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Wilma Rudolph
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PUBLISHER=A&E TELEVISION NETWORKS URL=HTTP://WWW.BIOGRAPHY.COM/PEOPLE/WILMA-RUDOLPH-9466552RUDOLPH-9466552 ACCESSDATE=9 FEBRUARY 2017, {{dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The Black GazelleThe TornadoThe BlackThe FlashThe Track Star | nationality = | residence = Clarksville, Tennessee194023}}| birth_place = Saint Bethlehem, Tennessee, U.S.19941206|23}}| death_place = Brentwood, Tennessee, U.S.511cmabbr=on}}130kg|abbr=on}}| country = United States| sport = Track and fieldTennessee State Tigers and Lady Tigers>TSU Tigerbelles, Nashville| retired = 1962| olympics = 1956 Summer Olympics1960 Summer Olympics| highestranking = | pb = | show-medals = yesSport Athletics (sport)>athletics}}{{Medal|Country | the {{USA}} }}{{Medal|Competition|Olympic Games}}{{Medal|Gold|1960 Rome | 100 m}}{{Medal|Gold|1960 Rome | 200 m}}{{Medal|Gold|1960 Rome | 4×100 m relay}}{{Medal|Bronze|1956 Melbourne | 4×100 m relay}}}}Wilma Glodean Rudolph (June 23, 1940 – November 12, 1994) was an African-American sprinter born in Saint Bethlehem, Tennessee, who became a world-record-holding Olympic champion and international sports icon in track and field following her successes in the 1956 and 1960 Olympic Games. Rudolph competed in the 200-meter dash and won a bronze medal in the 4 × 100-meter relay at the 1956 Summer Olympics at Melbourne, Australia. She also won three gold medals, in the 100- and 200-meter individual events and the 4 x 100-meter relay at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy. Rudolph was acclaimed the fastest woman in the world in the 1960s and became the first American woman to win three gold medals in a single Olympic Games.Due to the worldwide television coverage of the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rudolph became an international star along with other Olympic athletes such as Cassius Clay (later known as Muhammad Ali), Oscar Robertson, and Rafer Johnson who competed in Italy.As an Olympic champion in the early 1960s, Rudolph was among the most highly visible black women in America and abroad. She became a role model for black and female athletes and her Olympic successes helped elevate women's track and field in the United States. Rudolph is also regarded as a civil rights and women's rights pioneer. In 1962 Rudolph retired from competition at the peak of her athletic career as the world record-holder in the 100- and 200-meter individual events and the 4 × 100-meter relay. After competing in the 1960 Summer Olympics, the 1963 graduate of Tennessee State University became an educator and coach. Rudolph died of brain and throat cancer in 1994, and her achievements are memorialized in a variety of tributes, including a U.S. postage stamp, documentary films, and a made-for-television movie, as well as in numerous publications, especially books for young readers.

