Willy Brandt

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Willy Brandt
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{About|the German politician|people with similar name|William Brandt (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2019}}

|1namedata1 = Hans-Jürgen WischnewskiHolger BörnerEgon BahrPeter Glotz|predecessor1 = Erich Ollenhauer|successor1 = Hans-Jochen Vogel|chancellor2 = Kurt Georg Kiesinger|office2 = Vice Chancellor of Germany(West Germany)|predecessor2 = Hans-Christoph Seebohm|successor2 = Walter Scheel|term_start2 = 1 December 1966|term_end2 = 20 October 1969Minister for Foreign Affairs (Germany)>Federal Minister for Foreign AffairsGerhard Schröder (CDU)>Gerhard Schröder|successor3 = Walter Scheel|term_start3 = 1 December 1966|term_end3 = 20 October 1969|chancellor3 = Kurt Georg KiesingerGoverning Mayor of Berlin>Governing Mayor of West Berlin|term_start4 = 3 October 1957|term_end4 = 1 December 1966|predecessor4 = Otto Suhr|successor4 = Heinrich AlbertzPresident of the German Bundesrat>President of the Bundesrat|term_start5 = 1 November 1957|term_end5 = 31 October 1958|predecessor5 = Kurt Sieveking|successor5 = Wilhelm KaisenAbgeordnetenhaus of Berlin>Berlin House of Representatives|term_start6 = 11 January 1955|term_end6 = 2 October 1957|predecessor6 = Otto SuhrKurt Landsberg|de}}Social Democratic Party of Germany>Social Democratic {{smallSocialist Workers' Party of Germany>Socialist Workers' {{small|(1931–1946)}}|birth_name = Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm191318|df=y}}Free City of Lübeck>Lübeck, German Empire1992812df=y}}|death_place = Unkel, Germany(1941–1948)}}Rut Brandt {{small>(1948–1980)}}{{illde}} {{small|(1983–1992)}}Matthias Brandt>Matthias|death_cause = Colon cancerZehlendorf (Berlin)>Zehlendorf, Berlin}}Willy Brandt ({{IPA-de|ˈvɪliː ˈbʁant|lang}}; born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German politician and statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 for his efforts to strengthen cooperation in western Europe through the EEC and to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the countries of Eastern Europe.WEB,weblink The 1971 Nobel Prize – Presentation Speech,, 17 April 2017, He was the first Social Democrat chancellorSince Hermann Müller in 1930 since 1930.Fleeing to Norway and then Sweden during the Nazi regime and working as a left-wing journalist, he took the name Willy Brandt as a pseudonym to avoid detection by Nazi agents, and then formally adopted the name in 1948. Brandt was originally considered one of the leaders of the right wing of the SPD, and earned initial fame as Governing Mayor of West Berlin. He served as Foreign Minister and as Vice Chancellor in Kurt Georg Kiesinger's cabinet, and became chancellor in 1969. As chancellor, he maintained West Germany's close alignment with the United States and focused on strengthening European integration in western Europe, while launching the new policy of Ostpolitik aimed at improving relations with Eastern Europe. Brandt was controversial on both the right wing, for his Ostpolitik, and on the left wing, for his support of American policies, including the Vietnam War, and right-wing authoritarian regimes. The Brandt Report became a recognised measure for describing the general North-South divide in world economics and politics between an affluent North and a poor South. Brandt was also known for his fierce anti-communist policies at the domestic level, culminating in the Radikalenerlass (Anti-Radical Decree) in 1972.Brandt resigned as chancellor in 1974, after Günter Guillaume, one of his closest aides, was exposed as an agent of the Stasi, the East German secret service.

Early life and the Second World War

Willy Brandt was born Herbert Ernst Carl Frahm in the Free City of Lübeck (German Empire) on 18 December 1913.BOOK, Jessup, John E., An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996, 1998, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 89,weblink {{Subscription required|via=Questia}} His mother was Martha Frahm (16 March 1894 – 3 August 1969){{citation needed|date=January 2018}} a single parent, who worked as a cashier for a department store. His father was an accountant from Hamburg named John Heinrich Möller (1887–1958)BOOK,weblink Politik und Militär in Deutschland: Die Bundespräsidenten und Bundeskanzler und ihre Beziehung zu Soldatentum und Bundeswehr, 9783937885360, Kilian, Dieter E., 2011, whom Brandt never met. As his mother worked six days a week, he was mainly brought up by his mother's stepfather, Ludwig Frahm (1875–1935), and his second wife, Dora.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}}He joined the "Socialist Youth" in 1929 and the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in 1930. He left the SPD to join the more left wing Socialist Workers Party (SAP), which was allied to the POUM in Spain and the Independent Labour Party in Britain. After passing his Abitur in 1932 at Johanneum zu Lübeck, he became an apprentice at the shipbroker and ship's agent F. H. Bertling. In 1933, using his connections with the port and its ships, he left Germany for Norway to escape Nazi persecution. It was at this time that he adopted the pseudonym Willy Brandt to avoid detection by Nazi agents. In 1934, he took part in the founding of the International Bureau of Revolutionary Youth Organizations, and was elected to its secretariat.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}}Brandt was in Germany from September to December 1936, disguised as a Norwegian student named Gunnar Gaasland. The real Gunnar Gaasland was married to Gertrud Meyer from Lübeck in a marriage of convenience to protect her from deportation. Meyer had joined Brandt in Norway in July 1933. In 1937, during the Civil War, Brandt worked in Spain as a journalist. In 1938, the German government revoked his citizenship, so he applied for Norwegian citizenship. In 1940, he was arrested in Norway by occupying German forces, but was not identified as he wore a Norwegian uniform. On his release, he escaped to neutral Sweden. In August 1940, he became a Norwegian citizen, receiving his passport from the Norwegian legation in Stockholm, where he lived until the end of the war. Willy Brandt lectured in Sweden on 1 December 1940 at Bommersvik College about problems experienced by the social democrats in Nazi Germany and the occupied countries at the start of the Second World War. In exile in Norway and Sweden Brandt learned Norwegian and Swedish. Brandt spoke Norwegian fluently, and retained a close relationship with Norway.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}}In late 1946, Brandt returned to Berlin, working for the Norwegian government. In 1948, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and became a German citizen again, formally adopting the pseudonym Willy Brandt as his legal name.


File:John F. Kennedy meeting with Willy Brandt, March 13, 1961.jpg|left|thumb|Brandt meeting John F. KennedyJohn F. KennedyBrandt was elected to the West German Bundestag (the federal parliament) in the 1949 West German federal election as a SPD delegate from West Berlin, serving there until 1957. Concurrently, he was elected as an SPD representative to the Abgeordnetenhaus (the state-level parliament) of West Berlin in the 1950 West Berlin state election, and served there through 1971. In the 1969 West German federal election he was again elected to the Bundestag, but as a delegate from North Rhine-Westphalia, and remained in the Bundestag as a delegate from that state until his death in 1992.BOOK, Noack, Hans-Joachim, Willy Brandt: Ein Leben, ein Jahrhundert, 2013, Rowohlt, Berlin, 978-3871346453, In 1950, Brandt, while a member of the Bundestag and the editor-in-chief of the Berliner Stadtblatt, received a secret payment of about 170,000 Deutsche Mark from the U.S. government ({{Inflation|DE|170000|1950|fmt=eq|cursign=€}}).NEWS,weblink Washington unterstützte Willy Brandt mit geheimen Zahlungen,, He denied any contribution to the topic.
From 3 October 1957 to 1966, Willy Brandt served as Governing Mayor of Berlin, during a period of increasing tension in East-West relations that led to the construction of the Berlin Wall. In Brandt's first year as mayor of Berlin, he also served as the president of the Bundesrat in Bonn. Brandt was an outspoken critic of Soviet repression of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising and of Nikita Khrushchev's 1958 proposal that Berlin receive the status of a "free city". He was supported by the influential publisher Axel Springer. As mayor of West Berlin, Brandt accomplished much in the way of urban development. New hotels, office-blocks and flats were constructed, while both Schloss Charlottenburg and the Reichstag building were restored. Sections of the "Stadtring" Bundesautobahn 100 inner city motorway were opened, while a major housing programme was carried out, with roughly 20,000 new dwellings built each year during his time in office.WEB,weblink Willy Brandt : Biography,, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 October 2011, At the start of 1961, U.S. President John F. Kennedy saw Brandt as the wave of the future in West Germany and was hoping he would replace Konrad Adenauer as chancellor following elections later that year.{{harvp|Kempe|2011|p=98}} Kennedy made this preference clear by inviting Brandt, the West German opposition leader, to an official meeting at the White House a month before meeting with Adenauer, the country's leader. The diplomatic snub strained relations between Kennedy and Adenauer further during an especially tense time for Berlin.{{harvp|Kempe|2011|p=166}} However, following the building of the Berlin Wall in August 1961, Brandt was disappointed and angry with Kennedy. Speaking in Berlin three days later, Brandt criticized Kennedy, asserting "Berlin expects more than words. It expects political action." He also wrote Kennedy a highly critical public letter in which he warned that the development was liable "to arouse doubts about the ability of the three [Allied] Powers to react and their determination" and he called the situation "a state of accomplished extortion".{{harvp|Kempe|2011|pp=375–376}}Brandt became the chairman of the SPD in 1964, a post that he retained until 1987, longer than any other party chairman since the founding of the SPD by August Bebel. Brandt was the SPD candidate for the chancellorship in 1961, but he lost to Konrad Adenauer's conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU). In 1965, Brandt ran again, but lost to the popular Ludwig Erhard. Erhard's government was short-lived, however, and in 1966 a grand coalition between the SPD and CDU was formed, with Brandt serving as foreign minister and as the 5th Vice-Chancellor of Germany.


