Windows NT

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Windows NT
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{{short description|family of operating systems by Microsoft}}{{pp-move |small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2018}}{{Refimprove |date=August 2008}}

, {{section link>Microsoft TechNet|Subscriptions and downloads}} and client access license.}}weblink}}| source_model = {hide}ubl {edih}C (programming language)>C, C++, and Assembly languageWEB
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Hybrid kernel>Hybrid| working_state = CurrentIA-32, x86-64, ARM architecture>ARM and Itanium (and historically DEC Alpha, MIPS, and PowerPC)Windows Update, Windows Server Update Services}}Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released on July 27, 1993. It is a processor-independent, multiprocessing and multi-user operating system.The first version of Windows NT was Windows NT 3.1 and was produced for workstations and server computers. It was intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS (including Windows 1.0 through Windows 3.1x). Gradually, the Windows NT family was expanded into Microsoft's general-purpose operating system product line for all personal computers, deprecating the Windows 9x family."NT" formerly expanded to "New Technology" but no longer carries any specific meaning. Starting with Windows 2000,PRESS RELEASE,weblink Microsoft Renames Windows NT 5.0 Product Line to Windows 2000; Signals Evolution of Windows NT Technology Into Mainstream, October 27, 1998, Microsoft, "NT" was removed from the product name and is only included in the product version string.WEB,weblink OperatingSystem.VersionString Property, November 10, 2014, MSDN, Microsoft, NT was the first purely 32-bit version of Windows, whereas its consumer-oriented counterparts, Windows 3.1x and Windows 9x, were 16-bit/32-bit hybrids. It is a multi-architecture operating system. Initially, it supported several instruction set architectures, including IA-32, MIPS, and DEC Alpha; support for PowerPC, Itanium, x64, and ARM were added later. The latest versions support x86 (more specifically IA-32 and x64) and ARM. Major features of the Windows NT family include Windows Shell, Windows API, Native API, Active Directory, Group Policy, Hardware Abstraction Layer, NTFS, BitLocker, Windows Store, Windows Update, and Hyper-V.


It has been suggested that Dave Cutler intended the initialism "WNT" as a play on VMS, incrementing each letter by one.BOOK, Zachary, G Pascal, Show Stopper!: The Breakneck Race to Create Windows NT and the Next Generation at Microsoft, 1994, Free Press, 978-0-02-935671-5, registration,weblink However, the project was originally intended as a follow-on to OS/2 and was referred to as "NT OS/2" before receiving the Windows brand.WEB, American history, Smithsonian, Microsoft Windows NT OS/2 Design Workbook,weblink March 17, 2017, One of the original NT developers, Mark Lucovsky, states that the name was taken from the original target processor—the Intel i860, code-named N10 ("N-Ten").WEB, Paul, Thurrott, Win super site, History of Windows Server 2003: The Road To Gold,weblink A 1998 question-and-answer session with Bill Gates revealed that the letters were previously expanded to "New Technology" but no longer carry any specific meaning.WEB, Gates, Bill, June 5, 1998,weblink" title="">weblink May 26, 2001,weblink Q&A: Protecting children from information on the Internet, June 26, 2005, dead, mdy-all, The letters were dropped from the names of releases from Windows 2000 and later, though Microsoft described that product as being "Built on NT Technology".WEB,weblink Windows 2000 is a name that reflects NT's continued move to the technology mainstream,, October 27, 1998, November 13, 2011,

