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Windows 7
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{{short description|Personal computer operating system by Microsoft released in 2009}}{{use mdy dates|date=September 2018}}









! rowspan=2 | Component !! colspan=2 | Operating system architecture! 32-bit !! 64-bit! Processor| 1 GHz IA-32 processor| 1 GHz x86-64 processor! Memory (RAM)| 1 GB| 2 GB! Graphics card! Free hard drive space| 16 GB| 20 GB! Installation media
factoids
name Windows 7| version of = Windows NT| logo = Windows logo - 2006.svg| logo size = x64px| screenshot = Windows 7 SP1 screenshot.png



Desktop metaphor>desktop, taskbar, Start menu and the glass effect of Windows Aero| developer = Microsoft| source_model = {{ubl
Proprietary software>Proprietary commercial software| supported_platforms = IA-32 and x86-64Hybrid kernel>Hybrid| updatemodel = Windows UpdateFIRST1=BRANDONURL=HTTPS://BLOGS.WINDOWS.COM/WINDOWSEXPERIENCE/2009/07/22/WINDOWS-7-HAS-BEEN-RELEASED-TO-MANUFACTURING/PUBLISHER=MICROSOFT, July 22, 2009, FIRST1=BRANDONURL=HTTPS://BLOGS.WINDOWS.COM/WINDOWSEXPERIENCE/2009/10/22/WINDOWS-7-ARRIVES-TODAY-WITH-NEW-OFFERS-NEW-PCS-AND-MORE/PUBLISHER=MICROSOFT, October 22, 2009, | release_version = Service Pack 1 (6.1.7601)TITLE=ANNOUNCING AVAILABILITY OF WINDOWS 7 AND WINDOWS SERVER 2008 R2 SP1 PUBLISHER=MICROSOFT FIRST=BRANDON, LeBlanc, Windows Vista (2007)HTTP://WWW.BUZZLE.COM/ARTICLES/WINDOWS7-SYSTEM-REQUIREMENTS.HTML BUZZLE > TITLE = WINDOWS 7 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FIRST = RAHUL ACCESSDATE =FEBRUARY 27, 2014, | succeeded_by = Windows 8 (2012) WEBSITE=SUPPORT ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 20, 2012, HTTP://BLOGS.WINDOWS.COM/WINDOWS/B/SPRINGBOARD/ARCHIVE/2013/02/14/WINDOWS-7-RTM-END-OF-SUPPORT-IS-RIGHT-AROUND-THE-CORNER.ASPX >TITLE=WINDOWS 7 RTM END OF SUPPORT IS RIGHT AROUND THE CORNER PUBLISHER=MICROSOFT ACCESSDATE=MARCH 27, 2013 LAST=ROSE ARCHIVE-DATE=MAY 2, 2013 FIRST=JAREDWORK=MICROSOFT CORPORATIONACCESSDATE=MAY 25, 2019, )Installing Service Pack 1 is required for users to receive updates and support after April 9, 2013.| website = hide| date = January 2009}}{{Windows 7}}Windows 7 is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009 and became generally available on October 22, 2009,WEB,weblink Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Timelines Shared at Computex, News Center, Microsoft, June 2, 2009, June 3, 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090606054157weblink">weblink June 6, 2009, less than three years after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, was released at the same time.Windows 7 was primarily intended to be an incremental upgrade to Microsoft Windows, intended to address Windows Vista's poor critical reception while maintaining hardware and software compatibility. Windows 7 continued improvements on Windows Aero (the user interface introduced in Windows Vista) with the addition of a redesigned taskbar that allows applications to be "pinned" to it, and new window management features. Other new features were added to the operating system, including libraries, the new file sharing system HomeGroup, and support for multitouch input. A new "Action Center" interface was also added to provide an overview of system security and maintenance information, and tweaks were made to the User Account Control system to make it less intrusive. Windows 7 also shipped with updated versions of several stock applications, including Internet Explorer 8, Windows Media Player, and Windows Media Center.In contrast to Windows Vista, Windows 7 was generally praised by critics, who considered the operating system to be a major improvement over its predecessor due to its increased performance, its more intuitive interface (with particular praise devoted to the new taskbar), fewer User Account Control popups, and other improvements made across the platform. Windows 7 was a major success for Microsoft; even prior to its official release, pre-order sales for 7 on the online retailer Amazon.com had surpassed previous records. In just six months, over 100 million copies had been sold worldwide, increasing to over 630 million licenses by July 2012. {{As of|July 2019}}, 31.24% of computers running Windows are running Windows 7,WEB,weblink Desktop Windows Version Market Share Worldwide, StatCounter Global Stats, en, 2019-07-02, which still has over 50% market share in a number of countries such as in China at 51.21%,WEB,weblink Desktop Windows Version Market Share China, StatCounter Global Stats, en, 2019-07-01, and is the most used version in many countries, mostly those in Africa. Windows 10 is by now most popular on all continents, after overtaking Windows 7 in Africa.On August 11, 2019, researchers reported that Windows 10 users may be at risk for "critical" system compromise due to design flaws of hardware device drivers from multiple providers.NEWS, Winder, Davey, Critical Windows 10 Warning: Millions Of Users At Risk,weblink August 11, 2019, Forbes, August 11, 2019, Also in August 2019, computer experts reported that the BlueKeep security vulnerability, {{CVE|2019-0708}}, that potentially affects older unpatched Microsoft Windows versions via the program's Remote Desktop Protocol, allowing for the possibility of remote code execution, may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue, affecting newer Windows versions (i.e., Windows 7 and all recent versions) as well.NEWS, Greenberg, Andy, DejaBlue: New BlueKeep-Style Bugs Renew The Risk Of A Windows worm,weblink 13 August 2019, Wired (magazine), wired, 15 August 2019, In addition, experts reported a Microsoft security vulnerability, {{CVE|2019-1162}}, based on legacy code involving Microsoft CTF and ctfmon (ctfmon.exe), that affects all Windows versions from the older Windows XP version to the most recent Windows 10 versions; a patch to correct the flaw is currently available.NEWS, Seals, Tara, 20-Year-Old Bug in Legacy Microsoft Code Plagues All Windows Users,weblink 14 August 2019, ThreatPost.com, 15 August 2019,