At the 1969 elections, again with Brandt as the leading candidate, the SPD became stronger, and after three weeks of negotiations, the SPD formed a coalition government with the smaller Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP). Brandt was elected Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Foreign policy

File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F037099-0021, Köln, Staatsempfang für Präsident Pompidou.jpg|thumb|Willy Brandt with French president Georges Pompidou in CologneCologneAs chancellor, Brandt developed his Neue Ostpolitik (New Eastern Policy) by stages. Brandt was active in creating a degree of rapprochement with East Germany, and also in improving relations with the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and other Eastern Bloc (communist) countries.Brandt introduced his Ostpolitik gradually starting in 1967 with the establishment of diplomatic relations with Romania and making a trade agreement with Czechoslovakia. In 1968 he restored diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia. However the August 1968, Kremlin-controlled invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact was a profound disappointment. Brandt condemned the invasion and put Ostpolitik on hold while he negotiated a coalition with the Free Democrats. In late 1969 he indicated his readiness to meet with East German leadership on the basis of equality, without preconditions. He also expressed an eagerness to meet with the USSR and Poland to resolve frontier questions that had remained unsettled since 1945. Brandt met with the East German premier Willi Stoph in 1970. Brandt made a six-point proposal that would involve two separate German states that respected each other's territorial integrity and settle disputes peacefully. They would cooperate as neighbors and the rights of the Four Powers in Berlin would be respected by both of them, and finally that the situation around Berlin would be improved. No agreements were reached at first but talks continued. In 1970 Brandt signed a treaty with the Soviet Union which normalised relations and recognized existing national boundaries. The treaty with Poland in December 1970 accepted the current boundaries, which had long been in dispute. The Berlin question was settled in 1971 to West Germany's satisfaction. The crowning step came with the Basic Treaty with East Germany. The status quo was legitimized, relations were formalized on the basis of equality, and both Germanies joined the United Nations in 1973.Frank W. Thackeray and John E. Findling, eds. Statesmen Who Changed the World: A Bio-Bibliographical Dictionary of Diplomacy (Greenwood, 1993) pp 60-63Time magazine in the U.S. named Brandt as its Man of the Year for 1970, stating, "Willy Brandt is in effect seeking to end World War II by bringing about a fresh relationship between East and West. He is trying to accept the real situation in Europe, which has lasted for 25 years, but he is also trying to bring about a new reality in his bold approach to the Soviet Union and the East Bloc.""Willy Brandt", Time Magazine, 4 January 1971, online archive. Retrieved 11 July 2007 President Richard Nixon also was pushing détente on behalf of the United States. The Nixon policies amounted to co-opting Brandt's Ostpolitik.{{harvp|Juneau|2011}}In 1971, Brandt received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in improving relations with East Germany, Poland, and the Soviet Union. Brandt negotiated a peace treaty with Poland, and agreements on the boundaries between the two countries, signifying the official and long-delayed end of World War II. Brandt negotiated parallel treaties and agreements with Czechoslovakia.File:Meeting to discuss US-West German relations - NARA - 194507.tif|thumb|Brandt with U.S. President Richard Nixon and Henry KissingerHenry KissingerIn West Germany, Brandt's Neue Ostpolitik was extremely controversial, dividing the populace into two camps. One camp embraced all of the conservative parties, and most notably those West German residents and their families who had been driven west ("die Heimatvertriebenen") by Stalinist ethnic cleansing from Historical Eastern Germany, especially the part that was given to Poland as a consequence of the end of the war; western Czechoslovakia (the Sudetenland); and the rest of Eastern Europe, such as in Romania. These groups of displaced Germans and their descendants loudly voiced their opposition to Brandt's policy, calling it "illegal" and "high treason".A different camp supported and encouraged Brandt's Neue Ostpolitik as aiming at "Wandel durch Annäherung" ("change through rapprochement"), encouraging change through a policy of engagement with the (communist) Eastern Bloc, rather than trying to isolate those countries diplomatically and commercially. Brandt's supporters claim that the policy did help to break down the Eastern Bloc's "siege mentality", and also helped to increase its awareness of the contradictions in its brand of Socialism/Communism, which – together with other events – eventually led to the downfall of Eastern European Communism.

Domestic policies

Brandt's popularity

File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F064862-0019, Dortmund, SPD-Parteitag, Willy Brandt.jpg|thumb|left|Willy Brandt talking at an SPD meeting in DortmundDortmundBrandt's predecessor as chancellor, Kurt Georg Kiesinger, had been a member of the Nazi party, and was a more old-fashioned conservative-liberal intellectual. Brandt, having fought the Nazis and having faced down communist Eastern Germany during several crises while he was the mayor of Berlin, became a controversial, but credible, figure in several different factions. As the Minister of Foreign Affairs in Kiesinger's grand coalition cabinet, Brandt helped to gain further international approval for Western Germany, and he laid the foundation stones for his future Neue Ostpolitik. There was a wide public-opinion gap between Kiesinger and Brandt in the West German polls.Both men had come to their own terms with the new baby boomer lifestyles. Kiesinger considered them to be "a shameful crowd of long-haired drop-outs who needed a bath and someone to discipline them". On the other hand, Brandt needed a while to get into contact with, and to earn credibility among, the "Ausserparlamentarische Opposition" (APO) ("the extra-parliamentary opposition"). The students questioned West German society in general, seeking social, legal, and political reforms. Also, the unrest led to a renaissance of right-wing parties in some of the Bundeslands' (German states under the Bundesrepublik) Parliaments.Brandt, however, represented a figure of change, and he followed a course of social, legal, and political reforms. In 1969, Brandt gained a small majority by forming a coalition with the FDP. In his first speech before the Bundestag as the chancellor, Brandt set forth his political course of reforms ending the speech with his famous words, "Wir wollen mehr Demokratie wagen" (literally: "Let's dare more democracy", or more figuratively, "We want to take a chance on more Democracy"). This speech made Brandt, as well as the Social Democratic Party, popular among most of the students and other young West German baby-boomers who dreamed of a country that would be more open and more colorful than the frugal and still somewhat-authoritarian Bundesrepublik that had been built after World War II. However, Brandt's Neue Ostpolitik lost him a large part of the German refugee voters from East Germany, who had been significantly pro-SPD in the postwar years.{{Social democracy sidebar |expanded=People}}

