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Voivode of Transylvania
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{{For|other uses of "voivod", "voyevoda", etc.|Voivode|Voivodes of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth|Voivode (disambiguation)}}{{About|the royal governors of Transylvania|the rulers of the Principality of Transylvania after 1570|Prince of Transylvania}}{{Great Officers of State (Kingdom of Hungary)}}(File:Siebenbürgen 1300-1867.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Map of Transylvania|Changes in the administration of Transylvania between 1300 and 1867)The Voivode of Transylvania (;Fallenbüchl 1988, p. 77. ;Zsoldos 2011, p. 36. ; )Negrău 2011, p. 92. was the highest-ranking official in Transylvania within the Kingdom of Hungary from the 12th century to the 16th century. Appointed by the monarchs, the voivodes{{spaced ndash}}themselves also the heads or ispáns of Fehér County{{spaced ndash}}were the superiors of the ispáns of all the other counties in the province.They had wide-ranging administrative, military and judicial powers, but their jurisdiction never covered the whole province. The Saxon and Székely communities{{spaced ndash}}organized into their own districts or "seats" from the 13th century{{spaced ndash}}were independent of the voivodes. The kings also exempted some Transylvanian towns and villages from their authority over the centuries. Even so, the Voivodeship of Transylvania "was the largest single administrative entity"Jefferson 2012, p. 142. in the entire kingdom in the 15th century. Voivodes enjoyed income from the royal estates attached to their office, but the right to "grant lands, collect taxes and tolls, or coin money"Sedlar 1994, p. 275. was reserved for the monarchs. Although Roland Borsa, Ladislaus Kán and some other voivodes rebelled against the sovereign, most remained faithful royal officials.Because of the gradual disintegration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary in the 16th century, the last voivodes of Transylvania, who came from the Báthory family, ceased to be high-ranking officials. Instead they were the heads of state, although under Ottoman suzerainty, of a new principality emerging in the eastern territories of the kingdom. Accordingly, Stephen Báthory, the voivode elected by the Diet of the new realm, officially abandoned the title of voivode and adopted that of prince in 1576, upon his election as King of Poland.

Origins

The origin of the office is unclear. The title voivode is of Slavic origin with a meaning of "commander, lieutenant". Although Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos wrote of the voivodesConstantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (ch. 38.), p. 171. or chieftains of the Hungarian tribes around 950, he seems to have adopted the term used by a Slavic interpreter.{{sfn|Bóna|1994|p=153}}The border position of Transylvania{{sfn|Curta|2006|p=355}} led to the formation of the voivodeship, since the monarchs could not maintain direct control over this remote region.Rady 2000, p. 18. Thus the voivodes were never autonomous, but remained provincial officials of the kings.{{sfn|Bóna|1994|p=153}} The voivodes were heads of Fehér County from 1201,{{sfn|Curta|2006|p=354}} which may indicate that their position had its origin in the office of that county's ispán.Kristó 2003, p. 98.Two royal charters issued in 1111 and 1113 mention one Mercurius "princeps Ultrasilvanus", but he may have been only an important landowner in Transylvania without holding any specific office.{{sfn|Curta|2006|p=355}} The title voivode was first documented in 1199, but Leustach Rátót voivode living some years earlier was mentioned by a document from 1230.Kristó 2003, p. 97.{{sfn|Curta|2006|p=355}} In addition to voivode, royal charters used the titles banus,Sălăgean 2005, p. 176. dux and herzog for the same office in the next decades, showing that the terminology remained uncertain until the second half of the 13th century.

Functions

Jurisdiction

{{See also|Count of the Székelys}}The territories under the jurisdiction of the voivodes are known as Voivodeship of Transylvania or Voivodate of Transylvania (,Kristó 1979, p. 110 ).Pop 1996, p. 143 Voivodes were the chiefs of the ispáns of the Transylvanian counties. Although the counties in Transylvania were first attested from the 1170s, earlier references to fortresses at their seats{{sfn|Curta|2006|pp=355–356}} and archaeological finds suggest that a system of counties existed in the 11th century.Kristó 2003, p. 90. For instance, Torda County was first mentioned in a charter of 1227, but a royal castle at Torda (Turda) had already been documented in 1097,{{sfn|Curta|2006|p=356}} and three burials coin-dated to the reign of Stephen I of Hungary (1000 or 1001–1038) were unearthed in the same fortress.Kristó 2003, pp. 90–92.(File:Transylvania16cent adm div.PNG|thumb|left|alt=Map of 16th-century Transylvania|Administrative division of Transylvania in the early 16th century)The ispáns of the Transylvanian counties of Doboka, Hunyad, Kolozs, KüküllÅ‘ and Torda were not listed among the witnesses of royal charters from the beginning of the 13th century, hinting that their direct connection to the monarchs had by that time been interrupted. Thereafter they were employed by the voivode who appointed and dismissed them at will.Pop 2005, p. 227.Engel 1996, p. 246. Only the heads of Szolnok County remained directly connected to the monarchs for a longer period, until their office was united with the voivodeship in the 1260s.Zsoldos 2011, p. 209.Engel 2001, p. 144.Sălăgean 2005, p. 177. Similarly, the voivodes were simultaneously the ispáns of the nearby Arad County between 1321 and 1412.Engel 1996, p. 97.The kings exempted some communities from the jurisdiction of the voivodes. The Diploma Andreanum, a royal charter of 1224, placed the territory of the Saxons between Broos (Szászváros, Orăștie) and Barót (Baraolt) under the authority of the Count of Hermannstadt (Nagyszeben, Sibiu), who was appointed by and directly subordinate to the monarchs.Makkai 1994, p. 180.Sedlar 1994, p. 279. Likewise, a special royal official, the Count of the Székelys, administered the Székely communityEngel 2001, p. 115. from around 1228.Kristó 2003, p. 133. In the latter case, the two offices were united by custom in 1462: from then on each voivode was also appointed Count of the Székelys.Following the Mongol invasion of 1241 and 1242, King Béla IV of Hungary exempted the inhabitants of Bilak (MăriÅŸelu),{{Citation|last = Vistai | first = András János |title = TekintÅ‘: Erdélyi helynévkönyv, ElsÅ‘ kötet, A – H (""TekintÅ‘": Book on Transylvanian Toponymy, Volume II, A – H ") | url =weblink | accessdate = 21 August 2012}} Gyalu (Gilău), Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia), Harina (Herina), Tasnád (Tășnad) and Zilah (Zalău).Kristó 2003, pp. 156–157., 182. King Charles I of Hungary granted immunity to the Saxon communities of Birthälm (Berethalom, Biertan), Kleinschelken (Kisselyk, Åžeica Mică),{{Citation|last = Vistai | first = András János |title = TekintÅ‘: Erdélyi helynévkönyv, Harmadik kötet, Q – Zs (""TekintÅ‘": Book on Transylvanian Toponymy, Volume II, Q – Zs") | url =weblink | accessdate = 21 August 2012}} and Mediasch (Medgyes, MediaÈ™) in 1315, but the same monarch annulled other communities' similar privileges in 1324.Kristó 2003, pp. 125., 234. Altrodenau (Radna, Rodna) and Bistritz (Beszterce, BistriÈ›a) received immunity in 1366.Makkai 1994, p. 183.