Major features

A main design goal of NT was hardware and software portability. Various versions of NT family operating systems have been released for a variety of processor architectures, initially IA-32, MIPS, and DEC Alpha, with PowerPC, Itanium, x86-64 and ARM supported in later releases. The idea was to have a common code base with a custom Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) for each platform. However, support for MIPS, Alpha, and PowerPC was later dropped in Windows 2000. Broad software compatibility was achieved with support for several API "personalities", including Windows API, POSIX,WEB,weblink Paul Thurrott's SuperSite for Windows, Win super site, November 24, 2010, and OS/2 APIs{{citation | title = MS Windows NT 4 Workstation | type = resource kit | url =weblink | chapter = 28 – OS/2 Compatibility |publisher=Microsoft | accessdate = November 24, 2010}} – the latter two were phased out starting with Windows XP.WEB,weblink POSIX and OS/2 are not supported in Windows XP or in Windows Server 2003, Support, Microsoft, November 5, 2007, November 24, 2010, Partial MS-DOS compatibility was achieved via an integrated DOS Virtual Machine – although this feature is being phased out in the x86-64 architecture.WEB,weblink x64 editions deployment, November 24, 2010, NT supported per-object (file, function, and role) access control lists allowing a rich set of security permissions to be applied to systems and services. NT supported Windows network protocols, inheriting the previous OS/2 LAN Manager networking, as well as TCP/IP networking (for which Microsoft would implement a TCP/IP stack derived at first from a STREAMS-based stack from Spider Systems, then later rewritten in-house).{{Citation | last = Barr | first = Adam | contribution-url =weblink | contribution = Microsoft, TCP/IP, Open Source, and Licensing | title = Kuro5hin | date = June 19, 2001 | accessdate = February 22, 2013}}Windows NT 3.1 was the first version of Windows to use 32-bit flat virtual memory addressing on 32-bit processors. Its companion product, Windows 3.1, used segmented addressing and switches from 16-bit to 32-bit addressing in pages.Windows NT 3.1 featured a core kernel providing a system API, running in supervisor mode (ring 0 in x86; referred to in Windows NT as "kernel mode" on all platforms), and a set of user-space environments with their own APIs which included the new Win32 environment, an OS/2 1.3 text-mode environment and a POSIX environment. The full preemptive multitasking kernel could interrupt running tasks to schedule other tasks, without relying on user programs to voluntarily give up control of the CPU, as in Windows 3.1 Windows applications (although MS-DOS applications were preemptively multitasked in Windows starting with Windows/386).Notably, in Windows NT 3.x, several I/O driver subsystems, such as video and printing, were user-mode subsystems. In Windows NT 4, the video, server, and printer spooler subsystems were moved into kernel mode. Windows NT's first GUI was strongly influenced by (and programmatically compatible with) that from Windows 3.1; Windows NT 4's interface was redesigned to match that of the brand new Windows 95, moving from the Program Manager to the Windows shell design.NTFS, a journaled, secure file system, was created for NT. Windows NT also allows for other installable file systems; starting with versions 3.1, NT could be installed on FAT or HPFS file systems.WEB,weblink File Systems, TechNet, Microsoft, November 24, 2010, Windows NT introduced its own driver model, the Windows NT driver model, and is incompatible with older driver frameworks. With Windows 2000, the Windows NT driver model was enhanced to become the Windows Driver Model, which was first introduced with Windows 98, but was based on the NT driver model.WEB,weblink NT Drivers - FAQ - WDM, CMKrnl,weblink" title="">weblink April 21, 2009, Windows Vista added native support for the Windows Driver Foundation, which is also available for Windows XP, Windows Server 2003 and to an extent, Windows 2000.