Chancellor of domestic reform

Although Brandt is perhaps best known for his achievements in foreign policy, his government oversaw the implementation of a broad range of social reforms, and was known as a "Kanzler der inneren Reformen" ('Chancellor of domestic reform').{{harvp|Radice|Radice|1986}} According to the historian David Childs, "Brandt was anxious that his government should be a reforming administration and a number of reforms were embarked upon".{{harvp|Childs|1992}} Within a few years, the education budget rose from 16 billion to 50 billion DM, while one out of every three DM spent by the new government was devoted to welfare purposes. As noted by the journalist and historian Marion Dönhoff,"People were seized by a completely new feeling about life. A mania for large scale reforms spread like wildfire, affecting schools, universities, the administration, family legislation. In the autumn of 1970 Jürgen Wischnewski of the SPD declared, 'Every week more than three plans for reform come up for decision in cabinet and in the Assembly.'"{{harvp|Dönhoff|1982}}According to Helmut Schmidt, Willy Brandt's domestic reform programme had accomplished more than any previous programme for a comparable period.{{harvp|Braunthal|1994}} Levels of social expenditure were increased,WEB,weblink The Population of the Federal Republic of Germany,, 17 April 2017, with more funds allocated towards housing, transportation, schools, and communication, and substantial federal benefits were provided for farmers.{{harvp|Binder|1975}} Various measures were introduced to extend health care coverage,BOOK, Health Care Systems in Transition: Germany,weblink European Observatory on Health Care Systems, World Health Organization, while federal aid to sports organisations was increased. A number of liberal social reforms were instituted{{harvp|Sinn|2007}} whilst the welfare state was significantly expandedBOOK,weblink The Port Huron Statement: Sources and Legacies of the New Left's Founding Manifesto, Richard, Flacks, Nelson, Lichtenstein, 3 February 2015, University of Pennsylvania Press, Google Books, 9780812246926, (with total public spending on social programs nearly doubling between 1969 and 1975),WEB,weblink Dalton, Politics in Germany – Chapter 10,, 14 November 2012, with health, housing, and social welfare legislation bringing about welcome improvements, and by the end of the Brandt Chancellorship West Germany had one of the most advanced systems of welfare in the world.Substantial increases were made in social security benefits such as injury and sickness benefits, pensions,{{harvp|Callaghan|2000}} unemployment benefits,weblink {{dead link|date=April 2017}} housing allowances,{{harvp|Flora|1986}} basic subsistence aid allowances,{{harvp|Walker|Lawson|Townsend|1984}} and family allowances and living allowances.{{harvp|Wilsford|1995}} In the government's first budget, sickness benefits were increased by 9.3%, pensions for war widows by 25%, pensions for the war wounded by 16%, and retirement pensions by 5%.{{harvp|Prittie|1974}} Numerically, pensions went up by 6.4% (1970), 5.5% (1971), 9.5% (1972), 11.4% (1973), and 11.2% (1974). Adjusted for changes in the annual price index, pensions went up in real terms by 3.1% (1970), 0.3% (1971), 3.9% (1972), 4.4% (1973), and 4.2% (1974).{{harvp|Potthoff|Miller|2006}} Between 1972 and 1974, the purchasing power of pensioners went up by 19%.WEB,weblink GHDI – Document – Page,, 14 November 2012, In 1970, war pensions were increased by 16%.{{harvp|Schewe|Nordhorn|Schenke|1972}} War victim's pensions went up by 5.5% in January 1971, and by 6.3% in January 1972. By 1972, war pensions for orphans and parents had gone up by around 40%, and for widows by around 50%. Between 1970 and 1972, the "Landabgaberente" (land transfer pension) went up by 55%.WEB,weblink Wahlprogramm der SPD : mit Willy Brandt fur Frieden, Sicherheit und eine bessere Qualitat des Lebens, Sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands, 1 January 1972, Internet Archive, Between 1969 and 1974, the average real standard rate of income support rose (in 1991 prices) from around 300 DM to around 400 DM.WEB,weblink IZA Discussion Paper No. 124,, 17 April 2017, Between 1970 and 1974, unemployment benefits rose from around 300 euros to around 400 euros per month, and unemployment assistance from just under 200 euros per month to just under 400 euros per month.WEB,weblink Zur Entwicklung des Anspruchslohns in Deutschland, Alfred, Boss,, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, November 2008, 4 June 2017,weblink 29 October 2016, dead, In 2001 prices, the average standard social assistance benefit level rose from around 200 euros per month in 1969 to over 250 euros per month in 1974.WEB,weblink Table of Contents,, 17 April 2017, During most of Brandt's years as chancellor, the majority of benefits increased as a percentage of average net earnings.BOOK,weblink Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II, Peter, Flora, 1 January 1986, Walter de Gruyter, Google Books, 9783110111316, In 1970, seagoing pilots became retrospectively insurable, and gained full social security as members of the Non-Manual Workers Insurance Institute. That same year, a special regulation came into force for District Master Chimney Sweeps, making them fully insurable under the Craftsman's Insurance Scheme. An increase was made in tax-free allowances for children, which enabled 1,000,000 families to claim an allowance for the second child, compared to 300,000 families previously. The Second Modification and Supplementation Law (1970) increased the allowance for the third child from DM 50 to DM 60, raised the income-limit for the second child allowance from DM 7,800 to DM 13,200; subsequently increased to DM 15,000 by the third modification law (December 1971), DM 16,800 by the fourth modification law (November 1973), and to DM 18,360 by the fifth modification law (December 1973). A flexible retirement age after 62 years was introduced (1972) for invalids and handicapped persons,WEB,weblink Report on the Development of the Social Situation in the Community in 1972.,, 17 April 2017, and social assistance was extended to those who previously had to be helped by their relatives. From 1971, special subventions were provided to enable young farmers to quit farming "and facilitate their entry into the non-agricultural pension system by means of back payments".BOOK,weblink Small Town and Village in Bavaria: The Passing of a Way of Life, Peter H., Merkl, 1 January 2012, Berghahn Books, Google Books, 9780857453471, The Third Modification Law (1974) extended individual entitlements to social assistance by means of higher-income limits compatible with receipt of benefits and lowered age limits for certain special benefits. Rehabilitation measures were also extended, child supplements were expressed as percentages of standard amounts and were thus indexed to their changes, and grandparents of recipients were exempted from potential liability to reimburse expenditure of social assistance carrier. The Third Social Welfare Amendment Act (1974) brought considerable improvements for the handicapped, those in need of care, and older persons, and a new fund of 100 million marks for disabled children was established. Allowances for retraining and advanced training and for refugees from East Germany were also increased, together with federal grants for sport. In addition, increases were made in the pensions of 2.5 million war victims. Following a sudden increase in the price of oil, a law was passed in December 1973 granting recipients of social assistance and housing allowances a single heating-oil allowance (a procedure repeated in the winter of 1979 during the Schmidt Administration).{{harvp|Kohler|Zacher|Partington|1982}} Improvements and automatic adjustments of maintenance allowances for participants in vocational training measures were also carried out, and increased allowances were provided for training and retraining, together with special allowances for refugees from East Germany.The Velvet Chancellors: A History of Post-war Germany by Terence Prittie
There was determined, by statutory regulation issued in February 1970, the category of persons most seriously disabled "to whom, with regard to maintenance aid, an increased demand (50% of the appropriate rate) is being conceded, and, within the scope of relief in special living conditions: a higher rate of nursing aid".WEB,weblink Information Bulletin on Social Policy, 1 January 1972, Council of Europe, Documentation Section and Library, Google Books, In 1971, the retirement age for miners was lowered to 50.WEB,weblink Study of the European Communities re-adaptation aids in the coal and steel industries – Archive of European Integration,, 26 March 2013, 17 April 2017, An April 1972 law providing for "promotion of social aid services" aimed to remedy, through various beneficial measures (particularly in the field of national insurance and working conditions), the staff-shortage suffered by social establishments in their medico-social, educational and other work. A bill to harmonize re-education benefit and another bill relating to severely handicapped persons became law in May and September 1972 respectively. In 1972, winter payments for construction workers were introduced.BOOK,weblink The Politics of West German Trade Unions: Strategies of Class and Interest Representation in Growth and Crisis, Andrei, Markovits, 14 April 2016, Routledge, Google Books, 9781317230762, BOOK,weblink Federalism and Labour Market Policy: Comparing Different Governance and Employment Strategies, Alain, No[Ux00eb]l, Queen's University (Kingston, Ont ) Institute of Intergovernmental, Relations, 1 January 2004, IIGR, Queen's University, Google Books, 9781553390060, weblink {{dead link|date=April 2017}}To assist family planning and marriage and family guidance, the government allocated DM 2 232 000 in 1973 for the payment and for the basic and further training of staff. A special effort was also made in 1973 to organize the recreation of Helmut Schmidt led the development of the first Joint Service Regulation ZDv 10/1 (Assistance for Innere Fuehrung, classified: restricted), which revitalized the concept of Innere Fuehrung while also affirming the value of the "citizen in uniform". According to one study, as a result of this reform, "a strong civil mindset displaced the formerly dominant military mindset", and forced the Bundeswehr's elder generation to accept a new type of soldier envisioned by Schmidt.WEB,weblink Citizen in Uniform: Democratic Germany and the Changing Bundeswehr,, 17 April 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2016, dead, In addition, the Federal Cost of Moving Act increased the relocation allowance (with effect from 1 November 1973), with the basic allowances raised by DM 50 and DM 100 respectively, while extra allowances for families were raised to a uniform amount of 125 DM.WEB,weblink White Paper 1973/1974: The Security of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Development of the Federal Armed Forces, 1 January 1974, Federal Minister of Defence, Google Books, In 1970, the Armed Forces Vocational Schools and the Vocational Advancement Organization extended their services for the first time to conscripts, "so far as military duty permitted".WEB,weblink White Paper: the Security of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Development of the Federal Armed Forces, Germany (West) Bundesministerium der, Verteidigung, 1 January 1971, Federal Minister of Defence., Google Books, New enlistment bonuses were authorized and previous bonus schemes were improved,WEB,weblink White Paper: the Security of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Development of the Federal Armed Forces, 1 January 1973, Federal Minister of Defence., Google Books, and new pay regulations were introduced that improved the financial situation of military personnel and civil servants.WEB,weblink White Paper: the Security of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Development of the Federal Armed Forces, 1 January 1973, Federal Minister of Defence., Google Books, In July 1973, the 3rd Amendment to the Civilian Service Act came into force; "a prerequisite for the creation of additional civilian service places for recognized conscientious objectors". The amendment provided that men recognized as conscientious objectors while performing military service should immediately be transferred to a civilian service assignment.WEB,weblink White Paper 1973/1974: The Security of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Development of the Federal Armed Forces, 1 January 1974, Federal Minister of Defence, Google Books, The maximum amount for servicemen enlisting for at least 12 years was increased from DM 6,000 to DM 9,000,WEB,weblink White Paper 1973/1974: The Security of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Development of the Federal Armed Forces, 1 January 1974, Federal Minister of Defence, Google Books, and from October 1971 onwards, long-term personnel were paid grants towards the cost 'of attending educational institutes of the "second educational route" or participating in state-recognized general education courses provided by private correspondence schools and the "television college"'.WEB,weblink White Paper 1973/1974: The Security of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Development of the Federal Armed Forces, 1 January 1974, Federal Minister of Defence, Google Books, In 1972, two Bundeswehr universities were established;WEB,weblink Studierendenbereich :: Beitrag aus dem IntranetBw anläßlich des 40 jährigen Bestehens der Universitäten der Bundeswehr, Michael, Deichen,, 17 April 2017, WEB,weblink The Bundeswehr and Western Security, Stephen F., Szabo, 1 January 1990, Macmillan Publishers Limited, Google Books, a reform which, according to one historian, "fought against the closed nature of the military and guaranteed that officers would be better able to successfully interact with the civilian world".WEB,weblink Civil-Military Relations and Shared Responsibility: A Four-Nation Study, Dale R., Herspring, 27 March 2013, JHU Press, Google Books, From April 1973, the general maintenance payments under the Law amending the Maintenance Security Act and the Workplace Protection Act were increased, while increases were also made in the special allowance (Christmas bonus) for conscripts, together with the dismissal allowance. The expense allowance for troops on duty-related absence from place of employment was improved, together with travel subsidies and provisions for military service damaged soldiers and their families.