Warsaw Pact

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Warsaw Pact
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{{distinguish|Warsaw Convention|Treaty of Warsaw (disambiguation){{!}}Treaty of Warsaw}}{{other uses|Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance (disambiguation)}}{{use dmy dates|date=September 2015}}


|image = Warsaw Pact Logo.svg
|image_size = 125
|map = Warsaw Pact in 1990 (orthographic projection).svg
|map_size = 180
|map_caption = Warsaw Pact in 1990
|abbreviation = WAPA
|founded = |founding_location = Warsaw, Poland
|dissolved = |type = Military alliance
|headquarters = Moscow, Soviet Union
|num_members_year =
|membership = {hide}plainlist|
  • {{flagcountry|size=22px|People's Socialist Republic of Albania{edih}{{efn|Withheld support in 1961 because of the Soviet-Albanian split, formally withdrew in 1968|name="Split"}}
  • {{flagcountry|size=22px|People's Republic of Bulgaria}}
  • {{flagcountry|size=22px|Czechoslovak Socialist Republic}}
  • {{flagcountry|size=22px|East Germany}}
  • {{flagcountry|size=22px|Hungarian People's Republic}}
  • {{flagcountry|size=22px|Polish People's Republic}}
  • {{flagcountry|size=22px|Socialist Republic of Romania}}
  • {{flagcountry|size=22px|Soviet Union}}}}

|leader_title = Supreme Commander
|leader_name = {{ubl|Ivan Konev (first)|Pyotr Lushev (last)}}
|leader_title2 = Chief of Combined Staff
|leader_name2 = {{ubl|class=nowrap|Aleksei Antonov (first)|Vladimir Lobov (last)}}
|affiliations = Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
}}The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,WEB,weblink Text of Warsaw Pact, United Nations Treaty Collection, 22 August 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 2 October 2013, live, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. The Warsaw Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe. The Warsaw Pact was created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO"In reaction to West Germany's NATO accession, the Soviet Union and its Eastern European client states formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955." Citation from: WEB, NATO website, A short history of NATO,weblink, 24 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 26 March 2017, live, in 1955 per the London and Paris Conferences of 1954,The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 21–22, 11.02.2015The Oder-Neisse Line: The United States, Poland, and Germany in the Cold WarDebra J. Allen page 158 "Treaties approving Bonn's participation in NATO were ratified in May 1955...shortly thereafter Soviet Union...created the Warsaw Pact to counter the perceived threat of NATO" but it is also considered to have been motivated by Soviet desires to maintain control over military forces in Central and Eastern Europe.The Warsaw Pact was established as a balance of powerBOOK, Amos Yoder, Communism in Transition: The End of the Soviet Empires,weblink 1993, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-8448-1738-5, 58, 1 January 2016,weblink 1 January 2016, live, or counterweightBOOK, Bob Reinalda, Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day,weblink 11 September 2009, Routledge, 978-1-134-02405-6, 369, 1 January 2016,weblink 1 January 2016, live, to NATO; there was no direct military confrontation between them. Instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and in proxy wars. Both NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of military forces and their integration into the respective blocs. Its largest military engagement was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 (with the participation of all Pact nations except Albania, Romania, and East Germany), which, in part, resulted in Albania withdrawing from the pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the Revolutions of 1989 through the Eastern Bloc, beginning with the Solidarity movement in Polandweblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=23 December 2015 }} Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, June 24, 2001 and its electoral success in June 1989.East Germany withdrew from the Pact following the reunification of Germany in 1990. On 25 February 1991, at a meeting in Hungary, the Pact was declared at an end by the defence and foreign ministers of the six remaining member states. The USSR itself was dissolved in December 1991, although most of the former Soviet republics formed the Collective Security Treaty Organization shortly thereafter. Throughout the following 20 years, the seven Warsaw Pact countries outside the USSR each joined NATO (East Germany through its reunification with West Germany; and the Czech Republic and Slovakia as separate countries), as did the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) that had been part of the Soviet Union.