Development history

Originally, a version of Windows codenamed "Blackcomb" was planned as the successor to Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 in 2000. Major features were planned for Blackcomb, including an emphasis on searching and querying data and an advanced storage system named WinFS to enable such scenarios. However, an interim, minor release, codenamed "Longhorn," was announced for 2003, delaying the development of Blackcomb.WEB,weblink Gates confirms Windows Longhorn for 2003, Lettice, John, October 24, 2001, The Register, April 29, 2019, By the middle of 2003, however, Longhorn had acquired some of the features originally intended for Blackcomb. After three major malware outbreaks—the Blaster, Nachi, and Sobig worms—exploited flaws in Windows operating systems within a short time period in August 2003,NEWS,weblink Businesses are left reeling after a triple strike by Blaster, Nachi and the Sobig virus, Goodwin, Bill, Computer Weekly, TechTarget, August 15, 2003, March 20, 2016, Microsoft changed its development priorities, putting some of Longhorn's major development work on hold while developing new service packs for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. Development of Longhorn (Windows Vista) was also restarted, and thus delayed, in August 2004. A number of features were cut from Longhorn.NEWS,weblink Microsoft cuts key Longhorn feature, Bishop, Todd, August 28, 2004, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, April 29, 2019, Hearst Corporation, Blackcomb was renamed Vienna in early 2006.WEB,weblink Windows "7" FAQ, Thurrott, Paul, Paul Thurrott, SuperSite for Windows, Penton Media, February 14, 2007, January 5, 2008, When released, Windows Vista was criticized for its long development time, performance issues, spotty compatibility with existing hardware and software on launch, changes affecting the compatibility of certain PC games, and unclear assurances by Microsoft that certain computers shipping with XP prior to launch would be "Vista Capable" (which led to a class action lawsuit), among other critiques. As such, adoption of Vista in comparison to XP remained somewhat low.NEWS,weblink They Criticized Vista. And They Should Know, Stross, Randall, March 29, 2008, The New York Times, April 29, 2019, NEWS,weblink The 15 Biggest Tech Disappointments of 2007, Tynan, Dan, December 16, 2007, PC World, April 29, 2019, IDG, WEB,weblink Vista Resistance: Why XP Is Still So Strong, Larkin, Erik, September 25, 2007, PC World, IDG, April 29, 2019, In July 2007, six months following the public release of Vista, it was reported that the next version of Windows would then be codenamed Windows 7, with plans for a final release within three years.NEWS, Mary J, Foley, Windows Seven: Think 2010, July 20, 2007, ZDNet,weblink September 19, 2007, NEWS, Next version of Windows: Call it 7,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, March 22, 2014, Bill Gates, in an interview with Newsweek, suggested that Windows 7 would be more "user-centric".NEWS,weblink Bill Gates on Vista and Apple's 'Lying' Ads, Levy, Steven, Newsweek, February 3, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070331223518weblink">weblink March 31, 2007, Gates later said that Windows 7 would also focus on performance improvements.WEB,weblink Bill Gates: Japan—Windows Digital Lifestyle Consortium, News Center, Microsoft, Bill, Gates, May 7, 2007, Tokyo, Japan, Steven Sinofsky later expanded on this point, explaining in the Engineering Windows 7 blog that the company was using a variety of new tracing tools to measure the performance of many areas of the operating system on an ongoing basis, to help locate inefficient code paths and to help prevent performance regressions.WEB,weblink Continuing our discussion on performance, Sinofsky, Steven, Steven Sinofsky, December 15, 2008, December 18, 2008, Engineering Windows 7, Microsoft, Senior Vice President Bill Veghte stated that Windows Vista users migrating to Windows 7 would not find the kind of device compatibility issues they encountered migrating from Windows XP.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Will Not Inherit the Incompatibility Issues of Vista, Marius, Oiaga, June 24, 2008, An estimated 1,000 developers worked on Windows 7. These were broadly divided into "core operating system" and "Windows client experience", in turn organized into 25 teams of around 40 developers on average.WEB,weblink Steven, Sinovsky, The Windows 7 Team, Engineering Windows 7, Microsoft, August 18, 2008, December 9, 2009, In October 2008, it was announced that Windows 7 would also be the official name of the operating system.NEWS,weblink Microsoft makes Windows 7 name final, Fried, Ina, October 13, 2008, CNET, October 13, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110426041502weblink">weblink April 26, 2011, CBS Interactive, NEWS,weblink For Microsoft's Windows, 7th time's a charm, October 27, 2008, October 2008, CBC News, There has been some confusion over naming the product Windows 7,WEB,weblink Microsoft Justifies Its Windows 7 Naming Decision, Alex, Castle, October 15, 2008, Maximum PC, Future US, November 18, 2009, while versioning it as 6.1 to indicate its similar build to Vista and increase compatibility with applications that only check major version numbers, similar to Windows 2000 and Windows XP both having 5.x version numbers.WEB,weblink Why Call it Windows 7?, worldstart.com, November 20, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091018054112weblink">weblink October 18, 2009, The first external release to select Microsoft partners came in January 2008 with Milestone 1, build 6519.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Build Numbers, Ian, Cunningham, December 3, 2008, Speaking about Windows 7 on October 16, 2008, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer confirmed compatibility between Windows Vista and Windows 7, indicating that Windows 7 would be a refined version of Windows Vista.WEB,weblink Ballmer: It’s ok to wait until Windows 7; Yahoo still ‘makes sense’; Google Apps ‘primitive’, October 17, 2008, Dignan, Larry, October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081017231501weblink">weblink October 17, 2008, At PDC 2008, Microsoft demonstrated Windows 7 with its reworked taskbar.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Unveiled Today at PDC 2008, Nash, Mike, October 28, 2008, November 11, 2008, Windows Experience Blog, Microsoft, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081101011844weblink">weblink November 1, 2008, On December 27, 2008, the Windows 7 Beta was leaked onto the Internet via BitTorrent.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Beta 1 Leaked, OSNews.com, May 25, 2009, According to a performance test by ZDNet,WEB, Adrian, Kingsley-Hughes,weblink Windows 7 beta 1 performance - How does the OS compare to Vista and XP?, ZDNet, CBS Interactive, January 1, 2009, May 25, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090105145717weblink">weblink January 5, 2009, Windows 7 Beta beat both Windows XP and Vista in several key areas, including boot and shutdown time and working with files, such as loading documents. Other areas did not beat XP, including PC Pro benchmarks for typical office activities and video editing, which remain identical to Vista and slower than XP.WEB,weblink Follow-up: Benchmarking Windows 7, January 29, 2009, Graham-Smith, Darien, Darien Graham-Smith, January 2009, On January 7, 2009, the x64 version of the Windows 7 Beta (build 7000) was leaked onto the web, with some torrents being infected with a trojan.WEB,weblink Leaked Windows 7 RC torrents infected with trojan, SlashGear, WEB,weblink Windows 7 64-Bit Beta Hits the Web, January 7, 2009, Pennington, Kenneth, January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090121125718weblink">weblink January 21, 2009, At CES 2009, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the Windows 7 Beta, build 7000, had been made available for download to MSDN and TechNet subscribers in the format of an ISO image.NEWS,weblink CES: Steve Ballmer unveils Microsoft's Windows 7 | Technology | guardian.co.uk, The Guardian, London, May 25, 2009, Bobbie, Johnson, January 8, 2009, The stock wallpaper of the beta version contained a digital image of the Betta fish.WEB,weblink Yes, the Windows 7 beta wallpaper was a picture of a betta fish – The Old New Thing, blogs.msdn.microsoft.com, 2019-02-16, The release candidate, build 7100, became available for MSDN and TechNet subscribers, and Connect Program participants on April 30, 2009. On May 5, 2009, it became available to the general public, although it had also been leaked onto the Internet via BitTorrent.WEB, Miller, Paul,weblink Windows 7 RC 7100 making its way to OEMs, a torrent tracker near you, Engadget, Aol, April 24, 2009, May 25, 2009, The release candidate was available in five languages and expired on June 1, 2010, with shutdowns every two hours starting March 1, 2010.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Release Candidate Customer Preview Program, May 5, 2009, Microsoft.com, Microsoft, Microsoft stated that Windows 7 would be released to the general public on October 22, 2009. Microsoft released Windows 7 to MSDN and Technet subscribers on August 6, 2009, at 10:00 am PDT.WEB,weblink When Will You Get Windows 7 RTM?, The Windows Blog, Microsoft announced that Windows 7, along with Windows Server 2008 R2, was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009. Windows 7 RTM is build 7600.16385.090713-1255, which was compiled on July 13, 2009, and was declared the final RTM build after passing all Microsoft's tests internally.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Has Been Released to Manufacturing, LeBlanc, Brandon, Windows Team Blog, Microsoft,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140227022915weblink">weblink February 27, 2014,