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 30 October 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 31 October 2016, In addition, the position of non-commissioned officers was improved.WEB,weblink Helmut Schmidt, West German chancellor – obituary,, 17 April 2017, A women's policy machinery at the national level was established in 1972{{harvp|Huber|Stephens|2001}} while amnesty was guaranteed in minor offences connected with demonstrations. From 1970 onwards, parents as well as landlords were no longer legally prohibited "to give or rent rooms or flats to unmarried couples or to allow them to stay overnight".BOOK, Goodin, Robert E., Discretionary Time, Cambridge University Press, 9781139470773, 174, etal, Preview. In October 1972, the legal aid system was improved with the compensation paid to private lawyers for legal services to the poor increased.WEB,weblink A reader on resourcing civil justice, Alan, Paterson, Tamara, Goriely, 1 January 1996, Oxford University Press, Google Books, The Bausparkassen Act of 1972WEB,weblink Archived copy, 28 August 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2015, placed all Bausparkassen (from January 1974 onwards) under the supervision of the Federal Banking Supervisory Office, and confined Bausparkassen "to the contract saving business and related activities".WEB,weblink National Housing Finance Systems: A Comparative Study, Mark, Boléat, 1 January 1985, Mark Boleat, Google Books, The Animal Protection Act, passed in 1972, introduced various safeguards for animals such as not permitting the causing of pain, injury, or suffering to an animal without justification, and limiting experiments to the minimum number of animals necessary.WEB,weblink Animal Research and Ethical Conflict: An Analysis of the Scientific Literature: 1966–1986, Mary T., Phillips, Jeri A., Sechzer, 6 December 2012, Springer Science & Business Media, Google Books, In 1971, rules were introduced making it possible for former guestworkers "to receive an unlimited residence permit after a five-year stay".WEB,weblink The Federal Republic of Germany Since 1949: Politics, Society and Economy Before and After Unification, Klaus, Larres, Panikos, Panayi, 27 August 2014, Routledge, Google Books, Legislation aimed at safeguarding consumers was also implemented under the Brandt Administration. The consumer's right of withdrawal in case of hire purchase was strengthened in March 1974, and fixed prices for branded products were abolished by law in January that same year, which meant that manufacturers' recommended prices were not binding for retailers.WEB,weblink Germany'74 – Economy,, 20 December 1974, 14 November 2012, In addition, a progressive anticartel law was passed. A 1969 law on explosive materials was supplemented by two orders; the first (made in November 1969) establishing a committee of experts for explosive materials, while the second order (made the following month) included details for the implementation of the law on explosive materials. An Act of December 1959 on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and protection against its dangers was amended by an Act of June 1970 that established a tax levied for the costs for permissions and surveillance measures. The Law on Compensation for Measures of Criminal Prosecution and Penalties, passed in March 1971, provided for standardized compensation in certain situations.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 29 July 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2015, WEB,weblink State Responsibility and the Individual: Reparation in Instances of Grave Violations of Human Rights, Albrecht, Randelzhofer, Christian, Tomuschat, 11 March 1999, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Google Books, WEB,weblink International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, René, David, 1 January 1972, Brill Archive, Google Books, In addition, the budget for communications was increased.In terms of working conditions, a number of reforms were introduced aimed at strengthening the rights of workers both at home and in the workplace. The Sickness Act of 1970 provided equal treatment of workers and employees in the event of incapacity for work,WEB,weblink Sozialliberale Koalition und innere Reformen | bpb, de,, 14 November 2012, while maternity leave was increased.WEB,weblink Digitales Archiv Marburg – Das DigAM Projekt,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2014, Legislation was introduced in 1970 which ensured continued payment of wages for workers disabled by illness. In 1970 all employees unit for work (with the exception of women in receipt of maternity benefits and temporarily and inconsiderably employed persons) were provided with an unconditional legal claim against their employer to continued payment of their gross wage for a period of 6 weeks, as also in the case of spa treatment approved by an Insurance Fund, the Fund bearing the full cost thereof. Previously, payment of employer's supplement and sick pay were only made from the day on which the doctor certified unfitness for work. In 1972, an Act on Agency Work was passed which sought to prevent works agencies from providing job placement services and aimed to provide job minimum protection for employees in agency work.{{harvp|Schiek|2006}} A law on the hiring out of manpower, passed in October 1972, contained provisions to stipulate prior authorization for the hiring out of manpower, to draw a distinction between the system governing workers hired out and the placing of workers, to regulate and improve the rights of hired out workers pertaining to working conditions and social insurance, and provide for more severe penalties and fines to be imposed on offenders.Improvements were also made in income and work conditions for home workers,WEB,weblink GHDI – Document,, 24 September 1973, 14 November 2012, accident insurance was extended to non-working adults, and the Border Zone Assistance Act (1971) increased levels of assistance to the declining zonal peripheral area.{{harvp|Scheffer|2008|pp=555–556}} The Occupational Safety Act (1973) required employers to provide company doctors and safety experts.WEB,weblink Dezember 1973 – Regierung Uruguay Parteien Zeitungen "El Popular" "Cronica" Verband – chroniknet – Schlagzeilen, Ereignisse, Fotos mit Geschichte, Community,, 14 November 2012, A directive on protection against noise at the place of work was adopted in November 1970. If measurements showed or there was reason to assume that a noise level guide value of 90 dB( A) may be exceeded at the place of work, then the authority had to instruct the employer to arrange check-ups of the employees concerned and these employees had to use personal noise protection devices. A matching fund program for 15 million employees was also introduced, which stimulated them to accumulate capital.A ministerial order of January 1970 extended protection in cases of partial unemployment to home workers, while an ordinance of August 1970 fixed the conditions of health necessary for service in the merchant navy. A general provision of October 1970 determined in detail the circumstances in which the competent authority must take action on the basis of the act on the technical means of work. The requirement also stipulated the extent to which the technical standards established by national and international organisations can be regarded as "rules of the art". In a directive of 10 November 1970, the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs recommended to the higher authorities for work protection of the "Lander" to bring in the directive published, in agreement with the Ministry of Labour, by the German Engineers' Association on the evaluation of work station noise in relation to loss of hearing, in order to improve safeguards for workers against the noises in question. In September 1971, an ordinance was published concerning dangerous working materials; safeguarding persons using these materials against the dangers involved. In August 1971, a law came into force directed at reducing atmospheric pollution from lead compounds in four-stroke engine fuels. As a safeguard against radiation, a decree on the system of authorisations for medicaments treated with ionizing radiation or containing radioactive substances, in its version of 8 August 1967, was remodelled by a new Decree of 10 May 1971 which added some radionuclides to the list of medicaments which doctors in private practice were authorized to use.By a decree of the Federal Minister for Labour and Social Order, the Federal Institute for Industrial Protection became the Federal Agency for Industrial Protection and Accident Research. Amongst its designated tasks included the promotion of industrial protection, accident prevention on the journey to and from work and accident prevention in the home and leisure activities, the encouragement of training and advanced training in the area of industrial protection, and to promote and coordinate accident research. A regulation was issued in 1972 which permitted for the first time the employment of women as drivers of trams, omnibuses and lorries, while further regulations laid down new provisions for lifts and work with compressed air. The Factory Constitution Law (1971) strengthened the rights of individual employees "to be informed and to be heard on matters concerning their place of work". The Works Council was provided with greater authority while trade unions were given the right of entry into the factory "provided they informed the employer of their intention to do so", while a law was passed to encourage wider share ownership by workers and other rank-and-file employees. The Industrial Relations Law (1972) and the Personnel Representation Act (1974) broadened the rights of employees in matters which immediately affected their places of work, while also improving the possibilities for codetermination on operations committees, together with access of trade unions to companies.The Works Constitution Act of 1972 required in cases of collective dismissal at an establishment normally employing more than twenty employees that management and the works council must negotiate a social plan that stipulates compensation for workers who lose their jobs. In cases where the two parties could not agree on a social plan, the law provided for binding arbitration.{{harvp|Abraham|Houseman|1994}} In 1972, the rights of works councils to information from management were not only strengthened, but works councils were also provided with full codetermination rights on issues such as working time arrangements in the plant, the setting of piece rates, plant wage systems, the establishment of vacation times, work breaks, overtime, and short-time work.{{harvp|Thelen|1991|p=100}} Legislation was passed which acknowledged for the first time the presence of trade unions in the workplace, expanded the means of action of the works councils, and improved their work basics as well as those of the youth councils.WEB,weblink IZPB | bpb, de,, 14 November 2012, A law of January 1972 on the organization of labour in enterprises significantly extended the works council's right of cooperation and co-management in the matter of vocational training. That same year, the Safety Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany was transformed into a public Federal Agency (Bundesanstalt) with significantly enlarged powers, in the context of which special emphasis would be placed on its new task of promoting and coordinating research in the area of accident prevention. New provisions were introduced for the rehabilitation of severely disabled people ("Schwerbehinderte") and accident victims. The Severely Disabled Persons Act of April 1974 obliged all employers with more than fifteen employees to ensure that 6% of their workforce consisted of people officially recognised as being severely handicapped. Employers who failed to do so were assessed 100 DM per month for every job falling before the required quota. These compensatory payments were used to "subsidise the adaptation of workplaces to the requirements of those who were severely handicapped".A law passed in January 1974, designed to protect members of the supervisory boards of companies who are undergoing training, was aimed at ensuring that the representatives of young workers and youthful members of works councils still undergoing training could perform their duties with greater independence and without fear of disadvantageous consequences for their future careers. On request, workers' representatives on completion of their training courses had to have an employment relationship of unlimited duration. In the field of transport, the Municipal Transportation Finance Law of 1971 established federal guidelines for subsidies to municipal governments,WEB,weblink When will Japan Choose Light Rail Transit?,, 13 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, dead, while the Federal Transport Plan of 1973 provided a framework for all transport, including public transport.{{harvp|Banister|2002}} In addition, the Severely Handicapped Persons Act of April 1974 extended the welfare and promotional obligations of the employer, and provided a right to extra holiday consisting of six working days.A federal environmental programme was established in 1971,{{harvp|Schäfers|1998}} and in 1972 laws were passed to regulate garbage elimination and air pollution via emission.WEB,weblink 230, Recent Social Trends in West Germany, 1960–1990, Wolfgang, Glatzer, International Research Group on the Comparative Charting of Social Change in Advanced Industrial, Societies, 21 August 1992, McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, Google Books, Matching grants covering 90% of infrastructure development were allocated to local communities, which led to a dramatic increase in the number of public swimming pools and other facilities of consumptive infrastructure throughout West Germany. The federal crime-fighting apparatus was also modernised, while a Foreign Tax Act was passed which limited the possibility of tax evasion.WEB,weblink GHDI – Document,, 17 May 1974, 14 November 2012, In addition, efforts were made to improve the railways and motorways. In 1971, a law was passed setting the maximum lead content at 0.4 grams per liter of gasoline,WEB,weblink Industry and Politics in West Germany: Toward the Third Republic, Peter J., Katzenstein, 1 January 1989, Cornell University Press, Google Books, and in 1972 DDT was banned.WEB,weblink Nature Of The Miracle Years: Conservation in West Germany, 1945–1975, Sandra, Chaney, 15 July 2013, Berghahn Books, Google Books, The Federal Immissions Control Law, passed in March 1974, provided protection from noxious gases, noise, and air-borne particulate matter.Federal Republic of Germany: Spatial Development and Problems by Peter Schöller, Willi Walter Puls, and Hanns Jürgen BuchholzUnder the Brandt Administration, West Germany attained a lower rate of inflation than in other industrialised countries at that time, while a rise in the standard of living took place, helped by the floating and revaluation of the mark. This was characterised by the real incomes of employees increasing more sharply than incomes from entrepreneurial work, with the proportion of employees' incomes in the overall national income rising from 65% to 70% between 1969 and 1973, while the proportion of income from entrepreneurial work and property fell over that same period from just under 35% to 30%. In addition, the percentage of West Germans living in poverty (based on various definitions) fell between 1969 and 1973.WEB,weblink Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II, Peter, Flora, 1 January 1986, Walter de Gruyter, Google Books, WEB,weblink Germany – Chartbook of Economic Inequality, Chartbookofeconomicinequality.comaccessdate=2017-04-17, According to one estimate, the percentage of West Germans living in poverty fell from 9.7% to 8.9% between 1969 and 1973, and from 20.2% to 14.0% according to another estimate.WEB,weblink Cities in Transition: New Challenges, New Responsibilities, B., Blanke, R., Smith, 18 August 1999, Springer, Google Books, According to another estimate, the percentage of West Germans living in poverty during this period fell from 2.7% to 1.4%.WEB,weblink 209, Recent Social Trends in West Germany, 1960–1990, Wolfgang, Glatzer, International Research Group on the Comparative Charting of Social Change in Advanced Industrial, Societies, 21 August 1992, McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP, Google Books,

