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{{about|the capital of New Zealand|the British statesman after whom it is named|Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington|other uses}}{{short description|Capital city of New Zealand}}{{use New Zealand English|date=August 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2019}}

}}|native_name_lang= MāoriCapital of New Zealand>Capital city|image_skyline = Wellington montage 2.jpg|imagesize = 250pxWellington Harbour, New Zealand Parliament Buildings>Parliament Buildings, The Bucket Fountain, National Library, Wellington Cable Car|image_flag = Flag_of_Wellington_City,_New_Zealand.svg|image_shield = Wellington COA.gif|nickname =Windy Wellington, Wellywood|pushpin_map = New Zealand#Oceania#Pacific Ocean|pushpin_map_caption = Location in New Zealand & Pacific Ocean|pushpin_relief = yes412017438type:city(370000)_region:NZ-WGN|display=it}}|subdivision_type = Country|subdivision_name = {{NZ}}Regions of New Zealand>RegionTerritorial authorities of New Zealand>Territorial authoritiesWellington Region>WellingtonWellington CityLower Hutt>Lower Hutt CityUpper HuttPorirua>Porirua City|established_title1 = Settled by Europeans|established_date1 = 1839| founder =Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington>A. Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington|government_footnotes =|government_type =Mayor of Wellington City>MayorAndy Foster (politician)>Andy Foster (Mayor-elect)|total_type = ACCESSDATE=5 AUGUST 2008 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=17 SEPTEMBER 2011, |area_land_km2 =|area_water_km2 =|area_urban_km2 = 442|area_metro_km2 = 1388|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m =|elevation_ft =|elevation_max_m = 495|elevation_min_m = 0|elevation_min_ft =y}}ACCESSDATE=5 AUGUST 2008ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130209140342/HTTP://WELLINGTON.GOVT.NZ/PLANS/ANNUALPLAN/0708/PDFS/03SNAPSHOT.PDF, dead, R}}|population_density_urban_km2 = auto{{formatnum:{{NZ population datay}}Porirua CityR}}+{{formatnum:{{NZ population datay}}Upper Hutt CityR}}|0}}|population_density_metro_km2 = auto|population_blank1_title = Demonym|population_blank1 = Wellingtonian|population_note =|postal_code_type = Postcode(s)|postal_code = 5010, 5011, 5012, 5013, 5014, 5016, 5018, 5019, 5022, 5024, 5026, 5028, 6011, 6012, 6021, 6022, 6023, 6035, 6037|area_code = 04|website =|footnotes =Time in New Zealand>NZST|utc_offset = +12|timezone_DST = NZDT|utc_offset_DST = +13|blank_name =Local iwi|blank_info =Ngāti Toa Rangatira, Ngāti Raukawa, Te Āti Awa}}Wellington ( {{IPA-mi|tɛ ˈfaŋanʉi a taɾa|}}) is the capital and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with {{NZ population data||y}} residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which also includes the Kapiti Coast and the Wairarapa. It is the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, and is the world's windiest city by average wind speed.NEWS, Where is the world's windiest city? Spoiler alert: it's not Chicago,weblink Karl Mathiesen, 15 October 2015, The Guardian, 13 August 2016,weblink 12 July 2016, live, The Wellington metropolitan area comprises four local authorities: Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district and about half the population; Porirua on Porirua Harbour to the north is notable for its large Māori and Pacific Island communities; Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt are largely suburban areas to the northeast, together known as the Hutt Valley.As the nation's capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court and most of the public service are based in the city. Architectural sights include The Old Government Buildings—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive, the executive wing of the New Zealand Parliament. Wellington is also home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation, such the National Archives, the National Library, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, and numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. One of the world's most liveable cities, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world, and was first in the world for both liveability and non-pollution by Deutsche Bank, from 2017–18.WEB,weblink 2014 Quality of Living Worldwide City Rankings – Mercer Survey,, 19 February 2014, 11 April 2014,weblink 25 June 2013, live, WEB,weblink Wellington named most liveable city for second year running, Stuff, en, 2019-06-23,weblink 23 June 2019, live, Wellington's economy is primarily service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, and government. It is the centre of New Zealand's film and special effects industries, and increasingly a hub for information technology and innovation,WEB,weblink}, Wellington Is Bigger On Tech And Innovation Than You Think, Lim, Jason, 29 November 2015, Forbes, 15 November 2016, with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping. The city is served by Wellington International Airport, the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and the Wairarapa, and ferries connect the city to the South Island.Described by Lonely Planet in 2013 as "the coolest little capital in the world",WEB,weblink How they saw us: 250 years of quotes about New Zealand, Noted, Noted, en, 2019-07-09,weblink 9 July 2019, live, the emerging world cityWEB,weblink Wellington is a Smart City of the future, iStart leading the way to smarter technology investment., en-nz, 2019-07-09,weblink 9 July 2019, live, has said to have grown from a bustling Māori settlement, to a small colonial outpost, and from there to an Australasian creative capital with a "remarkable creative resurgence".WEB,weblink Huffington Post lauds Wellington's 'remarkable' creative resurgence, Stuff, en, 2019-07-09,weblink 9 July 2019, live, WEB,weblink Wellington: New Zealand's creative capital, TNZ Media, 2019-07-09,weblink 9 July 2019, live,


Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo (1815): his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. It was named in November 1840 by the original settlers of the New Zealand Company on the suggestion of the directors of the same, in recognition of the Duke's strong support for the company's principles of colonisation and his "strenuous and successful defence against its enemies of the measure for colonising South Australia". One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers "took up the views of the directors with great cordiality and the new name was at once adopted".Edward Jerningham Wakefield, "Adventure in New Zealand", Vol. 1, pub. John Murray, 1845.In the Māori language, Wellington has three names. Te Whanganui-a-Tara refers to Wellington Harbour and means "the great harbour of Tara";WEB, Te Āti Awa of Wellington – Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand,weblink, 19 June 2015, (Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand),weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2015, live, WEB, Orthographic Conventions – Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori – Māori Language Commission,weblink 16 July 2012, 19 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 16 July 2012, dead, Pōneke is a transliteration of Port Nick, short for Port Nicholson (the city's central marae, the community supporting it and its kapa haka have the pseudo-tribal name of Ngāti Pōneke);WEB, Poneke: Wellington places to visit,weblink 20 February 2007, 19 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 20 February 2007, dead, Department of Conservation (New Zealand), Department of Conservation, Te Upoko-o-te-Ika-a-Māui, meaning 'The Head of the Fish of Māui' (often shortened to Te Upoko-o-te-Ika), a traditional name for the southernmost part of the North Island, deriving from the legend of the fishing up of the island by the demi-god Māui. As stated above, the legendary Maori explorer Kupe, a chief from Hawaiki (the homeland of Polynesian explorers, of unconfirmed geographical location, not to be confused with Hawaii), was said to have stayed in the harbour prior to 1000 CE.WEB,weblink Māori history, Wellington City Council, en-NZ, 2019-07-09,weblink 10 April 2019, live, {{Citation|title=Kupe|date=2019-07-04|url=|work=Wikipedia|language=en|access-date=2019-07-09}} Here, it is said he had a notable impact on the area, with local mythology stating he named the two islands in the harbour after his daughters, Matiu (Somes Island), and Mākaro (Ward Island).WEB,weblink 5. – Wellington region – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu,, en, 2019-07-09, {{Dead link|date=August 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} However, the primary settlement of Wellington has said to been executed by Tara, the son of Whatonga, a chief from the Mahia Peninsula, who told his son to travel south, to find more fertile lands to settle.WEB,weblink Māori history, Wellington City Council, en-NZ, 2019-07-09, In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index, middle and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a "W", and shaking it slightly from side to side twice.WEB,weblink Wellington – New Zealand Sign Language Online, Deaf Studies Research Unit, Victoria University of Wellington, 11 November 2013, The city's location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leaves it vulnerable to strong gales, leading to the nickname of "Windy Wellington".ENCYCLOPEDIA, Maclean, Chris, Windy Wellington,weblink (Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand), 11 March 2017, en, 3 August 2015,


{{expand section|date=April 2019}}File:The Old Shebang, Cuba Street, Wellington, ca 1883.jpg|thumb|"The Old Shebang" on Cuba Street, c. 1883]]File:Old High Court building Wellington New Zealand 2015.JPG|thumb|The Old High Court, since restored as the Supreme Court of New ZealandSupreme Court of New Zealand

Māori settlement

Legends recount that Kupe discovered and explored the region in about the 10th century. Before European colonisation, the area in which the city of Wellington would eventually be founded was seasonally inhabited by indigenous Māori. The earliest date with hard evidence for human activity in New Zealand is about 1280.BOOK, Te Whanganui a Tara me ona takiwa : report on the Wellington District., Waitangi Tribunal., 2003, Legislation Direct, 186956264X, Wellington, N.Z., 17, 53261192, Wellington and its environs have been occupied by various Māori groups from the 12th century. The legendary Polynesian explorer Kupe, a chief from Hawaiki (the homeland of Polynesian explorers, of unconfirmed geographical location, not to be confused with Hawaii), was said to have stayed in the harbour from {{circa|925}}.BOOK, Te Whanganui a Tara me ona takiwa : report on the Wellington District., Waitangi Tribunal, 2003, Legislation Direct, 186956264X, Wellington, N.Z., 13, 53261192, A later Māori explorer, Whatonga, named the harbour Te Whanganui-a-Tara after his son Tara.Waitangi Tribunal, Te Whanganui a Tara me ona Takiwa, page 18,weblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=22 January 2019 }} Before the 1820s, most of the inhabitants of the Wellington region were Whatonga's descendants.Waitangi Tribunal, Te Whanganui a Tara me ona Takiwa, page 18At about 1820, the people living there were Ngāti Ira and other groups who traced their descent from the explorer Whātonga, including Rangitāne and Muaūpoko.BOOK, Te Whanganui a Tara me ona takiwa : report on the Wellington District., Waitangi Tribunal, 2003, Legislation Direct, 186956264X, Wellington, N.Z., 53261192, However, these groups were eventually forced out of Te Whanganui-a-Tara by a series of migrations other iwi (Māori tribes) from the north. The migrating groups were Ngāti Toa, which came from Kāwhia, Ngāti Rangatahi, from near Taumarunui, and Te Atiawa, Ngāti Tama, Ngāti Mutunga, Taranaki and Ngāti Ruanui from Taranaki. Ngāti Mutunga later moved on to the Chatham Islands. The Waitangi Tribunal has found that at the time of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, Te Atiawa, Taranaki, Ngati Ruanui, Ngati Tama, and Ngati Toa held mana whenua interests in the area, through conquest and occupation.