Honour of the voivodes

The office of voivode was one of the most important royal honours in the kingdom.Engel 2001, p. 151. All income from lands attached to the Transylvanian royal castles was collected for the voivodes. They enjoyed the income from fines, but royal revenues from taxes, tolls and mines remained the kings' due.File:Ansamblul Rupea 01.JPG|thumb|left|alt=Ruins of KÅ‘halom Castle|Restored KÅ‘halom Castle (Cetatea Cohalmului, RomaniaRomaniaDuring most of the 14th century, the voivodes held the castles at Bánffyhunyad (Huedin), Boroskrakkó (Cricău), Csicsóújfalu (Ciceu-MihăieÅŸti), Déva (Deva), Hátszeg (HaÈ›eg), KÅ‘halom (Rupea), KüküllÅ‘vár (Cetatea de Baltă), Léta (Lita), Nagy-Talmács (Tălmaciu), Torja (Turia) and Újvár (Gogan Varolea), together with their lands.Engel 1996, pp. 11, 272, 295, 299, 325–326, 338, 354, 358, 408–409, 452. Additionally, the voivodes enjoyed the revenues of royal estates in Transylvania. For instance, the estates at Bonchida (BonÈ›ida) and Vajdahunyad (Hunedoara) were attached to them for decades.Engel 1996, p. 11. However, the monarchs started to grant their castles and estates to noblemen, to the bishops of Transylvania or to the Saxon community after 1387. Consequently, KüküllÅ‘vár and the lands pertaining to it remained the last piece of the "voivodal domain" in the 1450s.The inhabitants of the Transylvanian counties were compelled to accommodate the voivodes and their officials.Kristó 2003, p. 234. The "guest settlers" at Boroskrakkó,{{Citation|last = Vistai | first = András János |title = TekintÅ‘: Erdélyi helynévkönyv, Második kötet, I – P (""TekintÅ‘": Book on Transylvanian Toponymy, Volume II, I – P ") | url =weblink | accessdate = 21 August 2012}} Magyarigen (Ighiu) and Romosz (Romos) were the first to be released from this duty in 1206.Kristó 2003, p. 182. In Alvinc (VinÅ£u de Jos) and Borberek (Vurpăr), the obligation itself was not abolished, but limited to two occasions a year.Kristó 2003, p. 183. Finally King Charles I exempted all Transylvanian noblemen and their serfs from this irksome duty in 1324.The voivodes who preferred to stay in the royal court seldom resided in their province, but were represented by their deputies. The earliest record of a vicar of a voivode dates from 1221.Kristó 2003, p. 222. Later the title "vice-voivode", first documented in 1278, came into general use.Sălăgean 2005, p. 178. In addition to vice-voivodes and ispáns of the Transylvanian counties, the voivodes appointed the castellans of the royal fortresses.Rady 2000, p. 116. They tended to choose from among the noblemen serving in their own retinue,Engel 2001, pp. 151–152. which ensured that their followers received a fair share of their revenues.Engel 2001, p. 152.Rady 2000, p. 110. Accordingly, when a king dismissed a voivode, his men were also replaced with his successor's men.