1972 crisis

Brandt's Ostpolitik led to a meltdown of the narrow majority Brandt's coalition enjoyed in the Bundestag. In October 1970, FDP deputies Erich Mende, Heinz Starke, and Siegfried Zoglmann crossed the floor to join the CDU. On 23 February 1972, SPD deputy Herbert Hupka, who was also leader of the Bund der Vertriebenen, joined the CDU in disagreement with Brandt's reconciliatory efforts towards the east. On 23 April 1972, Wilhelm Helms (FDP) left the coalition. The FDP politicians Knud von Kühlmann-Stumm and Gerhard Kienbaum also declared that they would vote against Brandt; thus, Brandt had lost his majority. On 24 April 1972 a constructive vote of no confidence was proposed and it was voted on three days later. Had this motion passed, CDU leader Rainer Barzel would have replaced Brandt as chancellor.On paper, the opposition now had 250 votes, just one over the 249 needed to oust Brandt. Even Brandt himself believed he was finished, and a number of unions went on strike in anticipation of Brandt's expected defeat on the floor of the Bundestag. To everyone's surprise, the motion failed: Barzel got only 247 votes out of 260 votes cast, two short of what he needed to become Chancellor. There were also 10 votes against the motion and three invalid ballots. Most SPD and FDP deputies abstained, which had the same effect as voting for Brandt. After German reunification, it emerged that the Stasi had bribed several CDU deputies to abstain from the confidence vote, since East Berlin saw a need for Brandt to stay in power.{{Citation needed|date=February 2019}}

