Edmund, Otway, John, Bland, Percy, Annals & Memoirs of the Court of Peking: (from the 16th to the 20th Century), 1914, Houghton Mifflin, 209, reprint,weblink BOOK, The Atlantic, Volume 112, 1913, Atlantic Monthly Company, 779,weblink BOOK, The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 112, 1913, Atlantic Monthly Company, 779,weblink Only some wealthy Manchus who were ransomed and Manchu females survived. Wealthy Han Chinese seized Manchu girls to become their slavesBOOK, Rhoads, Edward J. M., Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928, 2000, University of Washington Press, 0295980400, 192, illustrated, reprint,weblink and poor Han Chinese troops seized young Manchu women to be their wives.BOOK, Rhoads, Edward J. M., Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928, 2000, University of Washington Press, 0295980400, 193, illustrated, reprint,weblink Young pretty Manchu girls were also seized by Hui Muslims of Xi'an during the massacre and brought up as Muslims.BOOK, Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick, Kotker, Norman, Kotker, Norman, The Horizon history of China, 1969, American Heritage Pub. Co., 365, illustrated,weblink A British missionary who witnessed the massacre commented that "Old and young, men and women, children alike, were all butchered... Houses were plundered and then burnt; those who would fain have laid hidden till the storm was past, were forced to come out into the open. The revolutionaries, protected by a parapet of the wall, poured a heavy, unceasing, relentless fire into the doomed Tartar (Manchu) city. Those who tried to escape thence into the Chinese city were cut down as they emerged from the gates."BOOK,weblink Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928, Edward J. M. Rhoads, 191, University of Washington, 2000, 9780295980409, In 1936, the Xi'an Incident took place inside the city during the Chinese Civil War. The incident brought the Kuomintang (KMT) and Communist Party of China to a truce in order to concentrate on fighting against the Japanese Invasion.Guo Rugui, On May 20, 1949, the Communist-controlled People's Liberation Army captured the city of Xi'an from the Kuomintang force.WEB,weblink Public Government Policy, City of Xi'an, zh-hans, 2011-02-22,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707042857weblink">weblink dead, 2011-07-07, Xi'an made headlines for being one of the many cities where the 2012 China anti-Japanese demonstrations occurred.NEWS, zh:打砸抢烧不是爱国是害民, 北京青年报, 2012-09-16, 2012-09-16,weblink zh-hans, Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170422190004weblink">weblink April 22, 2017, live, WEB,weblink Xi'an Protesters Overturn Cars, 2012-09-17, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}NEWS,weblink Anti-Japan Protests In China Swell, Turn Violent, 2012-09-15, 2012-09-17, Huffington Post,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304050324weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, live,

Geography

Xi'an lies on the Guanzhong Plain in the south-central part of Shaanxi province, on a flood plain created by the eight surrounding rivers and streams. The city has an average elevation of {{convert|400|m|0}} above sea level and an annual precipitation of {{convert|553|mm|1|abbr=on}}. The urban area of Xi'an is located at {{Coord|34|16|N|108|56|E}}. The Wei River provides potable water to the city.The city borders the northern foot of the Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the south, and the banks of the Wei River to the north. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located {{convert|100|km|abbr=on}} away to the east of the city. Not far to the north is the Loess Plateau.At the beginning of Han dynasty, Prime Minister Zhang Liang advised the emperor Liu Bang to choose Guanzhong as the capital of the Han dynasty: "Guanzhong Plain, which is located behind Xiao Pass and Hangu Pass, connects Long (Gansu) and Shu (Sichuan). Lands of thousand miles rich in harvest be found here, as if this place belongs to the nation of heaven." () Since then, Guanzhong is also known as the 'Nation of the Heaven'.《史记·留侯世家》