Judicial functions

Along with the palatine, the judge royal and the ban, the voivode was one of the Kingdom's highest judges.Rady 2000, p. 69. In this capacity, he was authorized to issue "credible" charters. The earliest preserved charter dates to 1248. The voivodes or their vice-voivodes always heard disputes together with local noblemen who knew local customs.Stipta 1997, p. 51.Mályusz 1994, p. 39. Initially, the voivodes and their deputies held their courts at Marosszentimre (Sântimbru), but they heard disputes at their own abodes from the 14th century. Voivodes rarely headed their courts after the 1340s and were rather represented by their deputies.Although limiting his own jurisdiction, in 1342 voivode Thomas Szécsényi recognized the right of Transylvanian noblemen to judge legal cases of peasants owning parcels in their estates, "with the exception of three cases, such as robbery, highway robbery, and violent trespass".Makkai 1994, p. 207. This concession was confirmed in 1365 by King Louis I of Hungary. Furthermore, the monarchs granted jus gladii (the right to the application of capital punishment) to more and more nobles in the course of the same century.Pop 2005, p. 244.According to customary law, noblemen could not be sued outside the province until the 15th century. King Louis I even prohibited all prelates and noblemen who owned lands in Transylvania from bringing legal proceedings of lesser importance concerning these estates to the royal court.Stipta 1997, p. 52. Nevertheless, legal actions between Transylvanians and the inhabitants of other parts of the kingdom remained outside the jurisdiction of the voivodes. Litigants could appeal to the royal court against the decision of the voivode from the 14th century, but the voivode often remained involved in the proceedings. Legislation prescribed that appeals against decisions of the voivodes were to be addressed to the judge royal only from 1444.Pop 2005, p. 244."General assemblies" convoked and presided over by the principal judges of the realm became important judicial institutions in the last decade of the 13th century.Kristó 2003, p. 220. General assemblies for the representatives of the Transylvanian counties were presided over by the voivode or the vice-voivode.Pop 2005, p. 230. The first such assembly was held on June 8, 1288. They became important legal institutions from 1322.Sălăgean 2005, p. 182. Thereafter they were held on a regular basis, at least once a year at Keresztes (CristiÅŸ) near Torda.Makkai 1994, p. 223.With the authority of the monarch, the voivodes occasionally also invited the representatives of the Saxon and Székely communities to the counties' general meetings. This contributed to the development of legal connections among the future "Three Nations of Transylvania". The threat from the peasants' revolt of 1437 gave rise to the first joint meeting of the Hungarian noblemen and the representatives of the Saxons and the Székelys, which was convoked without a former royal authorization by the vice-voivode.Makkai 1994, p. 226. Romanian cneazes were only once, in 1355, invited to the general assembly. Otherwise, the vice-voivodes organized separate meetings for them.

Military functions

File:Deva Citadel 2011 - Seen from Distance-4.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Ruins of Déva Castle|Ruins of Déva Castle (Cetatea Deva, RomaniaRomaniaThe etymology of the title ("commander") suggests that voivodes had significant military duties.Pop 2005, p. 246. They were the supreme leader of the troops recruited in the counties under their jurisdiction. Although law obliged noblemen to fight in the king's army, Transylvanian nobles fought under the command of the voivode.Mályus 1994, p. 29. Furthermore, the voivodes had their own private retinue, formed primarily by armed noblemen. Their right to raise an army under their own flag was confirmed by legislation in 1498.Rady 2000, pp. 147, 152–153Military functions are attested, for instance, by Pousa, the voivode at the time of the Mongol invasion who fell in battle on March 31, 1241.{{sfn|Curta|2006|p=411}}Zsoldos 2011, p. 38. Voivode Lawrence of the Aba clan fought in the royal army in a war against Austria in 1246. A Mongol army attacking the southern regions of Transylvania was defeated by voivode Ernye of the Ákos clan in 1260. Roland Borsa fought against the invading Mongols in 1285.Kristó 2003, p. 168.Voivode Nicholas Csáki failed to repel an Ottoman invasion of Transylvania in 1420.Pop 2005, p. 258.Makkai 1994, p. 224. In contrast, John Hunyadi, voivode between 1441 and 1446,Pop 2005, p. 261. defeated a major Ottoman army at Gyulafehérvár in 1442.Sedlar 1994, p. 247. His successor Stephen Báthory likewise won a resounding victory at Breadfield (, ) on October 13, 1479.Makkai 1994, p. 229. By contrast, John Zápolya (Szapolyai), the last voivode before the battle of Mohács on August 29, 1526 did not arrive to the battlefield in time, summoned too late.Engel 1996, pp. 370–371. The battle ended with the Ottomans' annihilation of the royal army.Engel 1996, p. 371. King Louis II of Hungary was also killed on the battlefield.Sedlar 1994, p. 398.

Monarchs and their voivodes

Appointment and dismissal

The voivodes had power concentrated in their hands, impelling the monarchs to replace them frequently: forty-three voivodes ruled between 1199 and 1288.Kristó 2003, p. 223. Monarchs usually refrained from appointing as voivode noblemen who owned Transylvanian estates.Makkai 1994, p. 200. Michael of the Kacsics clan was the first voivode to receive a land grant in the province, around 1210.{{sfn|Curta|2006|p=400}} However, these originally uninhabited lands along the upper courses of the river MureÈ™ (Maros) were confiscated in 1228.Makkai 1994, p. 201.The era beginning with 1288 was characterized by longer periods in office.Kristó 2003, p. 98. Roland Borsa survived 10 years, while his successor, Ladislaus Kán, lasted 20 years. This apparent stability was the consequence of the weakening of central government under the last two kings of the Árpád dynasty, Ladislaus IV (1272–1290) and Andrew III (1290–1301).Makkai 1994, p. 204. Royal power was only restored in the reign of Charles I (1308–1342) who one by one defeated the rebellious noblemen throughout his kingdom.Engel 1996, pp. 132–133.In Transylvania, he was assisted by Thomas Szécsényi, the voivode between 1321 and 1342.Makkai 1994, p. 205. Ioan-Aurel Pop characterizes the following period as including "voidvodal dynasties": five members of the Lackfi family (father and four sons) were successively appointed between 1356 and 1376.Engel 1996, p. 182. Likewise, Nicholas Csáki (1415 to 1426) was succeeded by his son Ladislaus. The pair preferred to entrust their vice-voivode Roland Lépes to represent them, instead of visiting the province. From the middle of the 15th century it was not unusual for two or even three noblemen to hold the office at the same time. For instance, John Hunyadi was appointed together with Nicholas Újlaki in 1441 by King Wladislas I.Engel 2001, p. 283.