(File:Windows NT logo.svg|thumb|Original Windows NT wordmark)Microsoft decided to create a portable operating system, compatible with OS/2 and POSIX and supporting multiprocessing, in October 1988.{{Citation | first = Dave | last = Cutler | author-link = Dave Cutler | contribution = Preface | editor1-first = Mark | editor1-last = Russinovich | editor1-link = Mark Russinovich | editor2-first = David A | editor2-last = Solomon | editor2-link = David A. Solomon | title = Microsoft Windows Internals | edition = fourth | publisher = Microsoft Press | ISBN = 0-7356-1917-4}}. When development started in November 1989, Windows NT was to be known as OS/2 3.0,{{Citation|url=|title=Microsoft Widens Its Split With IBM Over Software|date=July 27, 1991 last = Pollack| newspaper = The New York TimesIBM. To ensure portability, initial development was targeted at the Intel i860XR RISC processor, switching to the MIPS architecture>MIPS R3000 in late 1989, and then the Intel i386 in 1990.WEB
, Windows Server 2003: The Road To Gold
, January 24, 2003
, Paul
, Thurrott
, Win super site
, January 5, 2010
,weblink" title="">weblink
, July 20, 2011
, dead
, Microsoft also continued parallel development of the DOS-based and less resource-demanding Windows environment, resulting in the release of Windows 3.0 in May 1990. Windows 3 was eventually so successful that Microsoft decided to change the primary application programming interface for the still unreleased NT OS/2 (as it was then known) from an extended OS/2 API to an extended Windows API. This decision caused tension between Microsoft and IBM and the collaboration ultimately fell apart. IBM continued OS/2 development alone while Microsoft continued work on the newly renamed Windows NT. Though neither operating system would immediately be as popular as Microsoft's MS-DOS or Windows products, Windows NT would eventually be far more successful than OS/2.Microsoft hired a group of developers from Digital Equipment Corporation led by Dave Cutler to build Windows NT, and many elements of the design reflect earlier DEC experience with Cutler's VMSWEB, IT Pro,weblink Windows NT and VMS: The Rest of the Story, Mark, Russinovich, November 30, 1998, January 2, 2018, and RSX-11, but also an unreleased object-based operating system developed by Dave Cutler for DEC Prism.WEB,weblink "Windows-NT" is "VMS Reimplemented" (sort of), Neil RieckMoshe Dunie. The operating system was designed to run on multiple instruction set architectures and multiple hardware platforms within each architecture. The platform dependencies are largely hidden from the rest of the system by a kernel mode module called the hardware abstraction layer>HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer).Windows NT's kernel mode code further distinguishes between the "kernel", whose primary purpose is to implement processor- and architecture-dependent functions, and the "executive". This was designed as a modified microkernel, as the Windows NT kernel was influenced by the Mach microkernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University,WEB,weblink Supporting Windows NT and 2000 Workstation and Server, Prentice Hall, 978-0-13-083068-5, December 1, 1999, August 29, 2011, Technology network, but does not meet all of the criteria of a pure microkernel. Both the kernel and the executive are linked together into the single loaded module ntoskrnl.exe; from outside this module, there is little distinction between the kernel and the executive. Routines from each are directly accessible, as for example from kernel-mode device drivers.API sets in the Windows NT family are implemented as subsystems atop the publicly undocumented "native" API; this allowed the late adoption of the Windows API (into the Win32 subsystem). Windows NT was one of the earliest operating systems to use Unicode internally.