{{Eastern Bloc sidebar|Related organizations}}(File:1975 CPA 4448.jpg|thumb|A Soviet philatelic commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the Warsaw Pact in 1975 stating that it remains "On guard for Peace and Socialism".)In the Western Bloc, the Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance is often called the Warsaw Pact military alliance—abbreviated WAPA, Warpac and WP. Elsewhere, in the former member states, the Warsaw Treaty is known as:
  • Romanized Armenian: Barekamut’yan, hamagortsakts’ut’yan yev p’vokhadardz ognut’yan paymanagir
  • Romanized Belarusian: Dagavor ab druzhe, supratsoÅ­nitstve i Å­zaemnaÅ­ dapamoze
  • Romanized Bulgarian: Dogovor za druzhba, satrudnichestvo i vzaimopomosht
  • Romanized Georgian: megobrobis, tanamshromlobisa da urtiertdakhmarebis khelshek’ruleba
  • Romanized Kazakh: Dostıq, ıntımaqtastıq jäne özara kömek twralı kelisim
  • Romanized Kyrgyz: Dostuk, kızmattaÅŸtık jana öz ara jardam körsötüü jönündö keliÅŸim
  • Romanized Russian: Dogovor o druzhbe, sotrudnichestve i vzaimnoy pomoshchi
  • Romanized Tajik: Åžartnomai dÅ«stÄ«, hamkorÄ« va kÅ«maki mutaxassis
  • Romanized Ukrainian: Dogovir pro druzhbu, spivrobitnitstvo i vzaêmnu dopomogu


The Warsaw Treaty's organization was two-fold: the Political Consultative Committee handled political matters, and the Combined Command of Pact Armed Forces controlled the assigned multi-national forces, with headquarters in Warsaw, Poland. Furthermore, the Supreme Commander of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization which commanded and controlled all the military forces of the member countries was also a First Deputy Minister of Defence of the USSR, and the Chief of Combined Staff of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization was also a First Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. Therefore, although ostensibly an international collective security alliance, the USSR dominated the Warsaw Treaty armed forces.


The strategy behind the formation of the Warsaw Pact was driven by the desire of the Soviet Union to dominate Central and Eastern Europe. The Soviets wanted to keep their part of Europe and not let the Americans take it from them. This policy was driven by ideological and geostrategic reasons. Ideologically, the Soviet Union arrogated the right to define socialism and communism and act as the leader of the global socialist movement. A corollary to this idea was the necessity of intervention if a country appeared to be violating core socialist ideas and Communist Party functions, which was explicitly stated in the Brezhnev Doctrine. Geostrategic principles also drove the Soviet Union with the desire to create a buffer zone to prevent invasion of its territory by Western European powers.

Notable military exercises

{{external media|align=right|width=250px|video1=Czechoslovak Military Parade "Shield-84" - Vojenská přehlídka ČSLA "Štít-84}}