Cooperation and conflicts

{{Further|Roland Borsa|Ladislaus Kán}}The Mongols comprehensively plundered the eastern territories of the Kingdom of Hungary, including Transylvania, during both their invasion in 1241 and their withdrawal the following year.Sălăgean 2005, p. 175. The consolidation of the province was the main task of Lawrence of the Aba clan, who was appointed by Béla IV and held the office for 10 years from 1242.Sălăgean 2005, pp. 175–176. One of his successors, also appointed by Béla IV, banus Ernye of the Ákos clan, was dismissed in 1260 by the king's son, Stephen who had just taken over Transylvania with the title of duke. The duke's action showed emerging tensions between father and son, rather than conflicts between the duke and the banus.Engel 1996, p. 106.The first years of the reign of the minor Ladislaus IV were characterized by armed conflicts between parties of the leading noble families.Sălăgean 2005, p. 179. Although Roland Borsa, voivode in 1282 and between 1284 and 1294, was initially among the nobles assisting the king in consolidating royal power, he himself became the source of new conflicts. First he prevented the canons of the Gyulafehérvár Chapter from collecting their income in 1289. Next he unlawfully compelled noblemen and Saxon landowners in Transylvania to accommodate him and his retinue. Later Borsa fought the bishop of Várad (Oradea) and even resisted King Andrew III who besieged him in the fortress of Adorján (Adrian) at Szalárd (Sălard) for three months in 1294.Sălăgean 2005, p. 183.Borsa's successor Ladislaus Kán went even further by usurping royal prerogative during his voivodeship between 1294 and 1315.Sălăgean 2005, p. 185. He arbitrarily assumed the titles of count of Bistritz, Hermannstadt and the Székelys to expand his authority over Saxon and Székely communities exempted from voivodal authority.Kristó 2003, p. 228. He set up a tax-collecting body, seemingly covering the entire province.Sălăgean 2005, p. 186. He captured Otto of Bavaria, a claimant to the Hungarian throne and seized the Holy Crown of Hungary from him in the first half of 1307.Engel 2001, pp. 129–130.Sălăgean 2005, pp. 186–187. He handed the royal diadem to King Charles I in 1310, but continued to rule Transylvania de facto independently until his death in 1315.Sălăgean 2005, pp. 187., 188. His son of the same name declared himself voivode, a title even used by the monarch when referring to him in a charter of August 12, 1315.Kristó 2003, p. 232. Dózsa Debreceni, the voivode King Charles I appointed in 1318, defeated some rebellious minor lords, but royal authority in Transylvania was only restored by Thomas Szécsényi in the 1320s.Engel 2001, p. 133.The next rebellion against royal power in Transylvania broke out in 1467.Makkai 1994, p. 228. Irritated by a new tax that King Matthias Corvinus had just introduced, representatives of the Three Nations concluded an alliance against the monarch and declared the three incumbent voivodes (the brothers Counts John and Sigismund Szentgyörgyi and Berthold Ellerbach) their leaders. The king put down the revolt in a week, but did not sentence the three voivodes, because their active role in the revolt was never proven.Engel 2001, p. 302.

End of the office

{{Further|Eastern Hungarian Kingdom|Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711)}}The barons did not find a compromise candidate to succeed King Louis II who perished in the battle of Mohács in 1526.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=247}} First the voivode, John Szapolyai was proclaimed king by a group of nobles, but the opposing party also elected its own king, Ferdinand I, a scion of the Habsburg family, by the end of the year.Engel 2001, p. 371.File:Dobo istvan.jpg|thumb|upright|right|alt=István Dobó|Baron István Dobó of Ruszka, last voivode appointed by a king of Hungaryking of HungaryKing John I accepted Ottoman suzerainty in 1529, but in the Treaty of Nagyvárad of 1538 he conceded the right of the Habsburgs to succeed him after his death.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=251}} At that point his voivodes, Stephen Majláth and Emeric Balassa, decided to separate Transylvania from the kingdom in order to save the province from an Ottoman invasion. Although other leading Transylvanian noblemen soon joined them, King John I overcame their rebellion in some weeks.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=252}}Following John's death, Ottoman troops occupied the central parts of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1541.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=253}} Sultan Suleiman I permitted the king's widow, Queen Isabella, to retain the territories east of the river Tisza (Tisa), including Transylvania, in the name of her infant son, John Sigismund.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=253}}Felezeu 2009, p. 20. George Martinuzzi, bishop of Várad, soon started to reorganize the government in the name of the dowager queen and her son. The Ottomans assisted the bishop by capturing his opponent, Stephen Majláth,{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=253}} although the sultan had earlier confirmed the latter's position as voivode.Felezeu 2009, p. 19. An assembly of the Three Nations elected George Martinuzzi as governor on behalf of the infant king in 1542.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=253}}The office of voivode was vacant until September 1549, when Ferdinand (who had not given up the idea of reuniting the territories of the entire kingdom) appointed Martinuzzi to this post.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=256}} However, Isabella and his son only left their realm in 1551.Felezeu 2009, p. 22. Thereafter, Transylvania was again under the rule of voivodes appointed by the monarch, ending with István Dobó. He administered the province until 1556, when Isabella and John Sigismund returned.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=259}}John Sigismund ceased to style himself king of Hungary after the Treaty of Speyer of 1570, under which he adopted the title of "Prince of Transylvania and Lord of parts of the Kingdom of Hungary".{{sfn|Barta|1994|pp=259–260}}Felezeu 2009, p. 25. His successor Stephen Báthory (who was elected ruler by the assembly of the Three Nations) revived the title of voivode, initially for himself.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=260}} He adopted the title of "prince of Transylvania" when he was elected king of Poland in 1576.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=263}} At the same time, he conferred the title voivode on his brother Christopher in 1576.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=263}} Christopher Báthory was followed in 1581 by his minor son Sigismund who continued to style himself voivode until the death of his uncle, Stephen Báthory in 1586.{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=294}} Sigismund Báthory's title of prince was acknowledged in 1595 by Emperor Rudolph (also king of Hungary).{{sfn|Barta|1994|p=294}}

