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West Bengal
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{{pp-semi|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Short description|State in India}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2018}}









| State animal| State bird| State flower| State tree
factoids
name West Bengal| native_name =



States and union territories of India>State| image_blank_emblem = West Bengal State Emblem.jpg| blank_emblem_size = 100pxEmblem of West Bengal>Emblemposition=center| photo1a = Howrah Pano 3.jpg| photo2a = Bishnupur Ras Mancha.jpg| photo2b = Bengal Tiger yawning in Sundarban.jpg| photo3a = Malda ~ Adina Mosque 5.JPG| photo3b = Cooch Behar Palace in Cooch Behar.JPG| photo4a = Sunrise @ Digha.jpg| photo4b = Hazarduari Palace West Bengal.JPG| photo5a = Darjeeling.jpg
Rasmancha, Bishnupur in Bankura district, Bengal tiger in Sundarbans National Park,Adina Mosque in Pandua of Maldah district, Cooch Behar Palace, Sunrise in Digha, Hazarduari Palace in Murshidabad, View of Darjeeling from Happy Valley Tea Estate }}| image_map = IN-WB.svg| map_alt =| map_caption = Location of West Bengal in India| latd =| longd =| coor_pinpoint =| coordinates_type =| coordinates_display =| coordinates_footnotes =| coordinates_region =| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = India| established_title = Established| established_date = 26 January 1950
List of Indian districts>Districts| parts_style = coll| p1 = {{bulleted listDarjeeling district>DarjeelingJalpaiguri district>JalpaiguriCooch Behar district>Cooch BeharUttar Dinajpur district>Uttar DinajpurDakshin Dinajpur district>Dakshin DinajpurMalda district>MaldaBirbhum district>BirbhumMurshidabad district>MurshidabadPurba Bardhaman district>Purba BardhamanNadia district>NadiaPurulia district>PuruliaBankura district>BankuraHooghly district>HooghlyNorth 24 Parganas district>North 24 ParganasPaschim Medinipur district>Pashchim MedinipurHowrah district>HowrahKolkata district>KolkataSouth 24 Parganas district>South 24 ParganasPurba Medinipur district>Purba MedinipurKalimpong district>KalimpongAlipurduar district>AlipurduarPaschim Bardhaman district>Pashchim BardhamanJhargram district>Jhargram}}| seat_type = Capital| seat = Kolkata| seat1_type = {{ubl| Largest city}}| seat1 = Kolkata| government_footnotes =Government of West Bengal}}Governor of West Bengal>Governor| leader_name = Keshari Nath TripathiChief Minister}}Mamata Banerjee (All India Trinamool Congress>AITC)| leader_title2 = LegislatureWest Bengal Legislative Assembly>Legislative Assembly (295)High Courts of India>High Court| leader_name3 = Calcutta High Court| unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes =| area_total_km2 = 88752| area_note =List of states and territories of India by area>14th| elevation_footnotes =| elevation_m =Bengalis>BengaliPUBLISHER = REGISTRAR GENERAL & CENSUS COMMISSIONER, INDIA DEADURL = NO ARCHIVEDATE = 7 JANUARY 2012, dmy-all, | population_total = 91347736| population_as_of = 2011List of states and union territories of India by population>4th| population_density_km2 = 1,029| population_note =Indian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30IN-WB)| registration_plate = WB (2018–19)}}WEBSITE=CENTRE FOR BUDGET AND GOVERNANCE ACCOUNTABILITY, INDIAPUBLISHER=FINANCE DEPARTMENT, GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL PAGE=6, January 2018, | demographics1_title1 = Total10.49|lc}}| demographics1_title2 = Per capita108372}}| demographics_type2 = Languages | demographics2_title1 = OfficialBengali language>English languageFACT AND FIGURESWEBSITE=WWW.WB.GOV.IN, 30 March 2018, }} | demographics2_title2 = Additional officialHindi language >Odia language >Santali language >Urdu language >Punjabi language >KRNB lects >Rangpuri language >Kurmali}}Nepali language in two sub-divisions of Darjeeling District>Darjeeling
Human Development Index>HDI {{nobold|(2015)}} List of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index>21stSUB-NATIONAL HDI - AREA DATABASE >URL=HTTPS://HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORG/AREADATA/SHDI/ PUBLISHER=INSTITUTE FOR MANAGEMENT RESEARCH, RADBOUD UNIVERSITY LANGUAGE=EN, Literacy in India>Literacy {{nobold|(2011)}} PUBLISHER = GOVERNMENT OF INDIA:MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS DEADURL = NO ARCHIVEDATE = 7 JANUARY 2012, dmy-all, Human sex ratio>Sex ratio {{nobold|(2011)}}females>♀/1000 malesSEX RATIO IN WEST BENGALWEBSITE=CENSUS OF INDIA 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140227054841/HTTP://WWW.CENSUS2011.CO.IN/SEXRATIO.PHP, 27 February 2014, | website = {{Official website}}leg|*}} 294 elected, 1 nominated}}West Bengal ({{IPAc-en|b|ɛ|n|ˈ|ɡ|ɔː|l}}) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91{{nbsp}}million inhabitants (as of 2011), it is India's fourth-most populous state. It has an area of {{convert|88752|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, and Nepal and Bhutan in the north. It also borders the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata (Calcutta), the seventh-largest city in India. As for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, and the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority.The area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, and a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas (kingdoms), while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period. The region was part of several ancient pan-Indian empires, including the Mauryans and Guptas. It was also a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire (eighth to 11th century) and Hindu Sena Empire (11th–12th century). From the 13th{{nbsp}}century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, and Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th{{nbsp}}century. The British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, and Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, and social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th{{nbsp}}century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, and East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which later became independent Bangladesh. Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government.The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with {{INRConvert|10.49|lc}} in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of {{INRConvert|108|k}}. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is also known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket.

Etymology

The origin of the name Bengal (Bangla and Bongo in Bengali) is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000{{nbsp}}BCE.WEB,weblink Bangladesh: early history, 1000 B.C.–A.D. 1202, September 1988, Bangladesh: A country study, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 2 March 2012, Historians believe that Bengal, the area comprising present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, was settled in about 1000 B.C. by Dravidian-speaking peoples who were later known as the Bang. Their homeland bore various titles that reflected earlier tribal names, such as Vanga, Banga, Bangala, Bangal, and Bengal., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170615070625weblink">weblink 15 June 2017, dmy-all, The Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga (or Banga). Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure.BOOK, Marshman, John Clark, John Clark Marshman, Outline of the History of Bengal,weblink 1865, John Clark Marshman, 1, no,weblink 4 December 2017, dmy-all, At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west. The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state.In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga ( Pôshchimbônggô).NEWS, West Bengal may be renamed PaschimBanga,weblink The Hindu, Chennai, India, 19 August 2011, 7 February 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120121204545weblink">weblink 21 January 2012, dmy-all, This is the native name of the state, literally meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bangla" in Hindi, "Bengal" in English, and "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, and the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution.NEWS,weblink Assembly drops West, renames State as Bengal, 29 August 2016, The Hindu, 4 January 2018, Special Correspondent, en-IN, 0971-751X, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161225084838weblink">weblink 25 December 2016, However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and also the name should not be the same as that of any other territory (pointing out that the name 'Bangla' may create confusion with neighboring Bangladesh).NEWS,weblink Foreign ministry turns down Mamata Banerjee's ‘Bangla’ for West Bengal, The New Indian Express, 20 December 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171222051528weblink">weblink 22 December 2017, NEWS,weblink West Bengal to send another proposal to Centre on changing its name, 8 September 2017, Hindustan Times, 20 December 2017, en, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171222051404weblink">weblink 22 December 2017,

History

Ancient and classical period

File:Sasanka Deva king of Gauda circa 600-630.jpg|thumb|Coin of the King Shashanka, who created the first separate political entity in Bengal, called the Gauda KingdomGauda KingdomStone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.NEWS, History of Bengal just got a lot older, Sebanti, Sarkar,weblink The Telegraph (Calcutta), The Telegraph, Calcutta, India, 28 March 2008, 13 September 2010, Humans walked on Bengal's soil 20,000 years ago, archaeologists have found out, pushing the state's pre-history back by some 8,000 years., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110912042911weblink">weblink 12 September 2011, dmy-all, The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata.BOOK, Sen, S. N., Ancient Indian History And Civilization,weblink 1999, New Age International, 978-81-224-1198-0, 273–274, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh, Pundravardhana, and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100{{nbsp}}BCE of a land named Gangaridai, which was located at the mouths of the Ganges.BOOK, Dilip K., Chakrabarti, 2001, Archaeological Geography of the Ganga Plain: The Lower and the Middle Ganga, 154–155, Permanent Black, Delhi, 81-7824-016-5, Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi (Burma, Lower Thailand, the Lower Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra).BOOK, Foreign trade and commerce in ancient India, Prasad, Prakash Chandra, 2003, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, 978-81-7017-053-2, 28,weblink According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya ({{circa|543|505 BCE}}), a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka (modern-day Sri Lanka) and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country.BOOK, Mabel, Haynes Bode, Geiger, Wilhelm, Wilhelm Geiger, Mahavamsa: Great Chronicle of Ceylon,weblink 2003, 1908, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, 81-206-0218-8, Chapter VI: The Coming of Vijaya,weblink 51–54, The kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th{{nbsp}}century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, and Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism. It consisted of several janapadas, or kingdoms.WEB,weblink Settlement in Bengal (Early Period), Sultana, Sabiha, 12 June 2015, Banglapedia, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150614193503weblink">weblink 14 June 2015, dmy-all, Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd{{nbsp}}century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan.WEB,weblink The Truth of Babri Mosque, iUniverse, Ashok, Pant, no,weblink 2 April 2015, dmy-all, 25, 26, From the 3rd to the 6th{{nbsp}}centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.BOOK, Mookerji, Radhakumud, The Gupta Empire,weblink 1959, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 978-81-208-0440-1, 11, 113, File:Asia 800ad.jpg|thumb|left|The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of BengalBengalTwo kingdoms{{snd}}Vanga or Samatata, and Gauda{{snd}}are mentioned in some texts to have appeared after the end of the Gupta Empire although details of their ascendancy are uncertain.BOOK, Sen, Sailendra Nath, Ancient Indian History and Civilization,weblink 1 January 1999, New Age International, 978-81-224-1198-0, 275, no,weblink 31 December 2015, dmy-all, The first recorded independent king of Bengal was Shashanka, who reigned in the early 7th{{nbsp}}century.WEB,weblink Shashanka, 12 June 2015, Banglapedia, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150614200631weblink">weblink 14 June 2015, dmy-all, Shashanka is often recorded in Buddhist annals as an intolerant Hindu ruler who is noted for his persecution of the Buddhists. Shashanka murdered Rajyavardhana, the Buddhist king of Thanesar, and is noted for destroying the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya, and replacing Buddha statues with Shiva lingams.WEB, Intolerance debate: How some historical brutalities are more special than others,weblink Scroll.in, 25 December 2015, en-US, Tony, Joseph, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151225181534weblink">weblink 25 December 2015, dmy-all, After a period of anarchy,BOOK, Bagchi, Jhunu, The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D,weblink Abhinav Publications, 978-81-7017-301-4, 1993, no,weblink 23 April 2016, dmy-all, {{rp|36}} the Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years starting in the 8th{{nbsp}}century. It was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty.BOOK, Khan, Muhammad Mojlum, The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh and West Bengal,weblink 21 October 2013, Kube Publishing Limited, 978-1-84774-062-5, 15–16, no,weblink 26 January 2018, Some areas of Bengal were invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty between 1021 and 1023.BOOK, Sengupta, Nitish K., Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib,weblink Penguin Books India, 2011, 978-0-14-341678-4, 45, no,weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, Islam made its first appearance in Bengal during the 12th{{nbsp}}century when Sufi missionaries arrived.BOOK, Banu, U. A. B. Razia Akter, Islam in Bangladesh,weblink January 1992, BRILL, 978-90-04-09497-0, 2, 17, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140101175100weblink">weblink 1 January 2014, dmy-all, Later, occasional Muslim raiders reinforced the process of conversion by building mosques, madrasas, and khanqahs. Between 1202 and 1206 Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, a military commander from the Delhi Sultanate, overran Bihar and Bengal as far east as Rangpur, Bogra, and the Brahmaputra River. Although he failed to bring Bengal under his control, the expedition defeated Lakshman Sen, whose two sons moved to a place then called Vikramapur (present-day Munshiganj District), where their diminished dominion lasted until the late 13th{{nbsp}}century.

Medieval and early modern periods

File:Firoz Minar.JPG|thumb|Firoz Minar at Gauḍa was built during the Bengal SultanateBengal SultanateSubsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region.WEB,weblink Islam (in Bengal), 26 October 2006, Banglapedia, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150723091245weblink">weblink 23 July 2015, dmy-all, The region was ruled by dynasties of the Bengal Sultanate and feudal lords under the Delhi Sultanate for the next few hundred years. The Bengal Sultanate was interrupted for a period of twenty years by a Hindu uprising under Raja Ganesha. In the 16th{{nbsp}}century, Mughal general Islam Khan conquered Bengal. Administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire gave way to semi-independence under the Nawabs of Murshidabad, who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi. Several independent Hindu states were established in Bengal during the Mughal period, including those of Pratapaditya of Jessore District and Raja Sitaram Ray of Bardhaman. The Koch dynasty in northern Bengal flourished during the 16th and 17th{{nbsp}}centuries; it weathered the Mughals and survived until the advent of the British colonial era.BOOK,weblink Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society, Lewis, David, 31 October 2011, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-50257-3, en, 44, BOOK,weblink Ancient India, History and Archaeology, Ganguly, Dilip Kumar, 1994, Abhinav Publications, 9788170173045, en, 41,

Colonial period

File:Raja Ram Mohan Roy.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the "Father of the Bengali RenaissanceBengali RenaissanceSeveral European traders reached this area late in the 15th{{nbsp}}century. The British East India Company defeated Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab, in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The company gained the right to collect revenue in Bengal subah (province) in 1765 with the signing of the treaty between the East India company and the Mughal emperor following the Battle of Buxar in 1764.WEB,weblink Sirajuddaula, 12 June 2015, Chaudhury, S, Mohsin, KM, Banglapedia, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150614191817weblink">weblink 14 June 2015, dmy-all, The Bengal Presidency was established in 1765; it later incorporated all British-controlled territory north of the Central Provinces (now Madhya Pradesh), from the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab. The Bengal famine of 1770 claimed millions of lives due to tax policies enacted by the British company.WEB,weblink The famine of 1770 in Bengal, 26 October 2006, Fiske, John, The Unseen World, and Other Essays, University of Adelaide Library Electronic Texts Collection, Adelaide, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061205020541weblink">weblink 5 December 2006, Calcutta, the headquarters of the East India company, was named in 1773 as the capital of British-held territories in India.{{harvnb|Arnold-Baker|2015|p=504}} The failed Indian rebellion of 1857 started near Calcutta and resulted in a transfer of authority to the British Crown,{{Harvnb|Baxter|1997|p=32}} administered by the Viceroy of India.{{Harvnb|Bayly|1990|pp=194–197}}The Bengal Renaissance and the Brahmo Samaj socio-cultural reform movements significantly influenced the cultural and economic life of Bengal.{{harvnb|Sarkar|1990|p=95}} Between 1905 and 1911 an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones.{{Harvnb|Baxter|1997|pp=39–40}} Bengal suffered from the Great Bengal famine in 1943, which claimed 3{{nbsp}}million lives during World War{{nbsp}}II.BOOK, India, Wolpert, Stanley, Stanley Wolpert, 1999, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA, 978-0-520-22172-7, 14,weblink 2 March 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509231648weblink">weblink 9 May 2013, dmy-all, Bengalis played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups such as Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar were dominant. Armed attempts against the British Raj from Bengal reached a climax when news of Subhas Chandra Bose leading the Indian National Army against the British reached Bengal. The Indian National Army was subsequently routed by the British.{{harvnb|Chandra|1989|p=26}}

Indian independence and afterwards

When India gained independence in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to the Dominion of India (and was named West Bengal), while the eastern part went to the Dominion of Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan in 1956). The latter became the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971.WEB, Sirajul, Islam,weblink Partition of Bengal, 1947, Banglapedia, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 12 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150702002256weblink">weblink 2 July 2015, dmy-all, In 1950 the Princely State of Cooch Behar merged with West Bengal. In 1955 the former French enclave of Chandannagar, which had passed into Indian control after 1950, was integrated into West Bengal; portions of Bihar were also subsequently merged with West Bengal. Both West and East Bengal experienced large influxes of refugees during and after partition in 1947. Refugee resettlement and related issues continued to play a significant role in the politics and socio-economic condition of the state.Sailen Debnath, West Bengal in Doldrums {{ISBN|978-81-86860-34-2}}; & Sailen Debnath ed. Social and Political Tensions in North Bengal since 1947, {{ISBN|81-86860-23-1}}File:Darjeeling Himalayan Railway.jpg|thumb|The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was designated a UNESCO World Heritage SiteUNESCO World Heritage SiteDuring the 1970s and 1980s, severe power shortages, strikes, and a violent Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure.{{Harvnb|Hindle|1996|pp=63–70}} The 1974 smallpox epidemic killed thousands. West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress. The Left Front, led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist), governed the state for the next three decades.NEWS, Soutik, Biswas, Calcutta's colourless campaign,weblink BBC, 16 April 2006, 15 February 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120214053922weblink">weblink 14 February 2012, dmy-all, The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic liberalisations were introduced in the mid-1990s by the central government. This was aided by the advent of information technology and IT-enabled services. Starting in the mid-2000s, armed activists conducted minor terrorist attacks in some parts of the stateWEB,weblink Maoist on rise in West Bengal, 11 September 2006, Ghosh Roy, Paramasish, 22 July 2005, VOA Bangla, Voice of America, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071212062125weblink">weblink 12 December 2007, WEB,weblink Maoist Communist Centre (MCC), 11 September 2006, Left-wing extremist group, South Asia Terrorism Portal, no,weblink 12 August 2012, dmy-all, while clashes with the administration took place at several controversial locations over the issue of industrial land acquisition,NEWS, Several hurt in Singur clash,weblink Rediff.com, 28 January 2007, 15 March 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071211194310weblink">weblink 11 December 2007, dmy-all, NEWS, Red-hand Buddha: 14 killed in Nandigram re-entry bid,weblink The Telegraph (Kolkata), The Telegraph, Calcutta, India, 15 March 2007, 15 March 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070317192827weblink">weblink 17 March 2007, dmy-all, which became a decisive reason behind the defeat of the ruling Left Front government in the 2011 assembly election.WEB,weblink Defeat rocks India's elected communists, Rediff India Abroad, 13 May 2011, 29 July 2014, Bhaumik, Subir, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140404051617weblink">weblink 4 April 2014, dmy-all, Although the economy was severely damaged during the unrest in the 1970s, the state has managed to revive its economy, steadily throughout the years.NEWS, Is West Bengal's economy actually reviving under Mamata Banerjee?,weblink no, scroll.in,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161206213236weblink">weblink 6 December 2016, dmy-all, NEWS, West Bengal tax revenue up 19% on greater efficiency,weblink The Indian Express, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170904151454weblink">weblink 4 September 2017, dmy-all, NEWS, Revenue collection: Mamata Banerjee's West Bengal beats rest of India in growth,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170904152758weblink">weblink 4 September 2017, dmy-all, Financial Express, The state has shown improvement regarding bandhs (strikes)WEB, Bharat Bandh gets mixed response from India, West Bengal surprises with business-as-usual attitude,weblink India Today, 5 September 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161130090013weblink">weblink 30 November 2016, dmy-all, WEB, No bandh in Bengal tomorrow : Mamata,weblink Business Standard, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170904152809weblink">weblink 4 September 2017, dmy-all, WEB, Zero-strike work culture has resulted in no days loss: Moloy Ghatak,weblink no, India Times,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170910063200weblink">weblink 10 September 2017, dmy-all, and educational infrastructure.WEB, Silent Resurrection~I,weblink The Statesman, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170828103410weblink">weblink 28 August 2017, dmy-all, Significant strides have been made in reducing unemployment.WEB, Report on Fifth Annual Employment-Unemployment Survey (2015–16),weblink Ministry of Labour and Employment (India), Ministry of Labour and Employment, 120, 24 November 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161125043238weblink">weblink 25 November 2016, dmy-all, Though the state suffers from substandard healthcare services,WEB, Shah, Mansi, Waiting for health care: a survey of a public hospital in Kolkata,weblink Centre for Civil Society, 31 January 2012, PDF, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110813070438weblink">weblink 13 August 2011, WEB,weblink PDF, West Bengal: health systems development initiative programme memorandum, Government of West Bengal, 4 March 2012, 15 January 2005, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120313061115weblink">weblink 13 March 2012, dmy-all, a lack of socio-economic development,WEB, Impact of social sector development in West Bengal – Midnapore and Birbhum districts,weblink Planning Commission of India, 4 March 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120307135928weblink">weblink 7 March 2012, dmy-all, poor infrastructure,NEWS, Murder, most foul – the people of Bengal created the darkness that envelops them,weblink The Telegraph, Mukherjee, Rudrangshu, 4 March 2012, 5 October 2008, Kolkata, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118211018weblink">weblink 18 January 2012, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink ADB pep pill for Bengal, The Telegraph, Kolkata, 13 June 2010, 4 March 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120119151005weblink">weblink 19 January 2012, dmy-all, unemployment, and civil violence.NEWS, Six killed as farmers and communists clash in West Bengal,weblink The Guardian, 12 November 2007, 4 March 2012, London, Randeep, Ramesh, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130901025553weblink">weblink 1 September 2013, dmy-all, NEWS, West Bengal political violence continues,weblink 8 August 2009, The Economic Times, New Delhi, 4 March 2012,

Geography and climate

File:Kalinagar Floods B.JPG|thumb|left|Many areas remain flooded during the heavy rains brought by a monsoonmonsoonWest Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the Himalayas in the north to the Bay of Bengal in the south. The state has a total area of {{convert|88752|km2|sqmi|0}}. The Darjeeling Himalayan hill region in the northern extreme of the state is a part of the eastern Himalayas mountain range. In this region is Sandakfu, which, at {{convert|3636|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}, is the highest peak in the state.NEWS, Top of world in kingdom of cloud, Pal, Supratim,weblink The Telegraph, Kolkata, 14 May 2007, 16 February 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130731124809weblink">weblink 31 July 2013, dmy-all, The narrow Terai region separates the hills from the North Bengal plains, which in turn transitions into the Ganges delta towards the south. The Rarh region intervenes between the Ganges delta in the east and the western plateau and high lands. A small coastal region is in the extreme south, while the Sundarbans mangrove forests form a geographical landmark at the Ganges delta.WEB,weblink Impact of Climate Change on Natural Resource Management-west bengal, books.google.co.in, en, 13 December 2017, The main river in West Bengal is the Ganges, which divides into two branches. One branch enters Bangladesh as the Padma, or Pôdda, while the other flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi River and Hooghly River. The Farakka barrage over the Ganges feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a feeder canal, and its water flow management has been a source of lingering dispute between India and Bangladesh.BOOK, Jayapalan, N, Foreign policy of India, 2001, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 81-7156-898-X, 344, The Teesta, Torsa, Jaldhaka, and Mahananda rivers are in the northern hilly region. The western plateau region has rivers such as the Damodar, Ajay, and Kangsabati. The Ganges delta and the Sundarbans area have numerous rivers and creeks. Pollution of the Ganges from indiscriminate waste dumped into the river is a major problem.NEWS,weblink Alarming rise in bacterial percentage in Ganga waters, 4 March 2012, 4 August 2006, The Hindu Business Line, Chennai, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130507072352weblink">weblink 7 May 2013, dmy-all, Damodar, another tributary of the Ganges and once known as the "Sorrow of Bengal" (due to its frequent floods), has several dams under the Damodar Valley Project. At least nine districts in the state suffer from arsenic contamination of groundwater, and as of 2017, an estimated 1.04{{nbsp}}crore people were afflicted by arsenic poisioningNEWS,weblink 1.04 cr hit by arsenic contamination in Bengal, Reporter, Staff, 19 March 2017, The Hindu, 26 January 2018, en-IN, 0971-751X, West Bengal's climate varies from tropical savanna in the southern portions to humid subtropical in the north. The main seasons are summer, the rainy season, a short autumn, and winter. While the summer in the delta region is noted for excessive humidity, the western highlands experience a dry summer like northern India, with the highest daytime temperature ranging from {{convert|38|°C|°F|0}} to {{convert|45|°C|°F|0}}.WEB,weblink Climate, 5 September 2006, West Bengal: Land, Suni System (P) Ltd, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060523204949weblink">weblink 23 May 2006, dmy-all, At night, a cool southerly breeze carries moisture from the Bay of Bengal. In early summer, brief squalls and thunderstorms known as Kalbaisakhi, or Nor'westers, often occur.WEB,weblink kal Baisakhi, 5 September 2006, Glossary of Meteorology, American Meteorological Society, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060830065710weblink">weblink 30 August 2006, dmy-all, West Bengal receives the Bay of Bengal branch of the Indian Ocean monsoon that moves in a southeast to northwest direction. Monsoons bring rain to the whole state from June to September. Heavy rainfall of above {{convert|250|cm|in}} is observed in the Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, and Cooch Behar district. During the arrival of the monsoons, low pressure in the Bay of Bengal region often leads to the formation of storms in the coastal areas. Winter (December–January) is mild over the plains with average minimum temperatures of {{convert|15|°C|°F|0}}. A cold and dry northern wind blows in the winter, substantially lowering the humidity level. The Darjeeling Himalayan Hill region experiences a harsh winter, with occasional snowfall.NEWS, Under 7-inch snow, Sandakphu a hot favourite among tourists now,weblink Times of India, 2 July 2017, 12 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170820145045weblink">weblink 20 August 2017, dmy-all,

Flora and fauna

{{Multiple image| align = left| direction = vertical| header =| header_align = left/right/center| header_background =| footer =| footer_align = left/right/center| footer_background =| width = 220
thumb| width1 =| alt1 =| caption1 = A Bengal tigerthumb| width2 =| alt2 =| caption2 = Sal trees in the Arabari forest in West Midnapur}}As per the India State of Forest Report 2017, recorded forest area in the state is {{convert|16,847|sqkm|sqmi|abbr=on}},NEWS,weblink Bengal green cover up by just 21 sq km, aided by plantations, Mukherjee, Krishnendu, 13 February 2018, The Times of India, 7 May 2018, while in 2013, forest area was {{convert|16805|sqkm|sqmi|abbr=on}}, which was 18.93% of the state's geographical area, compared to the then national average of 21.23%.WEB,weblink PDF, Forest cover, India state of forest report 2013, Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, 21 July 2014, 17, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714212158weblink">weblink 14 July 2014, Reserves and protected and unclassed forests constitute 59.4%, 31.8%, and 8.9%, respectively, of forested areas, as of 2009.WEB,weblink PDF, Forest and tree resources in states and union territories: West Bengal, India state of forest report 2009, Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, 4 March 2012, 163–166, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130501210225weblink">weblink 1 May 2013, Part of the world's largest mangrove forest, the Sundarbans is located in southern West Bengal.NEWS, Sadiq, Islam, World's largest mangrove forest under threat,weblink CNN, 29 June 2001, 31 October 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070822215926weblink">weblink 22 August 2007, {| class="wikitable" style="margin-bottom:10px; float:right;"|+West Bengal State Symbols! Title! Symbol! Image
Fishing catHTTP://WWW.WII.GOV.IN/NWDC/STATE_ANIMALS_TREE_FLOWERS.PDF DEAD-URL = YES FORMAT = PDF PUBLISHER = WILDLIFE INSTITUTE OF INDIA DF =, (File:Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) 3.jpgupright=.50)
White-throated kingfisher >frameless|upright=.50)
Night-flowering jasmine >frameless|upright=.50)
Devil tree>frameless|upright=.50)
From a phytogeographic viewpoint, the southern part of West Bengal can be divided into two regions: the Gangetic plain and the littoral mangrove forests of the Sundarbans.BOOK, Mukherji, S.J., 2000, College Botany Vol. III: (chapter on Phytogeography), New Central Book Agency, Calcutta, 345–365, The alluvial soil of the Gangetic plain, combined with favourable rainfall, makes this region especially fertile. Much of the vegetation of the western part of the state has similar species composition with the plants of the Chota Nagpur plateau in the adjoining state of Jharkhand. The predominant commercial tree species is Shorea robusta, commonly known as the sal tree. The coastal region of Purba Medinipur exhibits coastal vegetation; the predominant tree is the Casuarina. A notable tree from the Sundarbans is the ubiquitous sundari (Heritiera fomes), from which the forest gets its name.WEB,weblink Sundarbans National Park, World heritage list, UNESCO World Heritage Center, 4 March 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120306224515weblink">weblink 6 March 2012, dmy-all, The distribution of vegetation in northern West Bengal is dictated by elevation and precipitation. For example, the foothills of the Himalayas, the Dooars, are densely wooded with sal and other tropical evergreen trees.WEB,weblink Natural vegetation, 31 October 2006, West Bengal, Suni System (P) Ltd, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060523204956weblink">weblink 23 May 2006, dmy-all, Above an elevation of {{convert|1000|m|ft}}, the forest becomes predominantly subtropical. In Darjeeling, which is above {{convert|1500|m|ft}}, temperate forest trees such as oaks, conifers, and rhododendrons predominate.3.26% of the geographical area of West Bengal is protected land, comprising fifteen wildlife sanctuaries and five national parks{{snd}}Sundarbans National Park, Buxa Tiger Reserve, Gorumara National Park, Neora Valley National Park, and Singalila National Park. Extant wildlife include Indian rhinoceros, Indian elephant, deer, leopard, gaur, tiger, and crocodiles, as well as many bird species. Migratory birds come to the state during the winter.WEB,weblink West Bengal: General Information, 25 August 2006, India in Business, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060819094729weblink">weblink 19 August 2006, The high-altitude forests of Singalila National Park shelter barking deer, red panda, chinkara, takin, serow, pangolin, minivet, and kalij pheasants. The Sundarbans are noted for a reserve project devoted to conserving the endangered Bengal tiger although the forest hosts many other endangered species such as the Gangetic dolphin, river terrapin, and estuarine crocodile.{{harvnb|West Bengal Human Development Report|2004|loc=Ch. 10: Problems of Specific Regions|pp=200–203}} The mangrove forest also acts as a natural fish nursery, supporting coastal fishes along the Bay of Bengal. Recognising its special conservation value, the Sundarbans area has been declared a Biosphere Reserve.

Government and politics

{{See also|Council of Ministers of West Bengal|List of Chief Ministers of West Bengal}}West Bengal is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are two branches of government. The legislature, the West Bengal Legislative Assembly, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The judiciary is composed of the Calcutta High Court and a system of lower courts. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister although the titular head of government is the Governor. The Governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly is unicameral with 295 Members of the Legislative Assembly, or MLAs,WEB,weblink West Bengal legislative assembly, 28 October 2006, Legislative bodies in India, National Informatics Centre, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160313022603weblink">weblink 13 March 2016, dmy-all, including one nominated from the Anglo-Indian community. Terms of office run for five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes 42 seats to the Lok SabhaWEB,weblink PDF, Notification: order no. 18, Delimitation Commission, 15 February 2006, Election Commission of India, New Delhi, 23–25, 11 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110813092204weblink">weblink 13 August 2011, and 16 seats to the Rajya Sabha of the Indian Parliament.WEB,weblink PDF, Composition of Rajya Sabha, Rajya Sabha at work, Rajya Sabha Secretariat, New Delhi, 24–25, 15 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160305020442weblink">weblink 5 March 2016, dmy-all, {{multiple image| align = | direction =|title=Main offices in West Bengal|image1=Governor's House.jpgRaj Bhavan (West Bengal)>Raj Bhavan, the residence of the governor of the state|width1 = 150|image2=West Bengal State Legislative Assembly House, Kolkata.jpg|caption2 =West Bengal Legislative Assembly|width2 = 150|image3=Calcutta High Court.jpg|caption3 =Calcutta High Court, highest court in West Bengal|width3 = 131|image4= Nabanna - HRBC Building with Multistorey Car Park - Sibpur - Howrah 2015-03-09 6834.JPGNabanna (building)>Nabanna, Office of Chief Minister of West Bengal|width4 = 150|image5=Writer's Building & St. Andrew's Church (14653055458).jpg|caption5 =Writers' Building, West Bengal Government Secretariat|width5 = 145}}The main players in the politics of the state are the All India Trinamool Congress, the Indian National Congress, and the Left Front alliance (led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist) or CPI(M)). Following the West Bengal State Assembly Election in 2011, the All India Trinamool Congress and Indian National Congress coalition under Mamata Banerjee of the All India Trinamool Congress was elected to power (getting 225 seats in the legislature).WEB, Statewise results – West Bengal,weblink Election Commission of India, 13 May 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110516052659weblink">weblink 16 May 2011, Prior to this, West Bengal was ruled by the Left Front for 34 years (1977–2011), making it the world's longest-running democratically elected communist government. Banerjee was re-elected as Chief Minister in the 2016 election in which Trinamool Congress won an absolute majority.NEWS,weblink TMC registers strong wins in Bengal by-elections, 22 November 2016, The Hindu, 4 January 2018, en-IN, 0971-751X, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161124161817weblink">weblink 24 November 2016, The state has one autonomous region, the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration.WEB,weblink Gorkhaland Territorial Administration Agreement signed, Outlook, 18 July 2011, 16 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120603154514weblink">weblink 3 June 2012, dmy-all,

Districts

(File:WestBengalDistricts numbered.svg|right|thumb|Districts of West Bengal)(File:Wbvillagehut1.JPG|thumb|A hut in a village in the Hooghly district)As of 2017, West Bengal is divided into 23 districts.WEB,weblink District Profiles, no,weblink 22 April 2017, dmy-all, {| class="sortable wikitable" style="background:#ccc; text-align:center;"! District !! Population !! Growth rate !! Sex ratio !! Literacy !! Density per square Kilometer style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"North 24 Parganas district>North 24 Parganas 10,009,781 12.04 955 84.06 2445 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"South 24 Parganas district>South 24 Parganas 8,161,961 18.17 956 77.51 819 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Purba Bardhaman district>Purba Bardhaman{{efnBardhaman district was bifurcated into Purba Bardhaman and Paschim Bardhaman in 2017. Thus no demographic information was available as of January 2018}} >| style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Paschim Bardhaman district>Paschim Bardhaman{{efn| 1,800 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Murshidabad district>Murshidabad 7,103,807 21.09 958 66.59 1334 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Paschim Medinipur district>West Midnapore 5,913,457 13.86 966 78.00 631 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Hooghly district>Hooghly 5,519,145 9.46 961 81.80 1753 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Nadia district>Nadia 5,167,600 12.22 947 74.97 1316 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Purba Medinipur district>East Midnapore 5,095,875 15.36 938 87.02 1081 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Howrah district>Howrah 4,850,029 13.50 939 83.31 3306 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Kolkata district>Kolkata 4,496,69 −1.67 908 86.31 24306 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Maldah district>Maldah 3,988,845 21.22 944 61.73 1069 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;”Jalpaiguri district>Jalpaiguri 3,872,846 13.87 953 73.25 622 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Alipurduar district>Alipurduar{{efnWas created after the 2011 Census}} 1,700,000 400 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Bankura district>Bankura 3,596,292 12.64 954 70.95 523 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Birbhum district>Birbhum 3,502,40416.1595670.68 771 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Uttar Dinajpur district>North Dinajpur 3,007,13423.15 939 59.07 958 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Purulia district>Purulia 2,930,11515.52 95764.48 468 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Cooch Behar district>Cooch Behar 2,819,086 13.71 942 74.78 832 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Darjeeling district>Darjeeling 1,846,823 14.77 970 79.56 586 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Dakshin Dinajpur district>Dakshin Dinajpur 1,676,27611.52 956 72.82 755 style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Kalimpong district>Kalimpong{{efn| style="vertical-align: middle; text-align: center;"Jhargram district>Jhargram{{efn| {{notelist}}Each district is governed by a district collector or district magistrate, appointed by either the Indian Administrative Service or the West Bengal Civil Service.WEB
,weblink
, Section 2 of West Bengal Panchayat Act, 1973 – West Bengal Judicial Academy
, West Bengal Judicial Academy
, 26 January 2018
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161222081452weblink">weblink
, 22 December 2016
, dmy-all
, Each district is subdivided into sub-divisions, governed by a sub-divisional magistrate, and again into blocks. Blocks consists of panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131207132226weblink">weblink yes, 7 December 2013, Directory of district, sub division, panchayat samiti/ block and gram panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008, March 2008, West Bengal Electronics Industry Development Corporation Limited, Government of West Bengal, 1, DOC, 15 February 2012, The capital and largest city of the state is Kolkata{{snd}}the third-largest urban agglomerationWEB,weblink Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above, 2011, Provisional population totals, census of India 2011, The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 26 January 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111215163132weblink">weblink 15 December 2011, dmy-all, and the seventh-largest cityWEB,weblink Cities having population 1 lakh and above, census 2011, Provisional population totals, census of India 2011, The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 18 October 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120507135928weblink">weblink 7 May 2012, dmy-all, in India. Asansol is the second-largest city and urban agglomeration in West Bengal after Kolkata. Siliguri is an economically important city, strategically located in the northeastern Siliguri Corridor (Chicken's Neck) of India.NEWS,weblink Geography's Curse: India's Vulnerable 'Chicken's Neck', Diplomat, Ankit Panda, The, The Diplomat, 10 December 2017, en-US, no,weblink 21 October 2017, dmy-all, Other cities and towns in West Bengal with 2011 populations over 250,000 are Durgapur, Bardhaman, English Bazar, Baharampur, Habra, Kharagpur, and Shantipur.WEB,weblink 2011 Census of India, censusindia.gov.in,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130723151530weblink">weblink 23 July 2013, no, dmy-all,

Economy

{| class="wikitable" cellspacing="1" style="float:right; width:240px; margin:0 0 1em 1em; background:#f4f5f6; border:#c6c7c8 solid; font-size:90%;" Net State Domestic Product at Factor Cost at Current Prices (2004–05 Base)HTTP://WWW.RBI.ORG.IN/SCRIPTS/PUBLICATIONSVIEW.ASPX?ID=13592 >TITLE = NET STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST—STATE-WISE (AT CURRENT PRICES) ACCESSDATE = 7 FEBRUARY 2012 PUBLISHER = RESERVE BANK OF INDIA ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120309001542/HTTP://RBI.ORG.IN/SCRIPTS/PUBLICATIONSVIEW.ASPX?ID=13592 DF =, (figures in crores of Indian rupees)! Year || Net State Domestic Product| 190,073| 209,642| 238,625| 272,166| 309,799| 366,318File:Kolkata Grand Hotel.jpg|thumb|left|The Grand Hotel in Kolkata. Tourism, especially from Bangladesh, is an important part of West Bengal's economy.]]{{As of|2015}}, West Bengal has the sixth-highest GSDP in India. GSDP at current prices (base 2004–2005) has increased from Rs 2,08,656 crores in 2004{{ndash}}05 to Rs 8,00,868 crores in 2014{{ndash}}2015,WEB,weblink GSDP at current prices, 2004–05 series (2004–05 to 2014–15), no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160718072000weblink">weblink 18 July 2016, dmy-all, reaching Rs 10,21,000 crores in 2017-18.NEWS,weblink Centre accepts Bengal GDP has crossed Rs 10L cr, 3 August 2018, The Times of India, 15 October 2018, GSDP percent growth at current prices has varied from a low of 10.3% in 2010{{ndash}}2011 to a high of 17.11% in 2013{{ndash}}2014. The growth rate was 13.35% in 2014–2015.WEB,weblink GSDP at current prices, Percent growth (2004–05 to 2014–15), no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160717122724weblink">weblink 17 July 2016, dmy-all, The state's per capita income has lagged the all India average for over two decades. As of 2014{{ndash}}2015, per capita NSDP at current prices was Rs{{nbsp}}78,903. Per{{nbsp}}capita NSDP growth rate at current prices has varied from 9.4% in 2010{{ndash}}2011 to a high of 16.15% in 2013{{ndash}}2014. The growth rate was 12.62% in 2014–2015.WEB,weblink Per Capita NSDP at current prices, Percent growth (2004–05 to 2014–15) – NITI Aayog, niti.gov.in, 25 July 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160716175641weblink">weblink 16 July 2016, dmy-all, In 2015{{ndash}}2016, percentage share of Gross Value Added (GVA) at factor cost by Economic Activity at constant price (base year 2011{{ndash}}2012) was Agriculture-Forestry and Fishery{{snd}}4.84%, Industry 18.51% and Services 66.65%. It has been observed that there has been a slow but steady decline in the percentage share of industry and agriculture over the years.WEB,weblink Economic Review 2015–16, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160815122427weblink">weblink 15 August 2016, dmy-all, Agriculture is the leading economic sector in West Bengal. Rice is the state's principal food crop. Rice, potato, jute, sugarcane, and wheat are the top five crops of the state.{{rp|14}} Tea is produced commercially in northern districts; the region is well known for Darjeeling and other high quality teas.{{rp|14}} State industries are localised in the Kolkata region, the mineral-rich western highlands, and the Haldia port region.WEB,weblink Industrial infrastructure, West bengal Industrial Development Corporation, 5 March 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120405152957weblink">weblink 5 April 2012, dmy-all, The Durgapur{{ndash}}Asansol colliery belt is home to a number of steel plants. Important manufacturing industries are engineering products, electronics, electrical equipment, cables, steel, leather, textiles, jewellery, frigates, automobiles, railway coaches, and wagons. The Durgapur centre has established a number of industries in the areas of tea, sugar, chemicals, and fertilisers. Natural resources like tea and jute in and nearby parts has made West Bengal a major centre for the jute and tea industries.WEB,weblink About West Bengal State: Tourism, Industries, Agriculture, Economy & Geography, www.ibef.org, 4 January 2018, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161209223506weblink">weblink 9 December 2016, Years after independence, West Bengal is dependent on the central government for help in meeting its demands for food; food production remained stagnant, and the Indian green revolution bypassed the state. However, there has been a significant increase in food production since the 1980s, and the state now has a surplus of grains.{{harvnb|West Bengal Human Development Report|2004|loc=Ch. 1: Introduction and Human Development Indices for West Bengal|pp=4–6}} The state's share of total industrial output in India was 9.8% in 1980{{ndash}}1981, declining to 5% by 1997{{ndash}}1998. In contrast, the service sector has grown at a rate higher than the national rate. The state's total financial debt stood at {{INRConvert|1918350|m}} as of 2011.NEWS,weblink Mamata seeks debt restructuring plan for West Bengal, The Economic Times, New Delhi, 22 October 2011, 4 March 2012, File:PaddyandjuteBengal.JPG|thumb|left|Freshly sown saplings of rice in a paddy; in the background are stacks of alt=Brown jute sticks stacked in groups with small green saplings of rice in the foregroundIn the period 2004{{ndash}}2010, the average gross state domestic product (GSDP) growth rate was 13.9% (calculated in Indian rupee terms) lower than 15.5%, the average for all states of the country.WEB,weblink West Bengal, November 2011, India Brand Equity Foundation, 6 February 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120517130353weblink">weblink 17 May 2012, dmy-all, {{rp|4}}The economy of West Bengal has witnessed many twists and turns. The agricultural sector in particular rose to 8.33% in 2010–11 before tumbling down to −4.01 % in 2012–13.NEWS,weblink Figures matter, The Telegraph, 3 February 2018, Many major industries such as the Uttarpara Hindustan Motors car manufacturing unit, the jute industry, and the Haldia Petrochemicals unit experienced shutdowns in 2014. In the same year, plans for a 30,000 crore Jindal Steel project was mothballed. The tea industry of West Bengal has also witnessed shutdowns due to financial and political reasons.NEWS,weblink A year of shutdowns in Bengal’s industry, Dutta, Indrani, 30 December 2014, The Hindu, 3 February 2018, en-IN, 0971-751X, The tourism industry of West Bengal took a hit in 2017 due to the Gorkhaland agitation.NEWS,weblink Darjeeling fears continuing Gorkhaland agitation to hurt festive tourism business, Sarkar, Debasis, 26 June 2017, The Economic Times, 3 February 2018, However, over the years due to effective changes in the stance towards industrialisation, ease of doing business has improved in West Bengal.WEB,weblink ‘Ease of doing business improves in West Bengal, WEB,weblink Business environment satisfactory in West Bengal: Survey, WEB,weblink West Bengal bags top spot in Ease of Doing Business; Here’s the full ranking list, Steps are being taken to remedy this situation by promoting West Bengal as an investment destination. A leather complex has been built in Kolkata, smart cities are being planned closed to Kolkata and major roadway projects are in the offing to revive the economy.WEB,weblink Industrial Development in West Bengal, GSDP of West Bengal, www.ibef.org, 3 February 2018, West Bengal has been able to attract 2% of the foreign direct investment in the last decade.NEWS,weblink The city that got left behind, The Economist, en, 31 January 2018,

Transport

{{See also|List of airports in West Bengal}}File:NSCBI International airport.jpg|thumb|Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International AirportNetaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport(File:Durgapur Xpressway.jpg|thumb|left|Durgapur Expressway)(File:SBSTC bus in karunamoyee.jpg|thumb|An SBSTC bus in Karunamoyee)File:Kolkata Metro.jpg|thumb|left|Kolkata MetroKolkata MetroAs of 2011, the total length of surface road in West Bengal is over {{convert|92023|km|mi|0|abbr=off}};{{rp|18}} national highways comprise {{convert|2578|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}WEB,weblink Statewise Length of national highways in India, 9 February 2012, National Highways, Department of Road Transport and Highways; Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways; Government of India, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20121022105130weblink">weblink 22 October 2012, dmy-all, and state highways {{convert|2393|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}.{{rp|18}} As of 2006, the road density of the state is {{convert|103.69|km/km2|abbr=off}}, higher than the national average of {{convert|74.7|km/km2|abbr=on}}.JOURNAL, Chattopadhyay, Suhrid Sankar, January–February 2006, Remarkable Growth, The Hindu; Frontline, 23, 2, Chennai, India,weblink yes, 15 October 2013, harv,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120319050538weblink">weblink 19 March 2012, As of 2011, the total railway route length is around {{convert|4481|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}.{{rp|20}} Kolkata is the headquarters of three zones of the Indian Railways{{snd}}Eastern Railway and South Eastern Railway, and the Kolkata Metro, which is the newly formed 17th{{nbsp}}zone of the Indian Railways.NEWS,weblink The Times of India, Kolkata Metro is now the 17th zone of Indian Railways – The Times of India, 29 December 2010, 26 January 2018, WEB, Geography : Railway Zones,weblink 31 August 2007, IRFCA.org, Indian Railways Fan Club, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070819043943weblink">weblink 19 August 2007, dmy-all, The Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) serves the northern parts of the state. The Kolkata metro is the country's first underground railway.WEB, Kolkata Metro,weblink About Kolkata Metro, 1 September 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070820234733weblink">weblink 20 August 2007, The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, part of NFR, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.WEB, UNESCO World Heritage Centre,weblink Mountain Railways of India, 30 April 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060503143242weblink">weblink 3 May 2006, dmy-all, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport at Dum Dum, Kolkata, is the state's biggest airport. Bagdogra Airport near Siliguri is a customs airport that offers international service to Bhutan and Thailand, besides regular domestic service. Kazi Nazrul Islam Airport, India's first private sector airport, serves the twin cities of Asansol-Durgapur at Andal, Bardhaman.WEB, Profile on Kazi Nazrul Islam International Airport,weblink 5 August 2014, Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation, CAPA, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140808044706weblink">weblink 8 August 2014, NEWS, Mishra, Mihir, Air India operates inaugural flight between Durgapur & Kolkata,weblink 19 May 2015, The Economic Times, 18 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170802091136weblink">weblink 2 August 2017, dmy-all, Kolkata is a major river port in eastern India. The Kolkata Port Trust manages the Kolkata and the Haldia docks.WEB,weblink Port info: cargo statistics, 9 February 2012, Kolkata Port Trust, Kolkata Port Trust, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120119114809weblink">weblink 19 January 2012, dmy-all, There is passenger service to Port Blair on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and cargo ship service to ports in India and abroad, operated by the Shipping Corporation of India. Ferries are a principal mode of transport in the southern part of the state, especially in the Sundarbans area. Kolkata is the only city in India to have trams as a mode of transport, and these are operated by the Calcutta Tramways Company.NEWS, Intra-city train travel,weblink 31 August 2007, reaching India, Times Internet Limited, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071016221039weblink">weblink 16 October 2007, Several government-owned organisations operate bus services in the state, including the Calcutta State Transport Corporation, the North Bengal State Transport Corporation, the South Bengal State Transport Corporation, the West Bengal Surface Transport Corporation, and the Calcutta Tramways Company.NEWS,weblink Bengal transport dept to offer VRS to over 4,000 employees, Pramanik, Ayan, 2 May 2012, The Hindu Business Line, 10 December 2017, en, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180126080958weblink">weblink 26 January 2018, dmy-all, There are also private bus companies. The railway system is a nationalised service without any private investment.WEB,weblink [IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: IR History: Early Days – 1, www.irfca.org, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050307181407weblink">weblink 7 March 2005, dmy-all, Hired forms of transport include metered taxis and auto rickshaws, which often ply specific routes in cities. In most of the state, cycle rickshaws, and in Kolkata, hand-pulled rickshaws and electric rickshaws, are used for short-distance travel.BOOK,weblink Sustainability Science for Social, Economic, and Environmental Development, Nilanjan, Ghosh, 31 January 2014, IGI Global, 978-1-4666-4996-5, en,

Demographics

{{Multiple image| align = left| direction = vertical| header =| header_align = left/right/center| header_background =| footer =| footer_align = left/right/center| footer_background =| width = 220thumb| width1 =| alt1 =| caption1 = Dakshineswar Kali Templethumb| width2 =| alt2 =| caption2 = Tipu Sultan Mosquethumb| width3 =| alt3 =St. Paul's Cathedral, Kolkata>St Paul's Cathedral}}{{Pie chartBengali language>Bengali|value1=86.22 |color1=orange Hindi language>Hindi|value2=6.96|color2=blueSantali language>Santali|value3=2.66|color3=yellowUrdu language>Urdu|value4=1.82|color4=greenNepali language>Nepali|value5=1.27|color5=red|other=yWest Bengal (2011)LANGUAGE – INDIA, STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES WORK=CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 PAGES=13–14, }}{{IndiaCensusPop| title= Population Growth| 1951= 26300000| 1961= 34926000| 1971= 44312000| 1981= 54581000| 1991= 68078000| 2001= 80176000| 2011= 91348000| estimate=| estyear=| estref=WORK = CENSUS OF INDIA ACCESSDATE = 18 DECEMBER 2008 DEADURL = NO ARCHIVEDATE = 26 AUGUST 2011, dmy-all, }}According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census, West Bengal is the fourth-most-populous state in India with a population of 91,347,736 (7.55% of India's population). Bengalis, consisting of Bengali Hindus, Bengali Muslims, Bengali Christians and a few Bengali Buddhists, comprise the majority of the population.BOOK, Ethnic realignments: a comparative study of government influences on identity, Hoddie, Matthew, 2006, Lexington Books, 978-0-7391-1325-7, 114–115,weblink 16 February 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130510061300weblink">weblink 10 May 2013, dmy-all, The Marwari, Maithil and Bhojpuri non-Bengali minorities are scattered throughout the state; various indigenous ethnic Buddhist communities such as the Sherpas, Bhutias, Lepchas, Tamangs, Yolmos, and ethnic Tibetans can be found in the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region. Native Magahi speakers are found in Malda district.WEB,weblink International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: AAVE – Esperanto, 10 March 2018, Oxford University Press, Google Books, Surjapuri; a language that is considered to be a mix of Maithili and Bengali, is spoken across northern parts of the state.WEB,weblink The Handbook of Historical Sociolinguistics, Juan Manuel, Hernández-Campoy, Juan Camilo, Conde-Silvestre, 15 February 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Google Books, The Darjeeling district also has a large Nepali immigrant population, making Nepali a widely spoken language in this region. West Bengal is also home to indigenous tribal Adivasis such as Santhal, Munda, Oraon, Bhumij, Lodha, Kol, and Toto tribe. There are a small number of ethnic minorities primarily in the state capital, including Chinese, Tamils, Maharashtrians, Odias, Assamese, Malayalis, Gujaratis, Anglo-Indians, Armenians, Jews, Punjabis, and Parsis.BOOK, Banerjee, Himadri, Gupta, Nilanjana, Mukherjee, Sipra, Calcutta mosaic: essays and interviews on the minority communities of Calcutta,weblink 29 January 2012, 2009, Anthem Press, 978-81-905835-5-8, 3, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509233321weblink">weblink 9 May 2013, dmy-all, India's sole Chinatown is in eastern Kolkata.BOOK, Banerjee, Himadri, Gupta, Nilanjana, Mukherjee, Sipra, Calcutta mosaic: essays and interviews on the minority communities of Calcutta,weblink 29 January 2012, 2009, Anthem Press, 978-81-905835-5-8, 9–10, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509233321weblink">weblink 9 May 2013, dmy-all, As per West Bengal government the main official language is Bengali, and additional official languages are Hindi, Odia, Santali, Punjabi, Urdu, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi and Kurmali.WEB,weblink Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 52nd report (July 2014 to June 2015), 85–86, Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India, 16 February 2016, yes, dmy-all,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161115133948weblink">weblink 15 November 2016, WEB,weblink Multi-lingual Bengal, 11 December 2012, The Telegraph (Calcutta), The Telegraph, WEB,weblink Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi make it to list of official languages in, Roy, Anirban, 28 February 2018, India Today, Nepali also has an official status in the three subdivisions of Darjeeling district. As of 2001, in decreasing order of number of speakers, the languages of the state are: Bengali, Hindi, Santali, Urdu, and Nepali.{{Pie chart|thumb = rightWEBSITE = CENSUS OF INDIA, 2011 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150825155850/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/C-01/DDW00C-01%20MDDS.XLS, 25 August 2015, Hinduism>color1 = orange|value1 = 70.54Islam>color2 = Green|value2 = 27.01Christianity>color3 = DodgerBlue|value3 = 0.72Buddhism>color4 = Maroon|value4 = 0.31Jainism>color6 = Pink|value5 = 0.07Sikhism>color5 = Gold|value6 = 0.07color7 = Black|value7 = 1.03Irreligion>color8 = Gray|value8 = 0.25}}West Bengal is religiously diverse, with regional cultural and religious specificities. Although Hindus are the predominant community, the state has a large minority Muslim population. Christians, Buddhists, and others form a minuscule part of the population. As of 2011, Hinduism is the largest religion, with adherents representing 70.54% of the total population,NEWS,weblink Bengal's topsy-turvy population growth, B.P. Syam Roy, The Statesman, 28 September 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160910125228weblink">weblink 10 September 2016, dmy-all, while Muslims comprise 27.01% of the total population, being the second-largest community as well as the largest minority group.WEB,weblink Could it take two to tango with Mamata?, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160229221950weblink">weblink 29 February 2016, dmy-all, Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, and other religions make up the remainder.WEB,weblink Data on Religion, 26 August 2006, Census of India (2001), Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070812142520weblink">weblink 12 August 2007, Buddhism remains a prominent religion in the Himalayan region of the Darjeeling hills, and almost the entirety of West Bengal's Buddhist population are from this region.BOOK,weblink's+Buddhist+population+is+from+Darjeeling+hills#v=onepage&q=Most%20of%20West%20Bengal's%20Buddhist%20population%20is%20from%20Darjeeling%20hills&f=false, Buddhist Revival in India: Aspects of the Sociology of Buddhism, Ling, Trevor, Axelrod, Steven, 19 June 1980, Springer, 978-1-349-16310-6, en, The state contributes 7.8% of India's population.Population of West Bengal (80,221,171) is 7.8% of India's population (1,027,015,247) The Hindu population of West Bengal is 64,385,546 while the Muslim population is 24,654,825, as per the 2011 census.WEB,weblink Bengal beats India in Muslim growth rate, 26 August 2015, Seni, Saibal, The Times of India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170721165614weblink">weblink 21 July 2017, dmy-all, The state's 2001–2011 decennial population growth rate was 13.93%, lower than the 1991–2001 growth rate of 17.8%, and also lower than the national rate of 17.64%.WEB,weblink Table 1: Distribution of population, sex ratio, density and decadal growth rate of population: 2011, Provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011 India: series 1, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 16 February 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120212184630weblink">weblink 12 February 2012, dmy-all, The gender ratio is 947 females per 1000 males. As of 2011, West Bengal had a population density of {{convert|1029|PD/km2}} making it the second-most densely populated state in India, after Bihar.The literacy rate is 77.08%, higher than the national rate of 74.04%.WEB,weblink Table 2(3): Literates and literacy rates by sex : 2011, Provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011 India: series 1, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 16 February 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120212184630weblink">weblink 12 February 2012, dmy-all, Data of 2010{{ndash}}2014 showed the life expectancy in the state was 70.2{{nbsp}}years, higher than the national value of 67.9.WEB, Contents 2010–14,weblink OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL & CENSUS COMMISSIONER, INDIA, 12 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161113174353weblink">weblink 13 November 2016, dmy-all, WEB, Abridged Life Tables- 2010–14,weblink 5, OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL & CENSUS COMMISSIONER, INDIA, 12 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170110123124weblink">weblink 10 January 2017, dmy-all, The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 2013 was 19.98%, declining from 31.8% a decade ago.WEB,weblink Table 162, Number and Percentage of Population Below Poverty Line, Reserve Bank of India, Government of India, 2013, 20 April 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407102043weblink">weblink 7 April 2014, dmy-all, Scheduled castes and tribes form 28.6% and 5.8% of the population, respectively, in rural areas, and 19.9% and 1.5%, respectively, in urban areas. In September 2017, West Bengal achieved 100% electrification, after some remote villages in the Sunderbans became the latest to be electrified.NEWS, Bengal is 100% electrified now, 3 November 2017, The Times of India, Kolkata, As of September 2017, out of 125 towns and cities in Bengal, 76 have achieved Open Defecation Free (ODF) status. All towns in the districts of Nadia, North 24 Parganas, Hooghly, Burdwan and East Midnapore are ODF zones, with Nadia becoming the first ODF district in the state in April 2015.NEWS, 76 Bengal towns free of open defecation, Chakrabarti, Suman, 6 September 2017, The Times of India, WEB,weblink With 76 Towns And Cities Already Open Defecation Free, West Bengal Aims To Reach The 100% Mark By The End Of This Year, Dutta, Saptarshi, 7 September 2017, NDTV, 16 October 2018, A study conducted in three districts of West Bengal found that accessing private health services to treat illness had a catastrophic impact on households. This indicates the importance of public provision of health services to mitigate against poverty and the impact of illness on poor households.JOURNAL, Kanjilal, Barun, Swadhin Mondal, Moumita Mukherjee, Debjani Barman, Arnab Mondal, Catastrophic Health Care Payment: how much protected are the users of public hospitals?, FHS Research Brief, October 2008, 4,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130309062513weblink">weblink 9 March 2013, dmy-all, The latest Sample Registration System (SRS) statistical report shows that West Bengal has the lowest fertility rate among Indian states. West Bengal's total fertility rate was 1.6, way below Bihar's 3.4, which is the highest in the entire country. Bengal's TFR of 1.6 roughly equals that of Canada.WEB,weblink Why West Bengal is like Canada, and Bihar like Swaziland, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160724083636weblink">weblink 24 July 2016, dmy-all, {{clear}}

Culture

{{See also|Bengalis|Culture of West Bengal|Culture of Darjeeling}}

Literature

{{double image|right|Rabindranath Tagore.jpg|150|Swami Vivekananda-1893-09-signed.jpg|150|Rabindranath Tagore is Asia's first Nobel laureate and the composer of India's national anthem.|Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga to Europe and the US,BOOK, Georg, Feuerstein, Georg Feuerstein, The Yoga Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, 2002, 600, 3-935001-06-1, raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.BOOK, Clarke, Peter Bernard, New Religions in Global Perspective, Routledge, 2006, 209, 0-7007-1185-6, }}The Bengali language boasts a rich literary heritage that it shares with neighbouring Bangladesh. West Bengal has a long tradition of folk literature, evidenced by the Charyapada, a collection of Buddhist mystic songs dating back to the 10th and 11th{{nbsp}}centuries; Mangalkavya, a collection of Hindu narrative poetry composed around the 13th{{nbsp}}century; Shreekrishna Kirtana, a pastoral Vaishnava drama in verse composed by Boru Chandidas; Thakurmar Jhuli, a collection of Bengali folk and fairy tales compiled by Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumder; and stories of Gopal Bhar, a court jester in medieval Bengal. In the 19th and 20th{{nbsp}}centuries, Bengali literature was modernised in the works of authors such as Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, whose innovative works marked a departure from the traditional verse-oriented writings prevalent in that period;NEWS,weblink Bankim Chandra: The First Prominent Bengali Novelist, 30 June 2011, The Daily Star, 12 December 2017, en, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170906035834weblink">weblink 6 September 2017, dmy-all, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, a pioneer in Bengali drama who introduced the use of blank verse;BOOK,weblink Dictionary of Indian Biography, Buckland, C. E., 1999, Cosmo Publication, 9788170208976, en, and Rabindranath Tagore, who reshaped Bengali literature and music. Indian art saw the introduction of Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th{{nbsp}}centuries.WEB,weblink TagoreWeb, tagoreweb.in, 12 December 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170628152418weblink">weblink 28 June 2017, dmy-all, Other notable figures include Kazi Nazrul Islam, whose compositions form the avant-garde genre of Nazrul Sangeet,WEB,weblink Islam, Kazi Nazrul – Banglapedia, en.banglapedia.org, en, 12 December 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170706165608weblink">weblink 6 July 2017, dmy-all, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, whose works on contemporary social practices in Bengal are widely acclaimed,NEWS,weblink Remembering Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, the ‘Awara Masiha’, 15 September 2015, The Indian Express, 12 December 2017, en-US, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170612121318weblink">weblink 12 June 2017, dmy-all, and Manik Bandyopadhyay, who is considered one of the leading lights of modern Bengali fiction.NEWS,weblink Manik Bandopadhyay Taking the road less travelled, 22 May 2013, The Daily Star, 13 December 2017, en, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171213143146weblink">weblink 13 December 2017, dmy-all, In modern times, Jibanananda Das has been acknowledged as "the premier poet of the post-Tagore era in India".BOOK, Mookerjea-Leonard, Debali, 2008, R. Victoria Arana, The Facts on File Companion to World poetry, 1900 to the Present, Facts on File, Inc., New York City, 128, 978-0-8160-6457-1, Other writers include Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay, best known for his work Pather Panchali; Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, well known for his portrayal of the lower strata of society;BOOK, Sen, Sukumar, History of Bengali Literature, 3rd, 1979, 1960, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 81-7201-107-5, 345, Manik Bandopadhyay, a pioneering novelist; and Ashapurna Devi, Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay, Saradindu Bandopadhyay, Buddhadeb Guha, Mahashweta Devi, Samaresh Majumdar, Sanjeev Chattopadhyay, Shakti Chattopadhyay, Buddhadeb Basu,{{harvnb|Datta|1988|p=1213}} Joy Goswami, and Sunil Gangopadhyay.{{harvnb|Datta|1988|p=1367}}{{harvnb|Bardhan|2010|p=}}

Music and dance

File:394 baul-singers-sml.jpg|thumb|left|Baul singers at Basanta-Utsab, ShantiniketanShantiniketan(File:Dance with Rabindra Sangeet - Kolkata 2011-11-05 6669.JPG|thumb|right|Dance with Rabindra Sangeet)A notable music tradition is the Baul music, practiced by the Bauls, a sect of mystic minstrels.BOOK, Openshaw, Jeanne, Seeking Bauls of Bengal,weblink 25 July 2002, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-81125-5, 1–6, no,weblink 9 June 2016, dmy-all, Other folk music forms include Gombhira and Bhawaiya. Folk music in West Bengal is often accompanied by the ektara, a one-stringed instrument. Shyama Sangeet is a genre of devotional songs, praising the Hindu goddess Kali;BOOK,weblink Over The Years, Bhattacharyya, Sudip, Educreation Publishing, en, 26 December 2015, kirtan is devotional group songs dedicated to the god Krishna.BOOK, Guha-Thakurta, P., The Bengali Drama: Its Origin and Development,weblink 5 September 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-38553-7, 26, Like other states in northern India, West Bengal also has a heritage in North Indian classical music. "Rabindrasangeet", songs composed and set into tune by Rabindranath Tagore, and "Nazrul geeti" (by Kazi Nazrul Islam) are popular. Also prominent are Dwijendralal, Atulprasad and Rajanikanta's songs, and "adhunik" or modern music from films and other composers.BOOK,weblink Calcutta, the Living City: The past, Chaudhuri, Sukanta, 1990, Oxford University Press, en, no,weblink 3 August 2017, dmy-all, From the early 1990s, there has been an emergence of new genres of music, including what has been called Bengali Jeebonmukhi Gaan (a modern genre based on realism). Bengali dance forms draw from folk traditions, especially those of the tribal groups, as well as the broader Indian dance traditions. Chhau dance of Purulia is a rare form of masked dance.WEB,weblink Folk & Culture : Purulia, Famous Folk Dance "Chau", The Official Website of Purulia District, 11 June 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170603002555weblink">weblink 3 June 2017, dmy-all, {{clear}}File:Satyajit Ray with Ravi Sankar recording for Pather Panchali.jpg|thumb|Satyajit Ray, a pioneer in Bengali cinema along with Ravi SankarRavi Sankar

Films

Cinema of West Bengal is mostly shot in studios in the Kolkata neighbourhood of Tollygunj, and the name "Tollywood" (similar to Hollywood and Bollywood) is derived from that name. The Bengali film industry is well known for its art films, and has produced acclaimed directors like Satyajit Ray who is widely regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century,BOOK,weblink Book Of Knowledge Viii, 5E, Tmh, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2007, 9780070668065, no,weblink 8 August 2016, Mrinal Sen whose films were known for its artistic depiction of social reality, Tapan Sinha who was one of the most prominent Indian film directors of his time,NEWS, Master filmmaker Tapan Sinha dead,weblink 16 January 2009, 18 March 2013, and Ritwik Ghatak. Some contemporary directors include veterans such as Buddhadev Dasgupta, Tarun Majumdar, Goutam Ghose, Aparna Sen, and Rituparno Ghosh, and a newer pool of directors such as Kaushik Ganguly and Srijit Mukherji.{{harvnb|Gooptu|2013|pp=37–50}}{{harvnb|Gooptu|2010|pp=170–182}}NEWS, Biswas, Premankur, 31 October 2014, ‘Chatushkone’ director Srijit Mukherji: I have gained enough confidence as a director,weblink no, The Indian Express,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170311150532weblink">weblink 11 March 2017, 27 September 2017,

Fine arts

(File:Terracotta temple 01.jpg|thumb|Terracotta temple of Bishnupur in Bankura, one of the older examples of the terracotta arts of India)There are significant examples of fine arts in Bengal from earlier times, including the terracotta art of Hindu temples and the Kalighat paintings. Bengal has been in the vanguard of modernism in fine arts. Abanindranath Tagore, called the father of modern Indian art, started the Bengal School of Art, one of whose goals was to promote the development of styles of art outside the European realist tradition that had been taught in art colleges under the British colonial administration. The movement had many adherents, including Gaganendranath Tagore, Ramkinkar Baij, Jamini Roy, and Rabindranath Tagore. After Indian Independence, important groups such as the Calcutta Group and the Society of Contemporary Artists were formed in Bengal and came to dominate the art scene in India.WEB,weblink contemporaryart-india – Art History: Bengal Region, Raychaudhuri, Baidehi Chatterjee and Roshmi, www.contemporaryart-india.com, 5 July 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170507050409weblink">weblink 7 May 2017, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Atlas of World Art, Onians, John, 2004, Laurence King Publishing, 978-1-85669-377-6, en, 304,

Reformist heritage

The capital, Kolkata, was the workplace of several social reformers, including Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, and Swami Vivekananda. Their social reforms eventually led to a cultural atmosphere that made it possible for practices like sati, dowry, and caste-based discrimination, or untouchability, to be abolished.History of the Bengali-speaking People by Nitish Sengupta, p 211, UBS Publishers' Distributors Pvt. Ltd. {{ISBN|81-7476-355-4}}. The region was also home to several religious teachers, such as Chaitanya, Ramakrishna, Prabhupada, and Paramahansa Yogananda.

Cuisine

{{multiple image| align = left| direction = |image1=Pitha for Wedding- Pakan, Patishapta, Bharandash.jpg|width1 = 200|image2=Shorshe Ilish.jpg|width2 = 150|image3=Rasgulla - Kolkata 2011-08-02 4547.JPG|width3 = 170| footer =Assorted food eaten in West Bengal: Patisapta, a kind of pitha; Shorshe Ilish (Hilsha with Mustard Sauce) and Rasgullas in sugar syrup}}Rice and fish are traditional favourite foods, leading to a saying in Bengali, machhe bhate bangali, that translates as "fish and rice make a Bengali".WEB,weblink Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation: A case study from Bangladesh, 22 October 2006, Gertjan de Graaf, Abdul Latif, Aqua KE Government, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061101103614weblink">weblink 1 November 2006, Bengal's vast repertoire of fish-based dishes includes hilsa preparations, a favourite among Bengalis. There are numerous ways of cooking fish depending on the fish's texture, size, fat content, and bones.NEWS,weblink Bengalis relish hilsa fish as imports of the Bangladeshi delicacy grow, 10 December 2017, Most of the people also consume eggs, chicken, mutton, and shrimp. Panta bhat (rice soaked overnight in water) with onion and green chili is a traditional dish consumed in rural areas,WEB,weblink Ferment rice for a healthy morsel, www.telegraphindia.com, 13 December 2017, no,weblink 4 August 2017, dmy-all, Common spices found in a Bengali kitchen are cumin, ajmoda (radhuni), bay leaf, mustard, ginger, green chillies, and turmeric.BOOK,weblink Bengali Cooking: Seasons and Festivals, Banerji, Chitrita, Serif, 978-1-897959-50-3, en, December 2006, Sweets occupy an important place in the diet of Bengalis and at their social ceremonies. Bengalis make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, including Rôshogolla, Chômchôm, Kalojam, and several kinds of sondesh. Pitha, a kind of sweet cake, bread, or dimsum, are specialties of the winter season. Sweets such as narkol-naru, til-naru, moa, and payesh are prepared during the festivals such as Lakshmi puja.WEB,weblink Sweet Items {{!, Bengal Cuisine|website=bengalcuisine.in|language=en|access-date=13 December 2017|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171213142211weblink|archivedate=13 December 2017}} Popular street foods include Aloor Chop, Beguni, Kati roll, biryani, and phuchka.NEWS, S, Saha, Resurrected, the kathi roll – Face-off resolved, Nizam's set to open with food court,weblink The Telegraph (Kolkata), 18 January 2006, 26 October 2006, Calcutta, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060228160826weblink">weblink 28 February 2006, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Mobile food stalls, 26 October 2006, Bangalinet.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061021122336weblink">weblink 21 October 2006, dmy-all,

Clothing

File:Bangladeshi bride in Jamdani sari.jpg|thumb|Jamdani Sari of Bangladesh is very popular in West Bengal. ]]Bengali women commonly wear the sari, often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. In urban areas, many women and men wear western attire. Among men, western dress has greater acceptance. Particularly on cultural occasions, men also wear traditional costumes such as the panjabi with dhuti while women wear salwar kameez or sari.BOOK,weblink People of India: West Bengal, Singh, Kumar Suresh, Bagchi, Tilak, India, Anthropological Survey of, 2008, Anthropological Survey of India, 9788170463009, en, West Bengal produces several varieties of cotton and silk saris in the country. Handlooms are a popular way of livelihood to the rural population of the state. Every district has weaving "clusters", which are home to artisan communities, each specialising in specific varieties of handloom weaving. Notable handloom saris include tant, jamdani, garad, korial, baluchari, tussar, and muslin.WEB, Parinita – Handloom map of West Bengal,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151022152619weblink">weblink 22 October 2015, dmy-all,

Festivals

Durga Puja is the biggest, most popular and widely celebrated festival in West Bengal.WEB,weblink Durga Puja, 5 March 2012, Festivals celebrated throughout West Bengal, Department of Tourism, Government of West Bengal, yes,weblink 16 January 2012, The five-day-long colourful Hindu festival witnesses intense celebration across the state. Pandals are erected in various cities, towns and villages throughout West Bengal. The whole city of Kolkata undergoes a transformation during Durga Puja, as it is decked up in lighting decorations and thousands of colourful pandals are set up where effigies of goddess Durga and her four children are worshipped and displayed. The idols of the goddess as brought in from Kumortuli, where idol-makers work round the year fashioning the clay-models of the goddess. Since independence in 1947, Durga Puja has slowly changed into more of a glamorous carnival than a religious festival, where people across diverse religious and ethnic spectrum partake in the festivity.WEB, Durga Puja in India: Largest Open Air Art Expo,weblink kolkata.china-consulate.org, 25 December 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151225163234weblink">weblink 25 December 2015, dmy-all, On Vijayadashami, the last day of the festival, the effigies are paraded through the streets with riotous pageantry before being dumped into the rivers.WEB, Foreign bloggers and travel writers soak in Kolkata's festive spirit – Times of India,weblink The Times of India, 25 December 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160101213233weblink">weblink 1 January 2016, dmy-all, Rath Yatra is a Hindu festival which celebrates Jagannath, a form of Krishna. It is celebrated with much fanfare in Kolkata as well as in rural Bengal. Images of Jagannath are set upon a chariot and pulled through the streets.BOOK, Footprint Focus-Kolkata and West Bengal, 1-909268-41-0,weblink en, Betts, Vanessa, 30 October 2013, {{multiple image| align = | direction = |image1=Durga, Burdwan, 2011.JPG|width1 = 200|image2=Mahesh Rath Yatra.jpg|width2 = 190|image3=Muharram procession in Kolkata, 2016.jpg|width3 = 170| footer =Festivals of West Bengal: Durga Puja, Rath Yatra and Muharram procession in Kolkata.}}Other major festivals of West Bengal include Poila Baishakh the Bengali new year, Dolyatra or Holi the festival of lights, Poush Parbon, Kali Puja, Nabadwip Shakta Rash, Saraswati Puja, Deepaboli, Lakshmi Puja, Janmashtami, Jagaddhatri Puja, Vishwakarma Puja, Bhai Phonta, Rakhi Bandhan, Kalpataru Day, Shivratri, Ganesh Chathurthi, Maghotsav, Kartik Puja, Akshay Tritiya, Raas Yatra, Guru Purnima, Annapurna Puja, Charak Puja, Gajan, Buddha Purnima, Christmas, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, and Muharram. Rabindra Jayanti, Kolkata Book Fair, Kolkata Film Festival, and Nazrul Jayanti are important cultural events.Eid al-Fitr is the most important festival of Muslims in West Bengal. Muslims celebrate the end of Ramadan with prayers, alms-giving, shopping, gift-giving, and feasting.BOOK,weblink Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis, Chakrabarti, Kunal, Chakrabarti, Shubhra, 22 August 2013, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-8024-5, en, Christmas, called Bôŗodin (Great day) is perhaps the next major festival celebrated in Kolkata, after Durga Puja. Just like Durga Puja, Christmas in Kolkata is an occasion in which all communities and people across religions take part. The state tourism department organises the gala Christmas Festival every year in Park Street.WEB, West Bengal Tourism,weblink www.westbengaltourism.gov.in, 25 December 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151225190848weblink">weblink 25 December 2015, The whole of Park Street is decked out in colourful lights, and food stalls sell cakes, chocolates, Chinese cuisines, momo, and various other items. Musical groups from Darjeeling and other states of North East India are invited by the state to perform choir recitals, carols, and jazz numbers.WEB, In photos: Glimpses of a Bengali Christmas on Kolkata's Park Street,weblink Scroll.in, 25 December 2015, en-US, Angikaar, Choudhury, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151225163820weblink">weblink 25 December 2015, dmy-all, Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, is one of the most important Hindu/Buddhist festivals and is celebrated with much gusto in the Darjeeling hills. On this day, processions begin at each of the various Buddhist monasteries, or gumpas, and congregate at the Mall, Chowrasta. The Lamas chant mantras and sound their bugles, and students as well as people from all communities carry the holy books or pustaks on their heads. Besides Buddha Purnima, Dashain, or Dusshera, Holi, Diwali, Losar, Namsoong or the Lepcha New Year, and Losoong are the other major festivals of the Darjeeling Himalayan region.Poush mela is a popular winter festival of Shantiniketan, with performances of folk music, Baul songs, dance, and theatre taking place throughout the town.Ganga Sagar mela coincides with the Makar Sankranti, and hundreds of thousands of Hindu pilgrims converge where the river Ganges meets the sea to bathe en{{nbsp}}masse during this fervent festival.

Education

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}}West Bengal schools are run by the state government or by private organisations, including religious institutions. Instruction is mainly in English or Bengali, though Urdu is also used, especially in Central Kolkata. The secondary schools are affiliated with the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), the National Institute of Open School (NIOS), West Bengal Board of Secondary Education or the West Bengal Board of Madrasah Education.WEB,weblink Boards of secondary & senior secondary education in India, Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, 18 April 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120320234548weblink">weblink 20 March 2012, As of 2016 85% of children within the age group of 6 to 17 years attend school (86% do so in urban areas and 84% in rural areas).School attendance is almostuniversal among the age group of 6 to 14 years, and then drops to 70 percent at the age group 15 to 17 years. There is a gender disparity in school attendance in the age group 6–14 years, more girls than boys are attending school.In Bengal, 71 percent of women aged 15 to 49 years and 81 percent of men aged 15 to 49 years are literate. Only 14 percent of women aged 15 to 49 years in West Bengal have completed 12 or more years of schooling, compared with 22 percent of men. Twenty-two percent of women and 14 percent of men age 15 to 49 years have never been to school. Only 14 percent of women aged 15 to 49 years in West Bengal have completed 12 or more years of schooling, compared with 22% of men.WEB,weblink National Family Health Survey, rchiips.org, 30 January 2018, (Select West Bengal to view the pdf format)Some of the notable schools in the city are La Martiniere Calcutta, Calcutta Boys' School, St. James' School (Kolkata), St. Xavier's Collegiate School, and Loreto House, Loreto Convent, Asansol some of which rank amongst the best schools in the country.WEB, India's Best Schools, 2014,weblink Rediff.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150722053415weblink">weblink 22 July 2015, dmy-all, Many of the schools in Kolkata and Darjeeling are colonial-era establishments housed in buildings that are exemplars of neo-classical architecture. The schools of Darjeeling include St. Paul's, St. Joseph's North Point, Goethals Memorial School, and Dow Hill in Kurseong.WEB,weblink Educational Institute, darjeeling.gov.in, 4 January 2018, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170706130708weblink">weblink 6 July 2017, West Bengal has eighteen universities.WEB,weblink UGC recognised Universities in West Bengal with NAAC accreditation status, 26 October 2006, Education Observer, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070109172830weblink">weblink 9 January 2007, dmy-all, WEB,weblink West Bengal University of Health Sciences, 26 October 2006, West Bengal University of Health Sciences, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061221061019weblink">weblink 21 December 2006, dmy-all, Kolkata has played a pioneering role in the development of the modern education system in India. It was the gateway to the revolution of European education during the British Raj.BOOK,weblink Language Policy and Education in India: Documents, Contexts and Debates, Sridhar, M., Mishra, Sunita, 5 August 2016, Routledge, 978-1-134-87824-6, en, Sir William Jones established the Asiatic Society in 1794 for promoting oriental studies. People such as Ram Mohan Roy, David Hare, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Alexander Duff and William Carey played leading roles in the setting up of modern schools and colleges in the city.File:University of Calcutta 7383.JPG|thumb|left|University of CalcuttaUniversity of CalcuttaThe University of Calcutta, the oldest public university in India, has 136 affiliated colleges. Fort William College was established in 1810. The Hindu College was established in 1817. The Lady Brabourne College was established in 1939. The Scottish Church College, which is the oldest Christian liberal arts college in South Asia, started its journey in 1830. In 1855 the Hindu College was renamed the Presidency College.WEB,weblink List of Affiliated Colleges, 29 March 2008, University of Calcutta,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080201164051weblink">weblink 1 February 2008, In 2010 it was granted university status by the state government and was renamed Presidency University. Kazi Nazrul University was established in 2012. The University of Calcutta and Jadavpur University are prestigious technical universities.NEWS, P, Mitra, Waning interest,weblink Careergraph, The Telegraph, 31 August 2005, 26 October 2006, Calcutta, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070105111639weblink">weblink 5 January 2007, dmy-all, Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan is a central university and an institution of national importance.WEB,weblink Visva-Bharati: Facts and Figures at a Glance, 31 March 2007, Visva-Bharati Computer Centre, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070523132100weblink">weblink 23 May 2007, dmy-all, {{multiple image
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| link2 = Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
| caption2 = The Auditorium at Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
}}(File:West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata (front entrance, 2006).jpg|thumb|left|The front entrance to the academic block of NUJS, Kolkata)(File:RKMVERI Prajna Bhavan HR.jpg|thumb|left|Prajna Bhavan, housing the School of Mathematical Sciences and School of RKMVU)Other higher education institutes of importance in West Bengal include St. Xavier's College, Kolkata, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Indian Institute of Management Calcutta (the first IIM), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Indian Statistical Institute, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (the first IIT), Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur (the first IIEST), Indian Institute of Information Technology, Kalyani, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, National Institute of Technical Teachers' Training and Research, Kolkata, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kolkata, and West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences. In 2003 the state government supported the creation of West Bengal University of Technology, West Bengal University of Health Sciences, West Bengal State University, and Gour Banga University.WEB,weblink NAAC accredited higher educational institution s in West Bengal, NAAC, www.naac.gov.in,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170712185317weblink">weblink 12 July 2017, no, 7 January 2018, Jadavpur University (Focus area{{snd}}Mobile Computing and Communication and Nano-science), and the University of Calcutta (Modern Biology) are among two of the fifteen universities selected under the scheme "University with Potential for Excellence". University of Calcutta (Focus Area{{snd}}Electro-Physiological and Neuro-imaging studies including mathematical modeling) has also been selected under the scheme Centre with Potential for Excellence in a Particular Area.WEB,weblink University Grants commission ::Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area, ugc.ac.in, 25 July 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160801082819weblink">weblink 1 August 2016, dmy-all, Besides these, the state is home to Kalyani University, The University of Burdwan, Vidyasagar University, and North Bengal University all well as established and nationally renowned to cover education needs at the district level and an Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata. Apart from this there is a Deemed university run by the Ramakrishna mission named Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University at Belur Math.WEB,weblink University, www.ugc.ac.in, 4 January 2018, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170913232358weblink">weblink 13 September 2017, There are a number of research institutes in Kolkata. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science is the first research institute in Asia. C. V. Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery (Raman Effect) done in IACS. The Bose Institute, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute Durgapur, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibers, National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics (NIBMG), Kalyani, and the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre are the most prominent.Notable scholars who were born, worked, or studied in the geographic area of the state include physicists Satyendra Nath Bose, Meghnad Saha,WEB,weblink Some of the distinguished alumni of the University of Calcutta, University of Calcutta, 29 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111121002631weblink">weblink 21 November 2011, and Jagadish Chandra Bose;WEB,weblink Some of our distinguished teachers, University of Calcutta, 29 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111121002802weblink">weblink 21 November 2011, chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy; statisticians Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and Anil Kumar Gain; physician Upendranath Brahmachari; educator Ashutosh Mukherjee;BOOK, Petitjean, Patrick, Science and empires: historical studies about scientific development and European expansion, 1992, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 978-0-7923-1518-6, Jami, Cathérine, Moulin, Anne Marie, 62, and Nobel laureates Rabindranath Tagore,BOOK, Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901–1967, 1999, World Scientific, Amsterdam, 978-981-02-3413-3,weblink Frenz, Horst, 3 February 2012, 134, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120202212053weblink">weblink 2 February 2012, dmy-all, C. V. Raman, and Amartya Sen.WEB,weblink Professor Amartya Sen, President and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard University, 29 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120131203559weblink">weblink 31 January 2012,

Media

In 2005 West Bengal had 505 published newspapers,WEB,weblink General Review, 6 March 2012, Registrar of Newspapers for India, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121231161443weblink">weblink 31 December 2012, of which 389 were in Bengali. Ananda Bazar Patrika, published from Kolkata with 1,277,801 daily copies, has the largest circulation for a single-edition, regional language newspaper in India. Other major Bengali newspapers are Bartaman, Sangbad Pratidin, Aajkaal, Jago Bangla, Uttarbanga Sambad, and Ganashakti. Major English language newspapers include The Telegraph, The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Statesman, The Indian Express, and Asian Age. Some prominent financial dailies such as The Economic Times, Financial Express, Business Line, and Business Standard are widely circulated. Vernacular newspapers such as those in Hindi, Nepali, Gujarati, Odia, Urdu, and Punjabi are also read by a select readership.WEB,weblink West Bengal Media, FCCI, 28 January 2018, dmy-all,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180127174132weblink">weblink 27 January 2018, yes, Doordarshan is the state-owned television broadcaster. Multi system operators provide a mix of Bengali, Nepali, Hindi, English, and international channels via cable. (:Category:24-hour television news channels|Bengali 24-hour television news channels) include ABP Ananda, Tara Newz, Kolkata TV, News Time, 24 Ghanta, Mahuaa Khobor, CTVN Plus, Channel 10, and R Plus.WEB,weblink Bengali News Channel took 5 months to reach no.1 position, 7 September 2006, News Center, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100918032628weblink">weblink 18 September 2010, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Calcutta : Television, Radio Channels, 7 September 2006, Calcutta Web, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061203061801weblink">weblink 3 December 2006, All India Radio is a public radio station. Private FM stations are available only in cities like Kolkata, Siliguri, and Asansol. Vodafone, Airtel, BSNL, Jio, Reliance Communications, Uninor, Aircel, MTS India, Idea Cellular, and Tata DoCoMo are available cellular phone providers. Broadband internet is available in select towns and cities and is provided by the state-run BSNL and by other private companies. Dial-up access is provided throughout the state by BSNL and other providers.WEB, The Indian Telecom Services Performance Indicator Report April–June 2017,weblink TRAI, 10 October 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171007021113weblink">weblink 7 October 2017,

Sports

File:Salt Lake Stadium - Yuva Bharati Krirangan , Kolkata - Calcutta 5.jpg|thumb|right|Salt Lake StadiumSalt Lake StadiumCricket and association football are popular sports in the state. West Bengal, unlike most other states of India, is noted for its passion and patronage of football. Kolkata is one of the major centres for football in IndiaWEB,weblink Football in India – A Fact File, 26 October 2006, Prabhakaran, Shaji, 18 January 2003, LongLiveSoccer.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061023135720weblink">weblink 23 October 2006, and houses top national clubs such as Mohun Bagan Athletic Club, East Bengal Club and Mohammedan Sporting Club.WEB,weblink Kolkata-football infrastructure is from-the past century, 28 January 2006, Hindustan Times, dmy-all, West Bengal has several large stadiums. Eden Gardens was one of only two 100,000-seat cricket stadiums in the world;WEB,weblink India – Eden Gardens (Kolkata), 26 October 2006, Cricket Web, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070531223033weblink">weblink 31 May 2007, renovation before 2011 Cricket World Cup reduced the capacity to 66,000.WEB,weblink Eden Gardens, ESPN Cricinfo, 4 August 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170708034244weblink">weblink 8 July 2017, dmy-all, The stadium is the home to various cricket teams such as the Kolkata Knight Riders, the Bengal cricket team, and the East Zone. The 1987 Cricket World Cup final was hosted in Eden Gardens. Calcutta Cricket and Football Club is the second-oldest cricket club in the world.NEWS, Mukherji, Raju, Seven Years? Head Start,weblink The Telegraph, 14 March 2005, 26 October 2006, Calcutta, India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930014559weblink">weblink 30 September 2007, dmy-all, Salt Lake Stadium / Vivekananda Yuba Bharati Krirangan (VYBK), is a multipurpose stadium in Kolkata, with a current capacity of 85,000. It is the largest stadium in India by seating capacity.WEB, Vivekananda Yuba Bharati Krirangan (VYBK), Kolkata,weblink FIFA.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170328105323weblink">weblink 28 March 2017, Before its renovation in 2011, it was the second largest football stadium in the world, having a seating capacity of 120,000. It has hosted many national and international sporting events like SAF Games of 1987 and the 2011 FIFA friendly football match between Argentina and Venezuela featuring Lionel Messi.NEWS, Lionel Messi arrives in Kolkata for friendly match against Venezuela,weblink India Today, 31 August 2011, no,weblink 22 January 2018, In 2008 Legendary German Goalkeeper, Oliver Kahn played his last farewell match on this ground.NEWS, King Kahn Bows Out in Kolkata,weblink DW.com, 27 May 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180107120535weblink">weblink 7 January 2018, The stadium hosted the final match of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup.Notable sports persons from West Bengal include former Indian national cricket captain Sourav Ganguly, Pankaj Roy, Olympic tennis bronze medallist Leander Paes, and chess grand master Dibyendu Barua.BOOK, Soccer in South Asia: empire, nation, diaspora, 2001, Frank Cass Publishers, London, 978-0-7146-8170-2, 71, Dineo, Paul, Mills, James, BOOK, The magic of Indian cricket: cricket and society in India, 2006, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-35691-6, 240, Bose, Mihir, JOURNAL, Das Sharma, Amitabha, 2002, Football and the big fight in Kolkata, Football Studies, 5, 2, 57,weblink PDF, 5 April 2012, {{wide image|Eden Gardens Kolkata.jpg|680px|Panoramic View of the Eden Gardens Stadium during IPL 2008}}

See also

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Notes

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, A Story of Ambivalent Modernization in Bangladesh and West Bengal: The Rise and Fall of Bengali Elitism in South Asia, 2009, Pranab Chatterjee, Peter Lang Publishing; First printing edition, 978-1-4331-0820-4,
  • BOOK, Baxter, Craig, 1997, Bangladesh: From a Nation to a State, Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1-85984-121-X, harv,
  • BOOK, harv, Gooptu, Sharmistha, Bengali Cinema: 'An Other Nation',weblink November 2010, Routledge, 978-1-136-91217-7,
  • BOOK, Bald, Vivek, 2013, Bengali Harlem and the Lost Histories of South Asian America,weblink Harvard University Press, 318, 978-0-674-07040-0,
  • BOOK, harv, Sarkar, Sumit, Chaudhuri, Sukanta, Calcutta, the Living City: The past,weblink 1, 1990, Oxford University Press, Calcutta and the Bengal Renaissance,
  • BOOK, Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar, 2004, Caste, Culture and Hegemony: Social Dominance in Colonial Bengal, SAGE Publications India, 256, 978-81-321-0407-0,
  • BOOK, Klass, L, Morton, 1996, Community Structure and industrialization in West Bengal, University Press of America Inc., 0-7618-0420-X, S, harv,
  • BOOK, Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar, 2009, Decolonization in South Asia: Meanings of Freedom in Post-independence West Bengal, 1947–52, Routledge, 256, 978-1-134-01823-9,
  • BOOK, Chakrabarti, Ranjan, 2013, Dictionary of Historical Places: Bengal, 1757–1947, Primus Books, 657, 978-93-80607-41-2,
  • BOOK, Bhargava, Ed.Gopal, 2008, Encyclopaedia of Art And Culture In India (West Bengal) 20th Volume, Isha Books, 508, 978-81-8205-460-8,
  • BOOK, harv, Datta, Amaresh, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature,weblink 1988, Sahitya Akademi, 978-81-260-1194-0,
  • BOOK, Banerjee, Anuradha, 1998, Environment, population, and human settlements of Sundarban Delta, Ashok Kumar Mittal, 81-7022-739-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Europe Reconsidered: Perceptions of the West in Nineteenth-Century Bengal, 2002, Tapan Raychaudhuri, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-566109-5,
  • BOOK, harv, Chakrabarti, Kunal, Chakrabarti, Shubhra, Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis,weblink 22 August 2013, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-8024-5,
  • BOOK, 2009, Impact of Social Sector Development in West Bengal,weblink Planning Commission, Government of India, harv,
  • BOOK, Inden, Ronald B., Ralph W, 2005, Kinship in Bengali Culture, The University of Chicago Press, 1977, 81-8028-018-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Sen, Jyotirmoy, 1988, Land Utilisation and Population Distribution: A Case Study of West Bengal, 1850–1985, Daya Books, 227, 978-81-7035-043-9,
  • BOOK, Foreword by Alan Bennett, Jane, Hindle, 1996, London Review of Books: An Anthology, London, Verso, 1-85984-121-X, 63–70, harv,
  • BOOK, Bose, Sugata, 1993, Peasant Labour and Colonial Capital: Rural Bengal Since 1770, Volume 3, Cambridge University Press, 203, 978-0-521-26694-9,
  • BOOK, Mukherjee, Bharati, 1991, Political Culture and Leadership in India: A Study of West Bengal, Mittal Publications, 403, 978-81-7099-320-9,
  • JOURNAL, Sunny, C, 1999, Poverty and social development in west bengal, India Rural Development Report, NIRD,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Marvin, Davis, Rank and rivalry: the politics of inequality in rural West Bengal, 1983, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, xxvii, 239, 0-521-24657-1,
  • BOOK, harv, Arnold-Baker, Charles, The Companion to British History,weblink 30 July 2015, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-317-40039-4,
  • BOOK, harv, Bardhan, Kalpana, The Oxford India Anthology of Bengali Literature: 1941–1991,weblink 2010, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-806461-9,
  • BOOK, harv, Gooptu, Sharmistha, Gokulsing, K. Moti, Dissanayake, Wimal, Routledge Handbook of Indian Cinemas,weblink 17 April 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-77284-9, 'Bengali' cinema: Its making and unmaking,
  • BOOK, Roy, Ananya, Ananya Roy, AlSayyad, Nezar, Nezar AlSayyad, 2004, Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and South Asia, Lexington Books, 0-7391-0741-0, harv, Lanham, Md,
  • BOOK


, May 2004
, West Bengal Human Development Report, 2004
,weblink
, Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal
, 81-7955-030-3
, {hide}SfnRef, West Bengal Human Development Report, 2004, | location=Kolkata
{edih}
  • BOOK, Amrita Basu, V., Two Faces of Protest: Contrasting Modes of Women's Activism in India,weblink 1997, University of California Press ltd., 0-520-06506-9, 16 June 2009,
  • BOOK, Jasodhara Bagchi, Sarmistha Dutta Gupta, V., The changing status of women in West Bengal, 1970–2000: the challenge ahead,weblink 2000, Saga Publication India Pvt Ltd., 0-7619-3242-9, 16 June 2010,
  • BOOK, Magnus Öberg, Kaare Strom, V., Resources, governance and civil conflict,weblink 2008, Routledge, 978-0-415-41671-9, 16 June 2004,
  • BOOK, Atul Kohli, I., The State and Poverty in India,weblink 1987, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-37876-5, 16 June 2007,
  • Richard Maxwell Eaton, The rise of Islam and the Bengal frontier, 1204–1760, 1993, University of California Press, California, California,1993, {{ISBN|0-520-08077-7}}.
  • Ross Mallick. (1955). Development Policy of a Communist Government: West Bengal Since 1977, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (Reprinted 2008) {{ISBN|978-0-521-43292-4}}.
  • BOOK, Harriss-White, Barbara, 2008, Rural Commercial Capital: Agricultural Markets in West Bengal, Oxford University Press, USA, 0-19-569159-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Raychaudhuri, Ajitava, Das, Tuhin K., 2005, West Bengal economy: some contemporary issues, Jadavpur University Press, India, 81-7764-731-8,weblink harv,
  • Government of West Bengal, Law Department, Lagislative Notification. No. 182- L – 24 January 2013. West Bengal Act XXXVI of 2012. The West Bengal Official Language (Second Amendment) Act, 2012.
  • BOOK, Chatterjee, Partha, 1997, The Present History of West Bengal: Essays in Political Criticism, the University of Michigan, Oxford University Press, 223, 978-0-19-563945-2,
  • BOOK, Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar, 2009, Decolonization in South Asia: Meanings of Freedom in Post-independence West Bengal, 1947–52, Routledge, 256, 978-1-134-01823-9,
  • BOOK, Chatterji, Joya, 2007, The Spoils of Partition: Bengal and India, 1947–1967, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-46830-5,
  • BOOK, Sen, Raj Kumar, Dasgupta, Asis, 2007, West Bengal Today: 25 Years of Economic Development, Deep and Deep Publications, 380, 978-81-7629-984-8,
  • BOOK, Roy, Dayabati, 2013, Rural Politics in India: Political Stratification and Governance in West Bengal, Cambridge University Press, 278, 978-1-107-51316-7,
  • BOOK, Samaddar, Ranabir, 1999, The Marginal Nation: Transborder Migration from Bangladesh to West Bengal, the University of Michigan, SAGE Publications, 227, 978-0-7619-9283-7,
  • BOOK,weblink Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire, Bayly, Christopher Alan, 195, 196, 1987, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-38650-0, en, harv,
  • BOOK, Khan, Muhammad Mojlum, 2013, The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh and West Bengal, Kube Publishing Ltd, 384, 978-1-84774-062-5,
  • BOOK,weblink India's Struggle for Independence, Chandra, Bipan, Mukherjee, Mridula, Mukherjee, Aditya, Panikkar, K. N., Mahajan, Sucheta, 9 August 2016, Penguin UK, 978-81-8475-183-3, en, harv,

External links

  • {{official}}
  • West Bengal Tourism
  • West Bengal Encyclopædia Britannica entry
  • {{dmoz|Regional/Asia/India/West_Bengal|West Bengal}}
  • {{osmrelation-inline|1960177}}
{{Geographic location|Centre = West Bengal|North = SikkimChukha District>Chukha, Dagana District and Samtse Districts, {{flag>Bhutan}}AssamRangpur Division>Rangpur and Rajshahi Divisions, {{flag|Bangladesh}}Khulna Division, {{flag>Bangladesh}}|South = Bay of Bengal|Southwest = Odisha|West = BiharJharkhandEastern Region, Nepal>Eastern Region, {{flag|Nepal}}}}{{West Bengal topics}}{{States and territories of India}}{{Bengal Renaissance}}{{Subject bar |commons=yes |n=yes |n-search=Category:West Bengal |wikt=yes |b=yes |q=yes |s=yes |s-search=Portal:West Bengal |voy=yes |voy-search=West Bengal |d=yes |d-search=Q1356}}{{Coord|22|34|N|88|22|E|type:adm1st_scale:3000000_region:IN-WB|display=title|name=West Bengal}}{{Authority control}}

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