Features

New and changed

File:ThumbnailWin7.png|thumb|Windows 7 live thumbnails, showing alt=Among Windows 7's new features are advances in touch and handwriting recognition,WEB,weblink What's New in Handwriting Recognition, September 12, 2012, Microsoft TechNet, Microsoft, April 29, 2019, support for virtual hard disks,WEB,weblink Windows 7's support of VHD is all about backwards compatibility, winsupersite.com, January 7, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130129100208weblink">weblink January 29, 2013, yes, improved performance on multi-core processors,WEB,weblink Windows 7 Takes More Advantage of Multi-Core CPUs – Windows 7, Pociu, Andrew, Windowsvienna.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100103220118weblink">weblink January 3, 2010, May 25, 2009, WEB,weblink Windows 7 to get parallel-processing tweaks, Foley, Mary Jo, Mary Jo Foley, September 30, 2008, ZDNet, CBS Interactive,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090201073548weblink">weblink February 1, 2009, yes, May 25, 2009, WEB,weblink Windows 7 to get parallel-processing tweaks, PC Tips/pctipsbox.com, October 5, 2008, May 25, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090415111309weblink">weblink April 15, 2009, WEB,weblink Window 7 Enters Parallel Universe, February 13, 2017, Stunning Mesh, Meks,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170213162104weblink">weblink February 13, 2017, April 29, 2019, improved boot performance, DirectAccess, and kernel improvements. Windows 7 adds support for systems using multiple heterogeneous graphics cards from different vendors (Heterogeneous Multi-adapter),WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090926142419weblink">weblink yes, September 26, 2009, Tech ARP -3D Gaming Advances In Microsoft Windows 7 Rev. 2.0, a new version of Windows Media Center,WEB, Wolfgang, Gruener,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080118032600weblink">weblink yes, January 18, 2008, Windows Vista successor scheduled for a H2 2009 release?, TG Daily, January 16, 2008, January 27, 2008, a Gadget for Windows Media Center, improved media features, XPS Essentials PackWEB,weblink Microsoft XPS, prepressure.com, and Windows PowerShellWEB,weblink What's New in Windows PowerShell, Microsoft, microsoft.com, being included, and a redesigned Calculator with multiline capabilities including Programmer and Statistics modes along with unit conversion for length, weight, temperature, and several others.WEB,weblink Seven Windows 7 Calculator features you may not know about, CBS Interactive, CNET, Many new items have been added to the Control Panel, including ClearType Text TunerWEB,weblink MSDN Blogs, Microsoft, msdn.com, Display Color Calibration Wizard,WEB,weblink Wizard to Adjust the Display Colors in Windows 7, Vic, Laurie, techsupportalert.com, Gadgets, Recovery, Troubleshooting, Workspaces Center, Location and Other Sensors, Credential Manager, Biometric Devices, System Icons, and Display.WEB,weblink Screenshots from a blogger with Windows 7 M1, ThinkNext.net, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080130010415weblink">weblink January 30, 2008, Windows Security Center has been renamed to Windows Action Center (Windows Health Center and Windows Solution Center in earlier builds), which encompasses both security and maintenance of the computer. ReadyBoost on 32-bit editions now supports up to 256 gigabytes of extra allocation. Windows 7 also supports images in RAW image format through the addition of Windows Imaging Component-enabled image decoders, which enables raw image thumbnails, previewing and metadata display in Windows Explorer, plus full-size viewing and slideshows in Windows Photo Viewer and Windows Media Center.WEB, How to add Mac-like RAW image support to Windows 7, Vista, XP, downloadsquad.com, October 21, 2009,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091024101005weblink">weblink October 24, 2009, Windows 7 also has a native TFTP client with the ability to transfer files to or from a TFTP server.WEB,weblink TFTP Client for Windows 7, Jeff, Parker, February 29, 2016, PCWDLD.com, April 29, 2019, {{wide image|Windows 7 Taskbar.png|800px|The default taskbar of Windows 7.|100%|none}}The taskbar has seen the biggest visual changes, where the old Quick Launch toolbar has been replaced with the ability to pin applications to taskbar. Buttons for pinned applications are integrated with the task buttons. These buttons also enable Jump Lists to allow easy access to common tasks.WEB, Windows 7 User Interface â€“ The Superbar (Enhanced Taskbar), Softpedia, November 2008,weblink November 12, 2008, The revamped taskbar also allows the reordering of taskbar buttons. To the far right of the system clock is a small rectangular button that serves as the Show desktop icon. By default, hovering over this button makes all visible windows transparent for a quick look at the desktop.WEB,weblink 7 Things I'll Miss about Vista—And 7 I Definitely Won't, Michael, Muchmore, PC Magazine, October 28, 2009, March 6, 2016, In touch-enabled displays such as touch screens, tablet PCs, etc., this button is slightly (8 pixels) wider in order to accommodate being pressed by a finger.WEB, Touching Windows 7, Engineering Windows 7 Blog, Microsoft, March 25, 2009,weblink Clicking this button minimizes all windows, and clicking it a second time restores them.Window management in Windows 7 has several new features: Snap maximizes a window when it is dragged to the top of the screen.WEB, Sinofsky, Steven, Steven Sinofsky, Engineering Windows 7 : Designing Aero Snap, Microsoft Development Network, Microsoft, March 17, 2009,weblink June 8, 2009, Dragging windows to the left or right edges of the screen allows users to snap software windows to either side of the screen, such that the windows take up half the screen. When a user moves windows that were snapped or maximized using Snap, the system restores their previous state. Snap functions can also be triggered with keyboard shortcuts. Shake hides all inactive windows when the active window's title bar is dragged back and forth rapidly (metaphorically shaken).File:Action Center on Windows 7.png|thumb|alt=(File:Action-centre-warning.PNG|thumb|When the Action Center flag is clicked on, it lists all security and maintenance issues in a small popup window.)Windows 7 includes 13 additional sound schemes, titled Afternoon, Calligraphy, Characters, Cityscape, Delta, Festival, Garden, Heritage, Landscape, Quirky, Raga, Savanna, and Sonata.WEB, Thurrott, Paul, Paul Thurrott, Windows 7 Build 7048 Notes, Paul Thurrott's SuperSite for Windows, March 8, 2009,weblink April 24, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090413134828weblink">weblink April 13, 2009, Internet Spades, Internet Backgammon and Internet Checkers, which were removed from Windows Vista, were restored in Windows 7. Users are able to disable or customize many