File:Warszawa Pałac Prezydencki 2011.jpg|thumb|right|The Presidential Palace in WarsawWarsawBefore the creation of the Warsaw Pact, Czechoslovak leadership, fearful of a rearmed Germany, sought to create a security pact with East Germany and Poland. These states protested strongly against the re-militarization of West Germany.Europa Antoni Czubiński Wydawn. Poznańskie, 1998, p. 298 The Warsaw Pact was primarily put in place as a consequence of the rearming of West Germany inside NATO. Soviet leaders, like many European countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain, feared Germany being once again a military power and a direct threat. The terrible consequences of German militarism remained a fresh memory among the Soviets and Eastern Europeans.World Politics: The Menu for Choice page 87 Bruce Russett, Harvey Starr, David Kinsella – 2009 The Warsaw Pact was established in 1955 as a response to West Germany's entry into NATO; German militarism was still a recent memory among the Soviets and East Europeans."When the Federal Republic of Germany entered NATO in early May 1955, the Soviets feared the consequences of a strengthened NATO and a rearmed West Germany". Citation from:WEB, United States Department of State, Office of the Historian, The Warsaw Treaty Organization, 1955,weblink Office of the Historian,, 24 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 28 November 2015, live, "1955: After objecting to Germany's admission into NATO, the Soviet Union joins Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania in forming the Warsaw Pact.". See chronology in:NEWS,weblink 6 April 2009, Fast facts about NATO, CBC News, 16 July 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2012, live, As the Soviet Union already had bilateral treaties with all of its eastern satellites, the Pact has been long considered 'superfluous',The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969Laurien Crump Routledge, pp. 17, 11.02.2015 and because of the rushed way in which it was conceived, NATO officials labeled it as a 'cardboard castle'.The Warsaw Pact Reconsidered: International Relations in Eastern Europe, 1955–1969Laurien Crump Routledge, p. 1, 11.02.2015Previously, in March 1954, the USSR, fearing the restoration of German militarism in West Germany, requested admission to NATO."1954: Soviet Union suggests it should join NATO to preserve peace in Europe. U.S. and U.K. reject this". See chronology in:NEWS,weblink 6 April 2009, Fast facts about NATO, CBC News, 16 July 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2012, live, The Soviet request to join NATO arose in the aftermath of the Berlin Conference of January–February 1954. Soviet foreign minister Molotov made proposals to have Germany reunified{{sfn|Molotov|1954a|pp=197,201}} and elections for a pan-German government,{{sfn|Molotov|1954a|p=202}} under conditions of withdrawal of the four powers' armies and German neutrality,{{sfn|Molotov|1954a|pp=197–198, 203, 212}} but all were refused by the other foreign ministers, Dulles (USA), Eden (UK), and Bidault (France).{{sfn|Molotov|1954a|pp=211–212, 216}} Proposals for the reunification of Germany were nothing new: earlier on 20 March 1952, talks about a German reunification, initiated by the so-called 'Stalin Note', ended after the United Kingdom, France, and the United States insisted that a unified Germany should not be neutral and should be free to join the European Defence Community (EDC) and rearm. James Dunn (USA), who met in Paris with Eden, Adenauer, and Robert Schuman (France), affirmed that "the object should be to avoid discussion with the Russians and to press on the European Defense Community".BOOK, Steininger, Rolf, 1991, The German Question: The Stalin Note of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification, Columbia Univ Press, 56, According to John Gaddis "there was little inclination in Western capitals to explore this offer" from the USSR.BOOK, Gaddis, John, 1997, We Know Now: Rethinking Cold War History, Clarendon Press, 126, While historian Rolf Steininger asserts that Adenauer's conviction that "neutralization means sovietization" was the main factor in the rejection of the Soviet proposals,BOOK, Steininger, Rolf, 1991, The German Question: The Stalin Note of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification, Columbia Univ Press, 80, Adenauer also feared that German unification might have resulted in the end of the CDU's dominance in the West German Bundestag.BOOK, Steininger, Rolf, 1991, The German Question: The Stalin Note of 1952 and the Problem of Reunification, Columbia Univ Press, 103, Consequently, Molotov, fearing that the EDC would be directed in the future against the USSR and "seeking to prevent the formation of groups of European States directed against other European States", made a proposal for a General European Treaty on Collective Security in Europe "open to all European States without regard as to their social systems" which would have included the unified Germany (thus making the EDC – perceived by the USSR as a threat – unusable). But Eden, Dulles, and Bidault opposed the proposal.{{sfn|Molotov|1954a|p=214}}One month later, the proposed European Treaty was rejected not only by supporters of the EDC but also by Western opponents of the European Defence Community (like French Gaullist leader Gaston Palewski) who perceived it as "unacceptable in its present form because it excludes the USA from participation in the collective security system in Europe". The Soviets then decided to make a new proposal to the governments of the USA, UK, and France to accept the participation of the USA in the proposed General European Agreement. And considering that another argument deployed against the Soviet proposal was that it was perceived by Western powers as "directed against the North Atlantic Pact and its liquidation",{{sfn|Molotov|1954a|p=216,}} the Soviets decided to declare their "readiness to examine jointly with other interested parties the question of the participation of the USSR in the North Atlantic bloc", specifying that "the admittance of the USA into the General European Agreement should not be conditional on the three Western powers agreeing to the USSR joining the North Atlantic Pact".(File:Soviet big 7.jpg|thumb|right|Warsaw Pact "Big Seven" threats displaying the equipment of the communist forces)Again all proposals, including the request to join NATO, were rejected by the UK, US, and French governments shortly after. Emblematic was the position of British General Hastings Ismay, a fierce supporter of NATO expansion. He opposed the request to join NATO made by the USSR in 1954WEB,weblink Soviets tried to join Nato in 1954, Ian Traynor, the Guardian, 18 December 2016,weblink 16 February 2017, live, saying that "the Soviet request to join NATO is like an unrepentant burglar requesting to join the police force".In April 1954 Adenauer made his first visit to the USA meeting Nixon, Eisenhower, and Dulles. Ratification of the EDC was delayed but the US representatives made it clear to Adenauer that the EDC would have to become a part of NATO.{{sfn|Adenauer|1966a|p=662}}Memories of the Nazi occupation were still strong, and the rearmament of Germany was feared by France too.WEB,weblink The Warsaw Pact is formed, History (U.S. TV channel), History Channel, 22 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 23 December 2015, live, On 30 August 1954 French Parliament rejected the EDC, thus ensuring its failure and blocking a major objective of US policy towards Europe: to associate Germany militarily with the West. The US Department of State started to elaborate alternatives: Germany would be invited to join NATO or, in the case of French obstructionism, strategies to circumvent a French veto would be implemented in order to obtain a German rearmament outside NATO.File:UAZ-469 (4713547953).jpg|thumb|left|A typical Soviet military jeep UAZ-469UAZ-469On 23 October 1954 – only nine years after the Western Allies (UK, USA, and USSR) defeated Nazi Germany ending World War II in Europe – the admission of the Federal Republic of Germany to the North Atlantic Pact was finally decided. The incorporation of West Germany into the organization on 9 May 1955 was described as "a decisive turning point in the history of our continent" by Halvard Lange, Foreign Affairs Minister of Norway at the time.NEWS,weblink West Germany accepted into Nato, BBC News, 9 May 1955, 17 January 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2012, live, In November 1954, the USSR requested a new European Security Treaty,"Indivisible Germany: Illusion or Reality?" James H. WolfeSpringer Science & Business Media, 06.12.2012 page 73 in order to make a final attempt to not have a remilitarized West Germany potentially opposed to the Soviet Union, with no success.On 14 May 1955, the USSR and other seven European countries "reaffirming their desire for the establishment of a system of European collective security based on the participation of all European states irrespective of their social and political systems" established the Warsaw Pact in response to the integration of the Federal Republic of Germany into NATO,WEB,weblink Formation of Nato and Warsaw Pact, History (U.S. TV channel), History Channel, 22 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 23 December 2015, live, declaring that: "a remilitarized Western Germany and the integration of the latter in the North-Atlantic bloc [...] increase the danger of another war and constitutes a threat to the national security of the peaceable states; [...] in these circumstances the peaceable European states must take the necessary measures to safeguard their security".One of the founding members, East Germany was allowed to re-arm by the Soviet Union and the National People's Army was established as the armed forces of the country to counter the rearmament of West Germany and vice versa.WEB,weblink No shooting please, we’re German, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live,


