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Waldensians
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{{Reformation}}The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses ({{IPAc-en|w|ɔː|l|ˈ|d|ɛ|n|s|iː|z|,_|w|ɒ|l|-}}), Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) were an ascetic movement within Christianity, founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.The Waldensian movement first appeared in Lyon in the late 1170s {{citation needed|date=November 2017}} and quickly spread to the Cottian Alps between what is today France and Italy. True to its historic roots, the Waldensian movement today is centred on Piedmont in Northern Italy, and small communities are also found in Southern Italy, Argentina, Brazil, Germany, the United States, and Uruguay.The movement originated in the late twelfth century as the Poor Men of Lyon, {{citation needed|date=November 2017}} a band organized by Peter Waldo, a wealthy merchant who gave away his property around 1173, preaching apostolic poverty as the way to perfection. Waldensian teachings quickly came into conflict with the Catholic Church. By 1215, the Waldensians were declared heretical and subject to intense persecution; the group was nearly annihilated in the 17th century and was confronted with organised and general discrimination in the centuries that followed. In the era of the Reformation, the Waldensians influenced early Swiss reformer Heinrich Bullinger. Upon finding the ideas of other reformers similar to their own, they quickly merged into the larger Protestant movement. With the Resolutions of Chanforan on 12 September 1532, they formally became a part of the Calvinist tradition.In the 16th century, Waldensian leaders embraced the Protestant Reformation and joined various local Protestant regional entities. As early as 1631, Protestant scholars and Waldensian theologians themselves began to regard the Waldensians as early forerunners of the Reformation, who had maintained the apostolic faith in the face of Catholic oppression. Modern Waldensians share core tenets with Calvinists, including the priesthood of all believers, congregational polity and a "low" view of certain sacraments such as Communion and Baptism. They are members of the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe and its affiliates worldwide.The main denomination within the movement was the Waldensian Evangelical Church, the original church in Italy. In 1975, it merged with the Methodist Evangelical Church to form the Union of Methodist and Waldensian Churches—a majority Waldensian church, with a minority of Methodists.WEB,weblink Le religioni in Italia: Il movimento valdese, moreorless - www.moreorless.net, cesnur.org, 2014-03-23, WEB,weblink Chiesa Evangelica Valdese – Unione delle chiese Metodiste e Valdesi, Consulenza sull'interfaccia e la realizzazione del codice, chiesavaldese.org, 2014-03-23, WEB,weblink Per un patto tra la Chiesa Assemblee di Dio e la Chiesa valdese, 20 September 2009, 23 March 2014, Congregations continue to be active in Europe, South America, and North America. Organizations such as the American Waldensian Society maintain the history of this movement and declare they take as their mission "proclaiming the Christian Gospel, serving the marginalized, promoting social justice, fostering inter-religious work, and advocating respect for religious diversity and freedom of conscience."WEB,weblink American Waldensian Society, Waldensian.org, 26 February 2014,

Historical sources

File:Worms Lutherdenkmal Petrus Waldus 2012-02-21-18-24-52.jpg|thumb|Statue of Peter Waldo at the Luther Memorial in Worms, GermanyWorms, GermanyUnfortunately, "our current knowledge of the history of the Waldensians in the Middle Ages is almost exclusively tributary of the sources coming from the official Roman Church", the body that was condemning them as heretics.p. 66. Pita, Gonzalo. 2014. Waldensian and Catholic Theologies of History in the XII–XIV Centuries: Part I. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 25.2: 65–87. Because of "the documentary scarcity and unconnectedness from which we must draw the description of Waldensian beliefs,"p. 87. Pita, Gonzalo. 2014. Waldensian and Catholic Theologies of History in the XII–XIV Centuries: Part I. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 25.2: 65–87. much of what is known about the early Waldensians comes from reports like the Profession of faith of Valdo of Lyon (1180); Durando d'Osca (c.{{nbsp}}1187–1200) Liber antiheresis; and the Rescriptum of Bergamo Conference (1218). Earlier documents that provide information about early Waldensian history include the Will of Stefano d'Anse (1187); the Manifestatio haeresis Albigensium et Lugdunensium (c.{{nbsp}}1206–1208); and the Anonymous chronicle of Lyon (c.{{nbsp}}1220). There are also the two reports written for the Inquisition by Reinerius Saccho (died 1259), a former Cathar who converted to Catholicism, published together in 1254 as Summa de Catharis et Pauperibus de Lugduno (On the Cathars and the Poor of Lyon).WEB,weblink Medieval Sourcebook: Accusations against the Waldensians, Fordham.edu, 26 February 2014,

Teachings

Waldensians held and preached a number of truths as they read from the Bible. These included:
  1. The atoning death and justifying righteousness of Christ
  2. The Godhead
  3. The fall of man
  4. The incarnation of the Son
  5. A denial of purgatory as the "invention of the Antichrist"Samuel Moreland (1658) History of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of Piedmont
  6. Valued voluntary poverty
They held that temporal offices and dignities were not meant for preachers of the Gospel; that relics were simply rotten bones which had belonged to one knew not whom; that to go on pilgrimage served no end, save to empty one's purse; that flesh might be eaten any day if one's appetite served one; that holy water was not a whit more efficacious than rain water; and that prayer in a barn was just as effectual as if offered in a church. They were accused, moreover, of having scoffed at the doctrine of transubstantiation, and of having spoken blasphemously of the Catholic Church as the harlot of the Apocalypse.Inquisitor Reyenerious, AD 1250, and extracted by Allix (Chap. 22) They rejected what they perceived as the idolatry of the Catholic Church and considered the Papacy as the Antichrist of Rome.BOOK, Historical Studies, Eugene, Lawrence, 1876, 202–204,weblink The "La nobla leyczon", written in the Occitan language, gives a sample of the medieval Waldensian belief. It was believed that this poem dated between 1190 and 1240,Bosio, Enrico: La Nobla Leyczon considérée au point de vue de la doctrine, de la morale et de l'histoire, Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Vaudoise, n° 2 (dic.{{nbsp}}1885), pp.{{nbsp}}20–36. but there is proof that it was probably written in the first part of the fifteenth century Montet, Edouard, La noble leçon, texte original d'après le manuscrit de Cambridge, 1888, pp.{{nbsp}}19–26. The poem exists in four manuscripts: two are housed at University of Cambridge, one at Trinity College in Dublin, and another in Geneva. Montet, Edouard, La noble leçon, texte original d'après le manuscrit de Cambridge, 1888, p.{{nbsp}}19.

