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Vlachs
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{{otheruses}}{{redirect-multi|3|Vlach|Wallach|Oláh}}{{distinguish|Vlaams}}File:RomaniansInBalkans.png|300px|thumb|Map depicting the current distribution of Balkan Romance-speaking peoples]]File:Théodore Valerio, Pâtre valaque de Zabalcz, Romanian shepherd from Zăbalț, 1852.jpg|300px|thumb|Théodore Valerio, 1852: Pâtre valaque de Zabalcz ("Romanian shepherd from Zăbalț")]](File:Vlachsche_Hirten_-_Schweiger_Lerchenfeld_Amand_(freiherr_Von)_-_1887.jpg|300px|thumb|Vlach herdsmen in Greece (Amand Schweiger from Lerchenfeld, 1887))Vlachs ({{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|v|l|ɑː|k}} or {{IPAc-en|ˈ|v|l|æ|k}}, or rarely {{IPAc-en|ˈ|v|l|ɑː|x}}), also Wallachians (and many other variantsWEB,weblink On the Significance of Certain Names: Romanian/Wallachian and Romania/Wallachia, Ioan-Aurel Pop, 18 June 2018, ), is a historical term from the Middle Ages that designates an exonym, mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.WEB,weblink dexonline.ro, Valah, Dicționare ale limbii române, 18 June 2018, As a contemporary term, in the English language, the Vlachs are the Balkan Romance-speaking peoples who live south of the Danube in what are now eastern Serbia, southern Albania, northern Greece, North Macedonia, and southwestern Bulgaria, as indigenous ethnic groups, such as the Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians (Macedoromanians), and Macedo-Vlachs.{{Britannica|631511|Vlach}} In Polish and Hungarian, derivations of the term were also applied to Italians. The term also became a synonym in the Balkans for the social category of shepherdsBOOK, Peter F. Sugar, Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354-1804,weblink 1 July 2012, University of Washington Press, 978-0-295-80363-0, 39, , and was also used for non-Romance-speaking peoples, in recent times in the western Balkans derogatively.{{sfn|Tanner|2004|p=203}} There is also a Vlach diaspora in other European countries, especially Romania, as well as in North America and Australia."Vlachs" were initially identified and described during the 11th century by George Kedrenos. According to one origin theory, modern Romanians, Moldovans and Aromanians originated from Dacians.Fine 1991, p. ?: "Traditionally scholars have seen the Dacians as ancestors of the modern Rumanians and Vlachs." According to some linguists and scholars, the Eastern Romance languages prove the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the lower Danube basin during the Migration PeriodAccording to Cornelia Bodea, Ştefan Pascu, Liviu Constantinescu: "România: Atlas Istorico-geografic", Academia Română 1996, {{ISBN|973-27-0500-0}}, chap. II, "Historical landmarks", p. 50 (English text), the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the Lower Danube basin during the Migration period is an obvious fact: Thraco-Romans haven't vanished in the soil & Vlachs haven't appeared after 1000 years by spontaneous generation. and western Balkan populations known as "Vlachs" also have had Romanized Illyrian origins.Badlands-Borderland: A History of Southern Albania/Northern Epirus [ILLUSTRATED] (Hardcover) by T.J. Winnifruth, {{ISBN|0-7156-3201-9}}, 2003, page 44: "Romanized Illyrians, the ancestors of the modern Vlachs". Nowadays, Eastern Romance-speaking communities are estimated at 26–30 million people worldwide (including the Romanian diaspora and Moldovan diaspora).WEB,weblink Council of Europe Parliamentary Recommendation 1333 (1997), Assembly.coe.int, 1997-06-24, 2013-02-08,