{{see also|List of Microsoft Windows versions}}{| class="wikitable sortable"|+ Windows NT releases! Version !! Marketing name !! Editions !! Release date !! Build numberWindows NT 3.1 >Windows NT), Advanced Server >| 528Windows NT 3.5 > Workstation, Server September 21, 1994 807Windows NT 3.51 >| 1057Windows NT 4.0 >| 1381 5.0 rowspan="2" Windows 2000 > 2195| September 26, 2000 5.1 Windows XP Home, Professional, Windows XP Media Center Edition (original, 2004 & 2005), Tablet PC (original and 2005), Starter, Windows XP Embedded>Embedded, Home N, Professional N October 25, 2001 rowspan="2" | 2600Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs >| July 8, 2006 5.2 Windows XP 64-bit computing Edition Version 2003 (IA-64)MARCH 2003 TITLE = MICROSOFT RELEASES WINDOWS XP 64-BIT EDITION VERSION 2003 TO MANUFACTURING 3790Windows Server 2003 >| April 24, 2003Windows XP >Windows XP Professional x64 Edition>Professional x64 Edition (x86-64) April 25, 2005Windows Server 2003 R2 >| December 6, 2005Windows Home Server >| July 16, 2007 6.0 Windows Vista Starter, Home Basic, Home Premium, Business, Enterprise, Ultimate
  • Business: November 30, 2006
  • Consumer: January 30, 2007
  • 6000 (RTM)
  • 6001 (SP1)
  • 6002 (SP2)
Windows Server 2008 > TITLE = OVERVIEW OF EDITIONSACCESSDATE= MAY 18, 2009, February 27, 2008
  • 6001 (RTM)
  • 6002 (SP2)
  • 7600 (RTM)
  • 7601 (SP1)
| Windows Server 2008 R2| Foundation, Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Web Server, HPC Server, Itanium-Based SystemsWindows Home Server 2011 >| April 6, 2011
  • 7600 (RTM)
6.2Windows 8{{Citation > url =weblink title = Developer network | publisher = Microsoft}}Windows RTANNOUNCING THE WINDOWS 8 EDITIONS LAST =LEBLANCDATE= APRIL 16, 2012PUBLISHER= MICROSOFT, April 17, 2012, PUBLISHER=MICROSOFTACCESSDATE=JULY 18, 2012, 9200Windows Server 2012{{Citation > title = Windows valley weblink > contribution = Windows server 8 named Windows server 2012}}. URL = HTTP://WWW.MICROSOFT.COM/EN-US/SERVER-CLOUD/WINDOWS-SERVER/2012-EDITIONS.ASPX, July 8, 2012, | September 4, 2012 6.3{{Citation url =weblink | work = ZDNet}}| Windows 8.1| Windows 8.1, Windows 8.1 Pro, Windows 8.1 Enterprise, Windows RT 8.1 October 18, 2013 9600HTTPS://WWW.THEVERGE.COM/2013/8/24/4652054/MICROSOFT-WINDOWS-8-1-RTM > TITLE = WINDOWS 8.1 IS READY FOR ITS OCTOBER 17TH RELEASE THE VERGE > PUBLISHER = VOX MEDIA LAST=WARREN, August 24, 2013, | Windows Server 2012 R2| Foundation, Essentials, Standard, Datacenter10.0THURROTT>FIRST1=PAULURL=HTTPS://WWW.ITPROTODAY.COM/WINDOWS-SERVER/MICROSOFT-CONFIRMS-WINDOWS-10-WILL-ALSO-BE-VERSION-10-INTERNALLYPUBLISHER=INFORMA TECH, November 22, 2014, |Windows 10LAST=PIDGEONLAST2=BLOGDATE=2017-08-10LANGUAGE=EN-USWindows 10 Mobile>Mobile, Mobile EnterpriseHTTP://BLOGS.WINDOWS.COM/BLOGGINGWINDOWS/2015/05/13/INTRODUCING-WINDOWS-10-EDITIONS/>TITLE=INTRODUCING WINDOWS 10 EDITIONSLAST=PROPHETPUBLISHER=MICROSOFT, FOLEY>FIRST1=MARY JOURL=HTTP://WWW.ZDNET.COM/ARTICLE/MICROSOFT-TO-ADD-NEW-WINDOWS-10-PRO-EDUCATION-VERSION-TO-ITS-LINE-UP/ZDNET>PUBLISHER=CBS INTERACTIVE, July 27, 2016, |July 29, 2015
  • 10240 (TH1)
  • 10586 (TH2)
  • 14393 (RS1)
  • 15063 (RS2)
  • 16299 (RS3)
  • 17134 (RS4)
  • 17763 (RS5)
  • 18362 (19H1 And 19H2)
  • 18956 (20H1)
Windows Server 2016 >| September 26, 2016
  • 14393 (RS1)
  • 16299 (RS3)WEB, Windows Server, version 1709 available for download!,weblink Microsoft Technet, Microsoft,
Windows Server 2019 >| October 2, 2018
  • 17763 (RS5)
Windows NT 3.1 to 3.51 incorporated the Program Manager and File Manager from the Windows 3.1x series. Windows NT 4.0 onwards replaced those programs with Windows Explorer (including a taskbar and Start menu), which originally appeared in Windows 95.The first release was given version number 3.1 to match the contemporary 16-bit Windows; magazines of that era claimed the number was also used to make that version seem more reliable than a ".0" release. Also the Novell IPX protocol was apparently licensed only to 3.1 versions of Windows software.{{Citation needed | date = July 2008}}The NT version number is not now generally used for marketing purposes, but is still used internally, and said to reflect the degree of changes to the core of the operating system.{{citation | last1 = Russinovich|first1=Mark|last2= Solomon|first2= David|date= December 2001| publisher = Microsoft | url =weblink | series = Developer network | title = Windows XP: Kernel Improvements Create a More Robust, Powerful, and Scalable OS| newspaper = MSDN mag | accessdate = December 19, 2006 | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | archivedate=April 24, 2003}} However, for application compatibility reasons, Microsoft kept the major version number as 6 in releases following Vista,WEB, Why 7?, Microsoft,weblink Windows Team Blog, October 14, 2008, September 14, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink October 10, 2012, but changed it later to 10 in Windows 10. The build number is an internal identifier used by Microsoft's developers and beta testers.