History

Origins

According to legend, Peter Waldo renounced his wealth as an encumbrance to preaching,Liber visionum et miraculorum, Anonymous Chronicles of Lyon which led other members of the Catholic clergy to follow his example. Because of this shunning of wealth, the movement was early known as The Poor of Lyon and The Poor of Lombardy.The Waldensian movement was characterized from the beginning by lay preaching, voluntary poverty, and strict adherence to the Bible. Between 1175 and 1185, Waldo either commissioned a cleric from Lyon to translate the New Testament into the vernacular—the Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) language—or was himself involved in this translation work.In 1179, Waldo and one of his disciples went to Rome, where Pope Alexander III and the Roman Curia welcomed them. They had to explain their faith before a panel of three clergymen, including issues that were then debated within the Church, such as the universal priesthood, the gospel in the vulgar tongue, and the issue of voluntary poverty. The results of the meeting were inconclusive, and the Third Lateran Council in the same year condemned Waldo's ideas, but not the movement itself; the leaders of the movement had not yet been excommunicated.WEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia: 'Waldenses', Newadvent.org, 1 October 1912, 26 February 2014, The Waldensians proceeded to disobey the Third Lateran Council and continued to preach according to their own understanding of the Scriptures. By the early 1180s, Waldo and his followers were excommunicated and forced from Lyon. The Catholic Church declared them heretics, stating that the group's principal error was contempt for ecclesiastical power. Rome also accused the Waldensians of teaching innumerable errors.Rosalind B. Brooke (1975) The Coming of the Friars, pp.{{nbsp}}72–73 (NY: Barnes and Noble)Waldo and his followers developed a system whereby they would go from town to town and meet secretly with small groups of Waldensians. There they would confess sins and hold service. A traveling Waldensian preacher was known as a barba. The group would shelter the barba and help make arrangements to move on to the next town in secret.Comba, Emilio (1978) History of the Waldenses of Italy, from their origin to the Reformation, AMS Press, New York {{ISBN|978-0-4041-6119-4}} Waldo possibly died in the early 13th{{nbsp}}century, possibly in Germany; he was never captured, and his fate remains uncertain.JOURNAL, 10.1093/pastj/gtl004, 4125197, 0031-2746, 192, 3–33, Biller, Peter, Peter Biller, Goodbye to Waldensianism?, Past & Present, 24 March 2014, August 2006,weblink Early Waldensians belonged to one of three groups:Herbermann, Charles George (1913) The Catholic Encyclopedia, p.{{nbsp}}250. Universal Knowledge Foundation
  • Sandaliati (those with sandals) received sacred orders and were to prove the heresiarchs wrong
  • Doctores instructed and trained missionaries
  • Novellani preached to the general population
They were also called Insabbatati, Sabati, Inzabbatati Sabotiers—designations arising from the unusual type of sabot they used as footwear.Herzog, Johann Jakob; Schaff, Philip (1910) The new Schaff-Herzog encyclopedia of religious knowledge, Funk and WagnallsSpini, G (1994) I Valdesi e la non-osservanza del Sabato, Lecture delivered at Waldensian College, RomeGoldastus (German Calvinist historian AD{{nbsp}}1576–1635) Some historians feel their beliefs came from missionaries from the early church and that their history may have its origins in the apostolic age,BOOK, Historical Studies, Eugene, Lawrence, 1876, 199,weblink though this idea itself stems from Baptist Successionism, an idea that was very popular among some 19th{{nbsp}}century Church historians but has been largely rejected by modern scholars in the field. The Roman Inquisitor Reinerus Sacho, writing c.{{nbsp}}1230, held the sect of the Vaudois to be of great antiquity, thus preceding Waldo by centuries. There are also accounts of Paulicians, Petrobusians, and Pasaginians, along with the Waldenses of the Alps, who kept the Saturday for the Lord's day,(General History of the Baptist Denomination, Vol. II, p.{{nbsp}}413). which was in conflict with the change to Sunday by the Catholic Church. The Sabbatati were known also by the name Pasigini. In reference to the Sabbath-keeping Pasigini, one scholar wrote:

Catholic response

File:Champion des dames Vaudoises.JPG|thumb|right|250px| Illustrations depicting Waldensians as witches in Le champion des dames, by Martin Le France, 1451]](File:Piedmontese Children Forced from their parents (October 1853, X, p.108).jpg|thumb|250px| Piedmontese Children Forced from their parentsJOURNAL, Piedmontese Children Forced from their parents, The Wesleyan Juvenile Offering: A Miscellany of Missionary Information for Young Persons, October 1853, X, 108,weblink 29 February 2016, Wesleyan Missionary Society, )The Catholic Church viewed the Waldensians as unorthodox, and in 1184 at the Synod of Verona, under the auspices of Pope Lucius III, they were excommunicated. Pope Innocent III went even further during the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, officially denouncing the Waldensians as heretics.BOOK, Audisio, Gabriel, The Waldensian Dissent: Persecution and Survival c. 1170–c. 1570, 1999, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-0-521-55984-3, 14; 16; 22, Compare:BOOK, Blainey, Geoffrey, Geoffrey Blainey, A Short History of Christianity,weblink Camberwell, Victoria, Penguin, 2011, 430, 9780857962553, 2018-02-17, The Waldensians eschewed the Cathars, who were busy in the same regions at the same time. While the Cathars were heretics, the Waldensians generally were not. Their real act of defiance was quietly to deny the existence of purgatory., In 1211 more than 80 Waldensians were burned as heretics at Strasbourg; this action launched several centuries of persecution that nearly destroyed the movement.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ellwood, R.S., Alles, G.D., Waldensians, The Encyclopedia of World Religions, New York, NY, Facts on File, 2007, 978-1-4381-1038-7,weblink 471, In 1487 Pope Innocent VIII issued a bullBOOK, Innocent VIII, Id nostri cordis, Histoire générale des Eglises Evangeliques des Vallées du Piemont ou Vaudoises, 2, 8, 1669,weblink for the extermination of the heresies of the Vaudois. Alberto de' Capitanei, archdeacon of Cremona, responded to the bull by organizing a crusade to fulfill its order and launched an offensive in the provinces of Dauphiné and Piedmont. Charles I, Duke of Savoy, eventually interfered to save his territories from further turmoil and promised the Vaudois peace, but not before the offensive had devastated the area and many of the Vaudois had fled to Provence or south to Italy. The noted theologian Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, whom Innocent VIII in 1491 appointed Apostolic Nuncio and Commissary conjointly with the Bishop of Mauriana, was involved in reaching a peaceful agreement between Catholics and Waldensians."MEMBERWIDE">TITLE= CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: BL. ANGELO CARLETTI DI CHIVASSOACCESSDATE= 30 APRIL 2016,