New elections

Though Brandt remained chancellor, he had lost his majority. Subsequent initiatives in parliament, most notably on the budget, failed. Because of this stalemate, the Bundestag was dissolved and new elections were called. During the 1972 campaign, many popular West German artists, intellectuals, writers, actors and professors supported Brandt and the SPD. Among them were Günter Grass, Walter Jens, and even the soccer player Paul Breitner. Brandt's ' as well as his reformist domestic policies were popular with parts of the young generation and he led the SPD to its best-ever federal election result in late 1972. The ', Brandt's landslide win was the beginning of the end; and Brandt's role in government started to decline.Many of Brandt's reforms met with resistance from state governments (dominated by CDU/CSU). The spirit of reformist optimism was cut short by the 1973 oil crisis and the major public services strike 1974, which gave Germany's trade unions, led by Heinz Kluncker, a big wage increase but reduced Brandt's financial leeway for further reforms. Brandt was said to be more a dreamer than a manager and was personally haunted by depression. To counter any notions about being sympathetic to Communism or soft on left-wing extremists, Brandt implemented tough legislation that barred "radicals" from public service ().

Guillaume affair

Around 1973, West German security organizations received information that one of Brandt's personal assistants, Günter Guillaume, was a spy for the East German intelligence services. Brandt was asked to continue working as usual, and he agreed to do so, even taking a private vacation with Guillaume. Guillaume was arrested on 24 April 1974, and many{{who|date=August 2015}} blamed Brandt for having a communist spy in his inner circle.{{Citation needed|date=August 2015}}Brandt resigned from his position as chancellor on 6 May 1974, but he remained a member of the Bundestag and chairman of the Social Democrats through 1987.This espionage affair is widely considered to have been just the trigger for Brandt's resignation, not the fundamental cause. As Brandt himself later said, "I was exhausted, for reasons which had nothing to do with the affair [the Guillaume espionage scandal] going on at the time."quoted in: Gregor Schöllgen. Der Kanzler und sein Spion. In: Die Zeit 2003, Vol. 40, 25 September 2003Brandt was dogged by scandals about serial adultery, and reportedly also struggled with alcohol and depression.{{harvp|Schöllgen|2001}} There was also the economic fallout on West Germany of the 1973 oil crisis, which may seem to have given enough stress to finish off Brandt as the Chancellor.{{Citation needed|date=August 2015}}Guillaume had been an espionage agent for East Germany, who was supervised by Markus Wolf, the head of the Main Directorate for Reconnaissance (Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung or HVA—the foreign intelligence service) of the East German Ministry for State Security. Wolf stated after the reunification that the resignation of Brandt had never been intended, and that the planting and handling of Guillaume had been one of the largest mistakes of the East German secret services.Brandt was succeeded as the Chancellor of the Bundesrepublik by his fellow Social Democrat, Helmut Schmidt. For the rest of his life, Brandt remained suspicious that his fellow Social Democrat (and longtime rival) Herbert Wehner had been scheming for Brandt's downfall.{{Citation needed|date=August 2015}} However, there is scant evidence to corroborate this suspicion.


(File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F079282-0022, Münster, SPD-Parteitag, Willy Brandt.jpg|thumb|upright|Willy Brandt in 1988 at the Münster party rally)After his term as the Chancellor, Brandt retained his seat in the Bundestag, and he remained the Chairman of the Social Democratic Party through 1987. Beginning in 1987, Brandt stepped down to become the Honorary Chairman of the party. Brandt was also a member of the European Parliament from 1979 to 1983.

Socialist International

File:WillyBrandtBerntCarlssonPenttiVäänänen.jpg|thumb|left|Socialist International Congress 1983. Willy Brandt with outgoing general secretary Bernt CarlssonBernt CarlssonFor sixteen years, Brandt was the president of the Socialist International (1976–92), during which period the number of Socialist International's mainly European member parties grew until there were more than a hundred socialist, social democratic, and labour political parties around the world. For the first seven years, this growth in SI membership had been prompted by the efforts of the Socialist International's Secretary-General, the Swede Bernt Carlsson. However, in early 1983, a dispute arose about what Carlsson perceived as the SI president's authoritarian approach. Carlsson then rebuked Brandt saying: "this is a Socialist International – not a German International".Next, against some vocal opposition, Brandt decided to move the next Socialist International Congress from Sydney, Australia to Portugal. Following this SI Congress in April 1983, Brandt retaliated against Carlsson by forcing him to step down from his position. However, the Austrian Prime Minister, Bruno Kreisky, argued on behalf of Brandt: "It is a question of whether it is better to be pure or to have greater numbers".JOURNAL
, Never at a Loss for Words
, Time (magazine), Time
, 18 April 1983
, 9 July 2008,
Carlsson was succeeded by the Finn Pentti Väänänen as Secretary General of the Socialist International WEB,weblink Progressive Politics For A Fairer World, Socialist International, 14 November 2012, During Willy Brandt's presidency the SI developed activities and dialogue on a number of International issues. This concerned the East-West conflict and arms race where the SI held high level consultations with the leaderships of the United States and the Soviet Union. The SI met with such leaders as President Jimmy Carter and Vice-Presidents Walter Mondale and George Bush. They also met with the Secretaries General Leonid Brezhnev and Mikhail Gorbachev and with the Soviet President Andrei Gromyko. The SI also developed active contacts to promote dialogue concerning regional conflicts. Those included the Middle East, where they helped to build contacts between Israel and the PLO, and also in Southern Africa and Central America.{{harvp|Väänänen|2012|pp=258–259}}

Brandt Report

In 1977, Brandt was appointed as the chairman of the Independent Commission for International Developmental Issues. This produced a report in 1980, which called for drastic changes in the global attitude towards development in the Third World. This became known as the Brandt Report.


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1990-0316-035, Wismar, SPD-Wahlkundgebung, Willy Brandt.jpg|thumb|left|Willy Brandt giving a speech in Wismar, campaigning for the only free parliamentary election in East Germany (March 1990).]](File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1990-0928-036, Dessau, SPD-Wahlkundgebung, Willy Brandt.jpg|thumb|left|Willy Brandt giving a speech on 28 September 1990, two years before his death.)In October 1979, Brandt met with the East German dissident, Rudolf Bahro, who had written The Alternative. Bahro and his supporters were attacked by the East German state security organization Stasi, headed by Erich Mielke, for his writings, which had laid the theoretical foundation of a left-wing opposition to the ruling SED party and its dependent allies, and which promoted new and changed parties. All of this is now described as "change from within". Brandt had asked for Bahro's release, and Brandt welcomed Bahro's theories, which advanced the debate within his own Social Democratic Party.On 11 September 1988, Brandt described the hope for German reunification as a delusion.WEB, Schlaglichter der deutschen Einheit. Eine kommentierte Chronik(1987-1990),weblink, Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Michael Borchard, 11, 1 October 2008, de, In late 1989, Brandt became one of the first leftwing leaders in West Germany to publicly favor a quick reunification of Germany, instead of some sort of two-state federation or other kind of interim arrangement. Brandt's public statement "Now grows together what belongs together", was widely quoted in those days.