Programming language

Windows NT is written in C and C++, with a very small amount written in assembly language.WEB,weblink Windows NT System Overview, Microsoft TechNet, TechNet, Microsoft, November 24, 2010, C is mostly used for the kernel code while C++ is mostly used for user-mode code. Assembly language is avoided where possible because it would impede portability.WEB, Chen, Raymond, One Dev Question with Raymond Chen - What Programming Language is Windows Written In?,weblink Channel 9 (Microsoft), Channel 9, Microsoft, September 28, 2016,

Supported platforms

32-bit platforms

In order to prevent Intel x86-specific code from slipping into the operating system by developers used to developing on x86 chips, Windows NT 3.1 was initially developed using non-x86 development systems and then ported to the x86 architecture. This work was initially based on the Intel i860-based Dazzle system and, later, the MIPS R4000-based Jazz platform. Both systems were designed internally at Microsoft.WEB, Lucovsky, Mark, August 9, 2000,weblink Windows: A Software Engineering Odyssey, November 2, 2006, Windows NT 3.1 was released for Intel x86 PC compatible, PC-98, DEC Alpha, and ARC-compliant MIPS platforms. Windows NT 3.51 added support for the PowerPC processor in 1995, specifically PReP-compliant systems such as the IBM Power Series desktops/laptops and Motorola PowerStack series; but despite meetings between Michael Spindler and Bill Gates, not on the Power Macintosh as the PReP compliant Power Macintosh project failed to ship.Intergraph Corporation ported Windows NT to its Clipper architecture and later announced intention to port Windows NT 3.51 to Sun Microsystems' SPARC architecture,WEB,weblink Intergraph Announces Port of Windows NT to SPARC Architecture, July 7, 1993, The Florida SunFlash, but neither version was sold to the public as a retail product.Only two of the Windows NT 4.0 variants (IA-32 and Alpha) have a full set of service packs available. All of the other ports done by third parties (Motorola, Intergraph, etc.) have few, if any, publicly available updates.Windows NT 4.0 was the last major release to support Alpha, MIPS, or PowerPC, though development of Windows 2000 for Alpha continued until August 1999, when Compaq stopped support for Windows NT on that architecture; and then three days later Microsoft also canceled their AlphaNT program,WEB, Can Linux break Intel's hold on the market?,weblink CNN, September 3, 1999, Nicholas, Petreley, even though the Alpha NT 5 (Windows 2000) release had reached RC1 status.WEB, Aaron Sakovich, The AlphaNT Source, 2001,weblink Windows 2000?, 2007-01-01,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-07-08, Microsoft announced on January 5, 2011 that the next major version of the Windows NT family will include support for the ARM architecture. Microsoft demonstrated a preliminary version of Windows (version 6.2.7867) running on an ARM-based computer at the 2011 Consumer Electronics Show.WEB,weblink Microsoft demonstrates early build of Windows 8,,weblink" title="">weblink January 9, 2011, January 5, 2011, Tom, Warren, dead, mdy-all, This eventually led to the commercial release of the Windows 8-derived Windows RT on October 26, 2012, and the implementation of NT over CE on Windows Phone 8.According to Microsoft, it is a common misconception that the Xbox and Xbox 360 use a modified Windows 2000 kernel, for the Xbox operating system was built from scratch but implements a subset of Windows APIs.WEB,weblink Shaheen, Gandhi, Xbox Team: The Xbox Operating System,weblink" title="">weblink December 20, 2008,

64-bit platforms

The 64-bit versions of Windows NT were originally intended to run on Itanium and DEC Alpha; the latter was used internally at Microsoft during early development of 64-bit Windows.WEB, Paul, Thurott, December 15, 1999,weblink Road to Gold: A Look at the Development of Windows 2000, January 2, 2018, WEB, Raymond, Chen, August 2008, Technology network, Microsoft,weblink Windows Confidential, This continued for some time after Microsoft publicly announced that it was cancelling plans to ship 64-bit Windows for Alpha.WEB, Paul, Thurott, June 21, 2000,weblink Windows 2000 Reportedly Returning to Alpha Platform, January 2, 2018, UPDATE: Compaq has apparently denied that any work is being done on Windows 2000/64 for the Alpha., Because of this, Alpha versions of Windows NT are 32-bit only.While Windows 2000 only supports Intel IA-32 (32-bit), Windows XP, Server 2003, Server 2008 and Server 2008 R2 each have one edition dedicated to Itanium-based systems.WEB, Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-Based Systems Feature Support,weblink Microsoft TechNet, Microsoft, October 14, 2011, WEB, Windows Server 2008 R2 for Itanium-Based Systems,weblink Windows Server Editions, Microsoft, October 14, 2011, In comparison with Itanium, Microsoft adopted x64 on a greater scale: every version of Windows since Windows XP (which has a dedicated x64 edition),WEB, Microsoft Windows XP 64-Bit Edition,weblink Microsoft TechNet, Microsoft, October 14, 2011, August 15, 2001, has x64 editions.WEB, Comparison of Windows Server 2003 Editions,weblink Microsoft TechNet, Microsoft, October 14, 2011, WEB, A description of the x64-based versions of Windows Server 2003 and of Windows XP Professional x64 Edition,weblink Microsoft Support Center, Microsoft, October 14, 2011,