more Windows components than was possible in Windows Vista. New additions to this list of components include Internet Explorer 8, Windows Media Player 12, Windows Media Center, Windows Search, and Windows Gadget Platform.WEB,weblink Beta to RC Changes – Turning Windows Features On or Off, Sinofsky, Steven, March 6, 2009, Microsoft Developer Network, Microsoft, April 29, 2019, A new version of Microsoft Virtual PC, newly renamed as Windows Virtual PC was made available for Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise, and Ultimate editions.WEB, Windows Virtual PC, Microsoft,weblink May 6, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090503012345weblink">weblink May 3, 2009, It allows multiple Windows environments, including Windows XP Mode, to run on the same machine. Windows XP Mode runs Windows XP in a virtual machine, and displays applications within separate windows on the Windows 7 desktop.WEB, Windows XP Mode for Windows 7 brochure, PDF, Microsoft,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160825230747weblink">weblink August 25, 2016, May 6, 2009, Furthermore, Windows 7 supports the mounting of a virtual hard disk (VHD) as a normal data storage, and the bootloader delivered with Windows 7 can boot the Windows system from a VHD; however, this ability is only available in the Enterprise and Ultimate editions.VIDEO,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101225194927weblink">weblink Demonstration: Windows 7 VHD Boot, Microsoft, April 29, 2009, The Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) of Windows 7 is also enhanced to support real-time multimedia application including video playback and 3D games, thus allowing use of DirectX 10 in remote desktop environments.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Presentation Virtualization: Graphics Remoting (RDP) Today and Tomorrow, Microsoft, September 16, 2016, The three application limit, previously present in the Windows Vista and Windows XP Starter Editions, has been removed from Windows 7.WEB,weblink Let’s talk about Windows 7 Starter, LeBlanc, Brandon, May 29, 2009, Windows Team Blog, Microsoft,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090601065613weblink">weblink June 1, 2009, May 29, 2009, All editions include some new and improved features, such as Windows Search, Security features, and some features new to Windows 7, that originated within Vista. Optional BitLocker Drive Encryption is included with Windows 7 Ultimate and Enterprise. Windows Defender is included; Microsoft Security Essentials antivirus software is a free download. All editions include Shadow Copy, which—every day or so—System Restore uses to take an automatic "previous version" snapshot of user files that have changed.WEB,weblink A Guide to Windows Vista Backup Technologies, Microsoft, Backup and restore have also been improved,WEB,weblink Backup and Restore (Windows 7), Microsoft,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100123160930weblink">weblink January 23, 2010, April 29, 2019, WEB,weblink Create and Use a Virtual Hard Disk on Windows 7, August 1, 2016, Microsoft, April 29, 2019, and the Windows Recovery Environment—installed by default—replaces the optional Recovery Console of Windows XP.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Feature Focus: Recovery Environment, Soperus, Marcus, August 9, 2009, Maximum PC, Future US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160403022557weblink">weblink April 3, 2016, March 20, 2016, A new system known as "Libraries" was added for file management; users can aggregate files from multiple folders into a "Library". By default, libraries for categories such as Documents, Pictures, Music, and Video are created, consisting of the user's personal folder and the Public folder for each. The system is also used as part of a new home networking system known as HomeGroup; devices are added to the network with a password, and files and folders can be shared with all other devices in the HomeGroup, or with specific users. The default libraries, along with printers, are shared by default, but the personal folder is set to read-only access by other users, and the Public folder can be accessed by anyone.WEB, Windows 7 HomeGroup: Networking Made Easy,weblink PC Magazine, January 2, 2013, WEB,weblink How Libraries & HomeGroup Work Together in Windows 7, LeBlanc, Brandon, October 28, 2008, November 11, 2008, Windows Team Blog, Microsoft, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081102042853weblink">weblink November 2, 2008, Windows 7 includes improved globalization support through a new Extended Linguistic Services APIWEB, Windows 7: Writing World-Ready Applications, PDC 2008, 2008,weblink September 26, 2008, to provide (Windows#Multilingual support: IMEs and LIPs|multilingual support) (particularly in Ultimate and Enterprise editions). Microsoft has also implemented better support for solid-state drives,WEB,weblink Support and Q&A for Solid-State Drives, Engineering Windows 7, Microsoft, May 5, 2009, May 9, 2009, including the new TRIM command, and Windows 7 is able to identify a solid-state drive uniquely. Native support for USB 3.0 is not included due to delays in the finalization of the standard.WEB, Crothers, Brooke, Microsoft describes USB 3.0 delays, November 6, 2008,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, November 13, 2008, At WinHEC 2008 Microsoft announced that color depths of 30-bit and 48-bit would be supported in Windows 7 along with the wide color gamut scRGB (which for HDMI 1.3 can be converted and output as xvYCC). The video modes supported in Windows 7 are 16-bit sRGB, 24-bit sRGB, 30-bit sRGB, 30-bit with extended color gamut sRGB, and 48-bit scRGB.WEB, WinHEC 2008 GRA-583: Display Technologies, Office Open XML Presentation, Microsoft, November 6, 2008,weblink December 4, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081227074524weblink">weblink December 27, 2008, WEB,weblink Windows 7 High Color Support, Oiaga, Marius, November 26, 2008, Softpedia, April 29, 2019, For developers, Windows 7 includes a new networking API with support for building SOAP-based web services in native code (as opposed to .NET-based WCF web services),WEB, Windows 7: Web Services in Native Code, PDC 2008, 2008,weblink September 26, 2008, new features to simplify development of installation packages and shorten application install times.WEB,weblink Windows 7: Deploying Your Application with Windows Installer (MSI) and ClickOnce, 2008, PDC 2008, April 29, 2019, Windows 7, by default, generates fewer User Account Control (UAC) prompts because it allows digitally signed Windows components to gain elevated privileges without a prompt. Additionally, users can now adjust the level at which UAC operates using a sliding scale.WEB,weblink Opinion: Windows 7′s UAC is a broken mess; mend it or end it, Bright, Peter, March 5, 2009, Ars Technica, April 29, 2019,