Early European settlement

Steps towards Pākehā (European) settlement in the area began in 1839, when Colonel William Wakefield arrived to purchase land for the New Zealand Company to sell to prospective British settlers. Prior to this time, the Māori inhabitants had had contact with Pākehā whalers and traders.WEB,weblink Deed of Settlement of Historical Claims signed between Taranaki Whānui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika and the Port Nicholson Block Settlement Trust and The Sovereign in Right of New Zealand, 19 August 2008, New Zealand Government,weblink 4 February 2018, live, 15 September 2018, 8, The importance of the Harbour to Taranaki Whanui ki Te Upoko o Te Ika increased as trade was entered into early in the 19th century., (File:Early Map of Wellington - Wellington County District (23530307892).jpg|alt= Early Map of Wellington - Wellington County District |thumb| This early map of Wellington County District shows a number of important historical sites, including Māori pā, pathways, wāhi tapu, and pre-1840 battle sites, as well as battle sites from the New Zealand Land Wars)European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840. Thus the Wellington settlement preceded the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (6 February 1840). Over the next century, food-processing plants, engineering industries, vehicle assembly and oil refineries clustered to the north-east of Wellington Harbour, which caused the main industrial growth in the Hutt Valley.JOURNAL, Credo Online Reference Service, Sheret, Larry, 10.5260/cca.199273, {{qn|date=September 2019}} The 1840 settlers constructed their first homes at Petone (which they called Britannia for a time) on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River. Within months that area proved swampy and flood-prone, and most of the newcomers transplanted their settlement, which had been planned without regard for a hilly terrain,{{cn|date=September 2019}} across Wellington Harbour to Thorndon in the present-day site of Wellington city.

National capital

{{see also|Capital of New Zealand}}File:Corner of Bowen Street and Lambton Quay, circa 1929.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.5|Thorndon, the centre of government in Wellington, {{circa|1929}}. The original Wellington Government House (now the site of the Beehive), Parliament Buildings and Turnbull HouseTurnbull HouseFile:Old Government Buildings - whole.JPG|thumb|right|Old Government Buildings, Lambton Quay, the second-largest wooden building in the world and the largest in the Southern Hemisphere]]Wellington was declared a city in 1840, and was chosen to be the capital city of New Zealand in 1865.Wellington became the capital city in place of Auckland, which William Hobson had made the capital in 1841. The New Zealand Parliament had first met in Wellington on 7 July 1862, on a temporary basis; in November 1863, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, Alfred Domett, placed a resolution before Parliament in Auckland that "... it has become necessary that the seat of government ... should be transferred to some suitable locality in Cook Strait [region]." There had been some concerns that the more populous South Island (where the goldfields were located) would choose to form a separate colony in the British Empire. Several commissioners (delegates) invited from Australia, chosen for their neutral status, declared that the city was a suitable location because of its central location in New Zealand and its good harbour; it was believed that the whole Royal Navy fleet could fit into the harbour.WEB,weblink History of New Zealand, 1769–1914 – A history of New Zealand 1769–1914,, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 10 July 2019,weblink 20 July 2019, live, Wellington's status as capital is a result of constitutional convention rather than statute.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Levine, Stephen, Capital city – Wellington, capital city, (Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand),weblink 20 June 2012, 23 May 2019,weblink 5 February 2019, live, Wellington is New Zealand's political centre, housing the nation's major government institutions. The New Zealand Parliament relocated to the new capital city, having spent the first ten years of its existence in Auckland.WEB, Parliament moves to Wellington,weblink, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 25 April 2019,weblink 25 April 2019, live, A session of parliament officially met in the capital for the first time on 26 July 1865. At that time, the population of Wellington was just 4,900.BOOK, Temple, Philip, 1980, Wellington Yesterday, 0-86868-012-5, John McIndoe, Philip Temple, The Government Buildings were constructed at Lambton Quay in 1876. The site housed the original government departments in New Zealand. The public service rapidly expanded beyond the capacity of the building, with the first department leaving shortly after it was opened; by 1975 only the Education Department remained, and by 1990 the building was empty. The capital city is also the location of the highest court, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, and the historic former High Court building (opened 1881) has been enlarged and restored for its use. The Governor-General's residence, Government House (the current building completed in 1910) is situated in Newtown, opposite the Basin Reserve. Premier House (built in 1843 for Wellington's first mayor, George Hunter), the official residence of the prime minister, is in Thorndon on Tinakori Road.Over six months in 1939 and 1940 Wellington hosted the New Zealand Centennial Exhibition, celebrating a century since the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. Held on 55 acres of land at Rongotai it featured three exhibition courts, grand Art Deco-style edifices and a hugely popular three-acre amusement park. Wellington attracted more than 2.5 million visitors at a time when New Zealand's population was 1.6 million.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Maclean, Chris, Wellington region – Boom and bust: 1900–1940,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 9 July 2007, 23 May 2019,weblink 20 July 2019, live, {{clear}}


(File:Wellington, New Zealand.JPG|thumb|Satellite view of the Wellington area)Wellington is at the south-western tip of the North Island on Cook Strait, separating the North and South Islands. On a clear day the snowcapped Kaikoura Ranges are visible to the south across the strait. To the north stretch the golden beaches of the Kapiti Coast. On the east the Remutaka Range divides Wellington from the broad plains of the Wairarapa, a wine region of national notability. With a latitude of 41° 17' South, Wellington is the southernmost capital city in the world.BOOK, Guinness World Records 2009, 2008, Guinness World Records Ltd, London, United Kingdom, 978-1-904994-36-7, 277, Guinness World Records, It is also the most remote capital city, the farthest away from any other capital. It is more densely populated than most other cities in New Zealand due to the restricted amount of land that is available between its harbour and the surrounding hills. It has very few open areas in which to expand, and this has brought about the development of the suburban towns. Because of its location in the Roaring Forties and its exposure to the winds blowing through Cook Strait, Wellington is the world's windiest city, with an average wind speed of {{convert|27|km/h|0|abbr=on}}.NEWS, Where is the world's windiest city? Spoiler alert: it's not Chicago, Karl Mathiesen, The Guardian,weblink 19 January 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 19 January 2016, live, (File:Wellington Urban Area.png|thumb|left|The Wellington urban area (pink) is administered by four local authorities)The urban area stretches across the areas administered by the city councils of Wellington, Lower Hutt, Upper Hutt and Porirua. The suburb of Porirua lies on Porirua Harbour to the north. Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt, collectively referred to as the Hutt Valley, are suburban areas to the northeast of Wellington City.File:WELLINGTON, BOTANICAL GARDENS (44448999).jpg|thumb|right|Wellington Botanic GardensWellington Botanic GardensWellington's scenic natural harbour and green hillsides adorned with tiered suburbs of colonial villas are popular with tourists. The central business district (CBD) is close to Lambton Harbour, an arm of Wellington Harbour, which lies along an active geological fault, clearly evident on its straight western shore. The land to the west of this rises abruptly, meaning that many suburbs sit high above the centre of the city. There is a network of bush walks and reserves maintained by the Wellington City Council and local volunteers. These include Otari-Wilton's Bush, dedicated to the protection and propagation of native plants. The Wellington region has {{convert|500|km2|sqmi|-1}} of regional parks and forests. In the east is the Miramar Peninsula, connected to the rest of the city by a low-lying isthmus at Rongotai, the site of Wellington International Airport.The narrow entrance to the harbour is to the east of the Miramar Peninsula, and contains the dangerous shallows of Barrett Reef, where many ships have been wrecked (notably the inter-island ferry {{ship|TEV|Wahine}} in 1968).WEB,weblink New Zealand Disasters – Wahine Shipwreck, Christchurch City Libraries, 10 April 1968, 28 July 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2011, live, The harbour has three islands: Matiu/Somes Island, Makaro/Ward Island and Mokopuna Island. Only Matiu/Somes Island is large enough for habitation. It has been used as a quarantine station for people and animals, and was an internment camp during World War I and World War II. It is a conservation island, providing refuge for endangered species, much like Kapiti Island farther up the coast. There is access during daylight hours by the Dominion Post Ferry.Wellington is primarily surrounded by water, but some of the nearby locations are listed below.{{Geographic location|title = Neighbouring cities, towns and places.Kapiti Coast>Kapiti, Tararua Forest Park and Masterton|Centre = Wellington|East = Rimutaka Forest Park}}