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1987-0529-029, Berlin, Tagung Warschauer Pakt, Gruppenfoto.jpg|thumb|right|Meeting of seven representatives of the Warsaw Pact countries in East Berlin in May 1987. From left to right: Gustáv Husák, Todor Zhivkov, Erich Honecker, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicolae Ceaușescu, Wojciech Jaruzelski, and János KádárJános KádárThe eight member countries of the Warsaw Pact pledged the mutual defence of any member who would be attacked. Relations among the treaty signatories were based upon mutual non-intervention in the internal affairs of the member countries, respect for national sovereignty, and political independence. However, almost all governments of those member states were indirectly controlled by the Soviet Union.WEB,weblink How the Russians Used the Warsaw Pact, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live, The founding signatories to the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance consisted of the following communist governments:
  • {{flagicon|Albania|1946}} Albania (withheld support in 1961 because of the Soviet-Albanian split, formally withdrew in 1968)
  • {{flagcountry|PRB}}WEB,weblink The Warsaw Pact is formed - May 14, 1955 -, 23 August 2018,weblink 18 August 2018, live,
  • {{flagcountry|CSR}}
  • {{flag|East Germany}} (withdrew on 2 October 1990 prior to German reunification)
  • {{flagcountry|HPR}} (temporarily withdrew from 1–4 November 1956 during the Hungarian Revolution)
  • {{flagcountry|PPR}}
  • {{flagcountry|RSR}}
  • {{flag|Soviet Union}}
{{flagcountry|MPR}}: In July 1963 the Mongolian People's Republic asked to join the Warsaw Pact under Article 9 of the treaty.WEB,weblink A Cardboard Castle?: An Inside History of the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1991, Vojtech, Mastny, Malcolm, Byrne, 1 January 2005, Central European University Press, 23 August 2018, Google Books,weblink 23 August 2018, live, Due to the emerging Sino-Soviet split, Mongolia remained in an observer status. The Soviet government agreed to station troops in Mongolia in 1966.WEB,weblink Soviet Troops to Leave Mongolia in 2 Years, Reuters, 3 March 1990, 23 August 2018, LA Times,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2018, live,