Reformation

When the news of the Reformation reached the Waldensian Valleys, the Tavola Valdese decided to seek fellowship with the nascent Protestantism. At a meeting held in 1526 in Laus, a town in the Chisone valley, it was decided to send envoys to examine the new movement. In 1532, they met with German and Swiss Protestants and ultimately adapted their beliefs to those of the Reformed Church.The Swiss and French Reformed churches sent William Farel and Anthony Saunier to attend the meeting of Chanforan, which convened on 12{{nbsp}}October 1532. Farel invited them to join the Reformation and to emerge from secrecy. A Confession of Faith, with Reformed doctrines, was formulated and the Waldensians decided to worship openly in French.The French Bible, translated by Pierre Robert Olivétan with the help of Calvin and published at Neuchâtel in 1535, was based in part on a New Testament in the Waldensian vernacular. The churches in Waldensia collected 1500 gold crowns to cover the cost of its publication.Wylie, p. 62

Massacre of Mérindol (1545)

File:Massacre of the Vaudois of Merindol.jpg|thumb|left|Massacre of the Waldensians of Mérindol in 1545]]Outside the Piedmont, the Waldenses joined the local Protestant churches in Bohemia, France, and Germany. After they came out of seclusion and reports were made of sedition on their part, French King Francis{{nbsp}}I on 1{{nbsp}}January 1545 issued the "Arrêt de Mérindol", and assembled an army against the Waldensians of Provence. The leaders in the 1545 massacres were Jean Maynier d'Oppède, First President of the parliament of Provence, and the military commander Antoine Escalin des Aimars, who was returning from the Italian Wars with 2,000 veterans, the Bandes de Piémont. Deaths in the Massacre of Mérindol ranged from hundreds to thousands, depending on the estimates, and several villages were devastated.BOOK,weblink R. J., Knecht, 1984, Francis I, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-5212-4344-5, 405, The treaty of 5 June 1561 granted amnesty to the Protestants of the Valleys, including liberty of conscience and freedom to worship. Prisoners were released and fugitives permitted to return home, but despite this treaty, the Vaudois, with the other French Protestants, still suffered during the French Wars of Religion in 1562–1598.As early as 1631, Protestant scholars began to regard the Waldensians as early forerunners of the Reformation, in a manner similar to the way the followers of John Wycliffe and Jan Hus, also persecuted by authorities, were viewed.Although the Waldensian church was granted some rights and freedoms under French King Henry{{nbsp}}IV, with the Edict of Nantes in 1598, persecution rose again in the 17th{{nbsp}}century, with an extermination of the Waldensians attempted by the Duke of Savoy in 1655. This led to the exodus and dispersion of the Waldensians to other parts of Europe and even to the Western hemisphere.

Piedmont Easter

In January 1655, the Duke of Savoy commanded the Waldensians to attend Mass or remove to the upper valleys of their homeland, giving them twenty days in which to sell their lands. Being in the midst of winter, the order, of course, was intended to persuade the Vaudois to choose the former; however, the bulk of the populace instead chose the latter, abandoning their homes and lands in the lower valleys and removing to the upper valleys. It was written that these targets of persecution, including old men, women, little children and the sick "waded through the icy waters, climbed the frozen peaks, and at length reached the homes of their impoverished brethren of the upper Valleys, where they were warmly received."By mid-April, when it became clear that the Duke's efforts to force the Vaudois to conform to Catholicism had failed, he tried another approach. Under the guise of false reports of Vaudois uprisings, the Duke sent troops into the upper valleys to quell the local populace. He required that the local populace quarter the troops in their homes, which the local populace complied with. But the quartering order was a ruse to allow the troops easy access to the populace. On 24{{nbsp}}April 1655, at 4{{nbsp}}a.m., the signal was given for a general massacre.File:AnnaCharboniereTortured.jpg|thumb|Print illustrating the 1655 massacre in La Torre, from Samuel MorelandSamuel MorelandThe Duke's forces did not simply slaughter the inhabitants. They are reported to have unleashed an unprovoked campaign of looting, rape, torture, and murder. According to one report by a Peter Liegé:}}This massacre became known as the Piedmont Easter. An estimate of some 1,700 Waldensians were slaughtered; the massacre was so brutal it aroused indignation throughout Europe. Protestant rulers in northern Europe offered sanctuary to the remaining Waldensians. Oliver Cromwell, then ruler in England, began petitioning on behalf of the Waldensians; writing letters, raising contributions, calling a general fast in England and threatening to send military forces to the rescue. The massacre prompted John Milton's famous poem on the Waldenses, "On the Late Massacre in Piedmont".WEB,weblink Milton: Sonnet 18, Dartmouth.edu, 26 February 2014, Swiss and Dutch Calvinists set up an "underground railroad" to bring many of the survivors north to Switzerland and even as far as the Dutch Republic, where the councillors of the city of Amsterdam chartered three ships to take some 167 Waldensians to their City Colony in the New World (Delaware) on Christmas Day 1656.Scharf, Thomas J. (1888) History of Delaware, 1609–1888, L. J. Richards & Co., Philadelphia Vol. 1 Vol. 2 Those that stayed behind in France and the Piedmont formed a guerilla resistance movement led by a farmer, Joshua Janavel, which lasted into the 1660s.WEB,weblink Janavel, Regard.eu.org, 26 February 2014, (File:Chiesa valdese (Trinity church) 2.JPG|thumb|200px|left|Waldensian Church of Florence, Italy)

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes and the "Glorious Return"

