Voyager 1

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Voyager 1
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{{other uses}}{{short description|Planetary space probe; farthest human-made object from Earth}}{{good article}}{{Use mdy dates|date=June 2016}}{{Use American English|date=March 2018}}{{italic title}}

  • {{Age in years, months and days| year=1977| month=09| day=05{edih} elapsed
  • Planetary mission: 3 years, 3 months, 9 days
  • Interstellar mission: {{Age in years, months and days|year=1980|month=12|day=14}} elapsed (continuing)}}
Mariner program>Mariner Jupiter-Saturn| manufacturer = Jet Propulsion Laboratory| dry_mass =825.5abbr=on}}| power = 470 watts (at launch)Titan IIIECape Canaveral Air Force Station>Cape Canaveral Launch Complex 41| launch_contractor =| last_contact = | decay_date =| interplanetary =

| arrival_date = March 5, 1979}}

| arrival_date = November 12, 1980}}

| arrival_date = November 12, 1980}}Flagship Program>Flagship| previous_mission = Voyager 2Galileo (spacecraft)>Galileo}}Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977. Part of the Voyager program to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1 was launched 16 days after its twin, Voyager 2. Having operated for {{Age in years, months and days| year=1977| month=09| day=05}} as of {{date|{{TODAY}}|mdy}}, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and to transmit data to Earth. At a distance of {{Convert|147.347|AU|e9km e9mi|sigfig=3|abbr=unit|lk=on}} from Earth as of October 1, 2019WEB,weblink Voyager - Mission Status, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, February 16, 2019, , it is the most distant man-made object from Earth.WEB,weblink Voyager 1, BBC Solar System, 4 September 2018,weblink" title="">weblink February 3, 2018, dead, mdy-all, The probe's objectives included flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturn's largest moon, Titan. Although the spacecraft's course could have been altered to include a Pluto encounter by forgoing the Titan flyby, exploration of the moon took priority because it was known to have a substantial atmosphere.WEB,weblink New Horizons conducts flyby of Pluto in historic Kuiper Belt encounter, September 2, 2015, WEB,weblink What If Voyager Had Explored Pluto?, September 2, 2015, Voyager 1 studied the weather, magnetic fields, and rings of the two planets and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons.After completing its primary mission with the flyby of Saturn on November 12, 1980, Voyager 1 became the third of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity required to leave the Solar System.{{cn|date=July 2019}} On August 25, 2012, Voyager 1 became the first spacecraft to cross the heliopause and enter the interstellar medium.NEWS, Barnes, Brooks, In a Breathtaking First, NASA Craft Exits the Solar System,weblink September 12, 2013, New York Times, September 12, 2013, In a further testament to the robustness of Voyager 1, the Voyager team completed a successful test of the spacecraft's trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) thrusters in late 2017 (the first time these thrusters were fired since 1980), a project enabling the mission to be extended by two to three years.NEWS, Wall, Mike, Voyager 1 Just Fired Up its Backup Thrusters for the 1st Time in 37 Years,weblink December 3, 2017,, December 1, 2017, Voyager 1{{'}}s extended mission is expected to continue until about 2025 when its radioisotope thermoelectric generators will no longer supply enough electric power to operate its scientific instruments.

Mission background


In the 1960s, a Grand Tour to study the outer planets was proposed which prompted NASA to begin work on a mission in the early 1970s.WEB,weblink 1960s, JPL, August 18, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2012, mdy-all, Information gathered by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft helped Voyager's engineers design Voyager to cope more effectively with the intense radiation environment around Jupiter.WEB, The Pioneer missions, 2007, NASA,weblink August 19, 2013, However, shortly before launch, strips of kitchen-grade aluminum foil were applied to certain cabling to further enhance radiation shielding.WEB,weblink Preview Screening: The Farthest - Voyager in Space, August 2017,, NASA Museum Alliance, August 18, 2019, supermarket aluminum foil added at the last minute to protect the craft from radiation, Initially, Voyager 1 was planned as "Mariner 11" of the Mariner program. Due to budget cuts, the mission was scaled back to be a flyby of Jupiter and Saturn and renamed the Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes. As the program progressed, the name was later changed to Voyager, since the probe designs began to differ greatly from previous Mariner missions.BOOK,weblink 251, Chapter 11, From engineering science to big science: The NACA and NASA Collier Trophy research project winners, 978-0-16-049640-0, Mack, Pamela, History Office, 1998,

Spacecraft components

File:Voyager Program - High-gain antenna diagram.png|thumb|left|upright|The {{convert|3.7|m|abbr=on}} diameter high gain dish antennahigh gain dish antennaVoyager 1 was constructed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.NEWS, Landau, Elizabeth, Voyager 1 becomes first human-made object to leave solar system, CNN, CNN, October 2, 2013,weblink May 29, 2014, WEB,weblink NASA Spacecraft Embarks on Historic Journey into Interstellar Space, NASA, September 12, 2013, May 29, 2014, NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft officially is the first human-made object to venture into interstellar space., WEB,weblink Viking: Trailblazer for All Mars Research, NASA, June 22, 2006, May 29, 2014, All of these missions relied on Viking technologies. As it did for the Viking program team in 1976, Mars continues to hold a special fascination. Thanks to the dedication of men and women working at NASA centers across the country, the mysterious Mars of our past is becoming a much more familiar place., It has 16 hydrazine thrusters, three-axis stabilization gyroscopes, and referencing instruments to keep the probe's radio antenna pointed toward Earth. Collectively, these instruments are part of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS), along with redundant units of most instruments and 8 backup thrusters. The spacecraft also included 11 scientific instruments to study celestial objects such as planets as it travels through space.WEB,weblink VOYAGER 1:Host Information, 1989, JPL, April 29, 2015,

Communication system

The radio communication system of Voyager 1 was designed to be used up to and beyond the limits of the Solar System. The communication system includes a {{convert|3.7|m|sp=us|adj=on}} diameter high gain Cassegrain antenna to send and receive radio waves via the three Deep Space Network stations on the Earth.WEB,weblink High Gain Antenna, JPL, August 18, 2013, The craft normally transmits data to Earth over Deep Space Network Channel 18, using a frequency of either 2.3 GHz or 8.4 GHz, while signals from Earth to Voyager are transmitted at 2.1 GHz.WEB, Ludwig, Roger, Taylor, Jim, Voyager Telecommunications, DESCANSO Design and Performance Summary Series, NASA/JPL, March 2002,weblink September 16, 2013, When Voyager 1 is unable to communicate directly with the Earth, its digital tape recorder (DTR) can record about 64 kilobytes of data for transmission at another time.WEB, NASA News Press Kit 77–136, JPL/NASA,weblink December 15, 2014, Signals from Voyager 1 take over 20 hours to reach Earth.