Hardware requirements

The minimum hardware specification required to run each release of the professional workstation version of Windows NT has been fairly slow-moving until the 6.0 Vista release, which requires a minimum of 15 GB of free disk space, a 10-fold increase in free disk space alone over the previous version.{|class="wikitable plainrowheaders"|+ Windows NT minimum hardware requirements! scope=col | Windows version! scope=col | CPU! scope=col | RAM! scope=col | Free disk space! scope=row | NT 3.1 Intel 80386, 25 MHz > 90 MB! scope=row | NT 3.1 Advanced Server| 16 MB ! scope=row | NT 3.5 WorkstationWEB,weblink Windows NT 3.5x Setup Troubleshooting Guide (MSKB 139733), Microsoft, November 1, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink June 22, 2014, | 12 MB ! scope=row | NT 3.5 Server| 16 MB ! scope=row | NT 3.51 Workstation| 12 MB ! scope=row | NT 3.51 Server| 16 MB ! scope=row | NT 4.0 WorkstationWEB,weblink Info: Windows NT 4.0 Setup Troubleshooting Guide, Microsoft, October 31, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink March 20, 2014, Intel 80486, 25 MHz > 124 MB! scope=row | NT 4.0 Server| 16 MB ! scope=row | 2000 ProfessionalWEB,weblink System requirements for Microsoft Windows 2000 operating systems, November 13, 2007, Support, Microsoft, September 10, 2017, Pentium, 133 MHz 32 MB rowspan="2" | 650 MB! scope=row | 2000 Server| 128 MB ! scope=row | XPWEB,weblink System requirements for Microsoft Windows XP operating systems, September 14, 2007, Support, Microsoft, August 10, 2017, 1.5 GB! scope=row | Server 2003WEB,weblink Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition: System requirements, Microsoft, January 21, 2005, January 11, 2013, | 128 MB ! scope=row | Vista Home BasicWEB,weblink System requirements for Microsoft Windows Vista, November 13, 2007, Support, Microsoft, September 10, 2017, | 20 GB! scope=row | Vista (other editions) 1 GHz rowspan="2" | 40 GB! scope=row | 7 for IA-32WEB,weblink Windows 7 system requirements, Support, Microsoft, September 10, 2017, | 16 GB! scope=row | 7 for x64| 20 GB! scope=row | 8 for IA-32WEB,weblink Windows 8 system requirements, Support, Microsoft, September 10, 2017, 1 GHz with NX bit, SSE2, Physical Address Extension >| 16 GB! scope=row | 8 for x64| 20 GB! scope=row | 8.1 for IA-32| 16 GB! scope=row | 8.1 for x64NX bit, SSE2, Physical Address Extension>PAE, CMPXCHG16b, PrefetchW and LAHF/SAHF 2 GB 20 GB! scope=row | 10 for IA-32WEB,weblink Windows 10 Specifications & Systems Requirements,, Microsoft, September 10, 2017, NX bit, SSE2, Physical Address Extension>PAE 1 GB 16 GB! scope=row | 10 for x64NX bit, SSE2, Physical Address Extension>PAE, CMPXCHG16b, PrefetchW and LAHF/SAHF 2 GB 20 GB

See also





External links

  • {{Citation | url =weblink | title = Windows | publisher = Microsoft | type = official page}}.
  • {{Citation | newspaper = Win 2000 | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | title = Windows NT and VMS: The Rest of the Story | type = discussion of ancestry of NT | first = Mark | last = Russinovich | archivedate = May 3, 2002 | url =weblink}}.
  • {{Citation | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | title = A Brief History of the Windows NT Operating System | publisher = Microsoft PressPass | type = fact sheet | year = 1998 | archivedate = June 10, 2004 | url =weblink}}.
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