In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the 1598 Edict of Nantes, which had guaranteed freedom of religion to his Protestant subjects in France. French troops sent into the French Waldensian areas of the Chisone and Susa Valleys in the Dauphiné forced 8,000 Vaudois to convert to Catholicism and another 3,000 to leave for Germany.In the Piedmont, the cousin of Louis, the newly ascended Duke of Savoy, Victor Amadeus II, followed his uncle in removing the protection of Protestants in the Piedmont. In the renewed persecution, and in an echo of the Piedmont Easter Massacre of only three decades earlier, the Duke issued an edict on 31 January 1686 that decreed the destruction of all the Vaudois churches and that all inhabitants of the Valleys should publicly announce their error in religion within fifteen days under penalty of death and banishment. But the Vaudois remained resistant. After the fifteen days, an army of 9,000 French and Piedmontese soldiers invaded the Valleys against the estimated 2,500 Vaudois, but found that every village had organized a defense force that kept the French and Piedmontese soldiers at bay.On 9 April, the Duke of Savoy issued a new edict, enjoining the Waldensians to put down their arms within eight days and go into exile between 21 and 23{{nbsp}}April. If able, they were free to sell their land and possessions to the highest bidder.Waldensian pastor Henri Arnaud (1641–1721), who had been driven out of the Piedmont in the earlier purges, returned from Holland. On 18 April he made a stirring appeal before an assembly at Roccapiatta, winning over the majority in favor of armed resistance. When the truce expired on 20{{nbsp}}April, the Waldensians were prepared for battle.They put up a brave fight over the next six weeks, but by the time the Duke retired to Turin on 8 June, the war seemed decided: 2,000 Waldensians had been killed; another 2,000 had "accepted" the Catholic theology of the Council of Trent. Another 8,000 had been imprisoned, of which more than half would die of deliberately imposed starvation, or of sickness within six months.But about two or three hundred Vaudois fled to the hills and began carrying out a guerilla war over the next year against the Catholic settlers who arrived to take over the Vaudois lands. These "Invincibles" continued their assaults until the Duke finally relented and agreed to negotiate. The "Invincibles" won the right for the imprisoned Vaudois to be released from prison and to be provided safe passage to Geneva. But the Duke, granting that permission on 3{{nbsp}}January 1687, required that the Vaudois leave immediately or convert to Catholicism. This edict led to some 2,800 Vaudois leaving the Piedmont for Geneva, of whom only 2,490 would survive the journey.Arnaud and others now sought help of the allied European powers. He appealed to William of Orange directly from Geneva, while others, amongst whom was the young L’Hermitage, were sent to England and other lands to canvas for support. Orange and the allies were glad of any excuse to antagonise France, whose territorial encroachments on all fronts were intolerable. The League of Augsburg was formed in 1686 under Orange, who promised support to Arnaud. In August 1689, in the midst of the wars between the League of Augsburg and France, Arnaud led 1,000 Swiss exiles, armed with modern weaponry provided by the Dutch, back to the Piedmont. Over a third of the force perished during the 130-mile trek. They successfully re-established their presence in the Piedmont and drove out the Catholic settlers, but they continued to be besieged by French and Piedmontese troops.By 2 May 1689, with only 300 Waldensian troops remaining, and cornered on a high peak called the Balsiglia, by 4,000 French troops with cannons, the final assault was delayed by storm and then by cloud cover. The French commander was so confident of completing his job the next morning that he sent a message to Paris that the Waldensian force had already been destroyed. However, when the French awoke the next morning they discovered that the Waldensians, guided by one of their number familiar with the Balsiglia, had already descended from the peak during the night and were now miles away.The French pursued, but only a few days later a sudden change of political alliance by the Duke, from France to the League of Augsburg, ended the French pursuit of the Waldensians. The Duke agreed to defend the Waldensians and called for all other Vaudois exiles to return home to help protect the Piedmont borders against the French, in what came to be known as the "Glorious Return".Stephens, Prescot (1998) The Waldensian Story: A Study in Faith, Intolerance and Survival, Book Guild, Lewes, Sussex {{ISBN|978-1-8577-6280-8}}

Religious freedom after the French Revolution

(File:Iscrizione tempio valdese 4 novembre Roma.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Waldensian Church entrance in Rome, Italy)After the French Revolution, the Waldenses of Piedmont were assured liberty of conscience and, in 1848, the ruler of Savoy, King Charles Albert of Sardinia granted them civil rights.Enjoying religious freedom, the Waldensians began migrating outside their valleys. By the time of Italian unification, the Waldensian had congregations throughout the peninsula, some originated by preaching, others by migration.Giorgio Spini (1971) L'Evangelo e il berretto frigio (Storia del movimento evangelico in Italia, Vol.{{nbsp}}I), Claudiana, Turin However, poverty, societal discrimination, and demographic pressure led the Waldensians to emigrate, first as seasonal workers to the French Riviera and Switzerland, and later to Colonia Valdense in Uruguay, Jacinto Arauz in La Pampa, Argentina and ultimately, to the United States.Watt, George B. (1941) Waldenses in the New World, Duke University Press, Durham, NC Those who remained in Italy have experienced upward social mobility. Waldensian companies dominated Turin's chocolate industry for the latter half of the nineteenth century and are generally credited with the invention of gianduja (hazelnut chocolate).Bächstädt-Malan Camusso, Christian (2002) "Per Una Storia dell'Industria Dolciaria Torinese: il Caso Caffarel", p.{{nbsp}}63, Doctoral thesis (Economics and Business), Universitá degli Studi di TorinoWaldensian scholarship also flourished in the nineteenth century. Copies of the Romaunt version of the Gospel of John were preserved in Paris and Dublin. The manuscripts were used as the basis of a work by William Stephen Gilly published in 1848, in which he described the history of the New Testament in use by the Waldensians.Gilly, William S. (1848) The Romaunt Version of the Gospel according to St. John, John Murray, London The Waldensian College began training ministers in 1855, first in Torre Pellice. A few years later, the Waldensian College relocated to Florence and, in 1922, to Rome. Economic and social integration have eased acceptance of ethnic Waldensians into Italian society. Writers like Italo Calvino and politicians like Domenico Maselli and Valdo Spini are of Waldensian background. The church has also attracted intellectuals as new adherents and supporters, such as the philosopher Gianni Vattimo, and enjoys significant financial support from non-adherent Italians.

