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XUL ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|z|uː|l}} {{respell|ZOOL|'}}), which stands for XML User Interface Language, is a user interface markup language developed by Mozilla. XUL is implemented as an XML dialect, enabling graphical user interfaces to be written in a similar manner to web pages.XUL can be used to write cross-platform applications. The most prominent example is the Firefox web browser with its Gecko engine that renders both web pages and the XUL browser interface.WEB,weblink Gecko FAQ, Mozilla Developer Center, 2009-03-26, 2008-03-15, Mozilla Foundation, In the past, Firefox permitted add-ons to extensively alter its user interface via custom XUL code, but this capability was removed in Firefox 57 and replaced with the less-permissive WebExtensions API.Firefox 57 release notesWEB, The Future of Developing Firefox Add-ons,weblink 2015-08-21, Kev Needham, 2018-04-02,, (Three forks of Firefox still support the legacy capability: Pale Moon,WEB,weblink Pale Moon future roadmap, 2018-04-02, Pale Moon (web browser), Pale Moon, Basilisk,WEB, Pale Moon team releases first version of Basilisk browser,weblink, 2017-11-17, 2018-04-02, Waterfox.WEB, Waterfox, Its Legacy and Looking to the Future,weblink Waterfox blog, 2018-04-28, 2018-06-20, )


XUL relies on multiple existing Web standards and Web technologies, including CSS, JavaScript, and DOM. Such reliance makes XUL relatively easy to learn for people with a background in Web programming and design.XUL has no formal specification and does not inter-operate with non-Gecko implementations. However, it uses an open-source implementation of Gecko which Mozilla tri-licensed under the GNU GPL, GNU LGPL, and MPLWEB,weblink Mozilla Code Licensing, 2007-09-17, Mozilla Foundation,
until Gecko changed{{citation needed|date=April 2014}} to GPL-compatible, MPL 2.0.
Mozilla provides experimental XULRunner builds to let developers build their applications on top of the Mozilla application framework and of XUL in particular.XUL provides a portable definition for common widgets, allowing them to move easily to any platform on which Mozilla applications run.WEB,weblink The Joy of XUL, 2009-03-26, 2007-09-09, Mozilla Foundation,

XUL documents

Programmers typically define a XUL interface as three discrete sets of components:
  1. content: the XUL document(s), whose elements define the layout of the user interface
  2. skin: the CSS and image files, which define the appearance of an application
  3. locale: the files containing user-visible strings for easy software localization

XUL elements

XUL defines a wide range of elements, which roughly belong to the following types:
Top-level elements: window, page, dialog, wizard, etc.
Widgets: label, button, text box, list box, combo box, radio button, check box, tree, menu, toolbar, group box, tab box, colorpicker, spacer, splitter, etc.
Box model: box, grid, stack, deck, etc.
Events and scripts: script, command, key, broadcaster, observer, etc.
Data source: template, rule, etc.
Others: overlay (analogous to SSI, but client-side and more powerful, with higher performance), iframe, browser, editor, etc.
One can use elements from other applications of XML within XUL documents, such as XHTML, SVG, and MathML.Mozilla added some common widgets — (sometimes called "slider"), (spinbox), time and date pickers — during the Gecko 1.9 development cycle.Firefox 3 for developers

XUL applications

While XUL serves primarily for constructing Mozilla applications and their extensions, it may also feature in Web applications transferred over HTTP. The Mozilla Amazon Browser, a former XUL application of this type, provided a rich interface for searching books at,weblink Remote Application Development with Mozilla, Part 2: A Case Study of the Mozilla Amazon Browser (MAB), Oreillynet, 2003-02-05, However, many of the powerful features of Mozilla (such as privileged XPCOM objects) remain unavailable to unprivileged XUL documents unless the script has a digital signature, and unless the user obtains grants of certain{{Which|date=October 2009}} privileges to the application. Such documents also suffer from various limitations of the browser, including the inability to load remote XUL, DTD, and RDF documents.As Gecko provides the only full implementation of XUL, such applications remain inaccessible to users of browsers not based on Mozilla. Mozilla-programmers sometimes refer to XUL applications running locally as chrome.BOOK, Kenneth C., Feldt, Programming Firefox: Building Rich Internet Applications with XUL, O'Reilly Media, 2007, 76–77, 0-596-10243-7,weblink 2008-03-04, Other applications using XUL include: With the release of Firefox 4, support for remote XUL was disabled by default, due to security concerns. Loading an XUL page via HTTP would now display an error unless the domain was added to a hidden whitelist.WEB, Firefox 4 for developers,weblink

Ghostbusters reference

The villain of the 1984 film Ghostbusters was a deity called Zuul who possesses the character Dana Barrett and declares, "There is no Dana. There is only Zuul".Ghostbusters clip The creators of XUL, which is pronounced the same as Zuul, made the slogan "There is no data. There is only XUL!", part of which became the XML namespace.Mozilla XML Namespace


This example shows three buttons stacked on top of each other in a vertical box container:The Box Model - XUL | MDN. (2012-12-16). Retrieved on 2014-03-28.(File:Boxes-ex1.png|right)

Similar languages

Based on HTML, DHTML, and JavaScript, Microsoft's HTML Application resembles XUL as it provides a stand-alone capability to run applications on Windows, outside a Web browser.The Microsoft Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) defines XAML, another declarative UI language similar to XUL â€” it runs on top of the .NET Framework stack.JavaFX defines FXML as its own declarative UI language like XUL.

See also



External links

{{Mozilla projects}}{{Widget toolkits}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "XUL" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 12:12pm EDT - Fri, Jul 20 2018
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
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M.R.M. Parrott