Voyager 1 has three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) mounted on a boom. Each MHW-RTG contains 24 pressed plutonium-238 oxide spheres. The RTGs generated about 470 W of electric power at the time of launch, with the remainder being dissipated as waste heat.WEB,weblink Spacecraft Lifetime, JPL, August 19, 2013, The power output of the RTGs declines over time (due to the 87.7-year half-life of the fuel and degradation of the thermocouples), but the craft's RTGs will continue to support some of its operations until 2025.JOURNAL, Furlong, Richard R., Wahlquist, Earl J., 1999, U.S. space missions using radioisotope power systems, Nuclear News, 42, 4, 26–34,weblink File:Voyager Program - RTG diagram 1.png|Diagram of RTG fuel container, showing the plutonium-238 oxide spheresFile:Voyager Program - RTG diagram 2.png|Diagram of RTG shell, showing the power-producing silicon-germanium thermocouplesFile:Voyager Program - RTG upclose.png|Model of an RTG unitAs of {{date|{{date}}|mdy}}, Voyager 1 has {{#expr:100*.5^({{age in days|1977|9|5}}/(87.7*365.25)) round 2}}% of the plutonium-238 that it had at launch. By 2050, it will have 56.5% left.


Unlike the other onboard instruments, the operation of the cameras for visible light is not autonomous, but rather it is controlled by an imaging parameter table contained in one of the on-board digital computers, the Flight Data Subsystem (FDS). Since the 1990s, most space probes have had completely autonomous cameras.WEB,weblink pds-rings, May 23, 2015, The computer command subsystem (CCS) controls the cameras. The CCS contains fixed computer programs, such as command decoding, fault-detection and -correction routines, antenna pointing routines, and spacecraft sequencing routines. This computer is an improved version of the one that was used in the 1970s Viking orbiters.BOOK, Tomayko, James, NASA, April 1987,weblink Computers in Spaceflight: The NASA Experience, February 6, 2010,, The hardware in both custom-built CCS subsystems in the Voyagers is identical. There is only a minor software modification: one of them that has a scientific subsystem that the other lacks.{{citation needed|date=February 2016}}The Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) controls the spacecraft orientation (its attitude). It keeps the high-gain antenna pointing towards the Earth, controls attitude changes, and points the scan platform. The custom-built AACS systems on both Voyagers are the same.WEB,weblink, May 23, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink October 16, 2015, dead, WEB,weblink airandspace, May 23, 2015,

Scientific instruments

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;"! scope="col" style="width:135px;" | Instrument name! scope="col" style="width:50px;" | {{abbr|Abr.|Abbreviation}}! DescriptionImaging Science System {{small|(disabled)}}}}| ISS
Utilized a two-camera system (narrow-angle/wide-angle) to provide images of Jupiter, Saturn and other objects along the trajectory. More{| class="wikitable collapsible"! colspan="2" | Filters{| style="text-align:center; width:320px;"! colspan="4" scope="col" | Narrow-angle camera
, Voyager 1 Narrow Angle Camera Description
, January 17, 2011
! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5; width:60px;"| Name! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5;" | Wavelength! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5;" | Spectrum! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5;" | Sensitivity| Clear| 280–640 nm50px|center)Ultraviolet>UV| 280–370 nm50px|center)| Violet| 350–450 nm50px|center)| Blue| 430–530 nm50px|center) â‹®|||| Green| 530–640 nm50px|center) â‹®|||| Orange| 590–640 nm50px|center) â‹®|||{| style="text-align:center; width:320px;"! colspan="4" scope="col" | Wide-angle camera
, Voyager 1 Wide Angle Camera Description
, January 17, 2011
! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5; width:60px;" | Name! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5;" | Wavelength! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5;" | Spectrum! scope="col" style="background:#e5e5e5;" | Sensitivity| Clear| 280–640 nm50px|center) â‹®|||| Violet| 350–450 nm50px|center)| Blue| 430–530 nm50px|center)Methane>CH4-U| 536–546 nm50px|center)| Green| 530–640 nm50px|center)Sodium>Na-D| 588–590 nm50px|center)| Orange| 590–640 nm50px|center)Methane>CH4-JST| 614–624 nm50px|center){hide}unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: Bradford Smith / University of Arizona (PDS/PRN website)
| Data: PDS/PDI data catalog, PDS/PRN data catalog
{edih}Radio Science System {{small|(disabled)}}}}| RSS
Utilized the telecommunications system of the Voyager spacecraft to determine the physical properties of planets and satellites (ionospheres, atmospheres, masses, gravity fields, densities) and the amount and size distribution of material in Saturn's rings and the ring dimensions. More{{unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: G. Tyler / Stanford University PDS/PRN overview
| Data: PDS/PPI data catalog, PDS/PRN data catalog (VG_2803), NSSDC data archive
}}Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer {{small|(disabled)}}}}| IRIS
Investigates both global and local energy balance and atmospheric composition. Vertical temperature profiles are also obtained from the planets and satellites as well as the composition, thermal properties, and size of particles in Saturn's rings. More{hide}unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: Rudolf Hanel / NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (PDS/PRN website)
| Data: PDS/PRN data catalog, PDS/PRN expanded data catalog (VGIRIS_0001, VGIRIS_002), NSSDC Jupiter data archive
{edih}Ultraviolet Spectrometer {{small|(disabled)}}}}| UVS
Designed to measure atmospheric properties, and to measure radiation. More{{unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: A. Broadfoot / University of Southern California (PDS/PRN website)
| Data: PDS/PRN data catalog
}}Triaxial Fluxgate Magnetometer {{small|(active)}}}}| MAG
Designed to investigate the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn, the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetospheres of these planets, and the magnetic field of interplanetary space out to the boundary between the solar wind and the magnetic field of interstellar space. More{{unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: Norman F. Ness / NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (website)
| Data: PDS/PPI data catalog, NSSDC data archive
}}Plasma (physics) Spectrometer {{small>(defective)}}}}| PLS
Investigates the microscopic properties of the plasma ions and measures electrons in the energy range from 5 eV to 1 keV. More{hide}unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: John Richardson / MIT (website)
| Data: PDS/PPI data catalog, NSSDC data archive
{edih}Low Energy Charged Particle Instrument {{small|(active)}}}}| LECP
Measures the differential in energy fluxes and angular distributions of ions, electrons and the differential in energy ion composition. More{hide}unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: Stamatios Krimigis / JHU / APL / University of Maryland (JHU/APL website / UMD website / KU website)
| Data: UMD data plotting, PDS/PPI data catalog, NSSDC data archive
{edih}Cosmic Ray System {{small|(active)}}}}| CRS
Determines the origin and acceleration process, life history, and dynamic contribution of interstellar cosmic rays, the nucleosynthesis of elements in cosmic-ray sources, the behavior of cosmic rays in the interplanetary medium, and the trapped planetary energetic-particle environment. More{{unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: Edward Stone / Caltech / NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (website)
| Data: PDS/PPI data catalog, NSSDC data archive
}}Planetary Radio Astronomy Investigation {{small|(disabled)}}}}| PRA
Utilizes a sweep-frequency radio receiver to study the radio-emission signals from Jupiter and Saturn. More{hide}unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: James Warwick / University of Colorado
| Data: PDS/PPI data catalog, NSSDC data archive
{edih}Polarimeter System {{small>(defective)}}}}| PPS
Utilized a telescope with a
polarizer to gather information on surface texture and composition of Jupiter and Saturn and information on atmospheric scattering properties and density for both planets. More{hide}unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: Arthur Lane / JPL (PDS/PRN website)
| Data: PDS/PRN data catalog
{edih}Plasma Wave Subsystem {{small|(active)}}}}| PWS
Provides continuous, sheath-independent measurements of the electron-density profiles at Jupiter and Saturn as well as basic information on local wave–particle interaction, useful in studying the magnetospheres. More{hide}unordered list
| style=font-size:85%;
| Principal investigator: Donald Gurnett / University of Iowa (website)
| Data: PDS/PPI data catalog
{edih}For more details on the Voyager space probes' identical instrument packages, see the separate article on the overall Voyager Program.{{Gallery
| align = center
| title = Images of the spacecraft
| width = 175
| lines = 3
| File:Voyager1 Space simulator.gif
| Voyager 1 in a space simulator chamber
| File:Record is attached to Voyager 1.jpg
| Gold-Plated Record is attached to Voyager 1
| alt2 = Voyager 1 in the Space Simulator chamber
| File:Stone Voyager 4c.jpg
| Edward C. Stone, former director of NASA JPL, standing in front of a Voyager spacecraft model
| File:Voyager Program - spacecraft diagram.png|Location of the scientific instruments indicated in a diagram
| alt3 = Gold-Plated Record is attached to Voyager 1
| footer = {{center|{{commons-inline|bullet=none|Category:Voyager spacecraft|the Voyager spacecraft}}}}