Steep landforms shape and constrain much of Wellington city. Notable hills in and around Wellington include:
  • Mount Victoria – 196 m. Mt Vic is a popular walk for tourists and Wellingtonians alike, as from the summit one can see most of Wellington. There are also numerous mountain bike and walking tracks on the hill.
  • Mount AlbertBOOK, Harper, Laura, Mudd, Tony, Whitfield, Paul, New Zealand,weblink Rough Guide Travel Guides, Rough Guides, 2002, 504, 9781858288963, 9 August 2016, Highlights include the sweeping views from the lookout at the Mount Victoria summit (196m) and from Mount Albert (178m) [...].,weblink 24 February 2017, live
, – 178m.
  • Mount Cook
  • Mount Alfred (west of Evans Bay)BOOK, Wise's New Zealand Index,weblink H. Wise & Co. (N.Z.) Ltd, 1948, 245, 9 August 2016, Mount Alfred. West of Evans Bay, Wellington; 400ft.,weblink 24 February 2017, live
, – 122m
  • Mount Kaukau – 445 m
  • Mount CrawfordBOOK, Wake, Jenny, The Making of King Kong: The Official Guide to the Motion Picture,weblink New York, Simon and Schuster, 2005, 111, 9781416505181, 9 August 2016, The native village and wall set, too big to build in a soundstage, was erected outside on nearby Mount Crawford, a hill overlooking Wellington harbor.,weblink 24 February 2017, live
  • Brooklyn Hill – 299m
  • Wrights Hill
  • Makara Hill
  • Te Ahumairangi (Tinakori) Hill


Averaging 2,055 hours of sunshine per year, the climate of Wellington is temperate marine, (Köppen: Cfb), generally moderate all year round with warm summers and mild winters, and rarely sees temperatures above {{convert|25|°C|0|abbr=on}} or below {{convert|4|°C|0|abbr=on}}. The hottest recorded temperature in the city is {{convert|31.1|°C|0|abbr=on}}, while {{convert|-1.9|°C|0|abbr=on}} is the coldest.WEB,weblink Climate Summary, MetService, en-NZ, 2019-01-31,weblink 22 January 2019, live, The city is notorious for its southerly blasts in winter, which may make the temperature feel much colder. It is generally very windy all year round with high rainfall; average annual rainfall is {{convert|1250|mm|0|abbr=on}}, June and July being the wettest months. Frosts are quite common in the hill suburbs and the Hutt Valley between May and September. Snow is very rare at low altitudes, although snow fell on the city and many other parts of the Wellington region during separate events on 25 July 2011 and 15 August 2011.NEWS,weblink Snow spotted in central Wellington, The Dominion Post, 25 July 2011, 1 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 25 October 2012, live, NEWS,weblink Snow falls in downtown Wellington, The Dominion Post, 15 August 2011, 15 August 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 25 October 2012, live, On 29 January 2019, the suburb of Kelburn reached {{convert|30.3|C|F|0}}, the highest temperature since records began in 1927.NEWS,weblink Temperature record broken in Wellington, warm weather to last to weekend, NZ Herald, 29 January 2019, 29 January 2019,weblink 29 January 2019, live, {{Weather boxKelburn, New Zealand>Kelburn (1928–2018, Humidity 1962–2018)|metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|Jan record high C = 30.1|Feb record high C = 30.1|Mar record high C = 28.3|Apr record high C = 27.3|May record high C = 22.0|Jun record high C = 18.3|Jul record high C = 17.6|Aug record high C = 19.3|Sep record high C = 21.9|Oct record high C = 25.1|Nov record high C = 26.9|Dec record high C = 29.1|year record high C = 30.1|Jan high C = 20.1|Feb high C = 20.3|Mar high C = 19.0|Apr high C = 16.6|May high C = 14.0|Jun high C = 11.9|Jul high C = 11.1|Aug high C = 11.9|Sep high C = 13.4|Oct high C = 15.0|Nov high C = 16.7|Dec high C = 18.7|year high C = 15.7|Jan mean C = 16.7|Feb mean C = 16.9|Mar mean C = 15.7|Apr mean C = 13.7|May mean C = 11.3|Jun mean C = 9.3|Jul mean C = 8.5|Aug mean C = 9.2|Sep mean C = 10.5|Oct mean C = 11.9|Nov mean C = 13.4|Dec mean C = 15.3|year mean C = 12.7|Jan low C = 13.2|Feb low C = 13.4|Mar low C = 12.4|Apr low C = 10.7|May low C = 8.6|Jun low C = 6.7|Jul low C = 5.9|Aug low C = 6.4|Sep low C = 7.5|Oct low C = 8.8|Nov low C = 10.2|Dec low C = 12.0|year low C = 9.6|Jan record low C = 4.1|Feb record low C = 5.2|Mar record low C = 4.6|Apr record low C = 2.6|May record low C = 1.0|Jun record low C = -0.1|Jul record low C = 0.0|Aug record low C = -0.1|Sep record low C = 0.2|Oct record low C = 1.2|Nov record low C = 1.7|Dec record low C = 3.4|year record low C = -0.1|rain colour = green|Jan rain mm = 78.1|Feb rain mm = 77.9|Mar rain mm = 85.2|Apr rain mm = 100.5|May rain mm = 121.0|Jun rain mm = 132.8|Jul rain mm = 136.5|Aug rain mm = 126.4|Sep rain mm = 100.0|Oct rain mm = 110.3|Nov rain mm = 89.7|Dec rain mm = 91.8|year rain mm = 1250.3|Jan rain days = 7.3|Feb rain days = 7.0|Mar rain days = 8.2|Apr rain days = 9.4|May rain days = 11.7|Jun rain days = 13.4|Jul rain days = 13.4|Aug rain days = 13.1|Sep rain days = 11.2|Oct rain days = 11.4|Nov rain days = 9.5|Dec rain days = 9.0|year rain days = 124.5|unit rain days = 1.0 mm|Jan humidity = 79.5|Feb humidity = 81.6|Mar humidity = 82.2|Apr humidity = 82.7|May humidity = 84.5|Jun humidity = 86.0|Jul humidity = 85.8|Aug humidity = 84.6|Sep humidity = 80.7|Oct humidity = 80.3|Nov humidity = 78.9|Dec humidity = 79.5|year humidity = 82.2|Jan sun = 238.8|Feb sun = 205.1|Mar sun = 193.7|Apr sun = 154.0|May sun = 125.8|Jun sun = 102.3|Jul sun = 112.0|Aug sun = 136.6|Sep sun = 162.1|Oct sun = 191.5|Nov sun = 210.4|Dec sun = 223.0|year sun = 2055.4|source 1 = CliFloWEB
, CliFlo – National Climate Database
, 31 January 2019
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 27 November 2015
, live
}}{{Weather box|location = Wellington International Airport (1960–2018, Temperature 1962–2018)|collapsed=Yes|metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|Jan record high C = 29.4|Feb record high C = 30.6|Mar record high C = 28.3|Apr record high C = 25.2|May record high C = 22.0|Jun record high C = 19.2|Jul record high C = 18.8|Aug record high C = 18.3|Sep record high C = 22.6|Oct record high C = 23.9|Nov record high C = 26.8|Dec record high C = 29.6|year record high C = 30.6|Jan high C = 21.1|Feb high C = 21.1|Mar high C = 19.8|Apr high C = 17.3|May high C = 15.0|Jun high C = 13.0|Jul high C = 12.2|Aug high C = 12.8|Sep high C = 14.3|Oct high C = 15.8|Nov high C = 17.6|Dec high C = 19.6|year high C = 16.7|Jan mean C = 17.8|Feb mean C = 17.8|Mar mean C = 16.6|Apr mean C = 14.4|May mean C = 12.3|Jun mean C = 10.3|Jul mean C = 9.5|Aug mean C = 10.1|Sep mean C = 11.4|Oct mean C = 12.9|Nov mean C = 14.5|Dec mean C = 16.5|year mean C= 13.7|Jan low C = 14.5|Feb low C = 14.5|Mar low C = 13.5|Apr low C = 11.5|May low C = 9.6|Jun low C = 7.6|Jul low C = 6.7|Aug low C = 7.3|Sep low C = 8.6|Oct low C = 9.9|Nov low C = 11.3|Dec low C = 13.3|year low C = 10.7|Jan record low C = 4.3|Feb record low C = 4.5|Mar record low C = 4.3|Apr record low C = 2.3|May record low C = 0.6|Jun record low C = -0.6|Jul record low C = -1.1|Aug record low C = -0.2|Sep record low C = -1.0|Oct record low C = 1.2|Nov record low C = 2.1|Dec record low C = 3.8|year record low C = -1.1|rain colour = green|Jan rain mm = 64.2|Feb rain mm = 56.1|Mar rain mm = 71.1|Apr rain mm = 80.5|May rain mm = 94.1|Jun rain mm = 107.8|Jul rain mm = 111.7|Aug rain mm = 102.2|Sep rain mm = 80.6|Oct rain mm = 85.1|Nov rain mm = 69.7|Dec rain mm = 70.0|year rain mm = 993.0|Jan rain days = 6.6|Feb rain days = 6.3|Mar rain days = 7.7|Apr rain days = 8.2|May rain days = 10.2|Jun rain days = 12.3|Jul rain days = 12.0|Aug rain days = 12.4|Sep rain days = 10.6|Oct rain days = 10.3|Nov rain days = 8.4|Dec rain days = 8.1|year rain days = 113.0|unit rain days = 1.0 mm|Jan humidity = 75.1|Feb humidity = 76.8|Mar humidity = 77.6|Apr humidity = 78.0|May humidity = 80.0|Jun humidity = 81.5|Jul humidity = 81.0|Aug humidity = 80.0|Sep humidity = 76.5|Oct humidity = 75.4|Nov humidity = 73.6|Dec humidity = 74.9|year humidity = 77.5|source 1 = CliFlo}}