Removed

Certain capabilities and programs that were a part of Windows Vista are no longer present or have been changed, resulting in the removal of certain functionalities; these include the classic Start Menu user interface, some taskbar features, Windows Explorer features, Windows Media Player features, Windows Ultimate Extras, Search button, and InkBall. Four applications bundled with Windows Vista—Windows Photo Gallery, Windows Movie Maker, Windows Calendar and Windows Mail—are not included with Windows 7 and were replaced by Windows Live-branded versions as part of the Windows Live Essentials suite.WEB,weblink The Complete Windows Experience – Windows 7 + Windows Live, LeBlance, Brandon, October 28, 2008, Windows Team Blog, Microsoft,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090122064154weblink">weblink January 22, 2009, November 11, 2008, WEB, Bort, Julie,weblink E-mail, photos, movie making will not be included in Windows 7, September 23, 2008, Networkworld, IDG, The Microsoft Update, July 24, 2013,

Editions

Windows 7 is available in six different editions, of which the Home Premium, Professional, and Ultimate were available at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Home Premium and Professional were aimed at home users and small businesses respectively, while Ultimate was aimed at enthusiasts. Each edition of Windows 7 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and adds additional features oriented towards their market segments; for example, Professional adds additional networking and security features such as Encrypting File System and the ability to join a domain. Ultimate contained a superset of the features from Home Premium and Professional, along with other advanced features oriented towards power users, such as BitLocker drive encryption; unlike Windows Vista, there were no "Ultimate Extras" add-ons created for Windows 7 Ultimate.WEB,weblink All Windows 7 Versions—What You Need to Know, Hachman, Mark, February 5, 2009, ExtremeTech, Ziff Davis Media, April 29, 2019, WEB, Windows 7: Which Edition is Right For You?, PCWorld, February 3, 2009,weblink February 5, 2009, Retail copies were available in "upgrade" and higher-cost "full" version licenses; "upgrade" licenses require an existing version of Windows to install, while "full" licenses can be installed on computers with no existing operating system.WEB, Moses, Asher, Windows 8 upgrade boxes 'mislead' customers,weblink Sydney Morning Herald, Fairfax Media, November 29, 2012, The remaining three editions were not available at retail, of which two were available exclusively through OEM channels as pre-loaded software. The Starter edition is a stripped-down version of Windows 7 meant for low-cost devices such as netbooks. In comparison to Home Premium, Starter has reduced multimedia functionality, does not allow users to change their desktop wallpaper or theme, disables the "Aero Glass" theme, does not have support for multiple monitors, and can only address 2GB of RAM.WEB, Microsoft kills Windows 7 Starter's 3-app limit,weblink Computerworld, IDG, November 4, 2014, Home Basic was sold only in emerging markets, and was positioned in between Home Premium and Starter. The highest edition, Enterprise, is functionally similar to Ultimate, but is only sold through volume licensing via Microsoft's Software Assurance program.WEB,weblink Nipping silliness in the bud: Windows 7 SKUs and pricing, Thurrott, Paul, Paul Thurrott, February 3, 2009, ITPro Today, Penton Media, April 29, 2019, NEWS, Windows 7 will come in many flavors, CNET News, CBS Interactive, February 3, 2009,weblink February 3, 2009, WEB,weblink Windows 7 Editions - Features on Parade, Oiaga, Marius, February 5, 2009, Softpedia, April 29, 2019, All editions aside from Starter support both IA-32 and x86-64 architectures; Starter only supports 32-bit systems.WEB,weblink A closer look at the Windows 7 SKUs, LeBlanc, Brandon, February 9, 2009, Windows Team Blog, Microsoft,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090208104612weblink">weblink February 8, 2009, February 9, 2009, Retail copies of Windows 7 are distributed on two DVDs: one for the IA-32 version and the other for x86-64. OEM copies include one DVD, depending on the processor architecture licensed. The installation media for consumer versions of Windows 7 are identical; the product key and corresponding license determines the edition that is installed. The Windows Anytime Upgrade service can be used to purchase an upgrade that unlocks the functionality of a higher edition, such as going from Starter to Home Premium, and Home Premium to Ultimate. Most copies of Windows 7 only contained one license; in certain markets, a "Family Pack" version of Windows 7 Home Premium was also released for a limited time, which allowed upgrades on up to three computers.NEWS,weblink Microsoft prices Windows 7 family pack, Fried, Ina, July 31, 2009, CNET, April 29, 2019, CBS Interactive, In certain regions, copies of Windows 7 were only sold in, and could only be activated in a designated region.WEB, Geographically Restricted Microsoft Software,weblink Microsoft, November 4, 2014,

Support lifecycle

Support for Windows 7 without Service Pack 1 ended on April 9, 2013, requiring users to update in order to continue receiving updates and support.WEB, Windows 7 users: Move to SP1 to continue receiving Microsoft support,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, February 14, 2013, Microsoft ended the sale of new retail copies of Windows 7 in October 2014, and the sale of new OEM licenses for Windows 7 Home Basic, Home Premium, and Ultimate ended on October 31, 2014. Professional currently remains available to OEMs, primarily as part of downgrade rights for Windows 8 and 10 licenses. OEM sales of PCs with Windows 7 Professional preinstalled ended on October 31, 2016.WEB,weblink Microsoft gives OEMs a deadline: one year, then no more new Windows 7 PCs, Bott, Ed, Ed Bott, November 2, 2015, ZDNet, CBS Interactive, April 29, 2019, The sale of non-Professional OEM licences was stopped on October 31, 2014.WEB, Windows 7 sales end this Friday,weblink NetworkWorld, IDG, November 4, 2014, October 28, 2014, Mainstream support for Windows 7 ended on January 13, 2015. Extended support for Windows 7 will end on January 14, 2020.NEWS,weblink Microsoft To Abandon Windows 7 Mainstream Support. Pressure Builds On Windows 10, Kelly, Gordon, July 10, 2014, Forbes, April 29, 2019, On September 7, 2018, Microsoft announced a paid "Extended Security Updates" service that will offer additional updates for Windows 7 Professional and Enterprise for three years after the end of extended support.WEB,weblink Microsoft Relents, Confirms Extended Support Option for Windows 7, ExtremeTech, 2019-03-12, In March 2019, Microsoft announced that it would display notifications to users informing users of the upcoming end of support, and direct users to a website urging them to purchase a Windows 10 upgrade or a new device.WEB,weblink Windows 7 users to receive notifications from Microsoft about end of support, Warren, Tom, 2019-03-12, The Verge, 2019-03-12,

System requirements {| class"wikitable" cellspacing"3" cellpadding"0" style"margin:auto; text-align:center;"

DirectX 9 graphics processor with WDDM driver model 1.0
DVD or USB flash drive>USB drive
Additional requirements to use certain features:
  • Windows XP Mode (Professional, Ultimate and Enterprise): Requires an additional 1 GB of RAM and additional 15 GB of available hard disk space. The requirement for a processor capable of hardware virtualization has been lifted.WEB,weblink Windows Virtual PC â€“ no hardware virtualization update now available for download, Armstrong, Ben, March 18, 2010, Microsoft Developer Network, Microsoft, April 29, 2019,
  • Windows Media Center (included in Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate and Enterprise), requires a TV tuner to receive and record TV.