Early life and education

Rudolph was born prematurely at {{convert|4.5|lb|kg}} on June 23, 1940, in Saint Bethlehem, Tennessee (now part of Clarksville, TN).James E. Haney, "Wilma Rudolph" in BOOK, Smith, Jessie Carnie, ed., Notable Black American Women, Gale Research, 1992, Detroit, 958–61, She was the twentieth of 22 siblings from her father's two marriages.WEB, 1960: Rudolph takes third Olympic gold, BBC,weblink February 9, 2017, WEB, M. B. Roberts, Rudolph ran and world went wild, ESPN,weblink February 9, 2017, BOOK, Rita Liberti and Maureen M. Smith, (Re)Presenting Wilma Rudolph, Syracuse University Press, Sports and Entertainment, 2015, Syracuse, New York, 12, 978-0-8156-3384-6, Shortly after Wilma's birth, her family moved to Clarksville, Tennessee, where she grew up and attended elementary and high school. Her father, Ed, who worked as a railway porter and did odd jobs in Clarksville, died in 1961; her mother, Blanche, worked as a maid in Clarksville homes and died in 1994.NEWS,weblink 50 stunning Olympic moments No35: Wilma Rudolph's triple gold in 1960, June 1, 2012, The Guardian, Rob Bagchi, Rudolph suffered from several early childhood illnesses, including pneumonia and scarlet fever, and she contracted infantile paralysis (caused by the polio virus) at the age of five.Brenda Meese, "Wilma Glodean Rudolph" in BOOK, Hine, Darlene Clark, Elsa Barkley Brown, and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, eds., Black Women in American: An Historical Encyclopedia, IU Press, II, 1993, Bloomington, Indiana, 992–93, She recovered from polio, but lost strength in her left leg and foot. Physically disabled for much of her early life, Rudolph wore a leg brace until she was twelve years old. Because there was little medical care available to African American residents of Clarksville in the 1940s, Rudolph's parents sought treatment for her at the historically black Meharry Medical College (now Nashville General Hospital at Meharry) in Nashville, Tennessee, about {{convert|50|mi|km}} from Clarksville.Liberti and Smith, p. 29.For two years, Rudolph and her mother made weekly bus trips to Nashville for treatments to regain the use of her weakened leg. She also received subsequent at-home massage treatments four times a day from members of her family and wore an orthopedic shoe for support of her foot for another two years.BOOK, Olympic Black Women, Martha Ward Plowden, Pelican Publishing Company, 1996, 1-56554-080-8, Tennessee State University Library, 121,weblink Because of the treatments she received at Meharry and the daily massages from her family members, Rudolph was able to overcome the debilitating effects of polio and learned to walk without a leg brace or orthopedic shoe for support by the time she was twelve years old.Rudolph was initially homeschooled due to the frequent illnesses that caused her to miss kindergarten and first grade. She began attending second grade at Cobb Elementary School in Clarksville in 1947, when she was seven years old. Rudolph attended Clarksville's all-black Burt High School, where she excelled in basketball and track. During her senior year of high school Rudolph became pregnant with her first child, Yolanda, who was born in 1958, a few weeks prior to her enrollment at Tennessee State University in Nashville.Liberti and Smith, pp. 124–25. In college Rudolph continued to compete in track. She also became a member of the Delta Sigma Theta sorority. In 1963, Rudolph graduated from Tennessee State with Bachelor's Degree in Education. Rudolph's college education was paid for through her participation in a work-study scholarship program that required her to work on the TSU campus for two hours a day.

Career

Early years

Rudolph was first introduced to organized sports at Burt High School, the center of Clarksville's African American community. After completing several years of medical treatments to regain the use of her left leg, Rudolph chose to follow in her sister Yvonne's footsteps and began playing basketball in the eighth grade. Rudolph continued to play basketball in high school, where she became a starter on the team, and began competing in track. In her sophomore year Rudolph scored 803 points and set a new record for high school girls' basketball. Rudolph's high school coach, C. C. Gray, gave her the nickname of "Skeeter" (for mosquito), because she moved so fast.While playing for her high school basketball team, Rudolph was spotted by Ed Temple, Tennessee State's track and field coach, a major break for the active young athlete. The day that Temple saw the tenth grader for the first time, he knew she was a natural athlete. Rudolph had already gained some track experience on Burt High School's track team two years earlier, mostly as a way to keep busy between basketball seasons.Biracree (1988), p. 47 As a high school sophomore Rudolph competed at Alabama's Tuskegee Institute in her first major track event. Although she lost the race, Rudolph was determined to continue competing and win.Temple invited fourteen-year-old Rudolph to join his summer training program at Tennessee State. After attending the track camp, Rudolph won all nine events she entered at an Amateur Athletic Union track meet in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Under Temple's guidance she continued to train regularly at TSU while still a high school student. Rudolph raced at amateur athletic events with TSU's women's track team, known as the Tigerbelles, for two more years before enrolling at TSU as a student in 1958.