List of voivodes

Twelfth century

{| class="wikitable" style="width: 70%"! scope="col" width="9%" | Term! scope="col" width="17%" | Incumbent! scope="col" width="9%" | Monarch! scope="col" width="33%" | Notes! scope="col" width="10%" | Source| c. 1111–c. 1113Mercurius of Transylvania>MercuriusColoman the Learned>Coloman| "princeps Ultrasilvanus", but maybe only a distinguished noblemanCurtap=355}}Engel 2001, pp. 35., 381.Treptow, Popa 1996, p. lvi.| 1176–c. 1196Leustach I Rátót>Leustach of the Rátót clanBéla III of Hungary>Béla IIIByzantine Empire against the Sultanate of Rum>Seljuks in the Battle of Myriokephalon of 1176| Engel 2001, p. 381.Markó 2000, p. 291.| 1199–1200| LegforusEmeric of Hungary>Emeric| his voivode title is documented by the earliest royal charter (from 1199)| | 1200Eth Geregye>Eth of the Geregye clanEmeric of Hungary>Emericispán of Fehér County (former)>Fehér County| Zsoldos 2011, p. 37.

Thirteenth century

{| class="wikitable" style="width: 70%"! scope="col" width="9%" | Term! scope="col" width="17%" | Incumbent! scope="col" width="9%" | Monarch! scope="col" width="33%" | Notes! scope="col" width="10%" | Source| 1201Julius I Kán>Julius of the Kán clanEmeric of Hungary>Emericispán of Fehér County (former)>Fehér County| | 1201Nicholas I of Transylvania>Nicholas (I)Emeric of Hungary>Emeric| according to a non-authentic charter also in 1202| | 1202–1206| Benedict, son of KorlátEmeric of Hungary>Emeric, Ladislaus III of Hungary, Andrew II of Hungary>Andrew II| first rule| | 1206Smaragd of Transylvania>Smaragd of the Smaragd clanAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II|| | 1208–1209| Benedict, son of KorlátAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II| second rule; conspired against the king who exiled him| Markó 2000, p. 283.| 1209–1212Michael Kacsics>Michael of the Kacsics clanAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II| first voivode receiving land grant in Transylvania| | 1212–1213| Bertoldo de MeraniaAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II| brother of Gertrud, Andrew II's queen; also archbishop of Kalocsa| Engel 2001, pp. 90., 381.| 1213Nicholas II of Transylvania>Nicholas (II)Andrew II of Hungary>Andrew II|| | 1214Julius I Kán>Julius of the Kán clanAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II| second rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1214)| | 1215Simon Kacsics>Simon of the Kacsics clanAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II|| | 1216–1217Ipoch Bogátradvány>Ipoch of the Bogátradvány clanAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II|| | 1217Raphael of Transylvania>RaphaelAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II| he might have been in office in 1218 (Kurt W. Treptow, Marcel Popa)| | 1219–1221| NeukaAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II|| | 1221–1222| Paul, son of PeterAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II|| | 1227| Pousa, son of SólyomAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II| first rule| | 1229–1231Julius I Rátót>Julius of the Rátót clanAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II|| | 1233–1234Denis Türje>Denis of the Türje clanAndrew II of Hungary>Andrew II|| | 1235| Andrew, son of SerafinBéla IV of Hungary>Béla IV| also ispán of Pozsony County (1235)| Engel 2001, p. 382.Markó 2000, p. 254.| 1235–1241| Pousa, son of SólyomBéla IV of Hungary>Béla IV| second rule; died fighting against the invading Mongols| Makkai 1994, p. 195.| 1242–1252Lawrence of Transylvania>LawrenceBéla IV of Hungary>Béla IV| also ispán of Valkó County| | b. 1261Ernye Ákos>Ernye of the Ákos clanBéla IV of Hungary>Béla IV| banus quondam Transiluanus in 1261| | 1261Csák I Hahót>Csák of the Hahót clanBéla IV of Hungary>Béla IVbanus Transilvanus; also ispán of Szolnok County (1261); the king's son, Stephen V of Hungary>Stephen is duke of Transylvania| | 1263–1264Ladislaus II Kán>Ladislaus (II) of the Kán clanBéla IV of Hungary>Béla IVispán of Szolnok County (1263–1264); the king's son, Stephen V of Hungary>Stephen is duke of Transylvania| Zsoldos 2011, pp. 38., 209.| 1267–1268Nicholas Geregye>Nicholas of the Geregye clanBéla IV of Hungary>Béla IVispán of Szolnok County (1267–1268); it is presumable, he held the dignity uninterruptedly from 1264 to 1270; the king's son, Stephen V of Hungary>Stephen is duke of Transylvania| Treptow, Popa 1996, p. lvii.| 1270–1272Matthew II Csák>Matthew of the Csák clanStephen V of Hungary>Stephen V| first rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1270–1272)| | 1272–1273Nicholas Geregye>Nicholas of the Geregye clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| second rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1272–1273)| | 1273John of Transylvania>JohnLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| also ispán of Szolnok County (1273)| Zsoldos 2011, pp. 39., 209.| 1273–1274Nicholas Geregye>Nicholas of the Geregye clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| third rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1273–1274)| | 1274Matthew II Csák>Matthew of the Csák clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| second rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1274)| | 1274Nicholas Geregye>Nicholas of the Geregye clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| fourth rule; maybe in 1275 (Kurth W. Treptow, Marcel Popa); also ispán of Szolnok County (1274)| | 1274–1275Matthew II Csák>Matthew of the Csák clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| third rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1274–1275)| | 1275Ugrin Csák>Ugrin of the Csák clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| first rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1275)| | 1275–1276Ladislaus II Kán>Ladislaus (II) of the Kán clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| second rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1275–1276)| | 1276Ugrin Csák>Ugrin of the Csák clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| second rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1276)| | 1276Matthew II Csák>Matthew of the Csák clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| fourth rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1276)| | 1277Nicholas Pok>Nicholas of the Pok clan (Meggyesi)Ladislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| first rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1277)| | 1278–1280Finta Aba>Finta of the Aba clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| also ispán of Szolnok County (1278–1280); captured the king| Markó 2000, p. 207.| 1280| Stephen, son of TekeshLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| also ispán of Szolnok County (1280)| | 1282Roland Borsa>Roland of the Borsa clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| first rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1282)| Zsoldos 2011, pp. 40., 209.| 1283Apor Péc>Apor of the Péc clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| also ispán of Szolnok County (1283)| | 1284–1294Roland Borsa>Roland of the Borsa clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV, Andrew III| second rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1284–1294); successfully fought against the invading Mongols in 1285; rebelled against both kings| | 1287–c. 1288 (?)Mojs I Ákos>Mojs of the Ákos clanLadislaus IV of Hungary>Ladislaus IV| only a non-authentic charter refers to him as voivode, if so, he was also ispán of Szolnok County in the same period| | 1295–1314 or 1315Ladislaus Kán>Ladislaus (III) of the Kán clanAndrew III of Hungary>Andrew III| de facto independent ruler; also ispán of Szolnok County (1295–1314)|