Apology of Pope Francis

In 2015, after a historic visit to a Waldensian Temple in Turin, Pope Francis, in the name of the Catholic Church, asked Waldensian Christians for forgiveness for their persecution. The Pope apologized for the Church's "un-Christian and even inhumane positions and actions".WEB,weblink Pope Francis asks Waldensian Christians to forgive the Church, Catholic Herald, 22 June 2015, 22 June 2015,

Characteristics of the modern Waldensian Church

{{Further information|Calvinism}}The present Waldensian Church considers itself to be a Protestant church of the Reformed tradition originally framed by Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin. It recognizes as its doctrinal standard the confession of faith published in 1655 and based on the Reformed confession of 1559. It admits only two ceremonies, baptism and the Lord's Supper. Supreme authority in the body is exercised by an annual synod, and the affairs of the individual congregations are administered by a consistory under the presidency of the pastor.Over the centuries, Waldensian churches have been established in countries as far away from France as Uruguay and the United States where the active Waldensian congregations continue the purpose of the Waldensian movement. The contemporary and historic Waldensian spiritual heritage describes itself as proclaiming the Gospel, serving the marginalized, promoting social justice, fostering inter-religious work, and advocating respect for religious diversity and freedom of conscience. Today, the Waldensian Church is member of the World Communion of Reformed Churches, the World Methodist Council, the Federation of Evangelical Churches in Italy, and the World Council of Churches.

Appraisal by Protestants

{{Protestantism}}Some early Protestants felt a spiritual kinship to the Waldensians and wrote positively about them. John Milton, for example, wrote in his sonnet "On the Late Massacre in Piedmont" of the 1655 massacre and persecution of the Waldensians.Some Anabaptist and Baptist authors have pointed to the Waldensians as an example of earlier Christians who were not a part of the Catholic Church, and who held beliefs they interpreted to be similar to their own. In the 17th to the 19th centuries, Dutch and German Mennonite writers like van Braght, Martyrs Mirror (1660)BOOK, Theileman van Braght, Martyrs Mirror, 287, Herald Press, Scottdale, PA, 2009, and Steven Blaupot ten Cate, Geschiedkundig onderzoek (1844),Steven Blaupot ten Cate (1844) Geschiedkundig onderzoek naar den Waldenzischen oorsprong van de Nederlandsche Doopsgezinden, Frederik Muller, Amsterdam{{Internet Archive|geschiedkundigo00categoog|Geschiedkundig onderzoek}} linked Anabaptist origins to the Waldensians. Baptist authors like John L. Waller also linked their origins to the Waldensians.John L. Waller (Jan 1849) "Were the Waldenses Baptists or Pedo-Baptists?", Western Baptist Review, pp. 30–32WEB,weblink Lateran 4 – 1215, Ewtn.com, 26 February 2014, Brian Tierney (1970) The Middle Ages, Volume 1, p. 223: Sources of Medieval History, New York, Alfred Knopf, Quoted from S.R. Maitland (1832) History of the Albigenses and WaldensesG. H. Orchard (1987) A Concise History of Baptists, p. 180, Texarkana, Bogard PressThomas Armitage (1988) A History of the Baptists, pp. 302–303, Watertown, Wisconsin, Baptist Heritage PressWEB, Greg Wilson,weblink Waldenses Were Independent Baptists, Libcfl.com, 1 September 1988, 26 February 2014, WEB,weblink waldenses confessions of faith, Baptistdocuments.tripod.com, 26 February 2014, James Aitken Wylie (1808–1890) likewise believed the Waldensians preserved the apostolic faith and its practices during the Middle Ages.BOOK,weblink J. A., Wylie, James Aitken Wylie, 1882, The History of Protestantism, Still later, Seventh-day Adventist Ellen G. White taught that the Waldenses were preservers of biblical truth during the Great Apostasy of the Catholic Church.BOOK, White, Ellen G., Ellen G. White, The Great Controversy, 1870,weblink Chapter 4–The Waldenses, true, She showed how the Waldenses kept the seventh-day Sabbath,BOOK, Dollinger, Johann, Beitrage zur Sektengeschichte Des Mittelalters, 1890, Munich, 661, 2nd pt., engaged in widespread missionary activity, and "planted the seeds of the Reformation" in Europe.BOOK, J. N., Andrews, J. N. Andrews, History of the Sabbath, 1873,weblink Chapter 21–The Sabbath During the Dark Ages, true, BOOK, J. N., Andrews, J. N. Andrews, History of the Sabbath, 1873,weblink Chapter 25–Sabbath Keepers During The Reformation Times From The Fifteenth To The Seventeenth Century, true, Scholar Michael W. Homer links the belief in an ancient origin of the Waldensians to three 17th century pastors, Jean-Paul Perrin of the Reformed Church of France and the Waldensian pastors Pierre Gilles and Jean Léger, who posited that the Waldensians were descendents of Primitive Christianity.JOURNAL, Homer, Michael W., Seeking Primitive Christianity in the Waldensian Valleys: Protestants, Mormons, Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses in Italy, Nova Religio, May 2006, 9, 4, 8, 10.1525/nr.2006.9.4.005, 10.1525/nr.2006.9.4.005, University of California Press, Some authorsWilliam Jones (1832) The History of the Christian Church, The Ages Digital Library{{citation| url =weblink |last=Perrin|first=Jean Paul|title=History of the Ancient Christians |date=1847 |accessdate= 26 February 2014}} try to date a Reformation-era Waldensian confession of faith back into the Middle Ages in 1120 to assert their claim of doctrinal antiquity."La 'Confesion de fe' de los Valdenses llamada del ano 1120" (Aug 1935) Boletin de la Sociedad Sudamericana de Historia Valdense, p.{{nbsp}}58 However, in the current historiography from the Waldensians themselves it is asserted that this confession was drafted in 1531."La 'Confesion de fe' de los Valdenses llamada del ano 1120", (August 1935) Boletin de la Sociedad Sudamericana de Historia Valdense, p.{{nbsp}}57–60Vinay, Valdo (December 1972) "Mémoires de George Morel : l'importanza del codice valdese c-5-18 (Ms.{{nbsp}}259) del Trinity College di Dublino per la storia dell'adesione dei Valdesi alla Riforma", Bollettino della Società di Studi Valdesi – Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Vaudoise pp.{{nbsp}}93, 132.Protestant theology in Germany was interested in the doctrinal antiquity and apostolic continuity being expressed by the Waldensian faith. The high independence of the communities, lay preaching, voluntary poverty, and strict adherence to the Bible and its early translation through Peter Waldo have been credited to prove an ancient origin of Protestantism as the true interpretation of the faith. Mere anti-Catholic sentiments and controversies, for example in the Kulturkampf, played a role. Heinrich Gottlieb Kreussler (1830) History of the Reformation contains a ballade about the fate of the Waldensians and quotes (:fr:Jean Léger)'s History of the Waldenians (1750) (authored with Siegmund Jakob Baumgarten, published by Johann Jacob Korn) as proof of an early origin of the Waldensians.Jean Léger, Siegmund Jacob Baumgartens, Johann Jacob Korn (1750) Algemeine Geschichte der Waldenser oder der evangelischen Kirchen in den Thälern von PiemontHeinrich Gottlieb Kreussler (1830) Rückblicke auf die Geschichte der Reformation, oder, Luther in Leben und That: zur Erinnerung an die dreihundertjährige Augsburgische Confessionssimilar in: F. Bender (1850) Geschichte der Waldenser (Waldensian History) The strong German Protestant support for the Waldensian diaspora community in Italy—leading staff of the Gustavus Adolphus Union (GAW) praised them as one of the most interesting churches of all—was not confined to a theological fascination. It led to extensive financial support, loans, exchange of priesters and communities, aid missions and political interventions for the Italian Waldensians and their charitable efforts, starting from the 17th century.Barbro Lovisa (1994) Italienische Waldenser und das protestantische Deutschland 1655 bis 1989 ("Italian Waldensianism and protestant Germany 1655 to 1989"), Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen {{ISBN|978-3-5255-6539-1}}Paul R. Tarmann (2010) Der Armutsbegriff der Waldenser: eine sozialphilosophische Annäherung, Lang, Frankfurt am Main {{ISBN|978-3-6316-0203-4}} After World War{{nbsp}}II, the Evangelical Church in Germany actively contributed to reconciliation efforts with Italy and France based on its relationship with the Waldensian community. The GAW has ongoing links with the Waldensians in Italy.

Waldensians by region

Italy

File:0660 - Milano - Facciata chiesa valdese - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto 5-May-2007.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The Waldensian Church in Milan, built in 1949, incorporates materials from the demolished gothic church of San Giovanni in ConcaSan Giovanni in ConcaIn 1848, after many centuries of harsh persecution, the Waldensians acquired legal freedom in the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia as a result of the liberalising reforms which followed Charles Albert of Sardinia's granting a constitution (the Statuto Albertino). Subsequently, the Waldensian Evangelical Church, as it became known, developed and spread through the Italian peninsula.The Waldensian church was able to gain converts by building schools in some of the poorer regions of Italy, including Sicily. There is still a Waldensian church in the town of Grotte, at the southwest of the island.WEB,weblink Chiesa Evangelica Pentecostale 'L'Eterno Nostra Giustizia', Grotte.info, 26 December 2012, 26 February 2014, German Protestants have been supportive of the Waldesians in Italy since the 17th century.During the Nazi occupation of North Italy in the Second World War, Italian Waldensians were active in saving Jews faced with imminent extermination, hiding many of them in the same mountain valley where their own Waldensian ancestors had found refuge in earlier generations.p. 72. Scotland, Nigel. 2012. Christianity Outside the Box: Learning from Those Who Rocked the Boat. Wipf & Stock Publishers.p. 280. Whittaker, Andrew. 2010. Italy: Be Fluent in Italian Life and Culture. Thorogood Publishing.After 1945, the Evangelical Church in Germany led by Theophil Wurm (who was also Bishop of Württemberg) issued the Stuttgart Declaration of Guilt and actively contributed to reconciliation efforts with Italy (and France) based on relationships with the diaspora. The 1948 centenary festivities of the Savoy civil rights declaration were used for efforts of EKD leading staff to support German Italian reconciliation after WW-II. A most fruitful cooperation was established at the community level, with Waldensian delegates from both sides pioneering. 1949, Guglielmo Del Pesco (1889–1951), moderator of the Tavola Valdese (Waldensian round table), was invited back to Maulbronn, celebrating the 250th anniversary of the Waldensian emigration to Germany. He was unable to come for reasons of health but sent A. Jalla, a teacher, described as being full of spite and hatred against all things German after 1945, but who joined in the effort for reconciliation 1949. Based on these experiences, the first town-twinning partnership between Germany and France was signed 1950 between Ludwigsburg and the Protestant exclave Montbéliard, again based on a special connection of the Württemberg Landeskirche. The German Gustavus Adolphus Union is supportive of Waldesian projects and charitable efforts in Italy till the present.Gustavus Adolphus Union website Common projects (in German) GAW Waldenser entriesIn 1975, the Waldensian Church joined the Methodist Evangelical Church in Italy to form the Union of Waldensian and Methodist Churches. It has 50,000 members (45,000 Waldensians, of whom 30,000 in Italy and some 15,000 divided between Argentina and Uruguay, and 5,000 Methodists).The Eight per thousand tax introduced 1985 in Italy greatly helped the Waldensian community. The Eight per thousand (Italian: otto per mille) law allows taxpayers to choose to whom they devolve a compulsory 8{{nbsp}}‰ = 0.8% ('eight per thousand') from their annual income tax return. They may choose an organised religion recognised by Italy or a social assistance scheme run by the Italian State. While the Waldensians have only about 25,000 enlisted members, more than 600,000 Italians are willing to support the Waldensian community and its charitable works.WEB,weblink otto per mille della dichiarazione irpef alla chiesa valdese, Valdese, OPM-Tavola, www.ottopermillevaldese.org, 2016-03-15, The ordination of women and, since 2010, the blessing of same-sex unionsWEB,weblink Italian Protestants approve same-sex blessings, 2010-09-07, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A), 2016-05-26, WEB,weblink Coppie gay, storica apertura della Chiesa valdese. Ma si aspetta ancora una legge, Gaetano Pecoraro, Il Fatto Quotidiano, it, 30 April 2016, are allowed.

Uruguay and Argentina

File:Festejos en Colonia Valdense.jpg|thumb|300px|Festivities celebrating the 150th anniversary of Italian immigration to Colonia Valdense, UruguayUruguayThe first Waldensian settlers from Italy arrived in South America in 1856. From that date there have been several migrations, especially to Argentina, such as the town of Jacinto Arauzthe in the southern part of the province of La{{nbsp}}Pampa, where they arrived around 1901. {{as of|2016}} the Waldensian Church of the Río de La Plata (which forms a united church with the Waldensian Evangelical Church) has approximately 40 congregations and 15,000 members shared between Uruguay and Argentina.WEB,weblink South America, American Waldensian Society, 2016, 6 July 2016, The Uruguayan town Colonia Valdense, in the department of Colonia, is the administrative center of the Waldensian Evangelical Church of the River Plate. In 1969, the Church established a mission in Barrio Nuevo, which became a soup kitchen for Saturdays and Sundays, for 500 poor families. Missionary activity has led to the conversion of new people without Waldensian ancestry, who are called "new Waldensian".

United States

File:Waldensian Presbyterian Church.jpg|thumb|300px|The Waldensian Presbyterian Church in the town of Valdese, North Carolina. This congregation belongs to the Presbyterian Church (USA)Presbyterian Church (USA)Since colonial times there have been Waldensians who sailed to America, as marked by the presence of them in New Jersey and Delaware. Many Waldensians, having escaped persecution in their homelands by making their way to the tolerant Dutch Republic, crossed the Atlantic to start anew in the New Netherland colony, establishing the first church in North America in Staten Island in 1670. Morris, Ira. Morris's Memorial History of Staten Island, New York, Volume 1. 1898, page 40In the late 19th century many Italians, among them Waldensians, emigrated to the United States. They founded communities in New York City, Boston, Chicago, Monett, Galveston, Rochester, Hunter and Ogden.{{citation |url=weblink |title= Regions: Europe: Countries: Italy |work= Global Mormonism Project |publisher= Brigham Young University}} The Monett congregation was among the first to be established in the United States, in 1875, by some 40 settlers who had formed the original South American settlement in Uruguay in the 1850s. With the outbreak of the Uruguayan Civil War they had fled violence in the Uruguayan countryside, traveling first back to Europe then across the Northern Atlantic to New York and by train to southern Missouri. Waldensians living in the Cottian Alps region of Northern Italy continued to migrate to Monett until the early 1900s, augmenting the original colony, and founded another, larger settlement in Valdese, North Carolina, in 1893. Both the Monett and Valdese congregations use the name Waldensian Presbyterian Church.In 1853 a group of approximately 70 Waldensians, including men, women, and children left their homes in the Piedmont Valleys and migrated to Pleasant Green, Hunter, and Ogden, Utah, after being converted to Mormonism by Lorenzo Snow. These Waldensians maintained their cultural heritage, while passing on their mixture of Mormon and Waldensian faiths to their descendants. Their descendants still consider themselves both Mormon and Waldensian, and have met occasionally over the many decades to celebrate both heritages.{{citation |first= Michael W. |last= Homer |date= Fall 2000 |title= 'Like the Rose in the Wilderness': The Mormon Mission in the Kingdom of Sardinia |journal= Mormon Historical Studies |volume= 1 |issue= 2 |pages= 25–62 |url=weblink |publisher= Mormon Historic Sites Foundation }}{{citation |first= Michael W. |last=Homer |year= 2002 |title= Il Libro di Mormon: Anticipating Growth beyond Italy's Waldensian Valleys |url=weblink |journal= Journal of Book of Mormon Studies |volume= 11 |issue= 1 |publisher= Maxwell Institute For Religious Scholarship, BYU }}{{citation |first= Diane |last= Stoke |year= 1985 |title= The Mormon Waldensians |url=weblink |type= MA thesis |publisher= Department of History, BYU; Harold B. Lee Library Digital Collections }}{{citation |first= Giuseppe |last= Platene |date= 1 April 1989 |title= To A Home in the Land of the Free |url=weblink |journal= Christianity Today }}In 1906, through the initiative of church forces in New York City, Waldensian interest groups were invited to coalesce into a new entity, The American Waldensian Aid Society (AWS), organized "to collect funds and apply the same to the aid of the Waldensian Church in Italy and elsewhere … and to arouse and maintain interest throughout the US in the work of said Church." Today, this organization continues as the American Waldensian Society. The American Waldensian Society recently marked its Centennial with a conference and celebrations in New York City.By the 1920s most of the Waldensian churches and missions merged into the Presbyterian Church due to the cultural assimilation of the second and third generations.The work of the American Waldensian Society continues in the United States today. The American Waldensian Society aims to foster dialogue and partnership among Waldensian Churches in Italy and South America and Christian churches within North America in order to promote a compelling vision of Waldensian Christian witness for North America. Thus, the American Waldensian Society makes public the contemporary and historic heritage to which Waldensian spirituality is committed: Tell the Story; Encourage "Crossings"; and Provide Financial Support.WEB,weblink Who We Are, Waldensian.org, 26 February 2014, The best known Waldensian Churches in America were in New York, Monett, Missouri and in Valdese, North Carolina. The church in New York City was disbanded by the mid-1990s.WEB,weblink Medieval New York: Waldensians in New York City, Fordham.edu, 3 May 1998, 26 February 2014, The American Waldensian Society assists churches, organizations and families in the promotion of Waldensian history and culture. The society allies with those who work to preserve their millennial heritage among their descendants. For example, over the course of 45{{nbsp}}years, the Old Colony Players in Valdese, North Carolina, have staged From this Day Forward, an outdoor drama telling the story of the Waldenses and the founding of Valdese.The Waldensian Presbyterian churches in the United States and the American Waldensian Society have links with the Italian-based Waldensian Evangelical Church, but, unlike the South American Waldensian communities, today they are independent institutions from the European organization.

Germany

File:Wappen Neuhengstett.png|thumb|Coat of arms of Le Bourcet (part of AlthengstettAlthengstett File:Arnaud Brunnen.JPG|thumb|Arnaud's fountain in Perouse (Württemberg)]]Several thousand Waldenses fled from Italy and France to Germany. Henri Arnaud (1641–1721), pastor and leader of the Piedmont Waldensians, rescued his co-religionists from their dispersion under the persecution of Victor Amadeus II the Duke of Savoy. Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg invited the Waldensians to his territory. When the Waldensians were exiled a second time, Arnaud accompanied them in their exile to Schönenberg, and continued to act as their pastor until his death. Those who remained in Germany were soon assimilated by the State Churches (Lutheran and Reformed) and they are a part of various Landeskirchen in the Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland. The new settlers were free in their religious services, and kept holding them in French till the 19th century. The Waldensian community is often overlooked, as the Hugenots were larger in count. Henri Arnaud's home in Schönenberg close to Ötisheim is a Museum today. A memorial plate refers to the introduction of potatoes in Württemberg by the Waldensians.Main parts of the Waldensian refugees found a new home in Hessen-Darmstadt, Kassel, Homburg, Nassau-Dillenburg and in the then Grand Duchée Württemberg. The founded new communities in Rohrbach, Wembach und Hahn (today part of Ober-Ramstadt), Walldorf (today Mörfelden-Walldorf), Bad Homburg-Dornholzhausen, Gottstreu and Gewissenruh (Oberweser), Charlottenberg. Still today, French family names (Gille, Roux, Granget, Conle, Gillardon, Common, Jourdan, Piston, Richardon, Servay, Conte, Baral, Gay, Orcellet or Salen) show the Savoyard background. Stuttgart hosts as well an Italian Waldensian community with about 100 members.Municipality names like Pinache, Serres (both now part of Wiernsheim), Großvillars, Kleinvillars (part of Oberderdingen), Perouse show the French heritage, the latter communities are close to Maulbronn and its UNESCO world heritage site monastery and school. Maulbronn was the place of the festivities for the 250th anniversary of the Waldensian emigration to Germany, which played as well an important role in German Italian reconciliation after World War{{nbsp}}II.
The Waldensian community is active and has various associations maintaining the specific heritage and keep relationships with their counterparts in Italy and South America.Deutsche Waldenservereinigung e. V. German Waldensian associationWEB,weblink Deutsche Waldenserorte, 30 April 2016, WEB,weblink Waldenserort Nordhausen, Weidenmann, 30 April 2016, WEB,weblink Waldenserkirche, Evangelische Waldenser-Kirchengemeinde, 30 April 2016, That includes as well a close watch on the ecumene, with the Waldensian-influenced theologians being more doubtful about a stronger cooperation with the Catholic Church than others.

Gallery

{{Cleanup gallery|date=July 2017}}File:2233_-_Waldensian_-_Church_at_Bobbio.jpg|Waldensian Church at Bobbio, abt. 1895 File:2239 - Waldensian - Waldensian Church at Torre.jpg| Church at Torre Pellice, abt. 1895File:2249 - Waldensian - Church of Pra Del Tor.jpg|Waldensian church at Pra Del Torno, abt. 1895File:2180 - Waldensian - Church in San Giovanni.jpg|Church in San Giovanni, abt. 1895File:2217 - Waldensian - Dr Pons and Church front.jpg|Dr. Pons and church front, abt. 1895File:2231 - Waldensian - Old Ladies Home - Dr Gay at end.jpg|Old Ladies Home, Torre Pellice, D. Gay at end.File:2194 - Waldensian - Pastor and Family at La Serre.jpg|Waldensian Pastor and family at La Serre, abt. 1895File:1113 - Waldensian Men Harvesting.jpg|Waldensian men harvesting in the Waldensian Valleys abt. 1895File:2227 - Waldensian - Other Waldensian Pastors in their Pulpit.jpg|Waldensian Pastor in his pulpit, abt. 1895File:2224 - Waldensian - A way side shrine.jpg| Waldensian ShrineFile:2220 - Waldensian - Seminary at Torre.jpg| Seminary at Torre PelliceFile:2214 - Waldensian - Scene of Jeneval's victory above Rora.jpg|Scene of Jeneval's victory above RoràFile:2190 - Waldensian - The wall of citadel above Torre.jpg|Wall of the citadel above Torre PelliceFile:2190 - Waldensian - Janeval's gun.jpg|Joshua Jeneval's Guns, Museum at Torre Pellice, abt. 1895File:1445 - Waldensian - Saquet's Whirlpool.jpg|Saquet's Whirlpool, near Pra Del Torno.File:10561 - Waldensian - Cromwell's Dike.jpg|Cromwell's Dike.File:2184 - Waldensian - The Martyr Tree.jpg|The "Martyr Tree", abt. 1895File:10414 - Waldensian - Portrait of Josue Janeval (Joshua Janavel).jpg|Portrait of Joshua JanavelFile:2252 - Waldensian - A mountain cottage.jpg|A mountain cottage in the Waldensian ValleysFile:5730 - Waldensian - Emblem candle burning in the darkness.jpg|Waldensian EmblemFile:10417 - Waldensian - Map of the Waldensian Valley.jpg|Map of the Waldensian ValleyFile:10415 - Waldensian - Map showing the location of the Waldensian Valley.jpg|Map showing the location of the Waldensian Valleys

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Sossi Andrea (2010), Medioevo Valdese 1173-1315. Povertà, Eucarestia e Predicazione: Tra identità minoritaria e rappresentazione cifrata del rapporto tra l'uomo e l'Assoluto, UNI Service Editrice, Trento.
  • Audisio, Gabriel (1999) The Waldensian Dissent: Persecution and Survival, c.1170–c.1570, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, {{ISBN|0-521-55984-7}}
  • Cameron, Euan (2001) The Waldenses: Rejections of Holy Church in Medieval Europe {{ISBN|0-631-22497-1}}, {{ISBN|978-0-631-22497-6}}
  • Comba, Emilio (1978) History of the Waldenses of Italy, from their origin to the Reformation {{ISBN|0-404-16119-7}}
  • Muston, Alexis (1978) The Israel of the Alps : a complete history of the Waldenses and their colonies : prepared in great part from unpublished documents {{ISBN|0-404-16140-5}}
  • w:James Aitken Wylie|Wylie, James Aitken]] (c.1860) History of the Waldenses {{ISBN|1-57258-185-9}} online ebook
  • Arnold, Eberhard (1984) The Early Anabaptists, Plough Publishing House {{ISBN|978-0-87486-192-1}}
  • Bost, Ami (1848) History of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, pp. 4–5, Religious Tract Society of London
  • {{citation |first= William |last= Jones |year= 1816 |title= The History of the Waldenses: Connected with a Sketch of the Christian Church from the Birth of Christ to the Eighteenth Century |edition= Vol. 2, 2nd |url=weblink |place= London |publisher= Gale and Fenner }}

External links

{{External links|date=February 2014}}{{Wikisource1911Enc|Waldenses|Waldensians}}{hide}wikisource |list=
    • s:Ecclesiastical History of the Ancient Churches of Piedmont|Ecclesiastical History of the Ancient Churches of Piedmont]]
    • s:An Inquiry into the History and Theology of the Ancient Vallenses and Albigenses|An Inquiry into the History and Theology of the Ancient Vallenses and Albigenses]]
    • s:The Waldensian Church in the valleys of Piedmont|The Waldensian Church in the valleys of Piedmont]]
{edih}{{Commons category |Waldensians}} {{Use dmy dates|date=June 2015}}{{Heresies condemned by the Catholic Church}}{{Christian History}}{{Anabaptists}}

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