1956 Summer Olympics

When Rudolph was sixteen and a junior in high school, she attended the 1956 U.S. Olympic track and field team trials in Seattle, Washington, and qualified to compete in the 200-meter individual event at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, Australia. Rudolph, the youngest member of the U.S. Olympic team, was one of five TSU Tigerbelles to qualify for the 1956 Melbourne Olympics.WEB,weblink Wilma Rudolph and the TSU Tigerbelles, Bobby Lovett, June 20, 2016, Tennessee State University, February 9, 2017, See also: WEB, Bobby Lovett, Wilma Rudolph (1940–1994) and the TSU Tigerbelles, Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture Version 2 (online edition), University of Tennessee Press, February 24, 2011,weblink 2017-02-09, Rudolph was defeated in a preliminary heat of the 200-meter race at the Melbourne Olympic Games, but ran the third leg of the 4 × 100 m relay.WEB, Larry Schwartz, Her Roman Conquest, ESPN,weblink February 17, 2017, The American team of Rudolph, Isabelle Daniels, Mae Faggs, and Margaret Matthews, all of whom were TSU Tigerbelles, won the bronze medal, matching the world-record time of 44.9 seconds. The British team won the silver medal. The Australian team, with the 100- and 200-meter gold medalist Betty Cuthbert as their anchor leg, won the gold medal in a time of 44.5 seconds. After Rudolph returned to her Tennessee home from the Melbourne Olympic Games, she showed her high school classmates the bronze medal that she had won and decided to try to win a gold medal at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy.In 1958 Rudolph enrolled at Tennessee State, where Temple continued as her track coach. In 1959, at the Pan American Games in Chicago, Illinois, Rudolph won a silver medal in the 100-meter individual event, as well as a gold medal in the 4 × 100-meter relay with teammates Isabelle Daniels, Barbara Jones, and Lucinda Williams. In addition, Rudolph won the AAU 100-meter title in 1959 and defended it for four consecutive years. During her career, Rudolph also won three AAU indoor titles.

1960 Summer Olympics

File:Giuseppina leone.jpg|260px|thumb|Rudolph wins the women's 100 meter dash at the 1960 Summer Olympics in RomeRomeWhile she was still a sophomore at Tennessee State, Rudolph competed in the U.S. Olympic track and field trials at Abilene Christian University in Abilene, Texas, where she set a world record in the 200-meter dash that stood for eight years. She also qualified for the 1960 Summer Olympics in the 100-meter dash.At the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, Italy, Rudolph competed in three events on a cinder track in Rome's Stadio Olimpico: the 100- and 200-meter sprints, as well as the 4 × 100-meter relay. Rudolph, who won a gold medal in each of these events, became the first American woman to win three gold medals in a single Olympiad.Rudolph ran the finals in the 100-meter dash in a wind-aided time of 11.0 seconds. (The record-setting time was not credited as a world record, because the wind, at {{convert|2.75|m|yard}} per second, exceeded the maximum of {{convert|2|m|yard}}.) Rudolph became the first American woman to win a gold medal in the 100-meter race since Helen Stephens's win in the 1936 Summer Olympics. Rudolph won another gold medal in the finals of the 200-meter dash with a time of 24.0 seconds, after setting a new Olympic record of 23.2 seconds in the opening heat. After these wins she was hailed throughout the world as "the fastest woman in history."On September 7, 1960, the temperature climbed toward {{convert|110|F|C}} as thousands of spectators jammed the stadium. Rudolph combined efforts with her Olympic teammates from Tennessee State—Martha Hudson, Lucinda Williams, and Barbara Jones—to win the 4 × 100-meter relay with a time of 44.5 seconds, after setting a world record of 44.4 seconds in the semifinals. Rudolph ran the anchor leg for the American team in the finals and nearly dropped the baton after a pass from Williams, but she overtook Germany's anchor leg to win the relay in a close finish. Rudolph had a special, personal reason to hope for victory—to pay tribute to Jesse Owens, the celebrated American athlete and star of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, who had been her inspiration.Biracree (1988), p. 16.Rudolph was one of the most popular athletes of the 1960 Rome Olympics and emerged from the Olympic Games as "The Tornado, the fastest woman on earth."Tom Biracree (1988), Wilma Rudolph, p. 82. The Italians nicknamed her "La Gazzella Nera" ("The Black Gazelle")BOOK, Jan Onofrio, Tennessee Biographical Dictionary,weblink 1 June 1999, North American Book Dist LLC, 978-0-403-09700-5, 1, and the French called her "La Perle Noire" ("The Black Pearl").JOURNAL, The Fastest Female, Time Time, September 19, 1960,weblink February 9, 2017, {{subscription}} Along with other 1960 Olympic athletes such as Cassius Clay (later known as Muhammad Ali), Oscar Robertson, and Rafer Johnson, Rudolph became an international star due to the first worldwide television coverage of the Olympics that year.BOOK, Amy Ruth, Wilma Rudolph, Lerner Publications, 2000, New York, 34, 61, 978-0-8225-4976-5,weblink See also: BOOK, Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture, Carroll Van West, Tennessee Historical Society and Rutledge Hill Press, 1998, 1558535993, Nashville, 813, The 1960 Rome Olympics launched Rudolph into the public spotlight and the media cast her as America's athletic "leading lady" and a "queen," with praises of her athletic accomplishments as well as her feminine beauty and poise.Liberti and Smith, pp. 42, 46.