Fourteenth century

File:Grb Lackovića.JPG|upright|thumb|right|alt=Lackfi coat-of-arms|Coat-of-arms of the LackfiLackfiFile:Scibor2.jpg|upright|thumb|right|alt=Stibor of Stiboricz|Stibor of StiboriczStibor of Stiboricz{| class="wikitable" style="width: 70%"! scope="col" width="9%" | Term! scope="col" width="17%" | Incumbent! scope="col" width="9%" | Monarch! scope="col" width="33%" | Notes! scope="col" width="10%" | Source| c. 1315Ladislaus IV Kán>Ladislaus (IV) of the Kán clan|| self declared voivode, son of Ladislaus (III) Kán (1295–1314)| | 1315–1316Nicholas Pok>Nicholas MeggyesiCharles I of Hungary>Charles I| second rule; unable to take up his office; also ispán of Szolnok County (1315–1316)| Engel 1996, pp. 11., 200.Engel 2001, p. 383.| 1318–1321| Dózsa DebreceniCharles I of Hungary>Charles I| also ispán of Szolnok County (1318–1321)| | 1321–1342| Thomas SzécsényiCharles I of Hungary>Charles Iispán of Szolnok County (1321–1342), ispán of Arad County (former)>Arad County (1330–1342), and ispán of Csongrád County (1330)| | 1342–1344Miklós Sirokay>Nicholas SirokaiLouis I of Hungary>Louis Iispán of Arad County (former)>Arad and Szolnok Counties (1342–1344)| Engel 1996, pp. 11–12.| 1344–1350Stephen I Lackfi>Stephen LackfiLouis I of Hungary>Louis Iispán of Arad County (former)>Arad and Szolnok Counties (1344–1350)| | 1350–1351| Thomas Gönyűi or CsórLouis I of Hungary>Louis IStephen, Duke of Slavonia>Stephen, duke of Transylvania, the monarch's brother; also ispán of Arad County (former) and Szolnok County>Szolnok Counties (1350–1351)| | 1351–1356| Nicholas Kont of OrahovicaLouis I of Hungary>Louis Iispán of Arad County (former)>Arad and Szolnok Counties (1351–1356)| | 1356–1359| Andrew LackfiLouis I of Hungary>Louis Iispán of Arad County (former)>Arad and Szolnok Counties (1356–1359)| Engel 1996, pp. 182., 383.| 1359–1367| Denis LackfiLouis I of Hungary>Louis Iispán of Arad County (former)>Arad and Szolnok Counties (1359–1367)| Markó 2000, p. 287.| 1367–1368| Nicholas Lackfi, Jr.Louis I of Hungary>Louis Iispán of Arad County (former)>Arad and Szolnok Counties (1367–1368)| | 1369–1372| Emeric LackfiLouis I of Hungary>Louis Iispán of Arad County (former)>Arad and Szolnok Counties (1369–1372)| | 1372–1376Stephen II Lackfi>Stephen Lackfi of CsáktornyaLouis I of Hungary>Louis I| first rule; son of Stephen Lackfi (1344–1350); also ispán of Szolnok County (1372–1376)| Engel 1996, pp. 11., 13.| 1376–1385Ladislaus I Losonci>Ladislaus Losonci, Sr.Louis I of Hungary>Louis I, Mary| first rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1376–1385)| Markó 2000, p. 288.| 1385–1386Stephen II Lackfi>Stephen Lackfi of CsáktornyaCharles III of Naples>Charles II| second rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1385–1386)| | 1386–1392Ladislaus I Losonci>Ladislaus Losonci, Sr.Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismund, Mary| second rule; also ispán of Szolnok County (1386–1392)| | 1392–1393Emeric I Bebek>Emeric BebekSigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismund, Mary| also ispán of Szolnok County (1392–1393)| | 1393–1395| Frank SzécsényiSigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismund, Maryispán of Arad County (former)>Arad, Csongrád County (former), and Szolnok County>Szolnok Counties (1393–1395)| | 1395–1401| Stibor of StiboriczSigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismundispán of Arad County (former)>Arad and Szolnok Counties (1395–1401)|