During Cold War

File:Praga 11.jpg|thumb|right|Soviet tanks, marked with white crosses to distinguish them from Czechoslovak tanks,WEB,weblink 1968 - The Prague Spring, Austria 1989 - Year of Miracles, en-US,weblink 8 July 2019, live, 2019-07-08, In the morning hours of August 21, 1968, Soviet and Warsaw Pact tanks roll in the streets of Prague; to distinguish them from Czechoslovak tanks, they are marked with white crosses., on the streets of Prague during the Warsaw Pact invasion of CzechoslovakiaWarsaw Pact invasion of CzechoslovakiaFor 36 years, NATO and the Warsaw Pact never directly waged war against each other in Europe; the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies implemented strategic policies aimed at the containment of each other in Europe, while working and fighting for influence within the wider Cold War on the international stage. These included the Korean War, Vietnam War, Bay of Pigs invasion, Dirty War, Cambodian–Vietnamese War, and others.WEB,weblink America Wasn’t the Only Foreign Power in the Vietnam War, 2 October 2013, 23 August 2018,weblink 12 June 2018, live, WEB,weblink Crisis Points of the Cold War - Boundless World History,, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live, In 1956, following the declaration of the Imre Nagy government of the withdrawal of Hungary from the Warsaw Pact, Soviet troops entered the country and removed the government.WEB,weblink The Hungarian Uprising of 1956 - History Learning Site, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live, Soviet forces crushed the nationwide revolt, leading to the death of an estimated 2,500 Hungarian citizens.WEB,weblink Recalling the Hungarian revolution, 60 years on, Matthew Percival,, CNN, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live, The multi-national Communist armed forces' sole joint action was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968.WEB,weblink Soviets Invade Czechoslovakia - Aug 20, 1968 -, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live, All member countries, with the exception of the Socialist Republic of Romania and the People's Republic of Albania, participated in the invasion.WEB,weblink Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, Agnieszka, Nosowska,, 23 August 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2018, dead, dmy-all, The German Democratic Republic provided only minimal support, however.File:Overzicht op Museumplein met spandoek The Dutch disease is better for peace o, Bestanddeelnr 253-8627.jpg|thumb|Protest in Amsterdam against the nuclear arms racenuclear arms race

End of the Cold War

In 1989, popular civil and political public discontent toppled the Communist governments of the Warsaw Treaty countries. Independent national politics made feasible with the perestroika and glasnost policies induced institutional collapse of the Communist government in the USSR in 1991. From 1989 to 1991, Communist governments were overthrown in Albania, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union.As the last acts of the Cold War were playing out, several Warsaw Pact states (Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary) participated in the U.S.-led coalition effort to liberate Kuwait in the Gulf War.On 25 February 1991, the Warsaw Pact was declared disbanded at a meeting of defence and foreign ministers from remaining Pact countries meeting in Hungary. On 1 July 1991, in Prague, the Czechoslovak President Václav HavelWEB,weblink DEATH KNELL RINGS FOR WARSAW PACT, Steven, Greenhouse, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live, formally ended the 1955 Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance and so disestablished the Warsaw Treaty after 36 years of military alliance with the USSR. The USSR disestablished itself in December 1991.