Post-Olympic career

(File:Wilma Rudolph.jpg|thumb|left|Rudolph at the finish line during 50-yard dash at track meet in Madison Square Garden, 1961)Rudolph returned home to Clarksville after completing a post-games European tour, where she and her Olympic teammates competed in meets in London, West Germany, the Netherlands, and at other venues in Europe. Rudolph's hometown of Clarksville celebrated "Welcome Wilma Day" on October 4, 1960, with a full day of festivities. Because Rudolph adamantly insisted, her homecoming parade and banquet became the first fully integrated municipal event in the city's history. An estimated 1,100 attended the banquet in her honor and thousands lined the city streets to watch the parade.Liberti and Smith, pp. 18–19, 39.Rudolph's gold-medal victories in Rome also "propelled her to become one of the most highly visible black women across the United States and around the world."Liberti and Smith, p. 13. Her Olympic star status also "gave an enormous boost to the indoor track circuit in the months following the Olympic Games in Rome."Liberti and Smith, p. 45. In 1961 Rudolph competed in the prestigious, Los Angeles Invitational indoor track meet, where thousands turned out to watch her run. In addition, she was invited to compete in New York Athletic Club track events and became the first woman invited to compete at the Melrose Games. Rudolph was also invited to compete at the Penn Relays and the Drake Relays, among others.Liberti and Smith, pp. 49–50, 55.Following her Olympic victories the United States Information Agency made a ten-minute documentary film, Wilma Rudolph: Olympic Champion (1961), to highlight her accomplishments on the track.Liberti and Smith, pp. 83–85. Rudolph's appearance in 1960 on To Tell the Truth, an American television game show, and later as a guest on The Ed Sullivan Show also helped promote her status as an iconic sports star.Liberti and Smith, pp. 16, 42, 46.In 1961 Rudolph married William Ward, a North Carolina College at Durham track team member; they divorced in 1963.Liberti and Smith, p. 98. In the interim, Rudolph retired from track competition at the age of twenty-two, following victories in the 100-meter and 4 x 100-meter-relay races at a U.S.–Soviet meet at Stanford University in 1962.WEB, Wilma Rudolph, USA Track and Field,weblink November 16, 2013, At the time of her retirement, Rudolph was still the world record-holder in the 100-meter (11.2 seconds set on July 19, 1961), 200-meter (22.9 seconds set on July 9, 1960), and 4 x 100-meter-relay events. She had also won seven national AAU sprint titles and set the women's indoor track record of 6.9 seconds in the 60-yard dash. As Rudolph explained it, she retired at the peak of her athletic career because she wanted to leave the sport while still at her best. As such, she did not compete at the 1964 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo, Japan, saying, "If I won two gold medals, there would be something lacking. I'll stick with the glory I've already won like Jesse Owens did in 1936."After retiring from competition, Rudolph continued her education at Tennessee State and earned a bachelor's degree in elementary education in 1963. That year she also made a month-long trip to West Africa as a goodwill ambassador for the U.S State Department. Rudolph served as U.S. representative to the 1963 Friendship Games in Dakar, Senegal, and visited Ghana, Guinea, Mali, and Upper Volta, where she attended sporting events, visited schools, and made guest appearances on television and radio broadcasts. She also attended the premier of the U.S. Information Agency's documentary film that highlighted her track career.Liberti and Smith, pp. 91–94.In May 1963, a few weeks after returning from Africa, Rudolph participated in a civil rights protest in her hometown of Clarksville in an effort to desegregate one of the city's restaurants. Within a short time the mayor announced that the city's public facilities, including its restaurants, would become fully integrated.Liberti and Smith, pp. 88, 96. Rudolph also married Robert Eldridge, who had fathered her child when she was in high school, later that year. The couple had three additional children, but divorced after seventeen years of marriage.