Fifteenth century

File:Epitaf Nikole Ilockog crkva sv Ivana Kapistrana Ilok 221208.jpg|upright|thumb|right|alt=Nicholas Újlaki|Gravestone of Nicholas Újlaki in the Church of St. John of Capistrano at Újlak (Ilok, CroatiaCroatiaFile:Ioan de Hunedoara.jpg|upright|thumb|right|alt=John Hunyadi|John HunyadiJohn Hunyadi{| class="wikitable" style="width: 70%"! scope="col" width="9%" | Term! scope="col" width="17%" | Incumbent! scope="col" width="9%" | Monarch! scope="col" width="33%" | Notes! scope="col" width="10%" | Source| 1401| Simon SzécsényiSigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismund| also ispán of Szolnok County (1401)| 1402–1403| Nicholas Csáki Sigismundispán of Békés County (former)>Békés, Bihar County, Csanád County>Csanád, Csongrád County (former), Keve County>Keve, Krassó County, Szolnok County>Szolnok, Temes County, and Zaránd County>Zaránd Counties (1402–1403); a leader of the party supporting King Ladislaus of Naples's claim to the Hungarian throne in 1403| Markó 2000, p. 284.| Nicholas Marcaliispán of Békés County (former)>Békés, Csanád County, Csongrád County (former)>Csongrád, Keve County, Krassó County>Krassó, Szolnok County, Temes County>Temes, and Zaránd Counties (1402–1403); joined the party supporting King Ladislaus of Naples's claim to the Hungarian throne in 1403| Markó 2000, p. 289. 1403–1409| John Tamási Sigismund also ispáns of Szolnok County (1403–1409)Engel 1996, pp. 11., 14.| James Lack of Szántó| 1409–1414| Stibor of StiboriczSigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismundispán of Szolnok County (1409–1414), Nyitra County>Nyitra and Trencsén, Lord of all Váh| | 1415–1426| Nicholas CsákiSigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismundispán of Békés County (former)>Békés, Bihar County, and Szolnok County>Szolnok Counties (1415–1426)| | 1426–1437| Ladislaus CsákiSigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismundispán of Közép-Szolnok County (1426–1437), ispán of Szatmár County>Szatmár County (1430–1437), and ispán of Bihar County County (1433–1437); routed by the Budai Nagy Antal Revolt>rebelling peasants at Dés (Dej);| Engel 1996, p. 14.Treptow, Popa 1996, p. lviii.| 1436–1438| Peter Cseh of LévaSigismund, Holy Roman Emperor>Sigismund, Albert| together with Ladislaus Csáki (1426–1437)| Engel 2001, p. 384.| 1438–1441| Desiderius LosonciAlbert II of Germany>Albert, Ladislaus VWÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Poland>Wladislas I's partisan in 1441| 1440–1441| Ladislaus Jakcs Wladislas I| Michael Jakcs| 1441–1458| Nicholas ÚjlakiWÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Poland>Wladislas I, Ladislaus VJohn Hunyadi (1441–1446), with Emeric Bebek (1446–1448), and with John Rozgonyi (1449–1458); also ban of Macsó and commander of Nándorfehérvár (Beograd, Serbia) (1441–1458), count of the Székelys (1441–1446), ispán of Csanád County>Csanád, Csongrád County (former), Máramaros County>Máramaros, and Temes County Counties (1441–1446), ispán of Arad County (former)>Arad County (1444–1446), ban of Severin (1445–1446), and ban of Slavonia (1457)| Engel 1996, p. 15.| 1441–1446| John HunyadiWÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Poland>Wladislas INicholas Újlaki (1441–1458); also commander of Nándorfehérvár (Beograd, Serbia) (1441–1446), count of the Székelys (1441–1446), ispán of Csanád County>Csanád, Csongrád County (former), and Temes County>Temes Counties (1441–1446), ispán of Arad County (former) and Bihar County>Bihar Counties (1443–1446), ispán of Közép-Szolnok, Kraszna County, Szabolcs County>Szabolcs, Szatmár County, and Ugocsa County>Ugocsa Counties (1444–1446), ispán of Bereg County and Máramaros County>Máramaros Counties (1445–1446), and regent-governor of the Kingdom of Hungary (1446)| | 1446–1448| Emeric Bebek| elected by the Diet of HungaryNicholas Újlaki (1441–1458); also ispán of Abaúj County (1446–1448) and judge of the Jász people (1446–1448); died fighting against the Ottoman Empire>Ottomans in the second battle of Kosovo| Markó 2000, pp. 282–283.| 1449–1458| John Rozgonyi|Nicholas Újlaki (1441–1458); also ispán of Sopron County>Sopron and Vas Counties (1449–1454), count of the Székelys (1457–1458)| | 1459–1461| Ladislaus KanizsaiMatthias Corvinus>Matthias| together with John and Sebastian Rozgonyi (1459–1460), and with his brother, Nicholas Kanizsai (1461)| Markó 2000, p. 286.| 1459–1460| John RozgonyiMatthias Corvinus>Matthias| together with Ladislaus Kanizsai (1459–1461), and with Sebastian Rozgonyi (1459–1460)| Markó 2000, p. 275.| 1459–1460| Sebastian RozgonyiMatthias Corvinus>Matthias| together with Ladislaus Kanizsai (1459–1461), and with John Rozgonyi (1459–1460)| Markó 2000, pp. 291–292.| 1461| Nicholas KanizsaiMatthias Corvinus>Matthias| together with his brother, Ladislaus Kanizsai (1459–1461)| 1462–1465| Nicholas ÚjlakiMatthias Corvinus>Matthias| second rule| Markó 2000, pp. 291., 294.| John Pongrác of DengelegMatthias Corvinus>Matthias| first rule| 1465–1467| Bertold Ellerbach of Monyorókerék Matthias| dismissed after rebellious Transylvanian nobles elected them to their leaders| Markó 2000, p. 285.Szentgyörgyi#Notable members of the family>Count Sigismund Szentgyörgyi brothers of Count Peter Szentgyörgyi (1498–1510); dismissed after rebellious Transylvanian nobles elected them to their leaders| Markó 2000, pp. 278., 293.Szentgyörgyi#Notable members of the family>Count John Szentgyörgyi| | 1468–1474| Nicholas Csupor of MonoszlóMatthias Corvinus>Matthias| together with John Pongrác of Dengeleg (1468–1472)| | 1468–1472| John Pongrác of DengelegMatthias Corvinus>Matthias| second rule; together with Nicholas Csupor of Monoszló (1468–1474)| | 1472–1475| Blaise MagyarMatthias Corvinus>MatthiasStephen III of Moldavia>Stephen the Great, prince of Moldavia in the Battle of Vaslui of 1475| Markó 2000, pp. 288–289.| 1475–1476| John Pongrác of DengelegMatthias Corvinus>Matthias| third rule| | 1478–1479| Peter Geréb of VingártMatthias Corvinus>Matthias|| | 1479–1493Stephen V Báthory>Stephen (V) Báthory of EcsedMatthias Corvinus>Matthias, Wladislas II|| | 1493–1498| Bartholomew Drágfi of BéltekVladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary>Wladislas II| together with Ladislaus Losonci, Jr. (1493–1494); suppressed a rebellion of the Székelys| Markó 2000, pp. 283–285.| 1493–1495| Ladislaus Losonci, Jr.Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary>Wladislas II| together with Bartholomew Drágfi of Béltek (1493–1498)| | 1498–1510| Count Peter SzentgyörgyiVladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary>Wladislas IISzentgyörgyi#Notable members of the family>Counts Sigismund and John Szentgyörgyi (1465–1467)| Markó 2000, p. 278.

Sixteenth century

File:Stefan Bathori prince.jpg|upright|thumb|right|alt=Stephen Báthory|Stephen BáthoryStephen Báthory| width = 170px| align = right}}{| class="wikitable" style="width: 70%"! scope="col" width="9%" | Term! scope="col" width="17%" | Incumbent! scope="col" width="9%" | Monarch! scope="col" width="33%" | Notes! scope="col" width="10%" | Source| 1510–1526| John Zápolya (Szapolyai)Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary>Wladislas II, Louis II| became king of Hungary| | 1527–1529| Peter Perényi| John ZápolyaFerdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand I| Markó 2000, pp. 290–291.| 1530–1534Stephen VIII Báthory>Stephen (VIII) Báthory of SomlyóFerdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand I|| | 1530| Bálint Török||| | 1530–1534| Jerome Laski| John Zápolya| conspired against the king, who imprisoned him| Markó 2000, pp. 287–288.| 1533–1534| Emeric Czibak||| | 1534–1540| Stephen Majláth of Szunyogszeg| John ZápolyaOttoman Turks>OttomansBartap=253}}Markó 2000, p. 282.| 1538–1540| Emeric Balassa of Gyarmat| John Zápolya| together with Stephen Majláth of Szunyogszeg (1534–1540); fled when the Ottomans invaded TransylvaniaBartap=253}}| 1551| George MartinuzziFerdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand IJohn Sigismund Zápolya>John Sigismund, the elected king (1543–1551)Bartap=253}}| 1552–1553| Andrew Báthory of EcsedFerdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor>Ferdinand I| resigned| Markó 2000, p. 256. 1553–1556István Dobó>Stephen Dobó Ferdinand I last voivodes appointed by a king of Hungary| Francis Kendi| 1571–1576| Stephen Báthory|Unio Trium Nationum>Three Nations and confirmed by the Ottoman Sultan Selim II; declared himself prince of Transylvania after his election as king of Poland in 1576Bartapp=260, 263}}| 1576–1581| Christopher Báthory| Stephen Báthory|Bartap=263}}| 1581–1586| Sigismund Báthory| Stephen BáthoryRudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor>Emperor RudolphBartapp=263, 294–295}}Szegedi 2009, p. 101.

See also

References

{{Reflist|15em}}

Sources

Primary sources

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  • Sălăgean, Tudor (2005). "Romanian Society in the Early Middle Ages (9th–14th Centuries AD)". In: Pop, Ioan-Aurel & Bolovan, Ioan, History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). {{ISBN|978-973-7784-12-4}}.
  • {{hu icon}} Stipta, István (1997). A magyar bírósági rendszer története ("History of the Hungarian Judicial System"). Multiplex Media-Debrecen University Press. {{ISBN|963-04-9197-4}}.
  • Szegedi, Edit (2009). "The birth and evolution of the Principality of Transylvania (1541–1690)". In: Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas & Magyari, András, The History of Transylvania, Vol. II. (From 1541 to 1711). Romanian Academy, Center for Transylvanian Studies. {{ISBN|978-973-7784-43-8}}.
  • Treptow, Kurt W. & Popa, Marcel (1996). Historical Dictionary of Romania. Scarecrow Press, Inc. {{ISBN|0-8108-3179-1}}.
  • {{hu icon}} Zsoldos, Attila (2011). Magyarország világi archontológiája, 1000–1301 ("Secular Archontology of Hungary, 1000–1301"). História, MTA Történettudományi Intézete. Budapest. {{ISBN|978-963-9627-38-3}}.

Further reading

  • Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Nägler, Thomas; Bărbulescu, Mihai; Dörner, Anton E.; Glodariu, Ioan; Pop, Grigor P.; Rotea, Mihai; Sălăgean, Tudor; Vasiliev, Valentin; Aldea, Bogdan; Proctor, Richard (2005). The History of Transylvania, Vol. I. (Until 1541). Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). {{ISBN|973-7784-00-6}}.

External links

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