{{See also|List of earthquakes in New Zealand}}File:Wellington-FromTopOfMountVictoria.jpg|thumb|Wellington City from Mount Victoria ]]Wellington suffered serious damage in a series of earthquakes in 1848WEB,weblink The 1848 Marlborough earthquake – Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand,, 30 March 2005, 6 February 2009,weblink 2 June 2009, live, and from another earthquake in 1855. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on the Wairarapa Fault to the north and east of Wellington. It was probably the most powerful earthquake in recorded New Zealand history,WEB,weblink The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake – Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand,, 21 September 2007, 6 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 21 February 2009, live, with an estimated magnitude of at least 8.2 on the Moment magnitude scale. It caused vertical movements of two to three metres over a large area, including raising land out of the harbour and turning it into a tidal swamp. Much of this land was subsequently reclaimed and is now part of the central business district. For this reason, the street named Lambton Quay is 100 to 200 metres (325 to 650 ft) from the harbour – plaques set into the footpath mark the shoreline in 1840, indicating the extent of reclamation. The 1942 Wairarapa earthquakes caused considerable damage in Wellington.The area has high seismic activity even by New Zealand standards, with a major fault, the Wellington Fault running through the centre of the city and several others nearby. Several hundred minor faults lines have been identified within the urban area. Inhabitants, particularly in high-rise buildings, typically notice several earthquakes every year. For many years after the 1855 earthquake, the majority of buildings were made entirely from wood. The 1996-restored Government Buildings{{NZHPT|37|Government Buildings|2009-02-06}} near Parliament is the largest wooden building in the Southern Hemisphere. While masonry and structural steel have subsequently been used in building construction, especially for office buildings, timber framing remains the primary structural component of almost all residential construction. Residents place their confidence in good building regulations, which became more stringent in the 20th century.Since the Canterbury earthquakes of 2010 and 2011, earthquake readiness has become even more of an issue, with buildings declared by Wellington City Council to be earthquake-prone,WEB,weblink Shuddering in Wellington, Dave Burgess, Fairfax NZ, 14 March 2011, 28 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 23 March 2011, live, WEB,weblink How safe are the capital's office buildings?, Hank Schouten, Dominion Post, 2 June 2012, 28 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2012, live, and the costs of meeting new standards.WEB,weblink Councillors question quake costs, Kate Chapman, The Dominion Post, 16 October 2012, 28 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2012, live, WEB,weblink Quake shakes capital insurance market, Dave Burgess & Hank Schouten, The Dominion Post, 1 October 2011, 28 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2012, live, Every five years a year-long slow quake occurs beneath Wellington, stretching from Kapiti to the Marlborough Sounds. It was first measured in 2003, and reappeared in 2008 and 2013.NEWS,weblink 3 News NZ, 'Silent' quake gently rocks Wellington, 28 May 2013, 28 May 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2014, dead, dmy-all, It releases as much energy as a magnitude 7 quake, but as it happens slowly there is no damage.NEWS,weblink GeoNet NZ, M7 slow release earthquake under Wellington, 27 May 2013, 28 May 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2013, live, During July and August 2013 there were many earthquakes, mostly in Cook Strait near Seddon. The sequence started at 5:09 pm on Sunday 21 July 2013 when the magnitude 6.5 Seddon earthquake hit the city, but no tsunami report was confirmed nor any major damage.WEB,weblink New Zealand's capital shaken by a magnitude 6.5 earthquake, ABC News, 21 July 2013, 21 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2013, live, At 2:31 pm on Friday 16 August 2013 the Lake Grassmere earthquake struck, this time magnitude 6.6, but again no major damage occurred, though many buildings were evacuated.Strong 6.6 earthquake hits Wellington, aftershocks... {{Webarchive|url= |date=13 October 2013 }}. Retrieved on 7 September 2013.On Monday 20 January 2014 at 3:52 pm a rolling 6.2 magnitude earthquake struck the lower North Island 15 km east of Eketahuna and was felt in Wellington, but little damage was reported initially, except at Wellington Airport where one of the two giant eagle sculptures commemorating The Hobbit became detached from the ceiling.NEWS, Quake: 'Hobbit' sculpture crashes down at N.Z. airport,weblink 21 November 2016, USA Today, 20 January 2014,weblink 27 December 2017, live, At two minutes after midnight on the morning of Monday 14 November 2016, the 7.8 magnitude Kaikoura earthquake which was centred between Culverden and Kaikoura in the South Island caused most of Wellington CBD, Victoria University of Wellington, and the Wellington suburban rail network to be largely closed for the day to allow inspections. The earthquake caused damage to a considerable number ofbuildings.NEWS, 6.2 earthquake cuts power, phones, stops trains,weblink 21 June 2015, One News (New Zealand), One News, 20 January 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2015, live, Subsequently, a number of recent buildings were demolished rather than being rebuilt, often a decision made by the insurer; and 65% of the damage caused by the earthquake was in Wellington. Two of the buildings demolished were about eleven years old; the seven-storey NZDF headquartersWEB,weblink Defence House in Wellington to be demolished after investigations show repairs to earthquake damage uneconomic, The New Zealand Herald, 3 March 2017, 16 May 2018,weblink 28 September 2018, live, WEB,weblink Freyberg House to be demolished, Stuff (Fairfax), 3 March 2017, 16 May 2018,weblink 9 January 2018, live, and Statistics House at Centreport on the waterfront.WEB,weblink Unacceptable performance of building says Minister, Stuff (Fairfax), 26 July 2017, 16 May 2018,weblink 10 January 2018, live, The docks were closed for several weeks after the earthquake.WEB,weblink Maersk to return to Wellington when CentrePort's cranes are repaired,, 2017-07-31, 2018-09-28,weblink 28 September 2018, live,


File:ANZAC Day Dawn Service at Wellington Cenotaph - Flickr - NZ Defence Force (2).jpg|thumb|Wellingtonians gathered for the Anzac DayAnzac DayThe four cities comprising Greater Wellington have a total population of {{formatnum:{{#expr: {{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Porirua City|y}}|R}} + {{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Upper Hutt City|y}}|R}} + {{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Lower Hutt City|y}}|R}} + {{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Wellington City|y}}|R}} }}}} {{NZ population data|||y|y|(|),}} with the urban area containing {{Decimals|{{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Wellington|y}}|R}} / ({{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Porirua City|y}}|R}} + {{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Upper Hutt City|y}}|R}} + {{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Lower Hutt City|y}}|R}} + {{formatnum:{{NZ population data|Wellington City|y}}|R}})*100|1}}% of that population. The remaining areas are largely mountainous and sparsely farmed or parkland and are outside the urban area boundary. More than most cities, life is dominated by its central business district (CBD). Approximately 62,000 people work in the CBD, only 4,000 fewer than work in Auckland's CBD, despite that city having four times the population.Counts from the 2013 census gave totals by area, gender, and age. Wellington City had the largest population of the four cities with 190,956WEB,weblink Tables about a place,, 24 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2014, dead, people, followed by Lower Hutt, Porirua and Upper Hutt. Women outnumbered men in all four areas.WEB,weblink Tables about a place,, 24 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2014, dead, (File:WellingtonRegionPopulationDensity.png|thumb|Population density in Wellington region (2008) based on census data){| class="wikitable"|+ Wellington Region population by city and gender!City||Total||Men||Women190,956>|98,478WORK=STATS.GOVT.NZARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141113183050/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOVT.NZ/CENSUS/2013-CENSUS/DATA-TABLES/TABLES-ABOUT-A-PLACE.ASPX?REQUEST_VALUE=24472&REPORTID=14&TABNAME=URL-STATUS=DEAD, 98,238 47,556 50,682WORK=STATS.GOVT.NZARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141113182637/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOVT.NZ/CENSUS/2013-CENSUS/DATA-TABLES/TABLES-ABOUT-A-PLACE.ASPX?REQUEST_VALUE=24470&REPORTID=14&TABNAME=URL-STATUS=DEAD, 51,717 24,906 26,811WORK=STATS.GOVT.NZARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141113182851/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOVT.NZ/CENSUS/2013-CENSUS/DATA-TABLES/TABLES-ABOUT-A-PLACE.ASPX?REQUEST_VALUE=24471&REPORTID=14&TABNAME=URL-STATUS=DEAD, 40,179 19,770 20,409Total four cities>381,090>184,713>|196,380Source:Statistics New Zealand (2013 Census)WEB, 2013 Census, Statistics New Zealand,weblink 21 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2015, live,

Quality of living

Wellington ranks 12th in the world for quality of living, according to a 2014 study by consulting company Mercer; of cities in the Asia–Pacific region, Wellington ranked third behind Auckland and Sydney ({{as of|2014|lc=on}}). Wellington has become more affordable in terms of cost of living relative to cities worldwide, with its ranking moving from 93rd (more expensive) to 139th (less expensive) in 2009, probably as a result of currency fluctuations during the global economic downturn from March 2008 to March 2009.WEB,weblink Worldwide Cost of Living survey 2009–City ranking released–Mercer survey, 27 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 June 2009, dmy-all, "Foreigners get more bang for their buck in Wellington, which is among the cheapest cities in the world to live", according to a 2009 article, which reported that currency fluctuations make New Zealand cities affordable for multinational firms to do business: "New Zealand cities were now more affordable for expatriates and were competitive places for overseas companies to develop business links and send employees".NEWS, The Dominion Post, 7 August 2009, Kelly Burns,weblink You get more for your money in Wellington, 1 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2010, live,

Culture and identity

An increasing number of Wellingtonians profess no religious belief, with the most recent census in 2013 showing 44% in that category. The largest religious group was Christians at 39%. The latter figure represented a significant decline from seven years earlier at the previous census, when over 50% of the population identified as Christian.WEB, Religion {{!, Wellington City {{!}}|url =weblink|website =|accessdate = 19 June 2015|archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink|archive-date = 16 October 2015|url-status = live}}WEB, 'No religion' is now capital's most popular –,weblink, 19 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2015, dead, NEWS, Census 2013: Data reveals most religious region,weblink The New Zealand Herald, 4 February 2014, 19 June 2015, 1170-0777,weblink" title="">weblink 24 April 2015, live, At the 2013 Census, just over 27% of Wellington's population was born overseas. The most common overseas birthplace is the United Kingdom, place of origin of 7.1% of the urban area's population. The next most-common countries of origin were Samoa (2.0%), India (1.8%), China (1.7%), Australia (1.6%), the Philippines (1.2%), South Africa (1.1%), Fiji (1.0%), the United States (0.8%) and Malaysia (0.6%).WEB,weblink 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity – Birthplace and people born overseas, Statistics New Zealand, 16 August 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2014, live, WEB,weblink NZ.Stat, Statistics New Zealand, 16 August 2014, {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:right;"weblink Statistics New Zealand, 15 March 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2018, live, ! Ethnicity !! Number !! % European 268,380 74.1    New Zealand European 241,623 66.8    English 4,435 1.2    British 4,110 1.1    European (not further defined) 3,186 0.9    Dutch 2,862 0.7    Australian 2,181 0.6    South African 2,046 0.6    Irish 1,941 0.5 Māori 45,780 12.6 Asian 44,835 12.4    Chinese 15,153 4.2    Indian 13,575 3.8    Filipino 4,683 1.3 Pacific peoples 36,102 8.0    Samoan 21,273 5.9    Cook Islands Maori 6,381 1.8    Tokelauan 3,408 0.9    Tongan 2,331 0.6 Middle Eastern/Latin American/African 6,294 1.8 Other 6,276 1.7    New Zealander 6,081 1.7! style="text-align:left;"| Total people stated || 361,962 || 100.0 Not elsewhere included 19,128 5.0

Age distribution

Age distributions for the four cities are given (see table below). The age structure closely matches the national distribution.The relative lack of older people in Wellington is less marked when Kapiti Coast District is included – nearly 7% of Kapiti Coast residents are over 80.{| class="wikitable"|+Wellington Region age distribution by city!City||Under 20||20–39||40–59||60–79|||80 and overWORK=STATS.GOVT.NZACCESSDATE=21 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=21 JUNE 2015|4,470 (2%)WORK=STATS.GOVT.NZACCESSDATE=21 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=21 JUNE 2015|3,108 (3%)WORK=STATS.GOVT.NZACCESSDATE=21 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=21 JUNE 2015|1,608 (4%)WORK=STATS.GOVT.NZACCESSDATE=21 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=21 JUNE 2015|999 (2%)New ZealandHTTP://WWW.STATS.GOVT.NZ/CENSUS/2013-CENSUS/DATA-TABLES/TABLES-ABOUT-A-PLACE.ASPX?REQUEST_VALUE=24388&TABNAME=AGEANDSEXWORK=STATS.GOVT.NZACCESSDATE=21 JUNE 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=21 JUNE 20151,161,384 (27%)>1,072,893 (25%)>1,167,570 (27%)>685,854 (16%)>|154,344 (4%)Source: Statistics New Zealand (2013 Census)WEB, 2013 Census, Statistics New Zealand, 21 June 2015,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2015, live,


File:Public Trust Office Building, Wellington 6146.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The old Public Trust BuildingPublic Trust BuildingWellington showcases a variety of architectural styles from the past 150 years – 19th-century wooden cottages (Painted Ladies), such as the Italianate Katherine Mansfield Birthplace in Thorndon; streamlined Art Deco structures such as the old Wellington Free Ambulance headquarters, the Central Fire Station, Fountain Court Apartments, the City Gallery, and the former Post and Telegraph Building; and the curves and vibrant colours of post-modern architecture in the CBD.The oldest building is the 1858 Colonial Cottage in Mount Cook.WEB,weblink Colonial Cottage,, 6 February 2009, {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} The tallest building is the Majestic Centre on Willis Street at 116 metres high, the second tallest being the structural expressionist Aon Centre (Wellington) at 103 metres.WEB,weblink,, 11 November 2006, 6 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2007, live, For a full list see: List of tallest buildings in Wellington.Futuna Chapel in Karori was the first bicultural building in New Zealand, and is considered one of the most significant New Zealand buildings of the 20th century.File:Old St Paul's church, Wellington, 2016-01-25.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Old St Paul's was the Anglican pro-cathedralpro-cathedralOld St Paul's is an example of 19th-century Gothic Revival architecture adapted to colonial conditions and materials, as is St Mary of the Angels. Sacred Heart Cathedral is a Palladian Revival Basilica with the Portico of a Roman or Greek temple. The Museum of Wellington City & Sea in the Bond Store is in the Second French Empire style, and the Wellington Harbour Board Wharf Office Building is in a late English Classical style. There are several restored theatre buildings: the St James Theatre, the Opera House and the Embassy Theatre.Te Ngākau Civic Square is surrounded by the Town Hall and council offices, the Michael Fowler Centre, the Wellington Central Library, Capital E (home of the National Theatre for Children), the City-to-Sea Bridge, and the City Gallery.As it is the capital city, there are many notable government buildings. The Executive Wing of New Zealand Parliament Buildings, on the corner of Lambton Quay and Molesworth Street, was constructed between 1969 and 1981 and is commonly referred to as the Beehive. Across the road is the largest wooden building in the Southern Hemisphere,WEB,weblink Department of Conservation,, 29 August 2006, 6 February 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 10 February 2013, live, part of the old Government Buildings which now houses part of Victoria University of Wellington's Law Faculty.A modernist building housing the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa lies on the waterfront, on Cable Street. It is strengthened using base isolationWEB,weblink Base Isolation, 10 April 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 March 2013, – essentially seating the entire building on supports made from lead, steel and rubber that slow down the effect of an earthquake.Other notable buildings include Wellington Town Hall, Wellington railway station, Dominion Museum (now Massey University), Aon Centre (Wellington), Westpac Stadium, and Wellington Airport at Rongotai. Leading architects include Frederick Thatcher, Frederick de Jersey Clere, W. Gray Young, Bill Alington, Ian Athfield, Roger Walker and Pynenburg and Collins.Wellington contains many iconic sculptures and structures, such as the Bucket Fountain in Cuba Street and Invisible City by Anton Parsons on Lambton Quay. Kinetic sculptures have been commissioned, such as the Zephyrometer.WEB,weblink Kinetic Sculpture by Tony Nicholls – Enjoy Public Art Gallery, 28 July 2009, Texture – Wellington, New Zealand, 23 September 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2008, dead, This 26-metre orange spike built for movement by artist Phil Price has been described as "tall, soaring and elegantly simple", which "reflects the swaying of the yacht masts in the Evans Bay Marina behind it" and "moves like the needle on the dial of a nautical instrument, measuring the speed of the sea or wind or vessel."WEB, Zephyrometer – The second of the Meridian Energy wind sculptures,weblink 1 August 2014, 20 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 1 August 2014, dead, Wellington Sculpture Trust,

Housing and real estate

File:N2 Oriental Bay.jpg|thumb|Apartments at Oriental BayOriental BayWellington experienced a real estate boom in the early 2000s and the effects of the international property bust at the start of 2007. In 2005, the market was described as "robust".NEWS, Anne Gibson, Robust market sprouts apartments, The New Zealand Herald, 3 August 2005, 29 July 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2012, live, By 2008, property values had declined by about 9.3% over a 12-month period, according to one estimate. More expensive properties declined more steeply, sometimes by as much as 20%.NEWS, Andrea Milner, Post properties get biggest pounding, The New Zealand Herald, 21 June 2009, 29 July 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2012, live, "From 2004 to early 2007, rental yields were eroded and positive cash flow property investments disappeared as house values climbed faster than rents. Then that trend reversed and yields slowly began improving," according to two The New Zealand Herald reporters writing in May 2009.NEWS, Andrea Milner and Jonathan Milne, Real Estate: Rental buys looking good, The New Zealand Herald, 29 July 2009,weblink 10 May 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 30 August 2011, live, In the middle of 2009 house prices had dropped, interest rates were low, and buy-to-let property investment was again looking attractive, particularly in the Lambton precinct, according to these two reporters.File:Classic weatherboards in Wellington, NZ.jpg|thumb|left|A row of classic weatherboard houses in the Mount Victoria neighbourhood]]A Wellington City Council survey conducted in March 2009 found the typical central city apartment dweller was a New Zealand native aged 24 to 35 with a professional job in the downtown area, with household income higher than surrounding areas.WEB,weblink Central City Apartment Dwellers Survey – a summary of results, March 2009, Wellington Government, 11 January 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2014, live, Three-quarters (73%) walked to work or university, 13% travelled by car, 6% by bus, 2% bicycled (although 31% own bicycles), and did not travel very far since 73% worked or studied in the central city. The large majority (88%) did not have children in their apartments; 39% were couples without children; 32% were single-person households; 15% were groups of people flatting together. Most (56%) owned their apartment; 42% rented (of renters, 16% paid NZ$351 to NZ$450 per week, 13% paid less and 15% paid more – only 3% paid more than NZ$651 per week). The report continued: "The four most important reasons for living in an apartment were given as lifestyle and city living (23%), close to work (20%), close to shops and cafes (11%) and low maintenance (11%) ... City noise and noise from neighbours were the main turnoffs for apartment dwellers (27%), followed by a lack of outdoor space (17%), living close to neighbours (9%) and apartment size and a lack of storage space (8%)."NEWS, It's a great life downtown ... except for the noise, The New Zealand Herald, 14 April 2009, 29 July 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2012, live, Households are primarily one-family, making up 66.9% of households, followed by single-person households (24.7%); there were fewer multiperson households and even fewer households containing two or more families. These counts are from the 2013 census for the Wellington region (which includes the surrounding area in addition to the four cities).{{NZ Quickstats2013|14322|Wellington Region}}In June 2018, Quotable Value reported the average house price for Wellington metro was $639,000, ranging from $492,000 in Upper Hutt to $869,000 in the western suburbs of Wellington City.WEB,weblink Residential house values, Quotable Value, 13 July 2018,weblink 19 November 2016, live,


File:Wellington Harbour, New Zealand, Nov. 2009.jpg|thumb|Wellington HarbourWellington HarbourWellington Harbour ranks as one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping. The port handles approximately 10.5 million tonnes of cargo on an annual basis,WEB, Frequently Asked Questions,weblink, 10 February 2017, en,weblink" title="">weblink 11 February 2017, live, importing petroleum products, motor vehicles, minerals and exporting meats, wood products, dairy products, wool, and fruit. Many cruise ships also use the port.The Government sector has long been a mainstay of the economy, which has typically risen and fallen with it. Traditionally, its central location meant it was the location of many head offices of various sectors – particularly finance, technology and heavy industry – many of which have since relocated to Auckland following economic deregulation and privatisation.WEB,weblink The Encyclopedia of NZ – Economic fall and rise: 1976–2006, Te Ara, 13 July 2012, 16 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 5 September 2013, live, WEB,weblink Wellington businesses are fighting back, Terry Hall, The Dominion Post, 23 July 2012, 28 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 25 August 2012, live, In recent years, tourism, arts and culture, film, and ICT have played a bigger role in the economy. Wellington's median income is well above the average in New Zealand,WEB, Living in Wellington,weblink 19 December 2008, 19 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 19 December 2008, dead, Careers New Zealand, and the highest of all New Zealand cities.WEB,weblink Comparison of New Zealand cities, Emigrate New Zealand, 2006, 26 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 23 February 2012, live, It has a much higher proportion of people with tertiary qualifications than the national average.WEB, Wellington Facts & Figures – Census Summaries – 2006 – Occupation & Qualifications – New Zealand,weblink 10 February 2013, 19 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 10 February 2013, dead, Statistics New Zealand, Major companies with their headquarters in Wellington include:{{div col|colwidth=15em}} {{div col end}}At the 2013 census, the largest employment industries for Wellington residents were professional, scientific and technical services (25,836 people), public administration and safety (24,336 people), health care and social assistance (17,446 people), education and training (16,550 people) and retail trade (16,203 people).WEB, 2013 Census QuickStats about work and unpaid activities,weblink Statistics New Zealand, 31 March 2015, 21 May 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 15 November 2015, live, In addition, Wellington is an important centre of the New Zealand film and theatre industry, and second to Auckland in terms of numbers of screen industry businesses.WEB, Statistics New Zealand, 2008,weblink Screen Industry Survey: 2007/08 – (spreadsheet – see pages 5, 8), 1 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 August 2009,


{{See also|Tourism in New Zealand}}File:Wellington Zoo Elephant House.JPG|thumb|Elephant House at Wellington ZooWellington ZooTourism is a major contributor to the city's economy, injecting approximately NZ$1.3 billion into the region annually and accounting for 9% of total FTE employment.BERL Economics, 2011 The city is consistently named as New Zealanders' favourite destination in the quarterly FlyBuys Colmar Brunton Mood of the Traveller surveyWEB,weblink Mood of the Traveller,, 6 May 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 25 April 2011, dead, and it was ranked fourth in Lonely Planet Best in Travel 2011's Top 10 Cities to Visit in 2011.WEB,weblink Lonely Planet Names Wellington One of 2011's Top 10 Cities, Lonely Planet, 1 November 2010, 30 July 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2015, dead, dmy-all, New Zealanders make up the largest visitor market, with 3.6 million visits each year; New Zealand visitors spend on average NZ$2.4 million a day.WEB,weblink Wellington RTO Tourism Forecasts,, 6 May 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2011, live, There are approximately 540,000 international visitors each year, who spend 3.7 million nights and NZ$436 million. The largest international visitor market is Australia, with over 210,000 visitors spending approximately NZ$334 million annually.WEB,weblink International Visitor Survey,, 6 May 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, live, file:Te papa museum.jpg|thumb|left|Te Papa ("Our Place"), the Museum of New Zealand]]It has been argued that the construction of the Te Papa museum helped transform Wellington into a tourist destination.JOURNAL, Kaino, Lorna, What Difference Does a Museum Make? TE Papa's Contribution to the New Zealand Economy, Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy, 2005, 117, 1, 31–42, 10.1177/1329878X0511700105, Wellington is marketed as the 'coolest little capital in the world' by Positively Wellington Tourism, an award-winning regional tourism organisationWEB,weblink Positively Wellington Tourism Campaign Up for Awards Again,, 27 February 2009, 6 May 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2011, set up as a council controlled organisation by Wellington City Council in 1997.WEB,weblink About Us,, 19 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 29 May 2011, dead, The organisation's council funding comes through the Downtown Levy commercial rate.WEB, Rates – How Rates are Calculated – Targeted Rates – Wellington – New Zealand,weblink 10 February 2013, 19 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 10 February 2013, dead, In the decade to 2010, the city saw growth of over 60% in commercial guest nights. It has been promoted through a variety of campaigns and taglines, starting with the iconic Absolutely Positively Wellington advertisements.WEB, Absolutely Positively Wellington > WellingtonNZ,weblink, 20 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 20 June 2015, dead, dmy-all, The long-term domestic marketing strategy was a finalist in the 2011 CAANZ Media Awards.WEB, PWT Campaign Finalist in CAANZ Media Awards {{!,|url =weblink|date = 8 April 2011|accessdate = 19 June 2015|archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink|archivedate = 27 September 2011|url-status = dead}}File:Cable Car, Wellington, New Zealand.JPG|thumb|Wellington Cable Car, view from Kelburn ]]Popular tourist attractions include Wellington Museum, Wellington Zoo, Zealandia and Wellington Cable Car. Cruise tourism is experiencing a major boom in line with nationwide development. The 2010/11 season saw 125,000 passengers and crew visit on 60 liners. There were 80 vessels booked for visits in the 2011/12 season – estimated to inject more than NZ$31 million into the economy and representing a 74% increase in the space of two years.WEB,weblink Cruise Friendly Destination Hits Record,, 1 April 2011, 1 April 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2011, Wellington is a popular conference tourism destination due to its compact nature, cultural attractions, award-winning restaurants and access to government agencies. In the year ending March 2011, there were 6495 conference events involving nearly 800,000 delegate days; this injected approximately NZ$100 million into the economy.WEB, Convention Activity Survey,weblink 5 February 2013, 19 June 2015, Benchmark NZ,weblink" title="">weblink 5 February 2013, dead,

Arts and culture

{{more citations needed section|date=May 2019}}

Museums and cultural institutions

File:Entrance to the City Gallery in June 2012.JPG|thumb|City Gallery, an art gallery]]Wellington is home to many cultural institutions, including Te Papa (the Museum of New Zealand), the National Library of New Zealand, Archives New Zealand, Wellington Museum (formerly the Wellington Museum of City and Sea), the Katherine Mansfield House and Garden (formerly Katherine Mansfield Birthplace), Colonial Cottage, the Wellington Cable Car Museum, the Reserve Bank Museum, Old St Paul's, and the Wellington City Gallery.


Wellington is home to many high-profile events and cultural celebrations, including the biennial New Zealand International Arts Festival, biennial Wellington Jazz Festival, biennial Capital E National Arts Festival for Children and major events such as Brancott Estate World of Wearable Art, TEDxWellington, Cuba Street Carnival, Visa Wellington on a Plate, New Zealand Fringe Festival, New Zealand International Comedy Festival (also hosted in Auckland), Summer City, The Wellington Folk FestivalWEB,weblink Wellington Folk Festival, Labour Weekend, New Zealand,, 2018-09-28,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2019, live, (in Wainuiomata), New Zealand Affordable Art Show, the New Zealand Sevens Weekend and Parade, Out In The Square, Vodafone Homegrown, the Couch Soup theatre festival, Camp A Low Hum and numerous film festivals.The annual children's Artsplash Festival brings together hundreds of students from across the region. The week-long festival includes music and dance performances and the presentation of visual arts.WEB,weblink Artsplash, Wellington City Council, 9 May 2019,weblink 10 April 2019, live,


File:The Weta Cave.jpg|thumb|left|The Weta Cave in Miramar ]]Filmmakers Sir Peter Jackson, Sir Richard Taylor and a growing team of creative professionals have turned the eastern suburb of Miramar into a film-making, post-production and special effects infrastructure centre, giving rise to the moniker 'Wellywood'.BOOK, Whitfield, Paul, The Rough Guide to New Zealand, 2010, Rough Guides Limited, 9781405385480, 417,weblink en, 30 June 2018,weblink 30 June 2018, live, NEWS, Editorial: Wellywood bonanza may be an illusion,weblink 30 June 2018, The New Zealand Herald, 29 June 2018, en-NZ,weblink 30 June 2018, live, Jackson's companies include Weta Workshop, Weta Digital, Camperdown Studios, post-production house Park Road Post, and Stone Street Studios near Wellington Airport.WEB, Wellington: Film capital of New Zealand,weblink 100% Pure New Zealand, 100% Pure New Zealand, 23 September 2018, English, Park Road Production A premier post-production facility created by filmmakers for filmmakers, Park Road is home to a huge number of resources to help filmmakers concentrate on the creative process. Only taking on a few projects every year, Park Road has worked on blockbusters like The Adventures of Tintin, District 9, The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey and The Last Samurai. Stone Street Studios Offering a range of production facilities including two massive purpose-built sound stages, a wet stage and four adapter warehouse stages, Stone Street Studios is another world-class resource for filmmakers.,weblink 23 September 2018, live, NEWS, Rebecca Lewis, High-flyer Peter Jackson's jet set upgrade, The New Zealand Herald, 12 April 2009,weblink 9 September 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2012, live, Recent films shot partly or wholly in Wellington include the Lord of The Rings trilogy, King Kong and Avatar. Jackson described Wellington: "Well, it's windy. But it's actually a lovely place, where you're pretty much surrounded by water and the bay. The city itself is quite small, but the surrounding areas are very reminiscent of the hills up in northern California, like Marin County near San Francisco and the Bay Area climate and some of the architecture. Kind of a cross between that and Hawaii."WEB
, American Way
, 2009
, Yo, Adrien!
, Mark Seal
, 1 August 2009
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 5 September 2009
, dead
, dmy-all, Mark Seal
Sometime Wellington directors Jane Campion and Geoff Murphy have reached the world's screens with their independent spirit. Emerging Kiwi filmmakers, like Robert Sarkies, Taika Waititi, Costa Botes and Jennifer Bush-Daumec,WEB, Bushcraft, 2009,weblink Bushcraft official website, 1 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 16 April 2009, live, are extending the Wellington-based lineage and cinematic scope. There are agencies to assist film-makers with tasks such as securing permits and scouting locations.WEB,weblink FilmWellington New Zealand, 10 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 17 December 2014, live, Wellington has a large number of independent cinemas, including The Embassy, Penthouse, the Roxy and Light House, which participate in film festivals throughout the year. Wellington has one of the country's highest turn-outs for the annual New Zealand International Film Festival.


The music scene has produced bands such as The Warratahs, The Mockers, The Phoenix Foundation, Shihad, Beastwars, Fly My Pretties, Rhian Sheehan, Birchville Cat Motel, Black Boned Angel, Fat Freddy's Drop, The Black Seeds, Fur Patrol, Flight of the Conchords, Connan Mockasin, Rhombus and Module, Weta, Demoniac. The New Zealand School of Music was established in 2005 through a merger of the conservatory and theory programmes at Massey University and Victoria University of Wellington. New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, Nevine String Quartet and Chamber music New Zealand are based in Wellington. The city is also home to the Rodger Fox Big Band and the Internationally renowned men's A Cappella chorus Vocal FX.

Theatre and the dramatic arts

File:St James Theatre.jpg|thumb|St. James Theatre on Courtenay Place, the main street of Wellington's entertainment district]]Wellington is home to BATS Theatre, Circa Theatre, the National Maori Theatre company Taki Rua, Whitireia Performance Centre, National Dance & Drama School Toi Whakaari and the National Theatre for Children at Capital E in Civic Square. St James' Theatre on Courtenay Place is a popular venue for artistic performances.Wellington is home to groups that perform Improvised Theatre and Improvisational comedy, including Wellington Improvisation Troupe (WIT) an Improvisors and youth group, Joe Improv. Te Whaea National Dance & Drama Centre, houses New Zealand's University-level school of Dance and Drama, Toi Whakaari: NZ Drama School & New Zealand School of Dance, and Whitireia Performing Arts Centre. These are separate entities that share the building's facilities.


Wellington is the home for the Royal New Zealand Ballet, the New Zealand School of Dance and contemporary dance company Footnote.


Many of New Zealand's prominent comedians have either come from Wellington or got their start there, such as Ginette McDonald ("Lyn of Tawa"), Raybon Kan, Dai Henwood, Ben Hurley, Steve Wrigley, Guy Williams, the Flight of the Conchords and the satirist John Clarke ("Fred Dagg").The comedy group Breaking the 5th WallWEB,weblink,, 16 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 9 December 2013, live, operated out of Wellington and regularly did shows around the city, performing a mix of sketch comedy and semi-improvised theatre. In 2012 the group disbanded when some of its members moved to Australia.Wellington is home to groups that perform improvised theatre and improvisational comedy, including Wellington Improvisation Troupe (WIT), The Improvisors and youth group Joe Improv.Wellington hosts shows in the annual New Zealand International Comedy Festival.WEB,weblink New Zealand International Comedy Festival, Laura Barlow, NOMADS, 2019-05-28,weblink 28 May 2019, live,

Visual arts

From 1936 to 1992 Wellington was home to the National Art Gallery of New Zealand, when it was amalgamated into Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Wellington is home to the New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts and the Arts Foundation of New Zealand. The city's arts centre, Toi Pōneke, is a nexus of creative projects, collaborations, and multi-disciplinary production. Arts Programmes and Services Manager Eric Vaughn Holowacz and a small team based in the Abel Smith Street facility have produced ambitious initiatives such as Opening Notes, Drive by Art, and public art projects. The city is home to experimental arts publication White Fungus. The Learning Connexion provides art classes. Other visual art galleries include the City Gallery.File:Wellington NZ7 3363.jpgFile:Wellington NZ7 3367.jpg


File:Wellington, May 2015 (20c).JPG|thumb|Te Wharewaka o PonekeTe Wharewaka o PonekeWellington is characterised by small dining establishments, and its café culture is internationally recognised, being known for its large number of coffeehouses.WEB, Reid, Sarah, 8 of the world's great coffee cities -,weblink CNN, 15 November 2016, 21 July 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 31 October 2016, live, WEB,weblink Wellington café culture – Wellington café culture, NZHistory, 12 January 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2014, live, Restaurants offer cuisines including from Europe, Asia and Polynesia; for dishes that have a distinctly New Zealand style, there are lamb, pork and cervena (venison), salmon, crayfish (lobster), Bluff oysters, pāua (abalone), mussels, scallops, pipis and tuatua (both New Zealand shellfish); kumara (sweet potato); kiwifruit and tamarillo; and pavlova, the national dessert.WEB,weblink New Zealand Cuisine – Cuisine Influences, Media Resources – Tourism New Zealand's site for media and broadcast professionals, 28 July 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2012, dead, dmy-all,


(File:Westpac Trust stadium viewed from Wadestown.jpg|thumb|Westpac Stadium)Wellington is the home to: Sporting events include:



File:Wellington Town Hall, Wellington, New Zealand (11).JPG|thumb|Wellington Town Hall on Te Ngākau Civic SquareTe Ngākau Civic SquareThe Wellington urban area lies within four territorial authorities: Wellington City, Porirua, Lower Hutt and Upper Hutt. Wellington is also part of the wider Wellington Region, administered by the Greater Wellington Region Council. The local authorities are responsible for a wide variety of public services, which include management and maintenance of local roads, and land-use planning.WEB, About us {{!, Greater Wellington Regional Council |url= | |accessdate=26 May 2019 |archive-url= |archive-date=28 March 2019 |url-status=live }}


Wellington is covered by six general electorates: Hutt South, Mana, Ōhāriu, Rimutaka, Rongotai, and Wellington Central. It is also covered by three Māori electorates: Ikaroa-Rāwhiti, Te Tai Hauāuru, and Te Tai Tonga. Each electorate returns one member to the New Zealand House of Representatives. All electorates except Hutt South are held by the governing Labour Party. Hutt South is held by the opposition National Party.In addition, there are a varying number of Wellington-based list MPs, who are elected via party lists. As of September 2018, there are five list MPs in the House who contested Wellington-based electorates at the 2017 election: two from National, two from Green, and one from Labour. The Speaker of the House, Trevor Mallard, is also a Wellington-based list MP having previously held Hutt South.