Extent of hardware support

Physical memory

The maximum amount of RAM that Windows 7 supports varies depending on the product edition and on the processor architecture, as shown in the following table.WEB,weblink Memory Limits for Windows and Windows Server Releases, May 31, 2018, Microsoft, April 29, 2019, {| class="wikitable" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="0" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;"|+ Physical memory limits of Windows 7! rowspan=2 | Edition !! colspan=2 | Processor architecture! IA-32 (32-bit) !! x64 (64-bit)Windows 7 Ultimate>Ultimate rowspan="5"192 GBWindows 7 Enterprise>EnterpriseWindows 7 Professional>ProfessionalWindows 7 Home Premium>Home Premium 16 GBWindows 7 Home Basic>Home Basic 8 GBWindows 7 Starter>Starter 2 GB {{N/A}}

Processor limits

Windows 7 Professional and up support up to 2 physical processors (CPU sockets),WEB,weblink About Processes and Threads; Scheduling; Processor Groups, Microsoft, Microsoft Developer Network, "A physical processor is the same as a processor package, a socket, or a CPU.", whereas Windows 7 Starter, Home Basic, and Home Premium editions support only 1.WEB,weblink Processor limits for Windows 7, Microsoft, Physical processors with either multiple cores, or hyper-threading, or both, implement more than one logical processor per physical processor. The x86 editions of Windows 7 support up to 32 logical processors; x64 editions support up to 256 (4 x 64).WEB,weblink Processor Groups, Kennedy, John, Satran, Michael, May 31, 2018, Microsoft Developer Network, Microsoft, May 7, 2019, In January 2016, Microsoft announced that it would no longer support Windows platforms older than Windows 10 on any future Intel-compatible processor lines, citing difficulties in reliably allowing the operating system to operate on newer hardware. Microsoft stated that effective July 17, 2017, devices with Intel Skylake CPUs were only to receive the "most critical" updates for Windows 7 and 8.1, and only if they have been judged not to affect the reliability of Windows 7 on older hardware.WEB,weblink Skylake users given 18 months to upgrade to Windows 10, Bright, Peter, January 16, 2016, Ars Technica, April 29, 2019, WEB, Bott, Ed, Microsoft updates support policy: New CPUs will require Windows 10,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, January 16, 2016, For enterprise customers, Microsoft issued a list of Skylake-based devices "certified" for Windows 7 and 8.1 in addition to Windows 10, to assist them in migrating to newer hardware that can eventually be upgraded to 10 once they are ready to transition. Microsoft and their hardware partners provide special testing and support for these devices on 7 and 8.1 until the July 2017 date.WEB, Microsoft certifies new PCs with Windows 7 to ease enterprises onto Windows 10,weblink PC World, January 16, 2016, On March 18, 2016, in response to criticism from enterprise customers, Microsoft delayed the end of support and non-critical updates for Skylake systems to July 17, 2018, but stated that they would also continue to receive security updates through the end of extended support.WEB, Skylake support on Windows 7 and 8.1 given a one-year extension,weblink Ars Technica, March 18, 2016, WEB, Microsoft backtracks on Windows 7 support deadline,weblink Computerworld, March 18, 2016, In August 2016, citing a "strong partnership with our OEM partners and Intel", Microsoft retracted the decision and stated that it would continue to support Windows 7 and 8.1 on Skylake hardware through the end of their extended support lifecycle. However, the restrictions on newer CPU microarchitectures remain in force.WEB, Larsen, Shad, Updates to Silicon Support Policy for Windows,weblink Windows business blog, Microsoft, May 9, 2017, en, August 11, 2016,weblink April 25, 2017, yes, mdy-all, NEWS, Jo Foley, Mary, Microsoft extends again support for Windows 7, 8.1 Skylake-based devices,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, May 9, 2017, August 11, 2016, en, In March 2017, a Microsoft knowledge base article was discovered which implies that devices using Intel Kaby Lake, AMD Bristol Ridge, or AMD Ryzen, would be blocked from using Windows Update entirely.WEB,weblink "Your PC uses a processor that isn’t supported on this version of Windows" error when you scan or download Windows updates, April 20, 2017, Microsoft Support, Microsoft,weblink April 29, 2019, no, May 7, 2019, WEB, Blocking Windows 7, 8.1 updates for Kaby Lake, Ryzen chips appears imminent,weblink Ars Technica, March 17, 2017, In addition, official Windows 7 device drivers are not available for the Kaby Lake and Ryzen platforms.WEB,weblink Intel's latest CPUs will only support Windows 10, Allan, Darren, August 31, 2016, TechRadar,weblink May 7, 2019, no, May 7, 2019, WEB,weblink AMD: Sorry, there will be no official Ryzen drivers for Windows 7, Hachman, Mark, February 8, 2017, PC World, April 29, 2019, Security updates released since March 2018 contain bugs which affect processors that do not support SSE2 extensions, including all Pentium III processors. Microsoft initially stated that it would attempt to resolve the issue, and prevented installation of the affected patches on these systems. However, on June 15, 2018, Microsoft retroactively modified its support documents to remove the promise that this bug would be resolved, replacing it with a statement suggesting that users obtain a newer processor. This effectively ends future patch support for Windows 7 on these systems.NEWS,weblink Microsoft quietly cuts off Win7 support for older Intel computers, Leonhard, Woody, Computerworld, June 25, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink Microsoft unexpectedly drops Windows 7 support for some ancient CPUs, Bott, Ed, June 25, 2018, ZDNet, April 29, 2019, CBS Interactive, en, Ed Bott,

Updates

Service Pack 1

Windows 7 Service Pack 1 (SP1) was announced on March 18, 2010. A beta was released on July 12, 2010.WEB,weblink Virtualization Updates at TechEd, Schuster, Gavriella, June 7, 2010, Windows Team Blog, Microsoft,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100609001634weblink">weblink June 9, 2019, April 29, 2019, NEWS,weblink Microsoft Announces Windows 7 Service Pack 1, Keizer, Gregg, March 18, 2010, Computerworld, April 29, 2019, International Data Group, IDG, WEB,weblink Microsoft Releases SP1 Beta for Windows Server 2008 R2, Mackie, Kurt, July 12, 2010, Redmondmag.com, April 29, 2019, The final version was released to the public on February 22, 2011.WEB,weblink Announcing Availability of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1, LeBlanc, Brandon, February 9, 2011, Windows Blogs, April 29, 2019, At the time of release, it was not made mandatory. It was available via Windows Update, direct download, or by ordering the Windows 7 SP1 DVD.WEB,weblink Service Pack 1 (SP1) for Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7, Technet.microsoft.com, June 21, 2011, The service pack is on a much smaller scale than those released for previous versions of Windows, particularly Windows Vista.WEB,weblink Microsoft: Few issues to address with Windows 7 Service Pack 1, TechRadar UK, Windows 7 Service Pack 1 adds support for Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX), a 256-bit instruction set extension for processors, and improves IKEv2 by adding additional identification fields such as E-mail ID to it. In addition, it adds support for Advanced Format 512e as well as additional Identity Federation Services.WEB
,weblink
, Notable Changes in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1
, Microsoft Download Center
, Microsoft
, February 9, 2011
, March 10, 2011
, WEB
,weblink
, Information about Service Pack 1 for Windows 7 and for Windows Server 2008 R2 (Revision 3.1)
, Support
, Microsoft
, February 22, 2011
, March 10, 2011
, Windows 7 Service Pack 1 also resolves a bug related to HDMI audio and another related to printing XPS documents.In Europe, the automatic nature of the BrowserChoice.eu feature was dropped in Windows 7 Service Pack 1 in February 2011 and remained absent for 14 months despite Microsoft reporting that it was still present, subsequently described by Microsoft as a "technical error". As a result, in March 2013 the European Commission fined Microsoft €561 million to deter companies from reneging on settlement promises.NEWS,weblink Microsoft fined by European Commission over web browser, March 6, 2013, BBC News, April 29, 2019,

Platform Update

The Platform Update for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 was released on February 26, 2013WEB,weblink Platform update for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1, February 27, 2013, Microsoft Support, Microsoft,weblink May 7, 2019, no, May 7, 2019, after a pre-release version had been released on November 5, 2012.WEB, Platform Update for Windows 7 (PRE-RELEASE version),weblink Download Center, Microsoft, December 29, 2012, November 5, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130110134924weblink">weblink January 10, 2013, It is also included with Internet Explorer 10 for Windows 7.WEB,weblink DirectX 11.1 and Windows 7, November 13, 2012, Games for Windows and the DirectX SDK Blog,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130329124238weblink">weblink March 29, 2013, April 29, 2019, It includes enhancements to Direct2D, DirectWrite, Direct3D, Windows Imaging Component (WIC), Windows Advanced Rasterization Platform (WARP), Windows Animation Manager (WAM), XPS Document API, H.264 Video Decoder and JPEG XR decoder. However support for Direct3D 11.1 is limited as the update does not include DXGI/WDDM 1.2 from Windows 8, making unavailable many related APIs and significant features such as stereoscopic frame buffer, feature level 11_1 and optional features for levels 10_0, 10_1 and 11_0.WEB,weblink Platform Update for Windows 7, May 31, 2018, Microsoft Developer Network, Microsoft, April 29, 2019,

Disk Cleanup update

In October 2013, a Disk Cleanup Wizard addon was released that lets users delete outdated Windows updates on Windows 7 SP1, thus reducing the size of the WinSxS directory. This update backports some features found in Windows 8.WEB,weblink Breaking News! Reduce the size of the WinSxS Directory and Free up Disk Space with a New Update for Windows 7 SP1 Clients, Shelbourne, Charity, October 8, 2013, Microsoft TechNet, Microsoft, April 29, 2019,

Windows Management Framework 5.0

Windows Management Framework 5.0 includes updates to Windows PowerShell, Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration (DSC), Windows Remote Management (WinRM), Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI). It was released on February 24, 2016WEB,weblink Download: Windows Management Framework 5.0, Download Center, Microsoft, February 24, 2016, and was eventually superseded by Windows Management Framework 5.1.WEB,weblink Download: Windows Management Framework 5.1, Microsoft Download Center, Microsoft, en-us, April 28, 2019,

Convenience rollup

In May 2016, Microsoft released a "Convenience rollup update for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1", which contains all patches released between the release of SP1 and April 2016. The rollup is not available via Windows Update, and must be downloaded manually. This package can also be integrated into a Windows 7 installation image.WEB, Windows 7 now has a Service Pack 2 (but don’t call it that),weblink Ars Technica, Conde Nast Digital, May 18, 2016, Since October 2016, all security and reliability updates are cumulative. Downloading and installing updates that address individual problems is no longer possible, but the number of updates that must be downloaded to fully update the OS is significantly reduced.WEB, Windows 7, 8.1 moving to Windows 10's cumulative update model,weblink Ars Technica, Conde Nast Digital, August 16, 2016,

Reception

Critical reception

Windows 7 received critical acclaim, with critics noting the increased usability and functionality when compared with its predecessor, Windows Vista. CNET gave Windows 7 Home Premium a rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars,WEB, Seth, Rosenblatt, Microsoft Windows 7 (Home Premium) Review, July 31, 2009, CNET, CBS Interactive,weblink stating that it "is more than what Vista should have been, [and] it's where Microsoft needed to go". PC Magazine rated it a 4 out of 5 saying that Windows 7 is a "big improvement" over Windows Vista, with fewer compatibility problems, a retooled taskbar, simpler home networking and faster start-up.WEB,weblink Microsoft Windows 7 last = Muchmore, October 22, 2009, PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, November 13, 2009, Maximum PC gave Windows 7 a rating of 9 out of 10 and called Windows 7 a "massive leap forward" in usability and security, and praised the new Taskbar as "worth the price of admission alone".WEB,weblink Windows 7 Review: XP vs Vista vs 7 in 80+ Benchmarks last = Smith, October 19, 2009, Maximum PC, Future US, November 13, 2009, PC World called Windows 7 a "worthy successor" to Windows XP and said that speed benchmarks showed Windows 7 to be slightly faster than Windows Vista.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Review last = McCracken, Harry McCracken, October 19, 2009, PC World, IDG, November 13, 2009, PC World also named Windows 7 one of the best products of the year.WEB,weblink The PC World 100: Best Products of 2009, October 19, 2009, PC World, IDG, November 13, 2009, In its review of Windows 7, Engadget said that Microsoft had taken a "strong step forward" with Windows 7 and reported that speed is one of Windows 7's major selling points—particularly for the netbook sets.WEB,weblink Windows 7 reviewlast = Miller, August 12, 2009, Engadget, AOL, November 13, 2009, Laptop Magazine gave Windows 7 a rating of 4 out of 5 stars and said that Windows 7 makes computing more intuitive, offered better overall performance including a "modest to dramatic" increase in battery life on laptop computers.WEB,weblink Windows 7 last = Wollman, August 21, 2009, Laptop Magazine, TechMedia, November 13, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140417003030weblink">weblink April 17, 2014, TechRadar gave Windows 7 a rating of 5 out of 5 stars, concluding that "it combines the security and architectural improvements of Windows Vista with better performance than XP can deliver on today's hardware. No version of Windows is ever perfect, but Windows 7 really is the best release of Windows yet."WEB,weblink Windows 7 review, Branscombe, Mary, Athow, Desire, September 2, 2016, TechRadar, April 28, 2019, The New York Times,NEWS,weblink Windows 7 Keeps the Good, Tries to Fix Flaws, Pogue, David, October 21, 2009, The New York Times, April 28, 2019, David Pogue, USA Today,NEWS,weblink After Vista, Windows 7 is a giant leap for Microsoft, Baig, Edward C., October 21, 2009, USA Today, April 28, 2019, Ed Baig, The Wall Street Journal,NEWS,weblink A Windows to Help You Forget, Mossberg, Walter S., October 8, 2009, Wall Street Journal, April 28, 2019, Walter Mossberg, and The TelegraphNEWS,weblink Microsoft Windows 7 review last = Warman, October 20, 2009The Daily Telegraph>The Telegraph publisher = The Daily Telegraph, November 13, 2009, also gave Windows 7 favorable reviews.Some Windows Vista Ultimate users have expressed concerns over Windows 7 pricing and upgrade options.WEB,weblink Some Vista users say they're getting the Ultimate shaft, Fried, Ina, July 2, 2009, CNET, CBS Interactive,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090729111251weblink">weblink July 29, 2009, April 28, 2019, WEB,weblink Vista Ultimate users fume, rant over Windows 7 deals, Keizer, Gregg, July 2, 2009, Computerworld, IDG, April 28, 2019, Windows Vista Ultimate users wanting to upgrade from Windows Vista to Windows 7 must either pay $219.99WEB,weblink Shop: Windows 7, October 22, 2009, Microsoft,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091024224540weblink">weblink October 24, 2009, April 28, 2019, to upgrade to Windows 7 Ultimate or perform a clean install, which requires them to reinstall all of their programs.WEB,weblink Windows 7 Upgrade Considerations, October 22, 2009, Microsoft,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091227021725weblink">weblink December 27, 2009, April 28, 2019, The changes to User Account Control on Windows 7 were criticized for being potentially insecure, as an exploit was discovered allowing untrusted software to be launched with elevated privileges by exploiting a trusted component. Peter Bright of Ars Technica argued that "the way that the Windows 7 UAC 'improvements' have been made completely exempts Microsoft's developers from having to do that work themselves. With Windows 7, it's one rule for Redmond, another one for everyone else."WEB, Zack, Whittaker, Windows 7 UAC flaw: "Pandora's box of all vulnerabilities", ZDNet, June 12, 2009,weblink June 14, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090615163741weblink">weblink June 15, 2009, Microsoft's Windows kernel engineer Mark Russinovich acknowledged the problem, but noted that malware can also compromise a system when users agree to a prompt.WEB, Russinovich, Mark, Mark Russinovich, User Account Control Inside Windows 7 User Account Control, Microsoft,weblink June 14, 2009,