Later years

Rudolph did not earn significant money as an amateur athlete and shifted to a career in teaching and coaching after her retirement from track competition. She began as a second-grade teacher at Cobb Elementary School, where she had attended as a child, and coached track at Burt High School, where she had once been a student-athlete herself, but conflict forced her to leave the position.{{citation needed|date=March 2017}}Rudolph moved several times over the years and lived in various places such as Chicago, Illinois; Indianapolis, Indiana; Saint Louis, Missouri; Detroit, Michigan; Tennessee; California; and Maine.Rudolph's autobiography, Wilma: The Story of Wilma Rudolph, was published in 1977. It served as the basis for several other publications and films. By 2014 at least twenty-one books on Rudolph's life had been published for children from pre-school youth to high school students.Liberti and Smith, pp. 14–15.In addition to teaching Rudolph worked for nonprofit organizations and government-sponsored projects that supported athletic development among American children. In Boston, Massachusetts, she became involved in the federal Job Corps program, and in 1967 served as a track specialist for Operation Champion. In 1981 Rudolph established and led the Wilma Rudolph Foundation, a nonprofit organization based in Indianapolis, Indiana, that trains youth athletes. In 1987 Rudolph joined DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana, as director of its women's track program and served as a consultant on minority affairs to the university's president.WEB, Olympic Gold Medalist Wilma Rudolph Joins DePauw Team, DePauw University, January 14, 1987,weblink February 9, 2017, The twice-divorced single mother of four children hosted a local television show in Indianapolis. Rudolph was also a publicist for Universal Studios as well as a television sports commentator for ABC Sports during the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California, and lit the cauldron to open the Pan American Games in Indianapolis in 1987 in front of 80,000 spectators at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.JOURNAL, Wilma L. Moore, Everyday People: Champions and History Makers, Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History, 24, 4, 26–29, Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, Fall 2012, In 1992, two years before her untimely death, Rudolph became a vice president at Nashville's Baptist Hospital.

Marriage and family

Rudolph was married twice, with both marriages ending in divorce. On October 14, 1961, she married William "Willie" Ward, a member of the North Carolina College at Durham track team.THE EAGLE>PUBLISHER=NORTH CAROLINA CENTRAL UNIVERSITY YEAR=1960 URL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.ORG/DETAILS/EAGLE1960NORTJOURNAL =SPORTS ILLUSTRATEDURL=HTTP://SPORTSILLUSTRATED.CNN.COM/VAULT/ARTICLE/MAGAZINE/MAG1076342/URL-STATUS=DEADURL=HTTPS://NEWS.GOOGLE.COM/NEWSPAPERS?NID=2202&DAT=19730222&ID=I55CAAAAIBAJ&SJID=S1GNAAAAIBAJ&PG=6736,4123510 JOURNAL=GETTYSBURG TIMESISSUE=ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 9, 2017, The seventeen-year marriage ended in divorce.

Death and legacy

In July 1994 (shortly after her mother's death), Rudolph was diagnosed with brain cancer. She also had been diagnosed with throat cancer. Her condition deteriorated rapidly, and she died on November 12, 1994, at the age of fifty-four, at her home in Brentwood, a suburb of Nashville, Tennessee.BOOK, Amy Ruth, Wilma Rudolph,weblink 2000, Twenty-First Century Books, 978-0-8225-4976-5, 97, Rudolph's funeral service was held at Edgefield Missionary Baptist Church in Clarksville, Tennessee. She was survived by her four children, eight grandchildren, and many siblings, nieces and nephews.BOOK, Maureen Margaret Smith, Wilma Rudolph: A Biography, Greenwood Press, isbn=0313333076, Thousands of mourners filled Tennessee State University's Kean Hall on November 17, 1994, for the memorial service in her honor. Across Tennessee, the state flag flew at half-mast.Rudolph's legacy lies in her efforts to overcome obstacles that included childhood illnesses and a physical disability to become the fastest woman runner in the world in 1960. At the 1960 Rome Olympics, she became the first American woman to win three gold medals in a single Olympiad. Rudolph was one of the first role models for black and female athletes. Her Olympic success "gave a tremendous boost to women's track in the United States." Rudolph's celebrity also caused gender barriers to be broken at previously all-male track and field events such as the Millrose Games.In addition to her own athletic accomplishments, Rudolph is remembered for her contributions to youth, including founding and heading the Wilma Rudolph Foundation, which trains youth athletes. Rudolph has been memorialized with a variety of tributes, including her image on a commemorative U.S. postage stamp. Wilma: The Story of Wilma Rudolph (1977), her autobiography, was adapted into a television docudrama. Her life is also remembered in Unlimited (2015), a short documentary film for school audiences, as well as in numerous publications, especially books for young readers.WEB, Postal Service Honors Wilma Rudolph with 'Distinguished America, DePauw University, July 14, 2004,weblink February 9, 2017, {{IMDb title|4809778| Unlimited}}. See also:{{IMDb title|0076923|Wilma}}.