Etymology and names

{{further information|Walhaz}}
The word Vlach/Wallachian (and other variants such as Vlah, Valah, Valach, Voloh, Blac, Oláh, Vlas, Ilac, Ulah, etc.) is etymologically derived from the ethnonym of a Celtic tribe,{{sfn|Tanner|2004|p=203}} adopted into Proto-Germanic *Walhaz, which meant "stranger", from *Wolkā-Ringe, Don. "Inheritance versus lexical borrowing: a case with decisive sound-change evidence." Language Log, January 2009. (Caesar's , Strabo and Ptolemy's ).BOOK, Juhani Nuorluoto, Martti Leiwo, Jussi Halla-aho, Papers in Slavic, Baltic, and Balkan studies,weblink 2001, Dept. of Slavonic and Baltic Languages and Literatures, University of Helsinki, 978-952-10-0246-5, Via Latin, in Gothic, as *walhs, the ethnonym took on the meaning "foreigner" or "Romance-speaker", and was adopted into Greek Vláhi (), Slavic Vlah, Hungarian oláh and olasz, etc.JOURNAL, Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren't, and Other Reflections on Roman History, The Proceedings of the Friesian School, Kelley L. Ross, 2003, Note: The Vlach Connection,weblink 2008-01-13, BOOK, Entangled Histories of the Balkans: Volume One: National Ideologies and Language Policies,weblink 13 June 2013, BRILL, 978-90-04-25076-5, 42–, The root word was notably adopted in Germanic for Wales and Walloon, and in Switzerland for Romansh-speakers (),{{sfn|Tanner|2004|p=203}} and in Poland Włochy or in Hungary olasz became an exonym for Italians.Historically, the term was used primarily for the Romanians. Testimonies from the 13th-14th centuries show that, although in the European (and even extra-European) space they were called Vlachs or Wallachians (Oláh in Hungarian, Vláchoi (βλάχοι) in Greek, Volóxi (воло́хи) in Russian, Walachen in German, Valacchi in Italian, Valaques in French, Valacos in Spanish), the Romanians used for themselves the endonym "Rumân/Român", from the Latin "Romanus" (in memory of Rome).Via both Germanic and Latin, the term started to signify "stranger, foreigner" also in the Balkans, where it in its early form was used for Romance-speakers, but the term eventually took on the meaning of "shepherd, nomad".{{sfn|Tanner|2004|p=203}} The Romance-speaking communities themselves however used the endonym (they called themselves) "Romans".BOOK, H. C. Darby, The face of Europe on the eve of the great discoveries, The New Cambridge Modern History, 1, 1957, 34, During the early history of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, there was a social class of Vlachs in Serbia and Ottoman Macedonia, made up of Christians who served as auxiliary forces and had the same rights as Muslims. In Croatia, the term became derogatory, and Vlasi was used for the ethnic Serb community who, despite being Slavic, were given the term due to the Orthodox faith which they shared with the Vlachs.{{sfn|Tanner|2004|p=203}}Romanian scholars have suggested that the term Vlach appeared for the first time in the Eastern Roman Empire and was subsequently spread to the Germanic- and then Slavic-speaking worlds through the Norsemen (possibly by Varangians), who were in trade and military contact with Byzantium during the early Middle Ages (see also Blakumen).Ilie Gherghel, Câteva considerațiuni la cuprinsul noțiunii cuvântului "Vlach", București: Convorbiri Literare, 1920, p. 4-8.G. Popa Lisseanu, Continuitatea românilor în Dacia, Editura Vestala, Bucuresti, 2014, p.78Nowadays, the term Vlachs (also known under other names, such as "Koutsovlachs", "Tsintsars", "Karagouni", "Chobani", "Vlasi", etc.The Balkan Vlachs: Born to Assimilate? at culturalsurvival.org) is used in scholarship for the Romance-speaking communities in the Balkans, especially those in Greece, Albania and North Macedonia.{{sfn|Demirtaş-Coşkun|2001}}{{sfn|Tanner|2004}} In Serbia the term Vlach (Serbian Vlah, plural Vlasi) is also used to refer to Romanian speakers, especially those living in eastern Serbia. Aromanians themselves use the endonym "Armãn" (plural "Armãni") or "Rãmãn" (plural "Rãmãni"), etymologically from "Romanus", meaning "Roman". Megleno-Romanians designate themselves with the Macedonian form Vla (plural Vlaš) in their own language.