Hostages in Iraq

One of Brandt's last public appearances was in flying to Baghdad, Iraq, to free Western hostages held by Saddam Hussein, following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Brandt secured the release of a large number of them, and on 9 November 1990, his airplane landed with 174 freed hostages on board at the Frankfurt Airport."Mideast Tensions", TENSIONS; Buildup in Gulf Seen as a Signal On Use of Force, The New York Times, 9 November 1990. Retrieved 3 January 2008

Death and memorials

File:Willy Brandt monument in Warsaw 05.JPG|thumb|Willy Brandt memorial in WarsawWarsawFile:Willy Brandt Memorial-Nuremberg.jpg|thumb|Willy-Brandt-Memorial in Nuremberg by the artist Josef TabachnykJosef TabachnykWilly Brandt died of colon cancer at his home in Unkel, a town on the River Rhine, on 8 October 1992, at the age of 78.NEWS,weblink Willy Brandt Dead at 78; Forged West Germany's Reconciliation With the East, Binder, David, 9 October 1992, The New York Times, 17 April 2017, 0362-4331, He was given a state funeral and was buried at the cemetery at Zehlendorf in Berlin.NEWS,weblink Germans Lay Beloved Statesman Brandt to Rest : Funeral: 'He shaped an era,' the country's president says of the former West Berlin mayor, foreign minister and chancellor., MARSHALL, TYLER, 18 October 1992, Los Angeles Times, 17 April 2017, en-US, 0458-3035, The Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt Foundation was established in 1994. It serves to honor the memory of Brandt's political accomplishments and his commitment to peace, freedom and democracy. The foundation runs two permanent exhibitions: one in Berlin, and the other in Lübeck, where Brandt was born. Other works of the foundation include oversight of Brandt's papers, speeches and letters (the Berlin Edition), historical research as well as organizing lectures and international conferences.WEB, Bundeskanzler Willy Brandt Stiftung: The foundation,weblink, 15 September 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 5 May 2015, dead, dmy-all, When the SPD moved its headquarters from Bonn back to Berlin in the mid-1990s, the new headquarters was named the "Willy Brandt Haus". One of the buildings of the European Parliament in Brussels was named after him in 2008.On 6 December 2000, a memorial to Willy Brandt and Warschauer Kniefall was unveiled in Warsaw, Poland.German artist Johannes Heisig painted several portraits of Brandt of which one was unveiled as part of an honoring event at German Historical Institute Washington, DC on 18 March 2003. Spokesmen amongst others were former German Federal Minister Egon Bahr and former U.S. Secretary of state Henry Kissinger.WEB, Honoring Willy Brandt,weblink GHI Bulletin No. 33 (Fall 2003), dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2011, In 2009, the Willy-Brandt-Memorial was opened up in Nuremberg at the Willy-Brandt Square.WEB,weblink Enthüllung der Skulptur "Willy Brandt",, 17 April 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2015, dead, It was created by the artist Josef Tabachnyk.In 2009, the University of Erfurt renamed its graduate school of public administration as the Willy Brandt School of Public Policy. A private German-language secondary school in Warsaw, Poland, is also named after Brandt.The main boulevard on the north entrance to Montenegrin capital Podgorica was named Willy Brandt Boulevard in 2011.WEB,weblink Dan online – Podgoricom: – 2011-06-10,, Brandt also has an unusual memorial in Hammersmith in London, United Kingdom. In 1963, when he was Mayor of West Berlin, Brandt travelled to Hammersmith with a street lamp from West Berlin, and presented it to the Mayor of Hammersmith to mark its twinning with Neukölln. The lamp now stands on the wall of Westcott Lodge, facing Furnival Gardens, with a commemorative plaque below it.WEB,weblink West Berlin Street Lamp,, 1 April 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 16 March 2016, dead, Although Brandt had only served five years in office as Chancellor of Germany, he remains as one of the most popular politicians in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Brandt's family

File:Ludwig Binder Haus der Geschichte Studentenrevolte 1968 2001 03 0275.4212 (17086177105).jpg|thumb|Peter Brandt (right) during the protests of 1968protests of 1968From 1941 until 1948, Brandt was married to Anna Carlotta Thorkildsen (the daughter of a Norwegian father and a German-American mother). They had a daughter, Ninja Brandt (born in 1940).NEWS,weblink Obituary: Willy Brandt, 10 October 1992, The Independent, 17 April 2017, en-GB, After Brandt and Thorkildsen were divorced in 1948, Brandt married the Norwegian-born German writer Rut Hansen in the same year. Hansen and Brandt had three sons: {{Interlanguage link multi|Peter Brandt (historian)|de|3=Peter Brandt (Historiker)|lt=Peter Brandt}} (born in 1948), {{ill|Lars Brandt (author)|de|Lars Brandt|lt=Lars Brandt}} (born in 1951) and Matthias Brandt (born in 1961). After 32 years of marriage, Willy Brandt and Rut Hansen Brand divorced in 1980, and from the day that they were divorced they never saw each other again. On 9 December 1983, Brandt married {{Interlanguage link multi|Brigitte Seebacher|de}} (born in 1946).


Foreign honour


Selected works

  • 1960 Mein Weg nach Berlin (My Path to Berlin), autobiography written with Leo Lania
  • 1966 Draußen. Schriften während der Emigration. (Outside: Writings during the Emigration) {{ISBN|3-8012-1094-4}}
  • 1968 Friedenspolitik in Europa (The Politics of Peace in Europe)
  • 1976 Begegnungen und Einsichten 1960–1975 (Encounters and Insights 1960–1975) {{ISBN|3-455-08979-8}}
  • 1982 Links und frei. Mein Weg 1930–1950 (Left and Free: My Path 1930–1950)
  • 1986 Der organisierte Wahnsinn (Organized Lunacy)
  • 1989 Erinnerungen (Memories) {{ISBN|3-549-07353-4}}
  • 2002 Berliner Ausgabe, Werkauswahl, ed. for Bundeskanzler Willy Brandt Stiftung by Helga Grebing, Gregor Schöllgen and Heinrich August Winkler, 10 volumes, Dietz Verlag, Bonn 2002f, Collected Writings, {{ISBN|3-8012-0305-0}}


  • Helga Grebing, Willy Brandt. Der andere Deutsche. ({{ISBN|978-3-7705-4710-4}}) {{de icon}}
  • JOURNAL, Mandel, Ernest, Ernest Mandel, Willy Brandt and Petra Kelly, New Left Review, I, 196, New Left Review, November–December 1992,weblink harv,
  • Barbara Marshall, Willy Brandt, A Political Biography ({{ISBN|0-312-16438-6}})
  • Nestore di Meola, Willy Brandt raccontato da Klaus Lindenberg ({{ISBN|88-7284-712-5}}) {{it icon}}
  • Hans-Joachim Noack, Willy Brandt, Ein Leben, Ein Jahrhundert ({{ISBN|978-3-87134-645-3}}) {{de icon}}
The following titles are in German:
  • Egon Bahr: "Das musst du erzählen". Erinnerungen an Willy Brandt. Propyläen, Berlin 2013, {{ISBN|978-3-549-07422-0}}.
  • Lars Brandt: Andenken. Carl-Hanser-Verlag, München 2006, {{ISBN|3-446-20710-4}}.
  • Brigitte Seebacher-Brandt: Willy Brandt. Piper-Verlag, München 2013, {{ISBN|978-3-492-30430-6}}.
  • Helga Grebing: Willy Brandt. Der andere Deutsche. Wilhelm-Fink-Verlag, Paderborn 2008, {{ISBN|978-3-7705-4710-4}}.
  • Peter Hoeres: Außenpolitik und Öffentlichkeit. Massenmedien, Meinungsforschung und Arkanpolitik in den deutsch-amerikanischen Beziehungen von Erhard bis Brandt. (Reihe: "Studien zur Internationalen Geschichte Bd. 32"), De Gruyter Oldenbourg, München 2013.
  • Gunter Hofmann: Willy Brandt und Helmut Schmidt. Geschichte einer schwierigen Freundschaft. Verlag C.H. Beck, München 2012, {{ISBN|978-3-406-63977-7}}.
  • Torsten Körner: Die Familie Willy Brandt. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2013, {{ISBN|978-3-10-040407-7}}.
  • Gertrud Lenz: Gertrud Meyer 1914–2002. Ein politisches Leben im Schatten Willy Brandts. Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2013, {{ISBN|978-3-506-77569-6}}.
  • Einhart Lorenz: Willy Brandt. Deutscher – Europäer – Weltbürger. Kohlhammer-Verlag, Stuttgart 2012, {{ISBN|978-3-17-021245-9}}.
  • Peter Merseburger: Willy Brandt, 1913–1992. Visionär und Realist. DVA, Stuttgart 2002, {{ISBN|3-423-34097-5}}.(also on 6 CDs, 2004, {{ISBN|3-8291-1398-6}}.)
  • Judith Michel: Willy Brandts Amerikabild und -politik 1933–1993. Bonn University Press im Verlag Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010.
  • Horst Möller, Maurice Vaïsse (Hrsg.): Willy Brandt und Frankreich. Oldenbourg-Verlag, München 2005, {{ISBN|3-486-57649-6}} (Schriftenreihe der Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Sondernummer).
  • Albrecht Müller: Brandt aktuell – Treibjagd auf einen Hoffnungsträger. Westend Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2013, {{ISBN|978-3-86489-064-2}}.
  • Hans-Joachim Noack: Willy Brandt. Ein Leben, ein Jahrhundert. Rowohlt Berlin Verlag, Berlin 2013, {{ISBN|978-3-87134-645-3}}.
  • Steffen Raßloff (Hrsg.): "Willy Brandt ans Fenster!" Das Erfurter Gipfeltreffen 1970 und die Geschichte des "Erfurter Hofes". Glaux-Verlag, Jena 2007, {{ISBN|978-3-940265-05-0}}.
  • Bernd Rother (Hrsg.): Willy Brandts Außenpolitik. Springer VS Verlag, Wiesbaden 2014, {{ISBN|978-3-658-02918-0}}.
  • Kai Schlüter: Günter Grass auf Tour für Willy Brandt. Die legendäre Wahlkampftour 1969. Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2011, {{ISBN|978-3-86153-647-5}}.
  • Jan Schönfelder; Rainer Erices: Willy Brandt in Erfurt. Das erste deutsch-deutsche Gipfeltreffen 1970. Christoph-Links-Verlag, Berlin 2010, {{ISBN|978-3-86153-568-3}}.