Mission profile

Timeline of travel{| classwikitable800px)Voyager 1{{'}}s trajectory seen from Earth, diverging from the ecliptic in 1981 at Saturn and now heading into the constellation Ophiuchus

{| class="wikitable"! scope="col" style="width:80px;"| Date! style="width:480px;" | Event| 1977-09-05| Spacecraft launched at 12:56:00 UTC.| 1977-12-10| Entered asteroid belt.| 1977-12-19Voyager 1 overtakes Voyager 2. ((:File:Voyager 1 - Voyager 2 - Voyager 1 overtakes Voyager 2.png>see diagram))| 1978-09-08| Exited asteroid belt.| 1979-01-06| Start Jupiter observation phase.{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"! scope="col" style="width:90px;"| Time! scope="col" style="width:380px;"| Event| 1979-03-05| Encounter with the Jovian system.| {{0}}{{0}}06:54Amalthea (moon)>Amalthea flyby at 420,200 km.| {{0}}{{0}}12:05:26| Jupiter closest approach at 348,890 km from the center of mass.| {{0}}{{0}}15:14Io (moon)>Io flyby at 20,570 km.| {{0}}{{0}}18:19Europa (moon)>Europa flyby at 733,760 km.| 1979-03-06|| {{0}}{{0}}02:15Ganymede (moon)>Ganymede flyby at 114,710 km.| {{0}}{{0}}17:08Callisto (moon)>Callisto flyby at 126,400 km.| 1979-04-13| Phase end| 1980-08-22| Start Saturn observation phase.{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"! scope="col" style="width:90px;"| Time! scope="col" style="width:380px;"| Event| 1980-11-12| Encounter with the Saturnian system.| {{0}}{{0}}05:41:21Titan (moon)>Titan flyby at 6,490 km.| {{0}}{{0}}22:16:32Tethys (moon)>Tethys flyby at 415,670 km.| {{0}}{{0}}23:46:30| Saturn closest approach at 184,300 km from the center of mass.| 1980-11-13|| {{0}}{{0}}01:43:12Mimas (moon)>Mimas flyby at 88,440 km.| {{0}}{{0}}01:51:16Enceladus (moon)>Enceladus flyby at 202,040 km.| {{0}}{{0}}06:21:53Rhea (moon)>Rhea flyby at 73,980 km.| {{0}}{{0}}16:44:41Hyperion (moon)>Hyperion flyby at 880,440 km.| 1980-11-14| Phase end| 1980-11-14| Begin extended mission.{| class="wikitable"! colspan="2" scope="col" | Extended mission 1990-02-14 Final images of the Voyager program acquired by Voyager 1 to create the Solar System Family Portrait.| 1998-02-17| Voyager 1 overtakes Pioneer 10 as the most distant spacecraft from the Sun, at 69.419 AU. Voyager 1 is moving away from the Sun at over 1 AU per year faster than Pioneer 10.| 2004-12-17| Passed the termination shock at 94 AU and entered the heliosheath.| 2007-02-02| Terminated plasma subsystem operations.| 2007-04-11| Terminated plasma subsystem heater.| 2008-01-16| Terminated planetary radio astronomy experiment operations.| 2012-08-25Heliopause (astronomy)>heliopause at 121 AU and entered interstellar space.| 2014-07-07| Further confirmation probe is in interstellar space.| 2016-04-19| Terminated Ultraviolet Spectrometer operations.| 2017-11-28 LAST=GREICIUSDATE=2017-12-01ACCESS-DATE=2017-12-13, en, {{clear}}

Launch and trajectory

File:Titan 3E with Voyager 1.jpg|thumb|Voyager 1 lifted off atop a 170px|leftFile:Animation of Voyager 1 trajectory.gif|thumb|right|Animation of Voyager 1{{'s}} trajectory from September 1977 to 31 December 1981{{legend2|magenta| Voyager 1 }}{{·}}{{legend2|Royalblue|Earth}}{{·}}{{legend2| Cyan |Jupiter}}{{·}}{{legend2|Lime|Saturn}}{{·}}{{legend2| Yellow |SunSunThe Voyager 1 probe was launched on September 5, 1977, from Launch Complex 41 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, aboard a Titan IIIE launch vehicle. The Voyager 2 probe had been launched two weeks earlier, on August 20, 1977. Despite being launched later, Voyager 1 reached both JupiterWEB,weblink Encounter with Jupiter, NASA, August 18, 2013, and Saturn sooner, following a shorter trajectory.WEB,weblink Planetary voyage, NASA, August 18, 2013, Voyager 1′s initial orbit had an aphelion of 8.9 AU, just a little short of Saturn's orbit of 9.5 AU. Voyager 2′s initial orbit had an aphelion of 6.2 AU, well short of Saturn's orbit.HORIZONS, JPL Solar System Dynamics (Ephemeris Type ELEMENTS; Target Body: Voyager n (spacecraft); Center: Sun (body center); Time Span: launch + 1 month to Jupiter encounter - 1 month)(File:Voyager-1 Jupiter-flyby March-5-1979.png|thumb|The trajectory of Voyager 1 through the Jupiter system)

Flyby of Jupiter

Voyager 1 began photographing Jupiter in January 1979. Its closest approach to Jupiter was on March 5, 1979, at a distance of about {{convert|349000|km|mi|abbr=off|sp=us}} from the planet's center. Because of the greater photographic resolution allowed by a closer approach, most observations of the moons, rings, magnetic fields, and the radiation belt environment of the Jovian system were made during the 48-hour period that bracketed the closest approach. Voyager 1 finished photographing the Jovian system in April 1979.Discovery of ongoing volcanic activity on the moon Io was probably the greatest surprise. It was the first time active volcanoes had been seen on another body in the Solar System. It appears that activity on Io affects the entire Jovian system. Io appears to be the primary source of matter that pervades the Jovian magnetosphere – the region of space that surrounds the planet influenced by the planet's strong magnetic field. Sulfur, oxygen, and sodium, apparently erupted by Io's volcanoes and sputtered off the surface by impact of high-energy particles, were detected at the outer edge of the magnetosphere of Jupiter.The two Voyager space probes made a number of important discoveries about Jupiter, its satellites, its radiation belts, and its never-before-seen planetary rings.{{Clear}}File:Jupiter from Voyager 1 PIA02855 thumbnail 300px max quality.ogv|alt=Voyager 1 time lapse movie of Jupiter approach|Voyager 1 time-lapse movie of Jupiter approach ((:File:Jupiter from Voyager 1 PIA02855 max quality.ogv|full-size video))File:Great Red Spot From Voyager 1.jpg|Jupiter's Great Red Spot, an anti-cyclonic storm larger than Earth, as seen from Voyager 1|alt=The Great Red Spot as seen from Voyager 1File:Volcanic crater with radiating lava flows on Io.jpg|alt=View of lava flows radiating from the volcano Ra Patera on Io|View of sulfur-rich lava flows radiating from the volcano Ra Patera on IoFile:Vulcanic Explosion on Io.jpg|The eruption plume of the volcano Loki rises {{convert|160|km|sigfig=1|abbr=on}} over the limb of Io|alt=A volcanic eruption plume rises over the limb of IoFile:PIA01970.jpg|alt=Europa as seen from Voyager 1 at a distance of 2.8 million km|Europa's lineated but un-cratered face, evidence of currently active geology, at a distance of 2.8 million km.File:Ganymede - PIA02278.jpg|alt=Icy surface of Ganymede as photographed from 253,000 km|Ganymede's tectonically disrupted surface, marked with bright impact sites, from 253,000 km.{{center|{{commons-inline|bullet=none|Category:Photos of Jupiter system by Voyager 1|the Voyager 1 Jupiter encounter}}}}

Flyby of Saturn

The gravitational assist trajectories at Jupiter were successfully carried out by both Voyagers, and the two spacecraft went on to visit Saturn and its system of moons and rings. Voyager 1 encountered Saturn in November 1980, with the closest approach on November 12, 1980, when the space probe came within {{convert|124000|km|mi|-3|sp=us}} of Saturn's cloud-tops. The space probe's cameras detected complex structures in the rings of Saturn, and its remote sensing instruments studied the atmospheres of Saturn and its giant moon Titan.WEB,weblink Encounter with saturn, NASA, August 29, 2013, Voyager 1 found that about seven percent of the volume of Saturn's upper atmosphere is helium (compared with 11 percent of Jupiter's atmosphere), while almost all the rest is hydrogen. Since Saturn's internal helium abundance was expected to be the same as Jupiter's and the Sun's, the lower abundance of helium in the upper atmosphere may imply that the heavier helium may be slowly sinking through Saturn's hydrogen; that might explain the excess heat that Saturn radiates over energy it receives from the Sun. Winds blow at high speeds in Saturn. Near the equator, the Voyagers measured winds about 500 m/s (1,100 mph). The wind blows mostly in an easterly direction.The Voyagers found aurora-like ultraviolet emissions of hydrogen at mid-latitudes in the atmosphere, and auroras at polar latitudes (above 65 degrees). The high-level auroral activity may lead to the formation of complex hydrocarbon molecules that are carried toward the equator. The mid-latitude auroras, which occur only in sunlit regions, remain a puzzle, since bombardment by electrons and ions, known to cause auroras on Earth, occurs primarily at high latitudes. Both Voyagers measured the rotation of Saturn (the length of a day) at 10 hours, 39 minutes, 24 seconds.Voyager 1's mission included a flyby of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, which had long been known to have an atmosphere. Images taken by Pioneer 11 in 1979 had indicated the atmosphere was substantial and complex, further increasing interest. The Titan flyby occurred as the spacecraft entered the system to avoid any possibility of damage closer to Saturn compromising observations, and approached to within {{convert|4000|mi|km|order=flip|abbr=on}}, passing behind Titan as seen from Earth and the Sun. Voyager's measurement of the atmosphere's effect on sunlight and Earth-based measurement of its effect on the probe's radio signal were used to determine the atmosphere's composition, density, and pressure. Titan's mass was also measured by observing its effect on the probe's trajectory. The thick haze prevented any visual observation of the surface, but the measurement of the atmosphere's composition, temperature, and pressure led to speculation that lakes of liquid hydrocarbons could exist on the surface.BOOK, Jim Bell, The Interstellar Age: Inside the Forty-Year Voyager Mission,weblink February 24, 2015, Penguin Publishing Group, 978-0-698-18615-6, 93, Because observations of Titan were considered vital, the trajectory chosen for Voyager 1 was designed around the optimum Titan flyby, which took it below the south pole of Saturn and out of the plane of the ecliptic, ending its planetary science mission.BOOK, David W. Swift, Voyager Tales: Personal Views of the Grand Tour,weblink January 1, 1997, AIAA, 978-1-56347-252-7, 69, Had Voyager 1 failed or been unable to observe Titan, Voyager 2's trajectory would have been altered to incorporate the Titan flyby,{{rp|94}} precluding any visit to Uranus and Neptune.WEB,weblink Voyager – Frequently Asked Questions, NASA, February 14, 1990, August 4, 2017, The trajectory Voyager 1 was launched into would not have allowed it to continue on to Uranus and Neptune,{{rp|155}} but could have been altered to avoid a Titan flyby and travel from Saturn to Pluto, arriving in 1986.File:Crescent Saturn as seen from Voyager 1.jpg|alt=View of Saturn lit from the right. Saturn's globe casts its shadow over the rings to the left. Part of the lower hemisphere can be seen through the rings. Some of the spoke-like ring features are visible as bright patches.|Crescent Saturn from 5.3 million km, four days after closest approachFile:Voyager1-saturn-f-ring.jpg|alt=Voyager 1 image of Saturn's F Ring|Voyager 1 image of Saturn's narrow, twisted and braided F Ring.File:Voyager 1 - view of Saturn's moon Mimas.jpg|alt=Mimas at a range of 425,000 km from Voyager 1|Mimas at a range of 425,000 km; the crater Herschel is at upper rightFile:Tethys - PIA01974.jpg|alt=Tethys photographed by Voyager 1 from 1.2 million km|Tethys, with its giant rift valley Ithaca Chasma, from 1.2 million km.File:Dione from Voyager 1.jpg|alt=Fractured terrain on Dione imaged from a distance of 240,000 km from Voyager 1|Fractured 'wispy terrain' on Dione's trailing hemisphere.File:Rhea - PIA02270.jpg|alt=Impact craters on the surface of Rhea appear similar to Earth's Moon|The icy surface of Rhea is nearly saturated with impact craters.File:Titan's thick haze layer-picture from voyager1.jpg|alt=Cream-colored section of a disk is separated from the black space above by a fuzzy blue curve|Titan's thick haze layer is shown in this enhanced Voyager 1 image.File:Titan Haze.jpg|alt=orange coloured area at bottom right is separated from black space at upper left by diagonal series of blue bands|Layers of haze, composed of complex organic compounds, covering Saturn's satellite Titan.{{center|{{commons-inline|bullet=none|Category:Photos of Saturn system by Voyager 1|the Voyager 1 Saturn encounter}}}}

Exit from the heliosphere

File:Family portrait (Voyager 1).png|400px|thumb|alt=A set of grey squares trace roughly left to right. A few are labeled with single letters associated with a nearby colored square. J is near to a square labeled Jupiter; E to Earth; V to Venus; S to Saturn; U to Uranus; N to Neptune. A small spot appears at the center of each colored square|The Family Portrait of the Solar System acquired by Voyager 1]](File:Voyager 1 - 14 February 1990.png|thumb|Position of Voyager 1 above the plane of the ecliptic on February 14, 1990)(File:Voyager speed and distance from Sun.svg|thumb|right|Voyager 1 and 2 speed and distance from Sun)On February 14, 1990, Voyager 1 took the first "family portrait" of the Solar System as seen from outside,WEB,weblink Photo Caption, Public Information Office, August 26, 2010, which includes the image of planet Earth known as Pale Blue Dot. Soon afterwards its cameras were deactivated to conserve energy and computer resources for other equipment. The camera software has been removed from the spacecraft, so it would now be complex to get them working again. Earth-side software and computers for reading the images are also no longer available.File:Pale Blue Dot.png|200px|thumb|left|The Pale Blue DotPale Blue DotOn February 17, 1998, Voyager 1 reached a distance of 69 AU from the Sun and overtook Pioneer 10 as the most distant spacecraft from Earth.NEWS, Voyager 1 now most distant man-made object in space,weblink CNN, July 1, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink June 20, 2012, February 17, 1998, dead, mdy-all, NEWS, Clark, Stuart, Voyager 1 leaving solar system matches feats of great human explorers,weblink The Guardian, September 13, 2013, Travelling at about {{convert|17|km/s|sp=us}}BOOK,weblink If the Universe is Teeming with Aliens … WHERE IS EVERYBODY?: Fifty Solutions to the Fermi Paradox and the Problem of Extraterrestrial Life, 978-0-387-95501-8, Webb, Stephen, October 4, 2002, it has the fastest heliocentric recession speed of any spacecraft.WEB,weblink Fastest Spacecraft, David, Darling, August 19, 2013, As Voyager 1 headed for interstellar space, its instruments continued to study the Solar System. Jet Propulsion Laboratory scientists used the plasma wave experiments aboard Voyager 1 and 2 to look for the heliopause, the boundary at which the solar wind transitions into the interstellar medium.WEB,weblink JPL, Voyager 1 in heliopause, August 18, 2013, {{as of|2013}}, the probe was moving with a relative velocity to the Sun of about {{convert|17030|m/s|ft/s|sp=us}}.WEB,weblink Voyager Mission Operations Status Report # 2013-09-06, Week Ending September 6, 2013, JPL, September 15, 2013, With the velocity the probe is currently maintaining, Voyager 1 is traveling about {{convert|325|e6mi|e6km}} per year,NEWS, Wall, Mike,weblink It's Official! Voyager 1 Spacecraft Has Left Solar System,, September 12, 2013, May 30, 2014, or about one light-year per 18,000 years.

Termination shock

File:Voyager Path.svg|thumb|200px|Close flybys of gas giants gave gravity assistgravity assistScientists at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory believe that Voyager 1 entered the termination shock in February 2003.NEWS,weblink Spacecraft reaches edge of Solar System, Kate, Tobin, CNN, November 5, 2003, August 19, 2013, This marks the point where the solar wind slows to subsonic speeds. Some other scientists expressed doubt, discussed in the journal Nature of November 6, 2003.JOURNAL, 10.1038/426021a, Planetary Science: Over the edge?, 2003, Fisk, Len A., Nature, 426, 6962, 21–2, 14603294, 2003Natur.426...21F,weblink The issue would not be resolved until other data became available, since Voyager 1's solar-wind detector ceased functioning in 1990. This failure meant that termination shock detection would have to be inferred from the data from the other instruments on board.JOURNAL, 10.1038/nature02068, Voyager 1 exited the solar wind at a distance of ∼85 au from the Sun, 2003, Krimigis, S. M., Decker, R. B., Hill, M. E., Armstrong, T. P., Gloeckler, G., Hamilton, D. C., Lanzerotti, L. J., Roelof, E. C., Nature, 426, 6962, 45–8, 14603311, 2003Natur.426...45K, JOURNAL, 10.1038/nature02066, Enhancements of energetic particles near the heliospheric termination shock, 2003, McDonald, Frank B., Stone, Edward C., Cummings, Alan C., Heikkila, Bryant, Lal, Nand, Webber, William R., Nature, 426, 6962, 48–51, 14603312, 2003Natur.426...48M, JOURNAL, 10.1029/2003GL018291, Search for the heliosheath with Voyager 1 magnetic field measurements, 2003, Burlaga, L. F., Geophysical Research Letters, 30, 20, n/a, 2003GeoRL..30.2072B,weblink In May 2005, a NASA press release said that the consensus was that Voyager 1 was then in the heliosheath.WEB,weblink Voyager Enters Solar System's Final Frontier, NASA, May 24, 2005, August 7, 2007, In a scientific session at the American Geophysical Union meeting in New Orleans on May 25, 2005, Dr. Ed Stone presented evidence that the craft crossed the termination shock in late 2004.WEB,weblink Voyager crosses termination shock, August 29, 2013, This event is estimated to have occurred on December 15, 2004 at a distance of 94 AU from the Sun.WEB, Voyager Timeline,weblink NASA/JPL, February 2013, December 2, 2013,


On March 31, 2006, amateur radio operators from AMSAT in Germany tracked and received radio waves from Voyager 1 using the {{convert|20|m|ft|0|adj=on|sp=us}} dish at Bochum with a long integration technique. Retrieved data was checked and verified against data from the Deep Space Network station at Madrid, Spain.WEB,weblink AMSAT-DL, German, ARRL article, dead, October 14, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink WEB,weblink ARRL article, This seems to be the first such amateur tracking of Voyager 1.It was confirmed on December 13, 2010 that Voyager 1 had passed the reach of the radial outward flow of the solar wind, as measured by the Low Energy Charged Particle device. It is suspected that solar wind at this distance turns sideways because of interstellar wind pushing against the heliosphere. Since June 2010, detection of solar wind had been consistently at zero, providing conclusive evidence of the event.WEB,weblink Voyager 1 Sees Solar Wind Decline, NASA, December 13, 2010, September 16, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 14, 2011, mdy-all, JOURNAL, Krimigis, S. M., Roelof, E. C., Decker, R. B., Hill, M. E., Zero outward flow velocity for plasma in a heliosheath transition layer, 10.1038/nature10115, Nature, 474, 7351, 359–361, 2011, 21677754, 2011Natur.474..359K, On this date, the spacecraft was approximately 116 AU or 10.8 billion miles (17.3 billion kilometers) from the Sun.NEWS,weblink Voyager near Solar System's edge, Jonathan, Amos, BBC News, December 14, 2010, December 21, 2010, Voyager 1 was commanded to change its orientation to measure the sideways motion of the solar wind at that location in space on March 2011 (~33yr 6mo from launch). A test roll done in February had confirmed the spacecraft's ability to maneuver and reorient itself. The course of the spacecraft was not changed. It rotated 70 degrees counterclockwise with respect to Earth to detect the solar wind. This was the first time the spacecraft had done any major maneuvering since the Family Portrait photograph of the planets was taken in 1990. After the first roll the spacecraft had no problem in reorienting itself with Alpha Centauri, Voyager 1's guide star, and it resumed sending transmissions back to Earth. Voyager 1 was expected to enter interstellar space "at any time". Voyager 2 was still detecting outward flow of solar wind at that point but it was estimated that in the following months or years it would experience the same conditions as Voyager 1.WEB, NASA,weblink Voyager – The Interstellar Mission, NASA, September 16, 2013, NEWS,weblink BBC News, Voyager: Still dancing 17 billion km from Earth, March 9, 2011, The spacecraft was reported at 12.44° declination and 17.163 hours right ascension, and at an ecliptic latitude of 34.9° (the ecliptic latitude changes very slowly), placing it in the constellation Ophiuchus as observed from the Earth on May 21, 2011.On December 1, 2011, it was announced that Voyager 1 had detected the first Lyman-alpha radiation originating from the Milky Way galaxy. Lyman-alpha radiation had previously been detected from other galaxies, but because of interference from the Sun, the radiation from the Milky Way was not detectable.MAGAZINE,weblink Voyager Probes Detect "invisible" Milky Way Glow, National Geographic, December 1, 2011, December 4, 2011, NASA announced on December 5, 2011, that Voyager 1 had entered a new region referred to as a "cosmic purgatory". Within this stagnation region, charged particles streaming from the Sun slow and turn inward, and the Solar System's magnetic field is doubled in strength as interstellar space appears to be applying pressure. Energetic particles originating in the Solar System decline by nearly half, while the detection of high-energy electrons from outside increases 100-fold. The inner edge of the stagnation region is located approximately 113 AU from the Sun.NEWS,weblink Spacecraft enters 'cosmic purgatory', December 6, 2011, December 7, 2011, CNN,