Medieval usage

{{See also|History of Romania|Origin of the Romanians|History of the Aromanians}}File:Bgiusca Jirecek Line.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Map of southeastern Europe, delineating Roman and Greek influence|The Jireček LineJireček LineFile:Transhumance ways of the Vlachs.jpeg|thumb|TranshumanceTranshumance

6th century

Byzantine historians used the term Vlachs for Latin speakers.A. ARMBRUSTER, ROMANITATEA ROMÂNILOR ISTORIA UNEI IDEI, Editura Enciclopedica,199weblink The 7th century Byzantine historiographer Theophylact Simocatta wrote about “Blachernae” in connection with some historical data of the 6th century, during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Maurice.Theophylact Simocatta, 8.4.11-8.5.4 (Publisher. C. de Boer, 1972)

8th century

First precise data about Vlachs are in connection with the Vlachs of the Rynchos river; the original document containing the information is from the Konstamonitou monastery. Stelian Brezeanu, O istorie a Bizanțului, Editura Meronia, București, 2005, p.126

9th century

During the late 9th century the Hungarians invaded the Carpathian Basin, where the province of Pannonia was inhabited by the "Slavs [Sclavi], Bulgarians [Bulgarii] and Vlachs [Blachii], and the shepherds of the Romans [pastores Romanorum]" (sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum —according to the Gesta Hungarorum, written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Béla III of Hungary.*Gesta Hungarorum (a translation by Martyn Rady)

10th century

George Kedrenos mentioned about Vlachs in 976. The Vlachs were guides and guards of Roman caravans in Balkans. Between Prespa and Kastoria they met and fought with a Bulgarian rebel named David. The Vlachs killed David in their first documented battle.Mutahhar al-Maqdisi, "They say that in the Turkic neighbourhood there are the Khazars, Russians, Slavs, Waladj, Alans, Greeks and many other peoples."A. Decei, V. Ciocîltan, “La mention des Roumains (Walah) chez Al-Maqdisi,”in Romano-arabica I, Bucharest, 1974, pp. 49–54 Ibn al-Nadīm published in 938 the work “Kitāb al-Fihrist” mentioning “Turks, Bulgars and Vlahs” (using Blagha for Vlachs) Ibn al Nadim, al-Fihrist. English translation: The Fihrist of al-Nadim. Editor și traducător: B. Dodge, New York, Columbia University Press, 1970, p. 37 with n.82 Spinei, Victor, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century. Brill. 2009, p.83

11th century

Byzantine writer Kekaumenos, author of the Strategikon (1078), described a 1066 revolt against the emperor in Northern Greece led by Nicolitzas Delphinas and other Vlachs.G. Murnu, Când si unde se ivesc românii întâia dată în istorie, în „Convorbiri Literare”, XXX, pp. 97-112The names Blakumen or Blökumenn is mentioned in Nordic sagas dating between the 11th–13th centuries, with respect to events that took place in either 1018 or 1019 somewhere at the northwestern part of the Black Sea and believed by some to be related to the Vlachs.Egils saga einhenda ok Ásmundar berserkjabana, in Drei lygisogur, ed. Å. Lagerholm (Halle/Saale, 1927), p. 29V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p. 106, {{ISBN|9789047428800}}