{{Div col|colwidth=32em}}
  • BOOK, Abraham, Katharine G., Houseman, Susan N., 1994, Does employment protection inhibit labor market flexibility? Lessons from Germany, France, and Belgium, Rebecca M. Blank, Social Protection versus Economic Flexibility: Is There a Trade-Off?, University of Chicago Press, 0-226-05678-3,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Ardagh, John, 1996, Germany and the Germans, Penguin Books, 9780140252668, harv,
  • BOOK, Banister, David, 2002, Transport Planning, Spon, 9780415261715, harv,
  • BOOK, Bezelga, Artur, Brandon, Peter S., 1991, Management, Quality and Economics in Building, Spon, 9780419174707, harv,
  • BOOK, Binder, David, 1975, The Other German: Willy Brandt's Life & Times, New Republic, 9780915220090, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Blackburn, Robin, 2003, Banking on Death: or, Investing in Life: the History and Future of Pensions, Verso Books, 9781859844090, harv,
  • BOOK, Brandt, Willy, 1992, My Life in Politics, Viking, 9780670844357, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Braunthal, Gerard, 1994, The German Social Democrats since 1969: a Party in Power and Opposition, Westview Press, 9780813315355, harv,
  • BOOK, Callaghan, John T., 2000, The Retreat of Social Democracy, Manchester University Press, 9780719050312, harv,
  • BOOK, Childs, David, 1992, Germany in the Twentieth Century, Icon, 9780064308625, harv,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Cooke, Lynn Prince, Vanessa, Gash, 2007, Panacea or Pitfall? Women's Part-time Employment and Marital Stability in West Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States, GeNet Working Paper, 28, Gender Equality Network,weblink harv, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 March 2012,
  • BOOK, Dönhoff, Marion, Marion Dönhoff, 1982, Foe Into Friend: the Makers of the New Germany from Konrad Adenauer to Helmut Schmidt, translated by Gabriele Annan, Palgrave Macmillan, 9780312296926, harv,
  • BOOK, Flora, Peter, Peter Flora, 1986, Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II, Walter de Gruyter, harv,
  • BOOK, Huber, Evelyne, Stephens, John D., 2001, Development and Crisis of the Welfare State. Parties and Policies in Global Markets, University of Chicago Press, 9780226356471, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Juneau, Jean-François, 2011, The limits of linkage: the Nixon administration and Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik, 1969–72, International History Review, 33, 2, 277–297, 10.1080/07075332.2011.555447, harv,
  • BOOK, Kaplan, Gisela, 2012, Contemporary Western European Feminism, Routledge, 9780415636810, harv,
  • BOOK, Kempe, Frederick, 2011, Berlin 1961, Penguin Group, 978-0-399-15729-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Kohler, Peter A., Hans F., Zacher, Martin, Partington, 1982, The Evolution of Social Insurance 1881–1981: Studies of Germany, France, Great Britain, Austria, and Switzerland, Palgrave Macmillan, 9780312272852, harv,
  • BOOK, Kommers, Donald P., 1997, The Constitutional Jurisprudence of the Federal Republic of Germany, Duke University Press, 9780822318385, harv,
  • BOOK, Lane, Peter, 1985, Europe Since 1945: an Introduction, Barnes & Noble, 9780389205753, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Mares, Isabela, 2006, Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Unemployment, Cambridge University Press, 9780511625688, harv,
  • BOOK, Patton, David F., 1999, Cold War Politics in Postwar Germany, New York, St. Martin's Press, 9780312213619, harv,
  • BOOK, Potthoff, Heinrich, Susanne, Miller, translated by Martin Kane, 2006, The Social Democratic Party of Germany 1848–2005, Dietz Verlag J. H. W. Nachf, 9783801203658, harv,
  • BOOK, Power, Anne, 2002, Hovels to High Rise: State Housing in Europe Since 1850, Taylor & Francis, 9780415089357, harv,
  • BOOK, Pridham, Geoffrey, 1977, Christian Democracy in Western Germany: the CDU/CSU in Government and Opposition 1945–1976, Croom Helm, 9780856645082, harv,
  • BOOK, Prittie, Terence, 1974, Willy Brandt: Portrait of a Statesman, Schocken, 9780805235616, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Radice, Radice, 1986, Socialists in the Recession: the Search for Solidarity, Macmillan, 9780333388464, harv,
  • BOOK, Schäfers, Bernhard, 1998, The State of Germany Atlas, Routledge, 9780415188265, harv,
  • BOOK, Scheffer, 2008, Burned Bridge: How East and West Germans Made the Iron Curtain, ProQuest, 9781109097603, harv,
  • BOOK, Schewe, Dieter, Karlhugo, Nordhorn, Klaus, Schenke, 1972, Survey of Social Security in the Federal Republic of Germany, Translated by Frank Kenny, Bonn, Federal Minister for Labour and Social Affairs, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Schiek, Dagmar, 2006, Agency work – from marginalisation towards acceptance? Agency work in EU social and employment policy and the "implementation" of the draft directive on agency work into German law, German Law Journal, 5, 10, 1233–1257,weblink harv, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 May 2013, 10.1017/S2071832200013195,
  • BOOK, Schmidt, Helmut, 1982, Perspectives on Politics, Wolfram F. Hanrieder, Westview Press, 9780865312050, harv,
  • BOOK, Schöllgen, Gregor, 2001, Willy Brandt. Die Biographie, Propyläen, Berlin, 3-549-07142-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Silvia, Stephen J., Stolpe, Michael, 2007, Health Care and Pension Refors, AICGS Policy Report, 30, American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, Johns Hopkins University Press, 978-1-933942-08-7,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 28 November 2008, harv,
  • BOOK, Sinn, Hans-Werner, 2007, Can Germany Be Saved? The Malaise of the World's First Welfare State,weblink Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9780262195584, harv,
  • BOOK, Solsten, Eric, 1999, Germany: a Country Study, Diane, 9780788181795, harv,
  • BOOK, Thelen, Kathleen Ann, 1991, Union of Parts: Labor Politics in Postwar Germany, Cornell University Press, 9780801425868, harv,
  • BOOK, Tomka, Béla, 2004, Welfare in East and West: Hungarian Social Security in an International Comparison, 1918–1990, Akademie-Verlag, 9783050038711,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Väänänen, Pentti, 2012, Purppuraruusu ja samettinyrkki, Finnish, 1st, Kellastupa, 9789525787115, harv,
  • BOOK, Walker, Robert, Roger, Lawson, Peter, Townsend, 1984, Responses to Poverty: Lessons from Europe, Associated University Presses, 0-8386-3222-X, harv,
  • BOOK, Williamson, John B., Pampel, Fred C., 2002, Old-Age Security in Comparative Perspective, Oxford University Press, 9780195068597, harv,
  • BOOK, Wilsford, David, 1995, Political Leaders of Contemporary Western Europe: a Biographical Dictionary, Greenwood Press, 9780313286230, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Winkler, Heinrich August, Sager, Alexander, 2007, Germany: the Long Road West, volume II: 1933–1990, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-926598-5, harv,
{{Div col end}}

External links

{{Commons category|Willy Brandt}} }}{{GermanChancellors}}{{Presidents of the German Federal Council}}{{BerlinMayors}}{{SPDHeads}}{{Foreign Ministers of Germany}}{{Nobel Peace Prize Laureates 1951–1975}}{{Time Persons of the Year 1951–1975}}{{Grand Commander of the Order of Loyalty to the Crown of Malaysia}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Willy Brandt" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 12:28am EDT - Sat, Oct 19 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott