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Voltaire
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| birth_place = Paris, Kingdom of France17783011df=yes}}| death_place = Paris, Kingdom of France| resting_place = Panthéon, Paris, France| occupation = Writer, philosopherFrench language>French| nationality = French| alma_mater = Collège Louis-le-Grand| partner = Émilie du Châtelet (1733–1749)| module =







factoids
}}François-Marie Arouet ({{IPA-fr|fʁɑ̃swa maʁi aʁwɛ|lang}}; 21 November 1694{{snd}}30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire ({{IPAc-en|v|oʊ|l|ˈ|t|ɛər}};"Voltaire". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. {{IPA-fr|vɔltɛːʁ|lang}}), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets.WEB,weblink Voltaire – Biography, He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day.

Biography

François-Marie Arouet was born in Paris, the youngest of the five children of François Arouet (19 August 1649{{snd}}1 January 1722), a lawyer who was a minor treasury official, and his wife, Marie Marguerite Daumard (c. 1660{{snd}}13 July 1701), whose family was on the lowest rank of the French nobility.{{sfn|Pearson|2005|pp=9–14}} Some speculation surrounds Voltaire's date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February 1694 as the illegitimate son of a nobleman, Guérin de Rochebrune or Roquebrune.{{sfn|Pearson|2005|p=9}} Two of his older brothers—Armand-François and Robert—died in infancy, and his surviving brother Armand and sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively.{{sfn|Pearson|2005|p=10}} Nicknamed "Zozo" by his family, Voltaire was baptized on 22 November 1694, with {{ill|François de Châteauneuf|fr|lt=François de Castagnère, abbé de Châteauneuf}}, and Marie Daumard, the wife of his mother's cousin, standing as godparents.{{sfn|Pearson|2005|p=12}} He was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand (1704–1711), where he was taught Latin, theology, and rhetoric;{{sfn|Pearson|2005|pp=24–25}} later in life he became fluent in Italian, Spanish, and English.WEB,weblink Voltaire, Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi), Petri, Liukkonen, Kuusankoski Public Library, Finland,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150217150230weblink">weblink 17 February 2015, yes, By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer.{{sfn|Pearson|2005|pp=32–33}} Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry. When his father found out, he sent Voltaire to study law, this time in Caen, Normandy. But the young man continued to write, producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire's wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with whom he mixed. In 1713, his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to the new French ambassador in the Netherlands, the {{ill|Pierre-Antoine de Châteauneuf|fr|lt=marquis de Châteauneuf}}, the brother of Voltaire's godfather.{{sfn|Pearson|2005|p=36}} At The Hague, Voltaire fell in love with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer (known as 'Pimpette').{{sfn|Pearson|2005|p=36}} Their affair, considered scandalous, was discovered by de Châteauneuf and Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year.{{sfn|Pearson|2005|pp=36–37}}File:Bastille 1715.jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|Voltaire was imprisoned in the Bastille from 16 May 1717 to 15 April 1718 in a windowless cell with ten-foot thick walls.}} Napoleon commented that till he was sixteen he "would have fought for Rousseau against the friends of Voltaire, today it is the opposite...The more I read Voltaire the more I love him. He is a man always reasonable, never a charlatan, never a fanatic."{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=880}} Frederick the Great commented on his good fortune for having lived in the age of Voltaire, and corresponded with him throughout his reign until Voltaire's death.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=139}} In England, Voltaire's views influenced Godwin, Paine, Mary Wollstonecraft, Bentham, Byron and Shelley.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=881}} Macaulay made note of the fear that Voltaire's very name incited in tyrants and fanatics.{{efn|Macaulay, in his essay on Frederick the Great: In truth, of all the intellectual weapons that have been wielded by man, the most terrible was the mockery of Voltaire. Bigots and tyrants, who had never been moved by the wailings and cursing of millions, turned pale at his name.BOOK, Voltaire: A Sketch of His Life and Works, Wheeler, J.M., Joseph Mazzini Wheeler, Foote, G.W., George William Foote, Robert Forder, 69, 1894, }}In Russia, Catherine the Great had been reading Voltaire for sixteen years prior to becoming Empress in 1762.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=139}}WEB, The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2012,weblink In October 1763, she began a correspondence with the philosopher that continued till his death. The content of these letters has been described as being akin to a student writing to a teacher.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|pp=139–40}} Upon Voltaire's death, the Empress purchased his library, which was then transported and placed in The Hermitage.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=879}} Alexander Herzen remarked that "The writings of the egoist Voltaire did more for liberation than those of the loving Rousseau did for brotherhood."BOOK, From the Other Shore, Herzen, Alexander, Oxford University Press, 1979, In his famous letter to N. V. Gogol, Vissarion Belinsky wrote that Voltaire "stamped out the fires of fanaticism and ignorance in Europe by ridicule."BOOK, Selected Philosophical Works, Belinsky, Vissarion Grigoryevich, Vissarion Belinsky, University Press of the Pacific, 2001, 1948,weblink November 3, 2018, 978-0898756548, In his native Paris, Voltaire was viewed as the defender of Jean Calas and Pierre Sirven.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=881}} Although he failed in securing the annulment of la Barre's execution for "blasphemies" against Christianity, despite a protracted campaign, the criminal code that sanctioned the execution was revised during Voltaire's lifetime.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1980|pp=734–36}} In 1764, Voltaire successfully intervened and secured the release of Claude Chamont for the crime of attending Protestant services. When Comte de Lally was executed for treason in 1766, Voltaire wrote a 300-page document absolving de Lally. Subsequently, in 1778, the judgment against de Lally was expunged just before Voltaire's death. The Genevan Protestant minister Pomaret once said to Voltaire, "You seem to attack Christianity, and yet you do the work of a Christian."{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1980|p=736}} Frederick the Great noted the significance of a philosopher capable of influencing judges to change their unjust decisions, commenting that this alone is sufficient to ensure the prominence of Voltaire as a humanitarian.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1980|p=736}}Under the French Third Republic, anarchists and socialists often invoked Voltaire's writings in their struggles against militarism, nationalism, and the Catholic Church.BOOK, McKinley, C. Alexander, Illegitimate Children of the Enlightenment: Anarchists and the French Revolution, 1880-1914, 2008, Peter Lang, 87, The section condemning the futility and imbecility of war in the Dictionnaire philosophique was a frequent favorite, as were his arguments that nations can only grow at the expense of others.BOOK, McKinley, C. Alexander, Illegitimate Children of the Enlightenment: Anarchists and the French Revolution, 1880-1914, 2008, Peter Lang, 88, Following the liberation of France from the Vichy regime in 1944, Voltaire's 250th birthday was celebrated in both France and the Soviet Union, honoring him as "one of the most feared opponents" of the Nazi collaborators and someone "whose name symbolizes freedom of thought, and hatred of prejudice, superstition, and injustice."BOOK, Fellows, Otis, From Voltaire to "La Nouvelle Critique" : Problems and Personalities, 1970, Librairie Droz, 13, Jorge Luis Borges stated that "not to admire Voltaire is one of the many forms of stupidity" and included his short fiction such as Micromégas in "The Library of Babel" and "A Personal Library."BOOK, Borges, Jorge Luis, Jorge Luis Borges, Ferrari, Osvaldo, Conversations, 2015, Seagull Books, London, 220–226, Gustave Flaubert believed that France had erred gravely by not following the path forged by Voltaire instead of Rousseau.JOURNAL, Flaubert, Gustave, Lettre à Amélie Bosquet du 2 janvier 1868, Flaubert's letters, Correspondance, Tome III, Biblioteque de la Pléiade, Je crois même que, si nous sommes tellement bas moralement et politiquement, c’est qu’au lieu de suivre la grande route de M. de Voltaire, c’est-à-dire celle de la Justice et du Droit, on a pris les sentiers de Rousseau, qui, par le Sentiment, nous ont ramené au catholicisme., Most architects of modern America were adherents of Voltaire's views.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=881}} According to Will Durant:{{Quotation|Italy had a Renaissance, and Germany had a Reformation, but France had Voltaire; he was for his country both Renaissance and Reformation, and half the Revolution. He was first and best in his time in his conception and writing of history, in the grace of his poetry, in the charm and wit of his prose, in the range of his thought and his influence. His spirit moved like a flame over the continent and the century, and stirs a million souls in every generation.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1980|p=753}}}}

Voltaire and Rousseau

Voltaire's junior contemporary Jean-Jacques Rousseau commented on how Voltaire's book Letters on the English played a great role in his intellectual development.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1980|p=370}} Having written some literary works and also some music, in December 1745 Rousseau wrote a letter introducing himself to Voltaire, who was by then the most prominent literary figure in France, to which Voltaire replied with a polite response. Subsequently, when Rousseau sent Voltaire a copy of his book Discourse on Inequality, Voltaire replied, noting his disagreement with the views expressed in the book:}}Subsequently, commenting on Rousseau's romantic novel Julie, or the New Heloise, Voltaire stated: }}Voltaire speculated that the first half of Julie had been written in a brothel and the second half in a lunatic asylum.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=149}} In his Lettres sur La Nouvelle Heloise, written under a pseudonym, Voltaire offered criticism highlighting grammatical mistakes in the book: }}In reviewing Rousseau's book Emile after its publication, Voltaire dismissed it as "a hodgepodge of a silly wet nurse in four volumes, with forty pages against Christianity, among the boldest ever known." He expressed admiration for the section in this book titled Profession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar, calling it "fifty good pages...it is regrettable that they should have been written by...such a knave."{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|pp=190–91}} He went on to predict that Emile would be forgotten after a month.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=149}}In 1764, Rousseau published Lettres de la montagne, containing nine letters on religion and politics. In the fifth letter he wondered why Voltaire had not been able to imbue the Genevan councilors, who frequently met him, "with that spirit of tolerance which he preaches without cease, and of which he sometimes has need". The letter continued with an imaginary speech delivered by Voltaire, imitating his literary style, in which he accepts authorship for the book Sermon of the Fifty—a book whose authorship Voltaire had repeatedly denied because it contained many heresies.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|pp=197–99}}In 1772, when a priest sent Rousseau a pamphlet denouncing Voltaire, Rousseau responded with a defense of Voltaire: }}In 1778, when Voltaire was given unprecedented honors at the Théâtre-Français,{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|pp=877–78}} an acquaintance of Rousseau ridiculed the event. This was met by a sharp retort from Rousseau: }}On 2 July 1778, Rousseau died one month after Voltaire's death.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|pp=879, 886}} In October 1794, Rousseau's remains were moved to the Panthéon, where they were placed near the remains of Voltaire.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=887}}{{efn|"From that haven of neighborly peace their spirits rose to renew their war for the soul of the Revolution, of France, and of Western man," writes Will Durant.{{sfn|Durant|Durant|1967|p=887}}}}Louis XVI, while incarcerated in the Temple, had remarked that Rousseau and Voltaire had "destroyed France", by which he meant his dynasty.BOOK, The Story of Philosophy 2nd ed., Will Durant, Simon & Schuster, 261, 1933, {{efn|In a celebrated letter, dated 2 April 1764, Voltaire had predicted the future occurrence of the French Revolution which he characterized as "a splendid outburst." Commenting on this, Will Durant wrote: {{quotation|Yet...he never for a moment supposed that in this "splendid outburst" all France would accept enthusiastically the philosophy of this queer Jean-Jacques Rousseau who, from Geneva and Paris, was thrilling the world with sentimental romances and revolutionary pamphlets. The complex soul of France seemed to have divided itself into these two men, so different and yet so French. Nietzsche speaks of "la gaya scienza, the light feet, wit, fire, grace, strong logic, arrogant intellectuality, the dance of the stars"—surely he was thinking of Voltaire. Now beside Voltaire put Rousseau:all heat and fantasy, a man with noble and jejune visions, the idol of la bourgeois gentile-femme, announcing like Pascal that the heart has its reason which the head can never understand.BOOK, The Story of Philosophy 2nd ed., Will Durant, Simon & Schuster, 187, 1933, }}}}

Legacy

File:Voltaire by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1778).jpg|thumb|Voltaire, by Jean-Antoine Houdon, 1778 (National Gallery of ArtNational Gallery of ArtVoltaire perceived the French bourgeoisie to be too small and ineffective, the aristocracy to be parasitic and corrupt, the commoners as ignorant and superstitious, and the Church as a static and oppressive force useful only on occasion as a counterbalance to the rapacity of kings, although all too often, even more rapacious itself. Voltaire distrusted democracy, which he saw as propagating the idiocy of the masses.BOOK,weblink The Philosophical Dictionary, 1 July 2008, Democracy, Knopf, 1924, Voltaire long thought only an enlightened monarch could bring about change, given the social structures of the time and the extremely high rates of illiteracy, and that it was in the king's rational interest to improve the education and welfare of his subjects. But his disappointments and disillusions with Frederick the Great changed his philosophy somewhat, and soon gave birth to one of his most enduring works, his novella Candide, ou l'Optimisme (Candide, or Optimism, 1759), which ends with a new conclusion: "It is up to us to cultivate our garden." His most polemical and ferocious attacks on intolerance and religious persecutions indeed began to appear a few years later. Candide was also burned and Voltaire jokingly claimed the actual author was a certain 'Demad' in a letter, where he reaffirmed the main polemical stances of the text.WEB,weblink Letter on the subject of Candide, to the Journal encyclopédique July 15, 1759, 7 January 2008, University of Chicago,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061013194545weblink">weblink 13 October 2006, He is remembered and honored in France as a courageous polemicist who indefatigably fought for civil rights (as the right to a fair trial and freedom of religion) and who denounced the hypocrisies and injustices of the Ancien Régime. The Ancien Régime involved an unfair balance of power and taxes between the three Estates: clergy and nobles on one side, the commoners and middle class, who were burdened with most of the taxes, on the other. He particularly had admiration for the ethics and government as exemplified by the Chinese philosopher Confucius.Voltaire is also known for many memorable aphorisms, such as "Si Dieu n'existait pas, il faudrait l'inventer" ("If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him"), contained in a verse epistle from 1768, addressed to the anonymous author of a controversial work on The Three Impostors. But far from being the cynical remark it is often taken for, it was meant as a retort to atheistic opponents such as d'Holbach, Grimm, and others.Gay, Peter Voltaire's Politics: The Poet as Realist (New Haven:Yale University 1988), p. 265: "If the heavens, despoiled of his august stamp could ever cease to manifest him, if God didn't exist, it would be necessary to invent him. Let the wise proclaim him, and kings fear him." He has had his detractors among his later colleagues. The Scottish Victorian writer Thomas Carlyle argued that "Voltaire read history, not with the eye of devout seer or even critic, but through a pair of mere anti-catholic spectacles.""Beacon Lights of History", p. 207, by Jon Lord, publisher = Cosimo, Inc, 2009. – German Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, however, called Carlyle a muddlehead who had not even understood the Enlightenment values he thought he was promoting. See – Nietzsche and Legal Theory: Half-Written Laws, by Peter Goodrich, Mariana Valverde, published by Routledge, p. 5The town of Ferney, where Voltaire lived out the last 20 years of his life, was officially named Ferney-Voltaire in honor of its most famous resident in 1878.{{sfn|Pearson|2005|p=430}} His château is a museum. Voltaire's library is preserved intact in the National Library of Russia at Saint Petersburg, Russia. In the Zurich of 1916, the theatre and performance group who would become the early avant-garde movement Dada named their theater The Cabaret Voltaire. A late-20th-century industrial music group then named themselves after the theater. Astronomers have bestowed his name to the Voltaire crater on Deimos and the asteroid 5676 Voltaire.BOOK, Schmadel, Lutz D., International Astronomical Union, Dictionary of minor planet names, 2003, Springer, 978-3-540-00238-3, 481,weblink 9 September 2011, Voltaire was also known to have been an advocate for coffee, as he was reported to have drunk it 50–72 times per day. It has been suggested that high amounts of caffeine acted as a mental stimulant to his creativity.WEB, Koerner, Brendan, Brain Brew,weblink The Washington Monthly, June 2005, 46–49, 30 April 2014, His great-grand-niece was the mother of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a Catholic philosopher and Jesuit priest.BOOK, Cowell, Siôn, The Teilhard Lexicon: Understanding the language, terminology, and vision of the writings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, 2001, Sussex Academic Press, Brighton, 978-1-902210-37-7, 6,weblink 30 November 2011, BOOK, Kurian, George Thomas, The Encyclopedia of Christian Literature, 2010, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, MD, 978-0-8108-6987-5, 591,weblink 30 November 2011, His book Candide was listed as one of The 100 Most Influential Books Ever Written, by Martin Seymour-Smith.In the 1950s, the bibliographer and translator Theodore Besterman started to collect, transcribe and publish all of Voltaire's writings.BOOK, Barber, Giles, Besterman, Theodore Deodatus Nathaniel (1904–1976), Oxford University Press, 2004, Dictionary of National Biography,weblink He founded the Voltaire Institute and Museum in Geneva where he began publishing collected volumes of Voltaire's correspondence. On his death in 1976, he left his collection to the University of Oxford, where the Voltaire Foundation became established as a department.WEB, Mason, Haydn, A history of the Voltaire Foundation,weblink Voltaire Foundation, 4 May 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304073631weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Julia, Aurélie, Voltaire à Oxford, The Voltaire Foundation, Revue des Deux Mondes, October 2011,weblink fr, English translation at WEB,weblink Archived copy, 6 May 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160306043806weblink">weblink 6 March 2016, dmy-all, The Foundation has continued to publish the Complete Works of Voltaire, a complete chronological series which is expected to reach completion in 2018, reaching around 200 volumes, fifty years after the series began.NEWS, Johnson, Michael, Voltaire the Survivor,weblink 4 May 2016, The International Herald Tribune., The New York Times Company, 23 January 2010, It also publishes the series Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment, begun by Bestermann as Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, which has reached more than 500 volumes.

Chronology

{{Voltaire timeline}}

Works

Non-fiction

History

Novellas

  • The One-eyed Street Porter, Cosi-sancta (1715)
  • Plato's Dream (1737)
  • Micromegas (1738)
  • The World as it Goes (1750)
  • Memnon (1750)
  • Bababec and the Fakirs (1750)
  • Timon (1755)
  • The Travels of Scarmentado (1756)
  • The Two Consoled Ones (1756)
  • Zadig, or, Destiny (1757)
  • Candide, or Optimism (1758)
  • Story of a Good Brahman (1759)
  • The King of Boutan (1761)
  • The City of Cashmere (1760)
  • An Indian Adventure (1764)
  • The White and the Black (1764)
  • Jeannot and Colin (1764)
  • The Blind Judges of Colors (1766)
  • The Princess of Babylon (1768)
  • The Man with Forty Crowns (1768)
  • The Letters of Amabed (1769)
  • The Huron, or Pupil of Nature (1771)
  • The White Bull (1772)
  • An Incident of Memory (1773)
  • The History of Jenni (1774)
  • The Travels of Reason (1774)
  • The Ears of Lord Chesterfield and Chaplain Goudman (1775)

Plays

Voltaire wrote between fifty and sixty plays, including a few unfinished ones.Dates of the first performance, unless otherwise noted. Garreau, Joseph E. (1984). "Voltaire", vol. 5, pp. 113–17, in McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Drama, Stanley Hochman, editor in chief. New York: McGraw-Hill. {{ISBN|978-0-07-079169-5}}. Among them are:

Collected works

  • Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, A. Beuchot (ed.). 72 vols. (1829–40)
  • Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, Louis E.D. Moland and G. Bengesco (eds.}. 52 vols. (1877–85)
  • Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, Theodore Besterman, et al. (eds.). 144 vols. (1968–2018)

See also

References

Informational notes{{notelist}}Citations{{reflist|30em}}Bibliography
  • BOOK, Durant, Will, Will Durant, Durant, Ariel, Ariel Durant, (The Story of CivilizationIX. The Age of Voltaire (1965), The Story of Civilization: The Age of Voltaire), 1980, 1965, Simon & Schuster, 978-0671013257, harv,
  • BOOK, Durant, Will, Durant, Ariel, (The Story of CivilizationX. Rousseau and Revolution (1967), The Story of Civilization: Rousseau and Revolution), 1967, Simon & Schuster, 1567310214, harv,
  • BOOK, Pearson, Roger, Roger Pearson (literary scholar), 2005, Voltaire Almighty: A Life in Pursuit of Freedom'', Bloomsbury, 978-1-58234-630-4, harv,

Further reading

  • {{EB1911|wstitle=Voltaire, François Marie Arouet de|volume=28|pages=199–205|first=George|last=Saintsbury|authorlink=George Saintsbury}}
  • App, Urs. The Birth of Orientalism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010 (hardcover, {{ISBN|978-0-8122-4261-4}}); contains a 60-page chapter (pp. 15–76) on Voltaire as a pioneer of Indomania and his use of fake Indian texts in anti-Christian propaganda.
  • Besterman, Theodore, Voltaire, (1969).
  • Brumfitt, J. H. Voltaire: Historian (1958) online edition.
  • Davidson, Ian, Voltaire. A Life, London, Profile Books, 2010. {{ISBN|978-1-60598-287-8}}.
  • Gay, Peter, Voltaire's Politics, The Poet as Realist, Yale University, 1988.
  • Hadidi, Djavâd, Voltaire et l'Islam, Publications Orientalistes de France, 1974. {{ISBN|978-2-84161-510-0}}.
  • Knapp, Bettina L. Voltaire Revisited (2000).
  • Mason, Haydn, Voltaire, A Biography (1981) {{ISBN|978-0-8018-2611-5}}.
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, McElroy, Wendy, Wendy McElroy, Ronald, Hamowy, Ronald Hamowy, The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism,weblink 2008, SAGE Publications, SAGE; Cato Institute, Thousand Oaks, CA, 978-1-4129-6580-4, 750831024, 2008009151, 523, 10.4135/9781412965811.n319, Voltaire (1694–1778),
  • Muller, Jerry Z., 2002. The Mind and the Market: Capitalism in Western Thought. Anchor Books. {{ISBN|978-0-38572-166-0}}.
  • Quinones, Ricardo J. Erasmus and Voltaire: Why They Still Matter (University of Toronto Press; 2010) 240 pages; Draws parallels between the two thinkers as voices of moderation with relevance today.
  • Schwarzbach, Bertram Eugene, Voltaire's Old Testament Criticism, Librairie Droz, Geneva, 1971.
  • Torrey, Norman L., The Spirit of Voltaire, Columbia University Press, 1938.
  • BOOK, Vernon, Thomas S., Great Infidels,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010208224557weblink">weblink yes, 8 February 2001, Chapter V: Voltaire, 1989, M & M Pr, 0-943099-05-6,
  • BOOK, Wade, Ira O., 1967, Studies on Voltaire, New York, Russell & Russell,
  • Wright, Charles Henry Conrad, A History of French Literature, Oxford University Press, 1912.
  • "The Cambridge Companion to Voltaire", ed by Nicholas Cronk, 2009.
In French
  • Korolev, S. Voltaire et la reliure des livres // Revue Voltaire. Paris, 2013. 13. pp. 233–40.
  • René Pomeau, La Religion de Voltaire, Librairie Nizet, Paris, 1974.
  • Valérie Crugten-André, La vie de Voltaire weblink" title="https:/-/web.archive.org/web/20160101202058weblink">weblink
Primary sources
  • Morley, J., The Works of Voltaire, A Contemporary Version, (21 vol 1901), weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110727030713weblink">online edition

External links

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