12th century

The Russian Primary Chronicle, written in ca. 1113, wrote when the Volochi (Vlachs) attacked the Slavs of the Danube and settled among them and oppressed them, the Slavs departed and settled on the Vistula, under the name of Leshi.HE RUSSIAN PRIMARY CHRONICLE AND THE VLACHS OF EASTERN EUROPE- Demetrius Dvoichenko-Markov Byzantion Vol. 49 (1979), pp. 175-187, Peeters Publishers The Hungarians drove away the Vlachs and took the land and settled there.Samuel Hazzard Cross et Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (English), The Russian Primary Chronicle. Laurentian Text, The Medieval Academy of America, CambridgeMassachusetts, 2012, p.62C. A. Macartney, The Habsburg Empire: 1790-1918, Faber & Faber, 4 sept. 2014, paragraf.185File:Johann Honterus Septemcastrensis de Corona.jpg|thumb|right|Map of Central-Southern Europe during the late Middle Ages/early Modern period by Transylvanian Saxon humanist Johannes HonterusJohannes HonterusTraveler Benjamin of Tudela (1130–1173) of the Kingdom of Navarre was one of the first writers to use the word Vlachs for a Romance-speaking population.WEB,weblink Byzantine historian John Kinnamos described Leon Vatatzes' military expedition along the northern Danube, where Vatatzes mentioned the participation of Vlachs in battles with the Magyars (Hungarians) in 1166.A. Decei, op. cit., p. 25.V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta From the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Brill, 2009, p.132, {{ISBN|9789004175365}}The uprising of brothers Asen and Peter was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs living in the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase. It began on 26 October 1185, the feast day of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki, and ended with the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire, also known in its early history as the Empire of Bulgarians and Vlachs.

13th century

In 1213 an army of Romans (Vlachs), Transylvanian Saxons, and Pechenegs, led by Ioachim of Sibiu, attacked the Bulgars and Cumans from Vidin.Curta, 2006, p. 385 After this, all Hungarian battles in the Carpathian region were supported by Romance-speaking soldiers from Transylvania.Ş. Papacostea, Românii în secolul al XIII-lea între cruciată şi imperiul mongol, Bucureşti, 1993, 36; A. Lukács, Ţara Făgăraşului, 156; T. Sălăgean, Transilvania în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIII-lea. Afirmarea regimului congregaţional, Cluj-Napoca, 2003, 26-27 At the end of the 13th century, during the reign of Ladislaus the Cuman, Simon de Kéza wrote about the Blacki people and placed them in Pannonia with the Huns.Simon de Kéza, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, IV,G. Popa-Lisseanu, Izvoarele istoriei Românilor, IV, Bucuresti, 1935, p. .32 Archaeological discoveries indicate that Transylvania was gradually settled by the Magyars, and the last region defended by the Vlachs and Pechenegs (until 1200) was between the Olt River and the Carpathians.K. HOREDT, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Bucureşti, 1958, p.109-131. IDEM, Siebenburgen im Fruhmittelalter, Bonn, 1986, p.111 sqq.I.M.Tiplic, CONSIDERAŢII CU PRIVIRE LA LINIILE ÎNTĂRITE DE TIPUL PRISĂCILOR DIN TRANSILVANIA(sec. IX-XIII)*ACTA TERRAE SEPTEMCASTRENSIS I, pp 147-164 Shortly after the fall of the Olt region, a church was built at the Cârța Monastery and Catholic German-speaking settlers from Rhineland and Mosel Valley (known as Transylvanian Saxons) began to settle in the Orthodox region.A. IONIŢĂ, Date noi privind colonizarea germană în Ţara Bârsei şi graniţa de est a regatului maghiar în cea de a doua jumătate a secolului al XII-lea, în RI, 5, 1994, 3-4. In the Diploma Andreanum issued by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1224, "silva blacorum et bissenorum" was given to the settlers.J. DEER, Der Weg zur Goldenen Bulle Andreas II. Von 1222, în Schweizer Beitrage zur Allgemeinen Geschichte, 10, 1952, pp. 104-138 The Orthodox Vlachs spread further northward along the Carpathians to Poland, Slovakia, and Moravia and were granted autonomy under Ius Vlachonicum (Walachian law).Stefan Pascu: A History of Transylvania, Wayne State Univ Pr, 1983, p. 57In 1285 Ladislaus the Cuman fought the Tatars and Cumans, arriving with his troops at the Moldova River. A town, Baia (near the said river), was documented in 1300 as settled by the Transylvanian Saxons (see also Foundation of Moldavia).Pavel Parasca, Cine a fost "Laslău craiul unguresc" din tradiţia medievală despre întemeierea Ţării Moldovei [=Who was "Laslău, Hungarian king" of the medieval tradition on the foundation of Moldavia]. In: Revista de istorie şi politică, An IV, Nr. 1.; ULIM;2011 {{ISSN|1857-4076}}O. Pecican, Dragoș-vodă - originea ciclului legendar despre întemeierea Moldovei. În „Anuarul Institutului de Istorie și Arheologie Cluj”. T. XXXIII. Cluj-Napoca, 1994, pp. 221-232 In 1290 Ladislaus the Cuman was assassinated; the new Hungarian king allegedly drove voivode Radu Negru and his people across the Carpathians, where they formed Wallachia along with its first capital Câmpulung (see also Foundation of Wallachia).D. CĂPRĂROIU, ON THE BEGINNINGS OF THE TOWN OF CÂMPULUNG, ″Historia Urbana″, t. XVI, nr. 1-2/2008, pp. 37-64

14th century

The biggest caravan shipment between Podvisoki in Bosnia and Republic of Ragusa was recorded on August 9, 1428 where Vlachs transported 1500 modius of salt with 600 horses.JOURNAL, Kurtović, Esad, Esad Kurtović, Konj u srednjovjekovnoj Bosni, Filozofski fakultet, Sarajevo 2014.,weblink en, 205, „Crainich Miochouich et Stiepanus Glegieuich ad meliustenendem super se et omnia eorum bona se obligando promiserunt ser Тhome de Bona presenti et acceptanti conducere et salauum dare in Souisochi in Bosna Dobrassino Veselcouich nomine dicti ser Тhome modia salis mille quingenta super equis siue salmis sexcentis. Et dicto sale conducto et presentato suprascripto Dobrassino in Souisochi medietatem illius salis dare et mensuratum consignare dicto Dobrassino. Et aliam medietatem pro eorum mercede conducenda dictum salem pro ipsius conductoribus retinere et habere. Promittentes vicissim omnia et singularia suprascripta firma et rata habere et tenere ut supra sub obligatione omnium suorum bonorum. Renuntiando” (09.08. 1428.g.), Div. Canc., XLV, 31v.

Toponymy

(File:Bolohoveni land from A.V. Boldur description.PNG|thumb|right|alt=The territories of the Bolohoveni|Bolohoveni territory, according to V. A. Boldur)In addition to the ethnic groups of Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, and Istro-Romanians who emerged during the Migration Period, other Vlachs could be found as far north as Poland, as far west as Moravia and Dalmatia.WEB, The Slavonian Census of 1698. Part I: Structure and Meaning, European Journal of Population, Hammel, E. A. and Kenneth W. Wachter, University of California,weblink In search of better pasture, they were called Vlasi or Valaši by the Slavs.States mentioned in medieval chronicles were:
  • Wallachia – between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube (Å¢ara Românească in Romanian); Bassarab-Wallachia (Bassarab's Wallachia and Ungro-Wallachia or Wallachia Transalpina in administrative sources; Istro-Vlachia (Danubian Wallachia in Byzantine sources), and Velacia secunda on Spanish maps
  • Moldavia – between the Carpathians and the Dniester river (Bogdano-Wallachia; Bogdan's Wallachia, Moldo-Wallachia or Maurovlachia; Black Wallachia, Moldovlachia or Rousso-Vlachia in Byzantine sources); Bogdan Iflak or Wallachia in Polish sources; L'otra Wallachia (the other Wallachia) in Genovese sources and Velacia tertia on Spanish maps
  • Transylvania – between the Carpathians and the Hungarian plain; Wallachia interior in administrative sources and Velacia prima on Spanish maps
  • Second Bulgarian Empire, between the Carpathians and the Balkan Mountains – Regnum Bulgarorum et Blachorum in documents by Pope Innocent III
  • Terra Prodnicorum (or Terra Brodnici), mentioned by Pope Honorius III in 1222. Vlachs led by Ploskanea supported the Tatars in the 1223 Battle of Kalka. Vlach lands near Galicia in the west, Volhynia in the north, Moldova in the south and the Bolohoveni lands in the east were conquered by Galicia.A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992, pp 98-106
  • Bolokhoveni was Vlach land between Kiev and the Dniester in Ukraine. Place names were Olohovets, Olshani, Voloschi and Vlodava, mentioned in 11th-to-13th-century Slavonic chronicles. It was conquered by Galicia.A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992