Awards and honors

File:WilmaRudolphFOEAward.jpg|right|upright|thumb|Rudolph receiving a Fraternal Order of Eagles Award with Roger MarisRoger MarisRudolph was named United Press International Athlete of the Year (1960) and Associated Press Woman Athlete of the Year (1960 and 1961). She was also the recipient of the James E. Sullivan Award (1960) for the top amateur athlete in the United States and the Babe Didrikson Zaharias Award (1962). In addition, Rudolph hada private meeting with President John F. Kennedy in the Oval Office.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104072633weblink">weblink 2012-11-04, Wilma Rudolph biography, Women in History, June 11, 2007, Rudolph was also honored with the National Sports Award (1993).Rudolph was inducted into several women's and sports halls of fame:
  • Black Sports Hall of Fame (1973)
  • U.S. National Track and Field Hall of Fame (1974)
  • U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame (1983)
  • National Women's Hall of Fame (1994)WEB, Wilma Rudolph, National Women's Hall of Fame,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929091358weblink">weblink September 29, 2007, February 9, 2017,
  • National Black Sports and Entertainment Hall of Fame (2001)JOURNAL, Amy Waldman, Black Hall of Fame Is Honoring Entertainment and Sports Stars, New York Times, August 29, 2001,weblink February 9, 2017, WEB, Black Sports and Entertainment Hall of Fame, UPI Archives, UPI, August 30, 2001,weblink February 9, 2017, WEB,weblink National Black Sports and Entertainment Hall of Fame, 2007-07-16, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090207033002weblink">weblink February 7, 2009, mdy-all, . harlemdiscover.com
In 1984, the Women's Sports Foundation selected Rudolph as one of the five greatest women athletes in the United States. In 1996, the foundation presented its first Wilma Rudolph Courage Award to Jackie Joyner-Kersee. The annual award is presented to a female athlete who exhibits extraordinary courage in her athletic performance, demonstrates the ability to overcome adversity, makes significant contributions to sports, and serves as an inspiration and role model to those who face challenges, overcomes them, and strives for success at all levels.WEB, Wilma Rudolph Courage Award, Women's Sports Foundation,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928141238weblink">weblink September 28, 2007, February 9, 2017, In 1994, a portion of U.S. Route 79 was named Wilma Rudolph Boulevard, extending from Interstate 24, exit 4, in Clarksville to the Red River (Lynnwood-Tarpley) bridge near the Kraft Street intersection.Smith (2006), p. xxiii. On November 21, 1995, the Wilma Rudolph Memorial Commission placed a black marble marker at her gravesite in Clarksville's Foster Memorial Garden Cemetery. In April 1996, a life-size bronze statue of Rudolph was erected "at the southern end of the Cumberland River Walk at the base of the Pedestrian Overpass" at College Street and Riverside Drive in Clarksville.WEB
, What To See: Wilma Rudolph Statue
, Clarksville-Montgomery County Economic Development Council
, August 4, 2009
,weblink
, February 9, 2017
, bot: unknown
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090804125453weblink">weblink
, August 4, 2009
, mdy-all
, On December 2, 1980, Tennessee State University named its indoor track in Rudolph's honor. On August 11, 1995 (nine months after Rudolph's death), Tennessee State University dedicated a new, six-story dormitory as the Wilma G. Rudolph Residence Center. The building houses upper class and graduate women. It provides Wi-Fi access and includes a computer lab, beauty salon, and cafeteria. In 1997, Governor Don Sundquist proclaimed that June 23 be known as "Wilma Rudolph Day" in Tennessee.The December 29, 1999, issue of Sports Illustrated ranked Rudolph first on its list of the top fifty greatest sports figures of the twentieth-century from Tennessee.JOURNAL, The Master List: The 50 Greatest Sports Figures of the Century from Each of the 50 States, Sports Illustrated, December 29, 1999,weblink February 9, 2017, Lovett, Bobby. WEB,weblink Wilma Rudolph (1940–1994) and the TSU Tigerbelles, 2013-02-15, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131030160329weblink">weblink October 30, 2013, mdy-all, , Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture ESPN ranked Rudolph forty-first in its listing of the twentieth century's greatest athletes.Following the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Berlin in 1994, Berlin American High School (BAHS) was turned over to the people of Berlin and became the "Gesamtschule Am Hegewinkel". The school was renamed the "Wilma Rudolph Oberschule" in her honor in the summer 2000.WEB,weblink Wilma-Rudolph-Oberschule, 2010-03-30, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090727222142weblink">weblink July 27, 2009, mdy-all, . be.schule.de.On July 14, 2004, the U.S. Postal Service issued a 23-cent postage stamp, the fifth in its Distinguished Americans series, in recognition of her accomplishments.Rudolph's life has been featured in documentary films and made-for-television movies:
  • Walter de Hoog directed Wilma Rudolph: Olympic Champion (1961), the United States Information Agency's ten-minute film documentary of her accomplishments on the track.
  • In 1977, Bud Greenspan produced Wilma (also known as The Story of Wilma Rudolph), a made-for-television docudrama starring Shirley Jo Finney as Rudolph and costarring Cicely Tyson, Jason Bernard, and Denzel Washington in one of his first roles.{{IMDb title|0076923|Wilma}}
  • In 2015, Positive Edge Education Ltd. commissioned Pixel Revolution Films, a United Kingdom-based film company, to produce three short inspiration dramas to be screened in schools, including one about Rudolph's life. Unlimited (2015) was written and directed by Ian and Dominic Higgins.{{IMDb title|4809778|Unlimited}}