{{Multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical| width = 218| image1 = Cosmic Rays at Voyager 1.png| caption1 = Plot showing a dramatic increase in the rate of cosmic ray particle detection by the Voyager 1 spacecraft (October 2011 through October 2012)| image2 = Solar wind at Voyager 1.png| caption2 = Plot showing a dramatic decrease in the rate of solar wind particle detection by Voyager 1 (October 2011 through October 2012)}}NASA announced in June 2012 that the probe was detecting changes in the environment that were suspected to correlate with arrival at the heliopause.WEB,weblink NASA Voyager 1 Spacecraft Nears Interstellar Space,, August 19, 2013, Voyager 1 had reported a marked increase in its detection of charged particles from interstellar space, which are normally deflected by the solar winds within the heliosphere from the Sun. The craft thus began to enter the interstellar medium at the edge of the Solar System.WEB,weblink Data From NASA's Voyager 1 Point to Interstellar Future, NASA, June 14, 2012, June 16, 2012, Voyager 1 became the first spacecraft to cross the heliopause in August 2012, then at a distance of 121 AU from the Sun, although this was not confirmed for another year.WEB, Cook, J.-R. C., Agle, D.C., Brown, D., NASA Spacecraft Embarks on Historic Journey into Interstellar Space, NASA, September 12, 2013,weblink September 14, 2013, As of September 2012, sunlight took 16.89 hours to get to Voyager 1 which was at a distance of 121 AU. The apparent magnitude of the Sun from the spacecraft was −16.3 (less than 30 times the brightness of the full moon).WEB, Peat, Chris, Spacecraft escaping the Solar System,weblink September 9, 2012, Heavens-Above, March 16, 2014, The spacecraft was traveling at {{Convert|17.043|km/s|mi/s|abbr=on}} relative to the Sun. It would need about 17,565 years at this speed to travel a light-year. To compare, Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun, is about 4.2 light-years ({{val|2.65|e=5|u=AU}}) distant. Were the spacecraft traveling in the direction of that star, 73,775 years would pass before Voyager 1 reaches it. (Voyager 1 is heading in the direction of the constellation Ophiuchus.)In late 2012, researchers reported that particle data from the spacecraft suggested that the probe had passed through the heliopause. Measurements from the spacecraft revealed a steady rise since May in collisions with high energy particles (above 70 MeV), which are thought to be cosmic rays emanating from supernova explosions far beyond the Solar System, with a sharp increase in these collisions in late August. At the same time, in late August, there was a dramatic drop in collisions with low-energy particles, which are thought to originate from the Sun.WEB,weblink Did NASA's Voyager 1 Spacecraft Just Exit the Solar System?, livescience, Natalie, Wolchover, August 20, 2013, Ed Roelof, space scientist at Johns Hopkins University and principal investigator for the Low-Energy Charged Particle instrument on the spacecraft declared that "Most scientists involved with Voyager 1 would agree that [these two criteria] have been sufficiently satisfied." However, the last criterion for officially declaring that Voyager 1 had crossed the boundary, the expected change in magnetic field direction (from that of the Sun to that of the interstellar field beyond), had not been observed (the field had changed direction by only 2 degrees), which suggested to some that the nature of the edge of the heliosphere had been misjudged. On December 3, 2012, Voyager project scientist Ed Stone of the California Institute of Technology said, "Voyager has discovered a new region of the heliosphere that we had not realized was there. We're still inside, apparently. But the magnetic field now is connected to the outside. So it's like a highway letting particles in and out."MAGAZINE,weblink Despite Tantalizing Hints, Voyager 1 Has Not Crossed into the Interstellar Medium, John, Matson, December 4, 2012, Scientific American, August 20, 2013, The magnetic field in this region was 10 times more intense than Voyager 1 encountered before the termination shock. It was expected to be the last barrier before the spacecraft exited the Solar System completely and entered interstellar space.WEB,weblink Voyager 1 Can 'Taste' the Interstellar Shore, Discovery News, Discovery Channel, December 3, 2012, September 16, 2013, WEB, Oakes, Kelly,weblink Voyager 1 is still not out of the Solar System, Basic Space Blog, Scientific American, December 3, 2012, September 16, 2013, NEWS,weblink Voyager 1 probe leaving Solar System reaches 'magnetic highway' exit, Daily News & Analysis, December 4, 2012, Reuters, December 4, 2012, In March 2013, it was announced that Voyager 1 might have become the first spacecraft to enter interstellar space, having detected a marked change in the plasma environment on August 25, 2012. However, until September 12, 2013, it was still an open question as to whether the new region was interstellar space or an unknown region of the Solar System. At that time, the former alternative was officially confirmed.WEB, Voyager 1 has entered a new region of space, sudden changes in cosmic rays indicate,weblink American Geophysical Union, March 20, 2013, dead, March 22, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink WEB, Cook, J.-R, How Do We Know When Voyager Reaches Interstellar Space?, NASA / Jet Propulsion Lab, September 12, 2013,weblink September 15, 2013, In 2013 Voyager 1 was exiting the Solar System at a speed of about 3.6 AU per year, while Voyager 2 is going slower, leaving the Solar System at 3.3 AU per year.WEB,weblink Voyager - Fast Facts,, Each year Voyager 1 increases its lead over Voyager 2.Voyager 1 reached a distance of 135 AU from the Sun on May 18, 2016. By September 5, 2017, that had increased to about 139.64 AU from the Sun, or just over 19 light-hours, and at that time Voyager 2 was 115.32 AU from the Sun.Its progress can be monitored at NASA's website (see: External links).File:Interstellar probes (cropped).jpg|350px|thumb|Voyager 1 and the other probes that are in or on their way to interstellar space, except New HorizonsNew Horizons

Interstellar medium

File:Voyager Captures Sounds of Interstellar Space.webm|left|thumb|Voyager 1 transmitted audio signals generated by plasma wavesplasma wavesOn September 12, 2013, NASA officially confirmed that Voyager 1 had reached the interstellar medium in August 2012 as previously observed, with a generally accepted date of August 25, 2012 (~10d short of 34yrs since launch), the date durable changes in the density of energetic particles were first detected.JOURNAL, Cowen, R., 10.1038/nature.2013.13735, Voyager 1 has reached interstellar space, Nature, 2013, JOURNAL, Kerr, R. A., It's Official—Voyager Has Left the Solar System, 10.1126/science.341.6151.1158, Science, 341, 6151, 1158–1159, 2013, 24030991, 2013Sci...341.1158K, JOURNAL, Gurnett, D. A., Kurth, W. S., Burlaga, L. F., Ness, N. F., In Situ Observations of Interstellar Plasma with Voyager 1, 10.1126/science.1241681, Science, 2013, 24030496, 341, 6153, 1489–1492, 2013Sci...341.1489G, By this point most space scientists had abandoned the hypothesis that a change in magnetic field direction must accompany crossing of the heliopause; a new model of the heliopause predicted that no such change would be found.JOURNAL, Swisdak, M., Drake, J. F., Opher, M., A Porous, Layered Heliopause, 10.1088/2041-8205/774/1/L8, The Astrophysical Journal, 774, 1, L8, 2013, 1307.0850, 2013ApJ...774L...8S, A key finding that persuaded many scientists that the heliopause had been crossed was an indirect measurement of an 80-fold increase in electron density, based on the frequency of plasma oscillations observed beginning on April 9, 2013, triggered by a solar outburst that had occurred in March 2012 (electron density is expected to be two orders of magnitude higher outside the heliopause than within). Weaker sets of oscillations measured in October and November 2012NEWS, Morin, Monte, NASA confirms Voyager 1 has left the Solar System,weblink Los Angeles Times, September 12, 2013, provided additional data. An indirect measurement was required because Voyager 1's plasma spectrometer had stopped working in 1980. In September 2013, NASA released recordings of audio transductions of these plasma waves, the first to be measured in interstellar space.WEB,weblink Voyage 1 Records "Sounds" of Interstellar Space,, December 20, 2013, While Voyager 1 is commonly spoken of as having left the Solar System simultaneously with having left the heliosphere, the two are not the same. The Solar System is usually defined as the vastly larger region of space populated by bodies that orbit the Sun. The craft is presently less than one-seventh the distance to the aphelion of Sedna, and it has not yet entered the Oort cloud, the source region of long-period comets, regarded by astronomers as the outermost zone of the Solar System.WEB, Ghose, Tia, Voyager 1 Really Is in Interstellar Space: How NASA Knows,, TechMedia Network, September 13, 2013,weblink September 14, 2013, (v_infty)}}">

Future of the probe {| class"wikitable floatright" style"text-align:center; font-size:0.9em;"(v_infty)}}

! Probe !! Velocity {{nowrap|(v_infty)}}Pioneer 10 >11.8au/years|2}}Pioneer 11 >11.1au/years|2}}Voyager 1 >16.9au/years|2}}Voyager Fast FactsVoyager 2 >15.2au/years|2}}New Horizons >12.6au/years|2}}(File:Voyager 1 Radio Signal 21 Feb 2013.jpg|thumb|upright|Image of Voyager 1's radio signal on February 21, 2013NEWS,weblink Voyager Signal Spotted By Earth Radio Telescopes, NASA, NASA TV, September 5, 2013, 2015-05-20, ){{multiple image
| align = right
| direction = vertical
| width =
| image1 = VoyagerOne Aug 2 2018.png
| alt1 =
| caption1 = Simulated view of Voyager 1 relative to the Solar System on August 2, 2018.
| image2 = Voyagerprobes Aug 2 2018.png
| alt2 =
| caption2 = Simulated view of the Voyager probes relative to the Solar System and heliopause on August 2, 2018.
Voyager 1 is expected to reach the theorized Oort cloud in about 300 yearsWEB,weblink Catalog Page for PIA17046, Photo Journal, NASA, April 27, 2014, WEB,weblink It's Official: Voyager 1 Is Now In Interstellar Space, UniverseToday, April 27, 2014, 2013-09-12, and take about 30,000 years to pass through it. Though it is not heading towards any particular star, in about 40,000 years, it will pass within 1.6 light-years of the star Gliese 445, which is at present in the constellation Camelopardalis. That star is generally moving towards the Solar System at about {{convert|119|km/s|km/h mph|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Voyager – Mission – Interstellar Mission, NASA, August 9, 2010, March 17, 2011, NASA says that "The Voyagers are destined—perhaps eternally—to wander the Milky Way."WEB,weblink Future, NASA, October 13, 2013, In 300,000 years it will pass within less than 1 light year of the M3V star TYC 3135-52-1.JOURNAL, Future stellar flybys of the Voyager and Pioneer spacecraft, Research Notes of the AAS, 3, 4, 59, RNAAS 3, 59, 3 April 2019, 10.3847/2515-5172/ab158e, Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L., Farnocchia, Davide, 2019RNAAS...3d..59B, Provided Voyager 1 does not collide with anything and is not retrieved, the New Horizons space probe will never pass it, despite being launched from Earth at a faster speed than either Voyager spacecraft. The Voyager spacecraft benefited from multiple planetary flybys to increase their heliocentric velocities, whereas New Horizons received only a single such boost, from its Jupiter flyby. As of 2018, New Horizons is traveling at about 14 km/s, 3 km/s slower than Voyager 1, and is still slowing down.WEB,weblink New Horizons Salutes Voyager, August 17, 2006, New Horizons, November 3, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 13, 2014, mdy-all, In December 2017 it was announced that NASA had successfully fired up all four of Voyager 1{{'}}s trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) thrusters for the first time since 1980. The TCM thrusters will be used in the place of a degraded set of jets which were used to help keep the probe's antenna pointed towards the Earth. Use of the TCM thrusters will allow Voyager 1 to continue to transmit data to NASA for two to three more years.NEWS,weblink Voyager 1 spacecraft thrusters fire up after decades idle, December 4, 2017, The Irish Times, WEB,weblink Voyager 1 Fires Up Thrusters After 37 Years, December 1, 2017, NASA, {| class="wikitable"! Year !! End of specific capabilities as a result of the available electrical power limitationsWEB,weblink Voyger: Spacecraft Lifetime, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA, March 3, 2015, 2015-05-20, | Termination of plasma subsystem (PLS)| Power off Planetary Radio Astronomy Experiment (PRA)WEBSITE=VOYAGER.JPL.NASA.GOV, Termination of scan platform and Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) observationsdate=May 2019}}gyroscope>gyroscopic operations (previously 2017, but backup thrusters active for continuation of gyroscopic operations.)201018df=US}} the order is undecided, however the Low-Energy Charged Particles, Cosmic Ray Subsystem, Magnetometer, and Plasma Wave Subsystem instruments are expected to still be operating)HTTPS://VOYAGER.JPL.NASA.GOV/SPACECRAFT/SPACECRAFTLIFE.HTML >TITLE=VOYAGER – SPACECRAFT – SPACECRAFT LIFETIME PUBLISHER=NASA JET PROPULSION LABORATORY ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 30, 2011, | Will no longer be able to power even a single instrument.

Golden record

File:Voyager Golden Record greeting in English.ogg|thumb|A child's greeting in English recorded on the Voyager Golden RecordVoyager Golden Record(File:The Sounds of Earth - GPN-2000-001976.jpg|left|thumb|126x126px|Voyager Golden Record)Each Voyager space probe carries a gold-plated audio-visual disc, should the spacecraft ever be found by intelligent life forms from other planetary systems.MAGAZINE, Ferris, Timothy, Timothy Ferris on Voyagers' Never-Ending Journey,weblink May 2012, Smithsonian Magazine, August 19, 2013, The disc carries photos of the Earth and its lifeforms, a range of scientific information, spoken greetings from people such as the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the President of the United States and a medley, "Sounds of Earth," that includes the sounds of whales, a baby crying, waves breaking on a shore, and a collection of music including works by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Blind Willie Johnson, Chuck Berry and Valya Balkanska. Other Eastern and Western classics are included, as well as various performances of indigenous music from around the world. The record also contains greetings in 55 different languages.WEB,weblink Voyager Golden record, JPL, August 18, 2013, {{-}}

See also

{{interstellar_probes_trajectory.svg}}{hide}cmn|colwidth=30em| {edih}



External links

{{Commons category}} {{Voyager program}}{{Jupiter spacecraft}}{{Saturn spacecraft}}{{NASA navbox}}{{Solar System probes}}{{Extreme motion}}{{Orbital launches in 1977}}{{Authority control}}

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