Sales

In July 2009, in only eight hours, pre-orders of Windows 7 at amazon.co.uk surpassed the demand which Windows Vista had had in its first 17 weeks.NEWS, Windows 7 flies off virtual shelf, July 15, 2009, BBC News,weblink July 15, 2009, It became the highest-grossing pre-order in Amazon's history, surpassing sales of the previous record holder, the seventh Harry Potter book.NEWS, Windows 7 set to break retail records, October 21, 2009, The Guardian, London,weblink October 21, 2009, Bobbie, Johnson, After 36 hours, 64-bit versions of Windows 7 Professional and Ultimate editions sold out in Japan.WEB, 64bit版Windows 7は人気でやや品薄、週明けには回復?, October 24, 2009,weblink Two weeks after its release its market share had surpassed that of Snow Leopard, released two months previously as the most recent update to Apple's Mac OS X operating system.NEWS, October 2009 OS stats: Windows 7 passes Snow Leopard, Linux, November 6, 2009, ars technica,weblink November 7, 2009, NEWS, Windows 7 surpasses Snow Leopard in under two weeks, November 7, 2009, Neowin,weblink Andrew, Lyle, According to Net Applications, Windows 7 reached a 4% market share in less than three weeks; in comparison, it took Windows Vista seven months to reach the same mark.HTTP://NEWS.CNET.COM/8301-10805_3-10394517-75.HTML > TITLE = WINDOWS 7 USE CONTINUES TO CLIMB FIRST = INA DATE = NOVEMBER 10, 2009 CNET >PUBLISHER=CBS INTERACTIVE WORK=PC WORLDACCESSDATE=MARCH 22, 2014, On March 4, 2010, Microsoft announced that it had sold more than 90 million Windows 7 licenses.NEWS, Matt, Warman, Microsoft sells more than 90 million copies of Windows 7, March 5, 2010, Telegraph Media Group Limited,weblink The Daily Telegraph, UK, April 30, 2011, By April 23, 2010, Windows 7 had sold more than 100 million copies in six months, which made it Microsoft's fastest-selling operating system.NEWS,weblink Windows 7 now fastest-selling Windows OS, ZDNet, April 27, 2010, June 24, 2010, NEWS,weblink Windows 7: 150 Million Copies Sold, Windows IT Pro, June 23, 2010, June 24, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121021060551weblink">weblink October 21, 2012, As of June 23, 2010, Windows 7 has sold 150 million copies which made it the fastest selling operating system in history with seven copies sold every second.NEWS,weblink 150 Million Licenses of Windows 7 Sold, Windows Live Betas Announced, Microsoft, June 23, 2010, June 24, 2010, Based on worldwide data taken during June 2010 from Windows Update 46% of Windows 7 PCs run the 64-bit edition of Windows 7.NEWS,weblink 64-Bit Momentum Surges with Windows 7, Microsoft, July 8, 2010, August 2, 2010, According to Stephen Baker of the NPD Group during April 2010 in the United States 77% of PCs sold at retail were pre-installed with the 64-bit edition of Windows 7.NEWS,weblink Microsoft: Windows 7 makes 64-bit headway, CNET, CBS Interactive, July 9, 2010, August 2, 2010, As of July 22, 2010, Windows 7 had sold 175 million copies.NEWS,weblink Windows 7 Momentum Continues: 175 Million Licenses Sold, Microsoft, July 22, 2010, July 27, 2010, On October 21, 2010, Microsoft announced that more than 240 million copies of Windows 7 had been sold.NEWS,weblink Celebrating Windows 7 at 1 Year – More than 240 Million Licenses Sold, Microsoft, October 21, 2010, October 22, 2010, Three months later, on January 27, 2011, Microsoft announced total sales of 300 million copies of Windows 7.NEWS,weblink Windows 7: 300 Million Licenses Sold, Microsoft, January 27, 2011, February 20, 2010, On July 12, 2011, the sales figure was refined to over 400 million end-user licenses and business installations.NEWS,weblink Microsoft Reports Record Fourth-Quarter and Full-Year Results, News Center, Microsoft, July 12, 2011, August 30, 2011, Peter, Klein, As of July 9, 2012, over 630 million licenses have been sold; this number includes licenses sold to OEMs for new PCs.NEWS, Windows 7 hits 630 million licenses sold, now running on 50 percent of enterprise desktops,weblink Warren on, Tom, July 9, 2012, The Verge, July 24, 2013,

{{Anchor|Criticism}}Antitrust concerns

As with other Microsoft operating systems, Windows 7 was studied by United States federal regulators who oversee the company's operations following the 2001 United States v. Microsoft Corp. settlement. According to status reports filed, the three-member panel began assessing prototypes of the new operating system in February 2008. Michael Gartenberg, an analyst at Jupiter Research, said, "[Microsoft's] challenge for Windows 7 will be how can they continue to add features that consumers will want that also don't run afoul of regulators."WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080423070835weblink">weblink April 23, 2008, Windows 7 eyed by antitrust regulators, March 19, 2008, Keizer, Gregg F., March 2008, Computerworld, International Data Group, IDG, In order to comply with European antitrust regulations, Microsoft proposed the use of a "ballot" screen containing download links to competing web browsers, thus removing the need for a version of Windows completely without Internet Explorer, as previously planned.WEB,weblink Microsoft proposes 'Browser Ballot Screen' to the EU, Kevin, Weiner, July 24, 2009, Neowin, In response to criticism involving Windows 7 E and concerns from manufacturers about possible consumer confusion if a version of Windows 7 with Internet Explorer were shipped later, after one without Internet Explorer, Microsoft announced that it would discard the separate version for Europe and ship the standard upgrade and full packages worldwide.WEB,weblink Microsoft scraps Windows 7 'E' version for Europe, Warren, Tom, August 1, 2009, Neowin, As with the previous version of Windows, an N version, which does not come with Windows Media Player, has been released in Europe, but only for sale directly from Microsoft sales websites and selected others.WEB,weblink Microsoft Store, Microsoft, Online Windows 7 store page, UK, September 9, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090919152921weblink">weblink September 19, 2009,

See also

References

{{reflist}}

Further reading

External links

{{Commons category|Microsoft Windows 7}} {{Microsoft Windows family}}{{authority control}}

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