Notes

{{reflist|35em}}

References

  • WEB, 1960: Rudolph takes third Olympic gold, BBC,weblink February 9, 2017,
  • JOURNAL, Bagchi, Rob,weblink 50 stunning Olympic moments No. 35: Wilma Rudolph's triple gold in 1960, June 1, 2012, The Guardian, February 9, 2017,
  • WEB, Biography.com Editors, Wilma Rudolph Biography, A&E Television Networks, June 17, 2016,weblink February 9, 2017,
  • BOOK, Biracree, Tom, Wilma Rudolph: Champion Athlete, Chelsea House Publishers, 1988, New York, 1555466753,weblink
  • WEB, Black Sports and Entertainment Hall of Fame, UPI Archives, UPI, August 30, 2001,weblink February 9, 2017,
  • BOOK, Braun, Eric, Wilma Rudolph, Capstone Press, 2005, 0-7368-4234-9,
  • JOURNAL, Chamberlain, Charles, Will Wilma Rudolph Eldridge's Daughter Add To Three Olympic Gold Medals Her Mom Won In International Competition?, The Gettysburg Times, 14, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, February 22, 1973,weblink 2017-02-09,
  • BOOK, Coffey, Wayne R., Wilma Rudolph, Blackbirch Press, 1993, 1-56711-004-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Conrad, David, Stick to It!: The Story of Wilma Rudolph, Compass Point Books, 2002, 0-7565-0384-1,
  • BOOK, The Eagle, North Carolina Central University, 1960, 1960, Durham,weblink
  • JOURNAL, The Fastest Female, Time, September 19, 1960,weblink February 9, 2017, {{subscription}}
  • Haney, James E., "Wilma Rudolph" in BOOK, Smith, Jessie Carnie, ed., Notable Black American Women, Gale Research, 1992, Detroit, 958–61,
  • Harper, Jo. Wilma Rudolph: Olympic Runner (Childhood of Famous Americans), Aladdin (January 6, 2004) â€“ {{ISBN|0-606-29739-1}}
  • Krull, Kathleen. Wilma Unlimited: How Wilma Rudolph Became the World's Fastest Woman, Harcourt Children's Books; Library Binding edition (April 1, 1996) â€“ {{ISBN|0-15-201267-2}}
  • BOOK, Liberti, Rita, and Maureen M. Smith, (Re)Presenting Wilma Rudolph, Syracuse University Press, Sports and Entertainment, 2015, Syracuse, New York, 978-0-8156-3384-6,
  • WEB, Lovett, Bobby L.,weblink Wilma Rudolph and the TSU Tigerbelles, June 20, 2016, Tennessee State University, February 9, 2017,
  • WEB, Lovett, Bobby L., Wilma Rudolph (1940–1994) and the TSU Tigerbelles, Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture Version 2 (online edition), University of Tennessee Press, February 24, 2011,weblink 2017-02-09,
  • BOOK, Maraniss, David, Rome 1960: The Olympics That Changed The World,weblink registration, Simon & Schuster, 2008, 1-4165-3408-3,
  • JOURNAL, The Master List: The 50 Greatest Sports Figures of the Century from Each of the 50 States, Sports Illustrated, December 29, 1999,weblink February 9, 2017,
  • JOURNAL, Moore, Wilma L., Everyday People: Sports Champions and History Makers, Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History, 24, 4, 26–29, Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis, Fall 2012,