Wellington offers a variety of college and university programs for tertiary students:File:Uniwersytetwiktorii.jpg|thumb|left|Victoria University's Kelburn campus, one of four in Wellington]]Victoria University of Wellington has four campuses and works with a three-trimester system (beginning March, July, and November).WEB, Victoria University of Wellington – website, Victoria University of Wellington, 29 July 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2009, live, It enrolled 21,380 students in 2008; of these, 16,609 were full-time students. Of all students, 56% were female and 44% male. While the student body was primarily New Zealanders of European descent, 1,713 were Maori, 1,024 were Pacific students, 2,765 were international students. 5,751 degrees, diplomas and certificates were awarded. The university has 1,930 full-time employees.WEB, Victoria in the year 2008, Victoria University of Wellington, 29 July 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 15 August 2009, live, Massey University has a Wellington campus known as the "creative campus" and offers courses in communication and business, engineering and technology, health and well-being, and creative arts. Its school of design was established in 1886 and has research centres for studying public health, sleep, Maori health, small & medium enterprises, disasters, and tertiary teaching excellence.WEB, Wellington Campus – the Creative Campus, Massey University, 29 July 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2009, live, It combined with Victoria University to create the New Zealand School of Music.The University of Otago has a Wellington branch with its Wellington School of Medicine and Health.Whitireia New Zealand has large campuses in Porirua, Wellington and Kapiti; the Wellington Institute of Technology and New Zealand's National Drama school, Toi Whakaari. For further information, see List of universities in New Zealand. The Wellington area has numerous primary and secondary schools.


{{See also|Public transport in the Wellington Region|List of bus routes in the Wellington Region}}(File:Commuters-wellington.ashx.jpeg|thumb|upright|Commuting patterns in the Wellington region during 2006; darker red lines indicate greater traffic. Source: Statistics New Zealand.WEB, Statistics New Zealand, July 2006,weblink Commuterview New Zealand, 2006 Census of Population and Dwellings, 1 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2009, )Wellington is served by State Highway 1 in the west and State Highway 2 in the east, meeting at the Ngauranga Interchange north of the city centre, where SH 1 runs through the city to the airport. Road access into the capital is constrained by the mountainous terrain – between Wellington and the Kapiti Coast, SH 1 travels along the Centennial Highway, a narrow section of road, and between Wellington and Wairarapa SH 2 transverses the Rimutaka Ranges on a similar narrow winding road. Wellington has two motorways, both part of SH 1: the Johnsonville–Porirua Motorway and the Wellington Urban Motorway, which in combination with a small non-motorway section in the Ngauranga Gorge connect Porirua with Wellington city.Bus transport in Wellington is supplied by several different operators under the banner of Metlink. Buses serve almost every part of Wellington city, with most of them running along the "Golden Mile" from Wellington railway station to Courtenay Place. Until October 2017 there were nine trolleybus routes, all other buses running on diesel. The trolleybus network was the last public system of its kind in the southern hemisphere.{{citation needed|date=December 2017}}File:EM 1367 leading a southbound 4 car set as the morning sun breaks through the clouds, near Epuni - 17 May 2003.jpg|thumb|left|Two of Tranz Metro's EM class electric multiple units working a southbound morning service on the Hutt Valley LineHutt Valley LineWellington lies at the southern end of the North Island Main Trunk railway (NIMT) and the Wairarapa Line, converging on Wellington railway station at the northern end of central Wellington. Two long-distance services leave from Wellington: the Capital Connection, for commuters from Palmerston North, and the Northern Explorer to Auckland.Four electrified suburban lines radiate from Wellington railway station to the outer suburbs to the north of Wellington – the Johnsonville Line through the hillside suburbs north of central Wellington; the Kapiti Line along the NIMT to Waikanae on the Kapiti Coast via Porirua and Paraparaumu; the Melling Line to Lower Hutt via Petone; and the Hutt Valley Line along the Wairarapa Line via Waterloo and Taita to Upper Hutt. A diesel-hauled carriage service, the Wairarapa Connection, connects several times daily to Masterton in the Wairarapa via the {{convert|8.8|km|mi|adj=mid|-long}} Rimutaka Tunnel. Combined, these five services carry 11.64 million passengers per year.WEB,weblink Transport volume : Public transport volumes, New Zealand Ministry of Transport, 7 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 18 July 2013, live, File:NZR FP class 01.JPG|thumb|New Matangi electric multiple unitelectric multiple unitWellington is the North Island port for Cook Strait ferries to Picton in the South Island, provided by state-owned Interislander and private Bluebridge. Local ferries connect Wellington city centre with Eastbourne, Seatoun and Petone.Wellington International Airport is {{convert|6|km}} south-east of the city centre. It is serviced by flights from across New Zealand, Australia, Singapore and Fiji. Flights to other international destinations require a transfer at another airport, as larger aircraft cannot use Wellington's short ({{convert|2081|m|disp=or|adj=on}}) runway, which has become an issue in recent years in regards to the Wellington region's economic performance.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 3 July 2013, Calls for Wellington Airport to extend runway, 3 News, 16 September 2013, WEB,weblink Upper Hutt wants a longer runway at Wellington Airport, for flights to Asia, Wellington.Scoop, Scoop Media, 6 March 2013, 16 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2014, live,


Electric power

Wellington's first public electricity supply was established in 1904, alongside the introduction of electric trams, and was originally supplied at 105 volts 80 hertz. The conversion to the now-standard 230/400 volts 50 hertz began in 1925, the same year the city was connected to the Mangahao hydroelectric scheme. Between 1924 and 1968, the city's supply was supplemented by a coal-fired power station at Evans Bay.WEB,weblink Evans Bay Power Station – Engineering New Zealand,, 9 May 2019,weblink 9 May 2019, live, Today, Wellington is supplied from nine Transpower substations, however the design of the transmission system means that the city is ultimately fed by only two Transpower substations: Haywards and Wilton. Wellington Electricity owns and operates the local distribution network.The city is home to two large wind farms, West Wind and Mill Creek, which combined contribute up to 213 MW of electricity to the city and the national grid. Haywards substation in Lower Hutt is the site of the HVDC Inter-Island's North Island converter station; the HVDC link connects the North and South Island grids together and allows surplus South Island hydroelectricity to be transmitted the North Island's electricity demand.While Wellington experiences regular strong winds, and only 63% of Wellington Electricity's network is underground, the city has a very reliable power supply. In the year to March 2018, Wellington Electricity disclosed the average customer spent just 55 minutes without power due to unplanned outages.WEB, EDB Information Disclosure Requirements – Wellington Electricity Lines Limited – year ended 31 March 2018,weblink 18 October 2018,weblink 18 October 2018, dead,

Natural gas

Wellington and the Hutt Valley were two of the original nine towns and cities in New Zealand to be supplied with natural gas when the Kapuni gas field entered production in 1970, and a {{convert|260|km|mi|adj=mid|-long}} high-pressure pipeline from the field in Taranaki to the city was completed. The high-pressure transmission pipelines supplying Wellington are now owned and operated by First Gas, with Powerco owning and operating the medium- and low-pressure distribution pipelines within the urban area.WEB,weblink The New Zealand Gas Story, Gas Industry Company, December 2016, 13 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2017, live,


Wellington's first piped water supply came from a spring in 1867.WEB,weblink Our water history – on tap Water supply in the Wellington region 1867–2006, WRC,weblink" title="">weblink 1 February 2016, live, Greater Wellington Regional Council now supplies Lower Hutt, Porirua, Upper Hutt and Wellington with up to 220 million litres a day.WEB,weblink Bulk water supply – live {{!, Greater Wellington Regional Council||access-date=20 May 2016|archive-url=|archive-date=16 May 2016|url-status=live}} The water comes from Wainuiomata River (since 1884), Hutt River (1914), Orongorongo River (1926) and the Lower Hutt aquifer.WEB,weblink Watermap {{!, Greater Wellington Regional Council||access-date=20 May 2016|archive-url=|archive-date=31 May 2016|url-status=live}}

Twin cities

Wellington is twinned with the following cities-WEB,weblink International Relations – Sister Cities, Wellington City Council, en-NZ, 1 March 2019,weblink 29 January 2018, live,

See also



Further reading

Published in the 19th century
  • {{Citation |publisher = E. Stanford |location = London |title = New Zealand Handbook |edition=14th |date = 1879 |chapterurl = |chapter= Wellington }}
  • {{Citation |publisher = Cassell and Co. |location = London |title = Pictorial New Zealand |date = 1895 |oclc = 8587586 |chapterurl=weblink |chapter= Wellington and its Surroundings |ol = 7088023M }}

Published in the 20th century
  • {{Citation |publisher = Thomas Cook & Son |location = Auckland |title = New Zealand as a Tourist and Health Resort |date = 1902 |oclc = 18158487 |chapterurl= |chapter=Wellington|ol = 7093583M }}
  • {{Citation |publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica |location = New York |title = The Encyclopædia Britannica |date = 1910 |oclc = 14782424 |edition=11th |chapterurl =weblink |chapter =Wellington }}
  • {{Citation |publisher = New Zealand Times Co. |location = Wellington |title = Guide to New Zealand |author = C. N. Baeyertz |date = 1912 |oclc = 5747830 |chapterurl= |chapter= Wellington |ol = 251804M }}
  • "Wellington City Annual Economic Profile 2013", by Infometrics for Grow Wellington Ltd.

External links

{{Wikivoyage}}{{Commons category|Wellington}} {{New Zealand topics}}{{Suburbs of Wellington City}}{{Capital Connection train stops}}{{The Overlander train stops}}{{List of Oceanian capitals by region}}{{Authority control}}

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