Central and Eastern Europe after the Warsaw Treaty

File:NATO expansion.png|thumb|right|Expansion of NATONATOOn 12 March 1999, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland joined NATO; Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Slovakia joined in March 2004; Albania joined on 1 April 2009.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 23 August 2018,weblink 12 April 2019, live, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 23 August 2018,weblink 12 March 2018, live, Russia and some other post-USSR states joined the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) in 1992, or the Shanghai Five in 1996, which was renamed the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) after Uzbekistan's addition in 2001.WEB,weblink SCO from the Uzbekistan perspective: Expectations and reality - Opinion -, 宋薇,, 23 August 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2018, live, In November 2005, the Polish governmentWEB,weblink Here's how the USSR planned to conquer Europe in an all-out nuclear war, 29 October 2016, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live, opened its Warsaw Treaty archives to the Institute of National Remembrance, which published some 1,300 declassified documents in January 2006. Yet the Polish government reserved publication of 100 documents, pending their military declassification. Eventually, 30 of the reserved 100 documents were published; 70 remained secret and unpublished. Among the documents published is the Warsaw Treaty's nuclear war plan, Seven Days to the River Rhine – a short, swift counter-attack capturing Austria, Denmark, Germany, and Netherlands east of the Rhine, using nuclear weapons, in self-defence, after a NATO first strike.WEB,weblink DECODED: The Cold War in Europe 1945-1995 : Nuclear War in the West: Seven Days to the River Rhine, Redd, Catcher, 11 July 2013, 23 August 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2018, live, The plan originated as a 1979WEB,weblink Revealed: How the Warsaw Pact Planned to Win World War Three in Europe, Kyle, Mizokami, 2 July 2016, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live, field training exercise war game and metamorphosed into official Warsaw Treaty battle doctrine, until the late 1980s – which is why the Polish People's Republic was a nuclear weapons base,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 23 August 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2012, dead, dmy-all, first, to 178, then, to 250 tactical-range rockets, though these numbers may differ. Doctrinally, as a Soviet-style (offensive) battle plan, Seven Days to the River Rhine gave commanders few defensive-war strategies for fighting NATO in Warsaw Treaty territory.WEB,weblink 7 Days to the Rhine, 2 January 2017, 23 August 2018,weblink 23 August 2018, live,

See also



Works cited

  • BOOK, Adenauer, Konrad, Memorie 1945–1953, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, 1966a,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2013-08-01, Italian, harv,
  • BOOK, Molotov, Vyacheslav, La conferenza di Berlino, Ed. di cultura sociale, 1954a,weblink Italian, harv,
  • {{loc}}

Further reading

  • Faringdon, Hugh. Confrontation: the strategic geography of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.)
  • JOURNAL, Heuser, Beatrice, Victory in a Nuclear War? A Comparison of NATO and WTO War Aims and Strategies, Contemporary European History, 1998, 7, 3, 311–327, 10.1017/S0960777300004264, Beatrice Heuser,
  • Mackintosh, Malcolm. The evolution of the Warsaw Pact (International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1969)
  • Kramer, Mark N. "Civil-military relations in the Warsaw Pact, The East European component," International Affairs, Vol. 61, No. 1, Winter 1984–85.
  • BOOK, Lewis, William Julian, The Warsaw Pact: Arms, Doctrine, and Strategy, 1982, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, Cambridge, Mass., 978-0-07-031746-8,
  • BOOK, Mastny, Vojtech, Vojtech Mastny, A Cardboard Castle ?: An Inside History of the Warsaw Pact, 1955–1991, 2005, Central European University Press, Budapest, 978-963-7326-07-3,weblink Byrne, Malcolm,
  • A. James McAdams, "East Germany and Detente." Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  • McAdams, A. James. "Germany Divided: From the Wall to Reunification." Princeton University Press, 1992 and 1993.

Other languages

  • BOOK, Umbach, Frank, Das rote Bündnis: Entwicklung und Zerfall des Warschauer Paktes 1955 bis 1991, 2005, Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin, 978-3-86153-362-7, German,
  • BOOK, Wahl, Alfred, La seconda vita del nazismo nella Germania del dopoguerra, Lindau, Torino, 2007, 978-88-7180-662-4,weblink Italian, – Original Ed.: BOOK, Wahl, Alfred, La seconde histoire du nazisme dans l'Allemagne fédérale depuis 1945., Armand Colin, Paris, 2006, 2-200-26844-0,weblink French,


  • BOOK, Adenauer, Konrad, Konrad Adenauer Memoirs 1945–53, Henry Regnery Company, 1966b,weblink
  • BOOK, Molotov, Vyacheslav, Statements at Berlin Conference of Foreign Ministers of U.S.S.R., France, Great Britain and U.S.A., January 25 – February 18, 1954, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1954b,weblink

External links

{{commons|Warsaw Pact}} {{Cold War}}{{Communist Eastern and Central Europe}}{{Eastern Bloc}}{{Treaties of Hungary}}{{Marxism–Leninism}}{{Authority control}}

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