  • Norwood, Arlisha. "Wilma Rudolph." National Women's History Museum. 2017.
  • WEB, Olympic Gold Medalist Wilma Rudolph Joins DePauw Team, DePauw University, January 14, 1987,weblink February 9, 2017,
  • BOOK, Onofrio, Jan, Tennessee Biographical Dictionary,weblink June 1, 1999, North American Book Dist LLC, 978-0-403-09700-5,
  • BOOK, Plowden, Martha Ward, Olympic Black Women, Pelican Publishing Company, 1996, 1-56554-080-8, Tennessee State University Library,weblink
  • WEB, Postal Service Honors Wilma Rudolph with 'Distinguished America, DePauw University, July 14, 2004,weblink February 9, 2017,
  • WEB, Roberts, M. B., Rudolph ran and world went wild, ESPN,weblink February 9, 2017,
  • BOOK, Ruth, Amy, Wilma Rudolph, Lerner Publications, 2000, 0-8225-4976-X,weblink
  • BOOK, Schraff, Anne E., Wilma Rudolph: The Greatest Woman Sprinter in History, Enslow Publishers, 2004, 0-7660-2291-9,weblink
  • WEB, Schwartz, Larry, Her Roman Conquest, ESPN,weblink February 17, 2017,
  • BOOK, Sherrow, Victoria, Wilma Rudolph, On My Own Biographies, Carolrhoda Books, 2000, 1-57505-246-6,
  • BOOK, Smith, Maureen Margaret, 2006, Wilma Rudolph: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 0313333076,
  • BOOK, Streissguth, Tom, Wilma Rudolph, Turnaround Publisher, 2007, 0-8225-6693-1,
  • {{IMDb title|4809778|Unlimited}}
  • BOOK, Van West, Carroll, Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, Tennessee Historical Society/Rutledge Hill Press, 1998, 1558535993, Nashville,
  • JOURNAL, Waldman, Amy, Black Hall of Fame Is Honoring Entertainment and Sports Stars, New York Times, August 29, 2001,weblink February 9, 2017,
  • WEB, What To See: Wilma Rudolph Statue, Clarksville-Montgomery County Economic Development Council, August 4, 2009,weblink February 9, 2017, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090804125453weblink">weblink August 4, 2009, mdy-all,
  • {{IMDb title|0076923|Wilma}}
  • WEB, Wilma Rudolph, National Women's Hall of Fame,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929091358weblink">weblink September 29, 2007, February 9, 2017,
  • WEB, Wilma Rudolph,weblink sports-reference.com, Sports Reference LLC, August 27, 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141113083713weblink">weblink November 13, 2014, mdy-all,
  • WEB, Wilma Rudolph, USA Track and Field,weblink November 16, 2013,
  • WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104072633weblink">weblink 2012-11-04, Wilma Rudolph biography, Women in History, June 11, 2007,
  • WEB, Wilma Rudolph Courage Award, Women's Sports Foundation,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928141238weblink">weblink September 28, 2007, February 9, 2017,

Further reading

  • Lansbury, Jennifer. A spectacular leap: black women athletes in twentieth-century America. University of Arkansas Press, 2014, Fayetteville. {{ISBN|9781557286581}}.

External links

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