Climate

{{climate chart| Xi'an 4.8 | 6.9 8.3 | 9.6 13.9 | 28.6 21.0 | 43 26.1 | 60.2 31.2 | 54.4 32.1 | 98.6 30.8 | 70.8 25.3 | 91.6 19.5 | 59.9 12.2 | 23.9 6.4 | 5.8|float=right|clear=none|source = China Meteorological Administration }}Xi'an has a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon, classified under the Köppen climate classification as situated on the borderline between a semi-arid climate (BSk) and humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The Wei River valley is characterised by hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation is delivered from July to late October. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from around the freezing mark in January to {{convert|27.0|°C|1}} in July, with an annual mean of {{convert|14.08|°C|1}}. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 31 percent in December to 47 percent in August, the city receives 1,536 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from {{convert|−20.6|°C|0}} on January 11, 1955 to {{convert|41.8|°C|0}} on June 21, 1998. A highest record of {{convert|42.9|°C|0}} was registered in another station on June 17, 2006.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-02-18, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130318113757weblink">weblink 2013-03-18, {{Weather box|width = auto|location = Xi'an (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1951–2013)|metric first = Y|single line = Y|collapsed = Y|Jan high C = 5.1|Feb high C = 8.9|Mar high C = 14.4|Apr high C = 21.5|May high C = 26.6|Jun high C = 31.4|Jul high C = 32.4|Aug high C = 30.3|Sep high C = 25.6|Oct high C = 19.3|Nov high C = 12.4|Dec high C = 6.3|year high C= 19.5|Jan low C = −3.3|Feb low C = −0.4|Mar low C = 4.1|Apr low C = 10.3|May low C = 15.1|Jun low C = 19.9|Jul low C = 22.3|Aug low C = 21.0|Sep low C = 16.5|Oct low C = 10.2|Nov low C = 3.2|Dec low C = −2.2|year low C= 9.7|Jan record high C = 17.0|Feb record high C = 24.1|Mar record high C = 31.3|Apr record high C = 34.9|May record high C = 38.6|Jun record high C = 41.8|Jul record high C = 41.0|Aug record high C = 40.0|Sep record high C = 38.5|Oct record high C = 34.1|Nov record high C = 24.5|Dec record high C = 21.6|year record high C= 41.8|Jan record low C = −20.6|Feb record low C = −18.7|Mar record low C = −7.6|Apr record low C = −4.0|May record low C = 3.5|Jun record low C = 9.2|Jul record low C = 15.1|Aug record low C = 12.1|Sep record low C = 4.8|Oct record low C = −1.9|Nov record low C = −16.8|Dec record low C = −19.3|year record low C= −20.6|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 6.7|Feb precipitation mm = 9.8|Mar precipitation mm = 27.1|Apr precipitation mm = 37.5|May precipitation mm = 54.9|Jun precipitation mm = 64.5|Jul precipitation mm = 97.5|Aug precipitation mm = 78.6|Sep precipitation mm = 94.1|Oct precipitation mm = 61.7|Nov precipitation mm = 21.5|Dec precipitation mm = 7.3|Jan mean C = 0.3|Feb mean C = 3.6|Mar mean C = 8.7|Apr mean C = 15.4|May mean C = 20.5|Jun mean C = 25.3|Jul mean C = 27.0|Aug mean C = 25.1|Sep mean C = 20.3|Oct mean C = 14.1|Nov mean C = 7.2|Dec mean C = 1.5|year mean C= 14.1|Jan humidity = 65|Feb humidity = 62|Mar humidity = 64|Apr humidity = 64|May humidity = 65|Jun humidity = 61|Jul humidity = 68|Aug humidity = 75|Sep humidity = 77|Oct humidity = 76|Nov humidity = 73|Dec humidity = 68|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan precipitation days = 3.4|Feb precipitation days = 4.0|Mar precipitation days = 6.4|Apr precipitation days = 7.8|May precipitation days = 8.2|Jun precipitation days = 8.8|Jul precipitation days = 9.9|Aug precipitation days = 10.0|Sep precipitation days = 11.6|Oct precipitation days = 9.9|Nov precipitation days = 5.5|Dec precipitation days = 3.6Jan percentsun = 32Feb percentsun = 34Mar percentsun = 33Apr percentsun = 38May percentsun = 40Jun percentsun = 43Jul percentsun = 44Aug percentsun = 47Sep percentsun = 34Oct percentsun = 32Nov percentsun = 32Dec percentsun = 31
|year percentsun= 37|source 1 = China Meteorological Administration,WEB
,weblink
, zh:中国气象局 国家气象信息中心
, zh-hans
, 2009-03-17
, China Meteorological Administration
, June 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090716061113weblink">weblink
, 2009-07-16
, all-time extreme temperatureWEB,weblink Extreme Temperatures Around the World, February 21, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140804202145weblink">weblink August 4, 2014, live, mdy-all, |date=August 2013}}

National Time Service Centre

The Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory was established in 1966. In 1975, according to the Geodetic Origin Report of the People's Republic of China, 'to avoid bias in the mensuration as much as possible, the Geodetic Origin would be in central mainland China.' Lintong (), a town near Xi'an was chosen. Since 1986, Chinese Standard Time (CST) was set from NTSC. The NTSC in Lintong is {{convert|36|km|abbr=on}} away from Xi'an.National Time Service Centre (NTSC), the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an institute which is mainly engaged in the service and research on time and frequency. NTSC takes charge of generating and maintaining the national standard time scale, disseminating the time and frequency signals. The autonomous standard time scales of universal time and atomic time and the dissemination techniques with LF radio and HF radio were established successively during the 1970s and 1980s. That meet all the requirements for different applications on the whole, such as the scientific researches, national economy, etc.NTSC {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304001755weblink |date=March 4, 2016 }} 国家授时中心简介

Demographics

(File:Muslim Quarter Xi'an China.jpg|thumb|Muslim Quarter in Xi'an){{As of|2015}} Xi'an has a population of 8.7 million.WEB,weblink zh:西安市2015年国民经济和社会发展统计公报, www.xatj.gov.cn/, 2016-05-12,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160604012728weblink">weblink June 4, 2016, Compared to the census data from 2000, the population has increased by 656,700 persons from 7.41 million. The population is 51.66 percent male and 48.34 percent female. Among its districts, Yanta has the largest population, with 1.08 million inhabitants.WEB, zh:西安人口, Xi'an population,weblink City of Xi'an, zh-hansChinese, 2007-05-16, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070322151526weblink">weblink 2007-03-22, The encompassing Xi'an-Xianyang metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, {{As of|2010|lc=y}}, a population of 12.9 million,BOOK, 10.1787/9789264230040-en, OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition,weblink Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, 37, OECD iLibrary, en, April 18, 2015, 2306-9341, 9789264230033, OECD Urban Policy Reviews, December 8, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170327210032weblink">weblink March 27, 2017, live, Linked from the OECD here {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171209044027weblink |date=December 9, 2017 }} {{Failed verification span|text=and locally as 13,569,700,WEB,weblink zh:4-5各市、县(市、区)常住人口(2013-2014å¹´)-tjsql.com, www.tjsql.com, 2016-03-06,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220200354weblink">weblink December 20, 2016, June 2018, |date=December 2017}} of which 5,740,000 is urban.WEB,weblink World urban areas, November 16, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180503021711weblink">weblink May 3, 2018, live, The majority of Xi'an residents are Han Chinese, who make up 99.1 percent of the city's total population. Around 81,500 people are belonging to ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Hui people.{{citation needed|date=July 2012}}During World War II, Xi'an became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially neighboring Henan Province. Because Xi'an was far inland, the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the national government tried to balance the development in different regions of China, and relocated a number of factories and universities from other cities to Xi'an. Modern Xi'an Jiaotong University was relocated from its original campus in Shanghai.{| class="wikitable sortable" align="center" border="1"|+ Breakdown of Xi'an population by district and county! scope="col" class="unsortable" rowspan=2 | Division!! scope="col" colspan=3 | Permanent residentsWEB, zh:西安市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报,weblink Xi'an Evening News ({{zh, 西安晚报, no, )|accessdate=2014-07-03|date=May 25, 2011|language=zh|title=Archived copy|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140220070842weblink|archive-date=February 20, 2014|url-status=live}}!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Hukou residentsPeople's Republic of China County-level Division Population Statistics ({{zh|s=《中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料2010》|labels=no}}).align="right" style="font-weight:bold"!! scope="col" width="70" | Total!! scope="col" width="70" | Percentage!! scope="col" width="70" | Population density (persons/km2)align="right" style="font-weight:bold"! width="200"|Xi'an City8,467,837 width="100"838.66 width="100"|7,827,260align="right"! Xincheng District| 503,641align="right"! Beilin District| 732,494align="right"! Lianhu District| 640,911align="right"! Baqiao District| 508,535align="right"! Weiyang District| 516,968align="right"! Yanta District| 793,103align="right"! Yanliang District| 252,449align="right"! Lintong District| 697,586align="right"! Chang'an District| 980,803align="right"! Gaoling District| 294,507align="right"! Huyi District| 597,071align="right"! Lantian County| 643,605align="right"! Zhouzhi County| 665,587align="center"

Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Xi'an has direct jurisdiction over 11 districts and 2 counties:{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="width:90%; font-size:smaller" border="1"! colspan="12"| Map{{Image label begin|image=Administrative Division Xi'an.png|width=735}}{{Image label|x=905|y=380|scale=735/1470|text=1}}{{Image label|x=885|y=405|scale=735/1470|text=2}}{{Image label|x=850|y=385|scale=735/1470|text=3}}{{Image label|x=940|y=370|scale=735/1470|text=Baqiao}}{{Image label|x=815|y=330|scale=735/1470|text=Weiyang}}{{Image label|x=845|y=440|scale=735/1470|text=Yanta}}{{Image label|x=1060|y=70|scale=735/1470|text=Yanliang}}{{Image label|x=1070|y=230|scale=735/1470|text=Lintong}}{{Image label|x=840|y=560|scale=735/1470|text=Chang'an}}{{Image label|x=1140|y=520|scale=735/1470|text=LantianCounty}}{{Image label|x=290|y=640|scale=735/1470|text=ZhouzhiCounty}}{{Image label|x=610|y=600|scale=735/1470|text=Huyi}}{{Image label|x=925|y=190|scale=735/1470|text=Gaoling}}{{Image label|x=700|y=150|scale=735/1470|text=1. Xincheng}}{{Image label|x=700|y=185|scale=735/1470|text=2. Beilin}}{{Image label|x=700|y=220|scale=735/1470|text=3. Lianhu}}{{Image label end}}!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Division code国家统计局统计用区划代码 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120407065847weblink |date=April 7, 2012 }}!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | English!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Chinese!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Pinyin!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Area in km2《贵阳统计年鉴2011》!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Seat!! scope="col" rowspan=2 | Postal code!! scope="col" colspan=6 | Subdivisions《中国民政统计年鉴2011》!! scope="col" width="45" | Subdistricts!! scope="col" width="45" | Towns!! scope="col" width="45" | Residential communities!! scope="col" width="45" | Villagesalign="center" style="font-weight:bold"! 610100 !! Xi'anzhWeiyang District, Xi'an>Weiyang District 710000 113 55 766 2984align="center"! 610102 !! Xincheng Districtzh| align="center"! 610103 !! Beilin Districtzh|align="center"! 610104 !! Lianhu Districtzh| 5align="center"! 610111 !! Baqiao Districtzh| 223align="center"! 610112 !! Weiyang Districtzh| 147align="center"! 610113 !! Yanta Districtzh| 84align="center"! 610114 !! Yanliang Districtzh| 80align="center"! 610115 !! Lintong Districtzh| 284align="center"! 610116 !! Chang'an Districtzh| 659align="center"! 610117 !! Gaoling Districtzh| 88align="center"! 610118 !! Huyi Districtzh| 518align="center"! 610122 !! Lantian Countyzh| 520align="center"! 610124 !! Zhouzhi Countyzh| 376

Transportation

{{Multiple image
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| direction = vertical
| width = 200
| image1 = BEIDAJIE station platform.jpg
| caption1 = Xi'an Metro
| image2 = Yongningmen Station of Xi'an Metro Line 2.jpg
| caption2 = Yongningmen Metro Station
| image3 = Xi'an train station.jpg
| caption3 = Xi'an Railway Station
| image4 = Xi'an North Railway Station abend.JPG
| caption4 = Xi'an North Railway Station
| image5 = Zhongloutongdao.JPG
| caption5 = Bell Tower Underpass
| image6 = XiAn International Airport.JPG
| caption6 = Xi'an Xianyang International Airport
}}Xi'an has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. In many commercial, residential, educational zones in the city, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower, underpasses and overpasses have been built for the safety and convenience of pedestrians.Electric bikes are popular{{citation needed|date=July 2012}} among students and offer easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. A bicycle-sharing network started operating in 2013 and today has 52,000 bikes, used by over 200,000 people per day.WEB,weblink zh:-中国公交信息网, www.bus-info.cn, en, 2017-07-03, Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170801124240weblink">weblink August 1, 2017, live, Taxi services are numerous, but many citizens of Xi'an still commute to work using the city's 270 official municipal bus routes serviced by a fleet of over 7,800 buses, with an average system-wide ridership of over 4 million people per day. The bus network is complemented by a rapidly expanding subway system that carries over 1.5 million commuters per day. There are more than 2 million registered automobilesNEWS, 小雪, 翟, zh:西安机动车数量突破200万辆,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140912162652weblink">weblink dead, 2014-09-12, 西安晚报, 2014-07-04, in Xi'an; the growing number of personal automobiles also means traffic jams are a common urban issue.

Metro

Line 2, running through the city from north (North Railway Station) to south (Weiqu Nan), was the first line opened to the public on September 16, 2011.WEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:西安地铁二号线开通 西安迈入"地铁时代", September 16, 2006, China National Radio, Beijing, Xi'an Metro line brings Xi'an into the "metro era", Archived copy, May 28, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121008133817weblink">weblink October 8, 2012, live, Operations began on September 28, 2011.NEWS,weblink Global Times, Xi'an Subway Line 2 to begin trial runs on September 28, June 29, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121016123545weblink">weblink 2012-10-16, This line is {{convert|19.9|km|abbr=off}} long with 17 stations.WEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:市政府召开西安地铁开通试运营新闻发布会, 2011-09-16, 2012-10-03, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111114040547weblink">weblink 2011-11-14, Line 1 opened on September 15, 2013. As a west-east railway, its 19 stations connect Houweizhai and Fangzhicheng. Line 3 runs from northeast (Baoshuiqu) to southwest (Yuhuazhai) and opened on November 8, 2016. Line 4, which is basically parallel to Line 2 on its east, runs from the North Square of the North Railway Station [Beikezhan (Beiguangchang)] to south (Hangtianxincheng) and was available publicly on December 26, 2018.Eight lines are planned to be finished around 2021. It will mainly service the urban and suburban districts of Xi'an municipality and part of nearby Xianyang City.WEB,weblink Travel China Guide, Xian: the Building of Subway to Start This Year, September 14, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140103231053weblink">weblink 2014-01-03, The subway system covers some of the most famous attractions, such as Banpo Museum (Banpo Station, Line 1), Bell and Drum Tower (Line 2), Fortifications of Xi'an (Line 2), the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda (Line 3 and Line 4), the Daminggong National Heritage Park (Line 4) and Shaanxi History Museum (Line 2, 3 and 4), etc."Xi'an Transportation" ChinaTour.Net {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402170737weblink |date=April 2, 2015 }} Accessed December 4, 2014The first metro departure time for Line 1, 2, 3 and 4 is 6:00, the last metro departure time for Line 3 and 4 is 23:00, for Line 1 is 23:30, and for Line 2 is 23:50.一、二、三、四号线首末班车时刻表 weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190103161219weblink |date=January 3, 2019 }} on February 25, 2019On December 30, 2008, a fire accident occurred that was extinguished within an hour and all workers evacuated safely. Sixty-six hours later, on January 2, another fire occurred at another station on Line 2.WEB, Subway Collapse Kills Two in Xi'an, August 3, 2009, CRIENGLISH.com,weblink China Radio International, May 28, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140529052422weblink">weblink May 29, 2014, live,

Taxi

Taxis in Xi'an are predominantly BYD Auto made in Xi'an.Most, if not all, taxis in Xi'an run on compressed natural gas. For the taxis' fare, during the period of 06:00 through 23:00, ¥9/{{convert|2|km|abbr=off}} for the fare fall and ¥2.3/km later, at night ¥10 for the fare fall and ¥2.7/km later.

Rail

There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an. Xi'an railway station, located just north of Xi'an walled city, is one of the eight major national railway stations, and the main railway transportation hub of Shaanxi Province. The new Xi'an North railway station, situated a few miles to the north, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway. With 34 platforms, it is the largest railway station in Northwest China.WEB,weblink Railway Gazette International, Growth to continue, March 3, 2011, DVV Media UK, May 28, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110309040730weblink">weblink March 9, 2011, live, Construction of the station began on September 19, 2008.WEB,weblink zh:郑西客运专线西安北站将建成大型综合交通枢纽中心, China Railway Network, Zhengzhou to Xi'an: Xi'an North Passenger Station will be a large-scale transport hub, September 20, 2008, Tang Ru, www.railcn.net Corporation, zh, Archived copy, February 6, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304031726weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, dead, The station was opened on January 11, 2011. As of May 2012, Xi'an North Station is served only by the fast (G-series and D-series) trains running on the Zhengzhou–Xi'an high-speed railway; one of them continues south to Hankou.WEB,weblink zh:西安北列车时刻表, Xi'an North train schedule, ip138.com, Archived copy, December 5, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304065809weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, dead, The city's other stations include Xi'an West, Xi'an East, Xi'an South, Sanmincun, and Fangzhicheng railway stations.Xi'an Railway Station covers {{convert|597,000|m2|lk=out|abbr=off}}, has 5 passenger platforms, and 24 tracks. It provides 112 services to 80 000 people daily. Among the destinations served by direct trains from Xi'an are Beijing, Zhengzhou, Lanzhou, Baoji, and Mount Hua. China Railway High-speed 2 now run an express services from Xi'an to Baoji and Xi'an to Zhengzhou; with a total running time to Baoji of under 90 minutes, and 2 hours to Zhengzhou. The Zhengzhou–Xi'an high-speed railway also serves Xi'an. Construction work began on September 25, 2005, the railway opened for service on February 6, 2010.{{vcite news| url=http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/regional/2010-02/06/content_9439243.htm| work=China Daily| title=Zhengzhou-Xi'an high-speed train starts operation| date=February 6, 2010| accessdate=2010-02-06| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150203162244weblink| archivedate=February 3, 2015}}{{vcite news| url=http://www.istockanalyst.com/article/viewiStockNews/articleid/3844214| work=iStockAnalyst| title=High-speed rail linking central, western China starts operation| date=February 6, 2010| accessdate=2010-02-06| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100208233344weblink| archivedate=February 8, 2010| url-status=dead| df=mdy-all}}{{vcite news| url=http://english.cctv.com/program/newshour/20100206/102086.shtml| work=CCTV| title=High-speed train debuts in W. China| date=February 6, 2010| accessdate=2010-02-06| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140106163148weblink| archivedate=January 6, 2014}} The railway has made air service between Zhengzhou and Xi'an uncompetitive. All passenger flights between the two cities were suspended within 48 days of start of regular high-speed rail service.{{vcite news|url=http://in.reuters.com/article/rbssIndustryMaterialsUtilitiesNews/idINTOE62P04E20100326|title=China express train forces airlines to stop flights|date=2010-03-26|accessdate=2010-03-28|publisher=Reuters|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100330090345weblink|archivedate=March 30, 2010}}

Expressways

Xi'an currently has three ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road which encircle the city. These ring roads are similar to freeways, except where there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road.As a tourist city, Xi'an has built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji, with well-maintained roads to famous scenic spots in suburban counties and to the north slope of the Qin Mountains. Since its construction in September 2007, the G5 Beijing–Kunming Expressway connects Hanzhong and Xi'an through the Qinling.

Air

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport (airport code: XIY) is the major airport serving the city and it is the largest airport in the northwestern part of China. It is {{convert|41|km}} northwest of Xi'an city centre, and {{convert|13|km}} northeast of the centre of Xianyang.WEB,weblink zh:陕西年鉴1992, Shaanxi Yearbook 1992, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140529051806weblink">weblink 2014-05-29, China Eastern Airlines, Hainan Airlines and China Southern Airlines are the main airlines using the airport. Terminal 3 and the second runway were opened on May 3, 2012.WEB,weblink Xian Airport opens new terminal building with strong focus on retail growth, May 28, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140523225658weblink">weblink May 23, 2014, live, International Routes:There are direct flights from Xi'an to many major cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Busan, Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Osaka, Sapporo, Singapore Seoul, and Taipei.Finnair launched first direct route between Xi'an and Europe on June 14, 2013. There are 3 three frequencies per week via Helsinki hub to many major cities in Europe during the summer season.United Airlines begun non-stop service to San Francisco since May 2016.Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490  million yuan to obtain a 24.5  percent stake in the Xianyang International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility.(File: XiAn International Airport Statue.JPG|thumb|200px|right|Figures along the Airport Express highway leading to Xi'an Xianyang International Airport)

Culture

{{Multiple image
| align = right
| direction = vertical
| width = 220
| image1 = Xi'ansitepic8.jpg
| caption1 = A typical Chinese pavilion located in Xi'an
| image2 = Xi'anviewpic5.jpg
| caption2 = Traditional Chinese musical performances at Xi'an
| image3 = Yangrou Paomo.JPG
| caption3 = Yangrou Paomo, a well-known Xi'an dish
}}{{more citations needed section|date=August 2013}}The culture of Xi'an descends from one of the world's earliest civilizations. The Guanzhong Ren ({{zh|s=关中人|t=關中人|hp=Guānzhōng rén|links=no}}) culture is considered the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese; their features are satirized as the "Ten Strangenesses of Guanzhong Ren" ({{zh|s=关中十大怪|t=關中十大怪|hp=Guānzhōng shí dà guài|links=no}}). Xi'an is also known for the "Eight Great Sights of Chang'an" ({{zh|s=长安八景|t=長安八景|hp=Cháng'ān bājǐng|links=no}}), a collection of scenic areas in the region. Xi'an guyue is named for Xi'an.

Arts district

Much like Beijing 1798 and Shanghai 1933, Xi'an has an art district called Textile Town ({{zh|s=纺织城|hp=Fǎngzhī chéng|links=no}}). The district derives its name from the many textile factories built there since the 1950s.WEB,weblink Trouble in Textile Town – Global Times, January 31, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170914125335weblink">weblink September 14, 2017, live, mdy-all, Today it is no longer a centre for the textile industry but a new art factory with 4 workshops in total.

Resident artists

Xi'an is home to contemporary Chinese stars such as Xu Wei,{{vcite news| url=http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-07/05/content_457197.htm| work=Shenzhen Daily| publisher=China Daily| title=Xu Wei to rock fans in grand concert| date=2005-07-05| accessdate=2014-05-28| archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924065658weblink| archivedate=September 24, 2015}} Zhang Chu and Zheng Jun.

Xi'an cuisine

Yangrou paomo (flat bread soaked in lamb soup; {{zh|s=羊肉泡馍|t=羊肉泡饃|hp=Yángròu pàomó|links=no}}) WEB,weblink zh:陕西小吃-羊肉泡馍, News.xinhuanet.com, 2014-05-28, Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131126214304weblink">weblink November 26, 2013, live, is a well known Xi'anese dish.

Opera

Qinqiang (Voice of Qin) is the oldest and most extensive of the four major types of Chinese opera.NEWS, China promove programas diversificados durante o Festival da Primavera, China Radio International, February 8, 2008,weblink 2010-11-17,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304001047weblink">weblink March 4, 2016, live, (English {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151117034335weblink |date=November 17, 2015 }}) Also called "random pluck" ({{zh|s=乱弹|hp=Luàntán|links=no}}), Qinqiang is the main type of drama in Shaanxi province.NEWS, Chinese opera The First Emperor transmitted live into theaters worldwide, People's Daily, January 14, 2007,weblink 2010-11-17,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140529052153weblink">weblink May 29, 2014, live, As the earliest ancestor of Peking opera, Yu Opera, Sichuan opera and Hebei Opera{{disambiguation needed|date=March 2019}}, Qinqiang has developed its own system of unique vocal music, spoken parts, facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting. It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang ({{zh|s=西秦腔|hp=Xi qínqiāng|l=Voice of West Qin|links=no}}) in Qin dynasty, and blossomed until Qing dynasty, with direct influences on many branches of Chinese Opera.BOOK, Miraculous response: doing popular religion in contemporary China, Yuet Chau, Adam, 2006, Stanford University Press, 9780804767651, 53,weblink 2010-11-17,weblink January 2, 2016, live,

Cinema

Zhang Yimou and Gu Changwei are directors from Xi'an. Zhang Yimou is also the only director in China to win the Golden Bear (Berlin Film Festival) twice. The first film is Red Sorghum and the second one is Tuya's Marriage. They are produced by Xi'an Filmmaking Factory (now called Xi'an Qujiang Filmmaking Group) and Xi'an Filmmaking Company, respectively.

Religion

Chinese traditional religion and Taoism

File:The Temple of the Town Deity in Xi'an 18 2013-09.jpg|thumb|150px|left|A pavilion of the City God Temple of XianXianThe most influential religions in Xi'an are the Chinese traditional religion and Taoist schools, represented by many major and minor temples. Among these there are a City God Temple, completely reconstructed in the 2010s, and a Temple of Confucius.

Buddhism

(File:Buddhist Nuns And Laywomen Xian Shaanxi.jpeg|thumb|150px|Chinese Buddhist nuns and laywomen at a temple in Xi'an.)Buddhism has a large presence in the city, with temples of the Chinese and Tibetan schools.

Christianity

{{see also|Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Xi'an}}The first recorded Christian missionary in China was Alopen, a Syriac-speaker, who arrived in Xi'an (then known as Chang'an) in 635 along the Silk Road. The Nestorian Stele, now located in Xi'an's Beilin Museum, is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 that documents the 150 years of early Christianity in China following Alopen. It is a {{convert|279|cm|inch|lk=out|adj=mid|abbr=off|-tall}} limestone block with text in both Chinese and Syriac describing the existence of Christian communities in several cities in northern China. The Daqin Pagoda, a Buddhist pagoda in Zhouzhi County of Xi'an, has been suggested to have originally been a Nestorian Christian church from the Tang Dynasty.Martin Palmer, The Jesus Sutras: Rediscovering the Lost Religion of Taoist Christianity, {{ISBN|0-7499-2250-8}}, 2001In Xi'an there was formerly a Baptist mission from England. The Baptist missionaries ran a hospital.Fleming, Peter (1936) News from Tartary. London: Jonathan Cape; pp. 46–48 In 1892, Arthur Gostick ShorrockBOOK, Shorrock, Arthur Gostick, Shensi in Sunshine and Shade, Presbyterian Mission Press, 1926, Shanghai, and Moir DuncanWEB, Duncan Papers (Mundus Gateway to missionary collections in the United Kingdom), Angus Library, Regents Park College,weblink August 14, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131011225707weblink">weblink October 11, 2013, live, mdy-all, founded the Sianfu Mission, in present-day Xi'an.BOOK, Burt, Ernest Whitby, Fifty Years in China: The Story of the Baptist Mission in Shantung, Shansi, and Shensi, 1875–1925, The Carey Press, 1925, London, BOOK, 1914, Herbert Stanley Jenkins, medical missionary, Shensi, China: with some notices of the work of the Baptist Missionary Society in that country (1914), London, Carey Press, 155,weblink Glover, Richard, 978-0-524-07100-7, November 15, 2015,weblink March 7, 2016, live, mdy-all, BOOK, 1900, The missionary mail to faithful friends and candid critics (the substance of letters written from Shên His), London, Elliot Stock,weblink Duncan, Moir Black,

Islam

Xi'an was the first city in China to be introduced to Islam. Emperor Gaozong of the Tang dynasty officially allowed the practice of Islam in AD{{nbsp}}651. Xi'an has a large Muslim community, the significant majority are from the Hui group, there are an estimated 50,000 Hui Muslims in Xi'an.WEB,weblink zh:中国七大中心城市人口资源大调查, Population survey of the seven central cities of China, Zhang, Zhizhong, National Family Planning Commission, Archived copy, August 21, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923221934weblink">weblink September 23, 2015, live, There are seven mosques in Xi'an, the best known being the Great Mosque.Mosques in Xian {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170430042345weblink |date=April 30, 2017 }} from www.muslim2china.com

Economy

(File:Xi'an erhuan southeast.JPG|thumb|right|220px|Erhuan Road of Xi'an)As part of the China Western Development policy, Xi’an became a major target for accelerated attention. From 1997 to 2006, the industrial output value of Xi’an's service industry increased at an annual average rate of 13.74 percent, compared to traditional service industries of 0.74 percent, representing a growth from US$8.113 billion to US$25.85 billion.WEB,weblink Xi'an's Maturing Economy, April 17, 2010, 2013-06-01, Walcott, Susan, Xi'an is the largest economy of the Shaanxi province, with a GDP of 324.1 billion Yuan in 2010. On average this value increases by 14.5 percent annually, and accounts for approximately 41.8 percent of Shaanxi's total GDP.WEB,weblink Xi'an ( Shaanxi ) City Information, August 29, 2011, 2013-06-01,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150505065139weblink">weblink May 5, 2015, live, mdy-all, At least fifty-eight countries have established over 2,560 enterprises in Xian, including nineteen of the Fortune 500 enterprises. These include ABB Group, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Coca-Cola, and Boeing.WEB,weblink City Report: Xi'an, January 17, 2007, 2013-06-02,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141003150916weblink">weblink October 3, 2014, live, mdy-all, Important industries include equipment manufacturing, tourism, and service outsourcing.WEB,weblink Xi'an Economy, The People's Government of Shaanxi, January 1, 2008, 2013-06-02,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303223235weblink">weblink March 3, 2016, dead, mdy-all, The manufacturing industry had an annual output of RMB 36.5 billion, accounting for 44.5 percent of the city's total. Furthermore, as one of China's four ancient capitals,WEB,weblink Xi'an, Lehman, Lee & Xu, 2013-06-02, Xi'an's many cultural sites, including the Terracotta Army, the City Wall of Xi'an, and the Famen Temple, make tourism an important industry as well. In 2010, 52 million domestic tourists visited Xi'an, earning a total income of RMB 40.52 billion. On average, revenue increases by 36.4 percent per year, and foreign-exchange earnings (530 million in 2009) increase by around 35.8 percent.Xi'an is also one of the first service outsourcing cities in China, with over 800 corporations in the industry. The city's output value from this sector exceeded RMB 23 billion in 2008. Employment in the sector doubled from 1997–2006, from a base of 60,000, and computer consulting also doubled from 16,000 to 32,000. As a result of the importance of the software-outsourcing industry, the city planned construction of a Software New Town.That construction is scheduled to be completed in 2015 with 30 billion RMB investment. Other major export goods include lighting equipment and automobile parts, while its major import goods are mechanical and electrical products. Internationally, Xi'an's largest trade partner is the United States.Xi'an is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Chongqing.

Industrial zones

{{cleanup section| reason=Inadequate English|date=April 2014}}(File:Xi'ancbd2.jpg|220px|thumb|Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone)Major industrial zones in Xi'an include: a daily average of 3.7 technology enterprises established in Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone in the year of 2005, from XINHUANET.com July 28, 2005WEB,weblink Archived copy, April 23, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150528101805weblink">weblink May 28, 2015, live, Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone has more than 16,000 enterprises which ranked second place in all the 88 hi-tech ZONES in China, achieved a total revenue of 522.223 billion yuan.It is worth mentioning that 13 enterprise's annual income is over a hundred billion yuan. Besides, 19 enterprise's annual income is more than 50 billion. Also, more than 265 enterprise earns over billion yuan each year. Listed companies at home and abroad have accumulated 50, of which the domestic A-share market issued 21 of them. That accounts for more than 60% of the province; 4 GEM listed companies, ranking first in the Midwest high-tech zones.

Software and outsourcing industries

The growing economy of Xi'an supports the development of a software industry, and the city is a pioneer in software industry in China. The Xi'an Software Park within the Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone (XDZ) has attracted over 1,085 corporations and 106,000 employees as of 2012.WEB,weblink Xi'an software park, www.xdz.com, 2018-02-10,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180211071559weblink">weblink February 11, 2018, live, A Silicon.com article describes Xi'an: "But Xi'an is selling on its own merits—with a large pool of cheap human resources from the 100 universities in the area, it hoovers up around 3,000 computer graduates every year, each earning approximately $120 a month—half the wages for the equivalent job in Beijing."WEB,weblink People's Daily, October 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080904215721weblink">weblink September 4, 2008, live, Bureau of Commerce of Xi'an Municipal Government {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121016232033weblink |date=October 16, 2012 }}

Aerospace industry

{{unreferenced section|date=July 2012}}In November 2006, Xi'an and the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation jointly set up Xi'an Aerospace Science and Technology Industrial Base. From its establishment, the base has focused on the development of the civil space industry, including equipment manufacturing, software and service outsourcing, new materials and solar photovoltaics.Apart from the core area, the base will cover Xi'an and the Guanzhong area and the expansion zone will reach other parts of Northwest China and Southwest China. It is expected that by 2012 the total industry output can reach 2.8 billion us dollars with about 10 to 20 brand products with intellectual property rights and 5 to 8 products with global competitiveness.In 2008, after the launch of the initial aerospace centre in Shanghai, the PRC is constructing another civil aerospace centre in the Shaanxi province. The State Development and Reform Commission approved the planning of Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base on December 26, 2007. The National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base of Xi'an, set to cover {{convert|23|km2|abbr=on}}, will focus on developing satellites, new materials, energies, IT and other technologies for civil applications.

Notable businesspeople

Zhang Chaoyang (), the CEO of SOHU (Nasdaq), born and raised in Xi'an, is a prominent leader in the Chinese Internet industry. Liu Chuanzhi, the founder and president of Lenovo Group Limited, completed his tertiary degree from Xidian University in the 1960s.

Education

{{Further|List of universities in China}}

Public

(File:XJTU campus.jpg|thumb|right|400px|Xi'an Jiaotong University)

Military

Private

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.{{See also|List of universities in China}}

International events

World Horticultural Expo 2011

Xi’an was chosen to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition by the Association of International Producers of Horticulture (AIPH) at its 59th congress, held in Brighton, United Kingdom on September 4, 2007. The 2011 World Horti-Expo was held from April 28 to October 28, 2011. The exhibition was located in a new district of the city, Chanba district, and was expected to bring some 10 million visitors to Xi’an."Xi'an to Host World Horticultural Expo" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071017152049weblink |date=October 17, 2007 }} China.org.cn

Tourism

{{Multiple image
| align = right
| direction = vertical
| width = 220
| image1 = ChinaTrip2005-110.jpg
| caption1 = Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
| image2 = Bell tower xi'an 2013.JPG
| caption2 = Bell Tower
| image3 = Drum Tower Xian.JPG
| caption3 = Drum Tower
| image4 = XiAn CityWall DiLou.jpg
| caption4 = Ming dynasty city wall
| image5 = 1 great mosque xian 2011.JPG
| caption5 = The Great Mosque of Xi'an
| image6 = Reconstructed_Danfeng_Men.jpg
| caption6 = Reconstructed Danfeng Gate in Daming Palace National Heritage Park
| image7 = Shaanxi History Museum 2.JPG
| caption7 = Shaanxi History Museum
| image8 = Han Yang Ling 16.JPG
| caption8 = Pit in underground museum of Han Yang Ling, Mausoleum of Han Emperor Jingdi
| image9 = TaibaiShanNFP.JPG
| caption9 = Mount Taibai National Forest Park
| image10 = 西安维景国际大酒店2017.jpg
| caption10 = Grand Metro Park Hotel Xi'an
}}The number of travelers is often greater during Summer (May–August), although the most pleasant season for visiting Xi'an is Autumn. {{citation needed|date=March 2012}}

Sites

Because of the city's many historical monuments and a plethora of ancient ruins and tombs in the vicinity, tourism has been an important component of the local economy. The Xi'an region is one of the most popular tourist destinations in China.The city has many important historical sites, and some are ongoing archaeological projects, such as the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army. There are several burial mounds, tombs of the Zhou dynasty kings located in the city. Xi'an also contains some 800 royal mausoleums and tombs from the Han dynasty,WEB,weblink Xi'an, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition., 2008-09-03, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110606102855weblink">weblink 2011-06-06, with some of them yielding hundreds of sculpted clay soldiers, and remains of sacrificial temples from the Han era. The city has numerous Tang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum and its stele forest, which is housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from various dynasties.Some of the most well-known sites in Xi'an are:

Museums

National parks

Food

  • Roujiamo Chinese Hamburger (肉夹馍)
  • Liangpi (凉皮)
  • Paomo Mutton, beef, and Bread Pieces in Soup (羊肉泡馍)
  • Biang Biang Noodles
  • Jinggao Steamed rice cake stuffed with honey dates and black beans (甑糕)

Sports

Cuju is a very old football game:It was improved during the Tang dynasty (618–907). First of all, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Also, two different types of goalposts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field. Chang'an was filled with cuju football fields, in the backyards of large mansions, and some were even established in the grounds of the palaces. The level of female cuju teams also improved. Records indicate that once a 17-year-old girl beat a team of army soldiers. Cuju football became popular among the scholars and intellectuals, and if a courtier lacked skill in the game, he could pardon himself by acting as a scorekeeper.Professional sports teams in Xi'an include: Former Professional sports teams in Xi'an: Xi'an is also the Chinese Boxing training base for the national team.

Media

Television and radio

Printed media

Online media

  • Xianease is a popular online and print magazine in Xi'an.

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in China}}Xi'an's twin towns and sister cities are:{| class="wikitable" valign="top"|
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Nara, Nara Prefecture, Japan (1974)
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Kyoto, Japan (1974)WEB,weblink Sister Cities of Kyoto City, 2014-01-21, City of Kyoto,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140121151906weblink">weblink 2014-01-21,
  • {{flagdeco|GBR}} Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom(1985)WEB,weblink Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities, 2008-12-21, 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080328001653weblink">weblink March 28, 2008, dead, WEB,weblink Twin and Partner Cities, City of Edinburgh Council, 2009-01-16, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120614133841weblink">weblink 2012-06-14,
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Aquitaine, France (1986)
  • {{flagdeco|USA}} Kansas City, Missouri, United States (1989)
  • {{flagdeco|IRN}} Esfahan, Iran (1989)
  • {{flagdeco|DEU}} Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (1991)WEB,weblink List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District, Twins2010.com, 2009-10-28, dead,weblink 2009-11-28,
  • {{flagdeco|PAK}} Lahore, Pakistan (1992)
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Funabashi, Chiba, Japan (1994)
  • {{flagdeco|ROM}} IaÅŸi, Romania (1994)
  • {{flagdeco|UKR}} Dnipro, Ukraine (1995)
  • {{flagdeco|TUR}} Istanbul, Turkey (1996)
  • {{flagdeco|NEP}} Kathmandu, Nepal (1996)
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} Brasília, Brazil (1997)
  • {{flagdeco|EGY}} Cairo, Egypt (1997)
  • {{flagdeco|CAN}} Quebec City, Quebec, Canada (2001)
  • {{flagdeco|ARG}} Córdoba, Argentina (2006)
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Pompei, Campania, Italy (2007)
  • {{flagdeco|GRC}} Athens, Greece
  • {{flagdeco|GRC}} Kalamata, Greece (2009)
  • {{flagdeco|GBR}} Birmingham, United Kingdom
  • {{flagdeco|PER}} Cusco, Peru
  • {{flagicon|UZB}} Samarkand, Uzbekistan
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Hobart, Tasmania, Australia (2015)
  • {{flagdeco|ARM}} Gyumri, Armenia (2013)
  • {{flagdeco|NZL}} Taupo, New Zealand
  • {{flagdeco|NED}} Groningen, The Netherlands (2011)
  • {{flagdeco|GBR}} Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, United Kingdom
  • {{flagdeco|MYS}} George Town, Penang, Malaysia (2014)NEWS,weblink SISTER CITY PARTNERSHIP OFFICIALLY FORMALIZED BETWEEN PENANG, MALAYSIA AND XI’AN, SHAANXI PROVINCE, CHINA, 2014-10-27, SEIA, 2017-03-06, en,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170306213846weblink">weblink March 6, 2017, live,
  • {{flagdeco|MYS}} Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia (2019)WEB,weblink Proposed Twinning of Kota Kinabalu and Xi'an as Sister Cities, Sabah News Today, 4 June 2019, 26 September 2019,weblink 26 September 2019, dead, NEWS,weblink DBKK, X’ian association to sign MoU, The Borneo Post, 23 July 2019, 26 September 2019,weblink September 26, 2019, dead,

See also

References

Citations

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • {{citation |last=Du Halde |first=Jean-Baptiste |authorlink=Jean-Baptiste Du Halde |url=https://archive.org/details/descriptiongog01duha |title=Description Géographique, Historique, Chronologique, Politique, et Physique de l'Empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie Chinoise [A Geographical, Historical, Chronological, Political, and Physical Description of the Empire of China and Chinese Tartary |location=The Hague |publisher=H. Scheurleer |date=1736 }}. {{fr icon}}
  • {{citation |last=Du Halde |first=Jean-Baptiste |authorlink=Jean-Baptiste Du Halde |url=https://archive.org/stream/generalhistoryof01duhapage/n5/mode/2up |title=The General History of China, 3rd ed. |publisher=J. Watts |location=London |date=1741 |editor-last=Brookes |editor-first=Richard }}.
  • {{citation |last=Heng |first=Chye Kiang |authormask=Heng Chye Kiang |date=1999 |title=Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats: The Development of Medieval Chinese Cityscapes |location=Singapore |publisher=Singapore University Press |isbn=978-9971-69-223-0 |url=https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=BIgS4p8NykYC&printsec=frontcover }}.
  • {{citation |last=Stanford |first=Edward |authorlink=Edward Stanford |url=https://archive.org/stream/cu31924023258241page/n3/mode/2up |title=Complete Atlas of China, 2nd ed. |date=1917 |publisher=China Inland Mission |location=London }}.
  • {{citation |last=Woo |first=J.K. |authorlink= |year=1964 |title=A Newly Discovered Mandible of the Sinanthropus Type: Sinanthropus Lantianensis |journal=Scientia Sinica |volume=Vol. 13 |pages=801–811 |pmid=14170540 |url= }}.

External links

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