Regions and places are:
  • White Wallachia in MoesiaSince Theophanes Confessor and Kedrenos, in : A.D. Xenopol, Istoria Românilor din Dacia Traiană, Nicolae Iorga, Teodor Capidan, C. Giurescu : Istoria Românilor, Petre Ș. Năsturel Studii È™i Materiale de Istorie Medie, vol. XVI, 1998Great Wallachia (Μεγάλη Βλαχία; Megáli vlahía) in Thessaly
  • Small Wallachia (Μικρή Βλαχία; Mikrí vlahía) in Aetolia, Acarnania, Dorida and Locrida
  • Morlachia, in Lika-Dalmatia
  • Upper Valachia of Moscopole and Metsovon (Άνω Βλαχία; Áno Vlahía) in southern Macedonia, Albania and Epirus
  • Stari Vlah ("the Old Vlach"), a region in southwestern Serbia
  • Romanija mountain (Romanija planina) in eastern Bosnia and HerzegovinaMap of Yugoslavia, file East, sq. B/f, Istituto Geografico de Agostini, Novara, in : Le Million, encyclopédie de tous les pays du monde, vol. IV, ed. Kister, Geneve, Switzerland, 1970, pp. 290-291, and many other maps & old atlases - these names disappear after 1980.
  • VlaÅŸca County, a former county of southern Wallachia (derived from Slavic VlaÅ¡ka)
  • Greater Wallachia, an older name for the region of Muntenia, southeastern Romania
  • Lesser Wallachia, an older name for the region of Oltenia, southwestern Romania
  • An Italian writer called the Banat Valachia citeriore ("Wallachia on this side") in 1550.BOOK, Mircea MuÈ™at, Ion Ardeleanu, From Ancient Dacia to Modern Romania,weblink 1985, Editura ȘtiinÈ›ifică È™i Enciclopedică, that in 1550 a foreign writer, the Italian Gromo, called the Banat "Valachia citeriore" (the Wallachia that stands on this side).,
  • Valahia transalpina, including FăgăraÈ™ and HaÅ£eg
  • Moravian Wallachia (), in the Beskid Mountains (Czech: Beskydy) of the Czech RepublicZ. Konečný, F. Mainus, Stopami minulosti: Kapitoly z dÄ›jin Moravy a Slezska/Traces of the Past: Chapters from the History of Moravia and Silesia, Brno:Blok,1979.
File:Bosniangraves bosniska gravar februari 2007 stecak stecci3.jpg|200px|thumb|left|Medieval necropolis in Radimlja, Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina

Shepherd culture

(File:Vlachs transhumance in Western Balkans and some Vlach necropolises.jpg|200px|thumb|Detailed map depicting Vlach transhumance in the Western Balkans, showcasing several examples of Vlach necropolises.Anca & N.S. Tanașoca, Unitate romanică și diversitate balcanică, Editura Fundației Pro, 2004)As national states appeared in the area of the former Ottoman Empire, new state borders were developed that divided the summer and winter habitats of many of the pastoral groups. During the Middle Ages, many Vlachs were shepherds who drove their flocks through the mountains of Central and Eastern Europe. Vlach shepherds may be found as far north as southern Poland (Podhale) and the eastern Czech Republic (Moravia) by following the Carpathians, the Dinaric Alps in the west, the Pindus Mountains in the south, and the Caucasus Mountains in the east.Silviu Dragomir: "Vlahii din nordul peninsulei Balcanice în evul mediu"; 1959, p. 172The medieval Vlachs have elevated decorated funerary monuments in Herzegovina (Radimlja, Boljuni, Blidinje, etc) and surrounding countries. The Vlach origin of tombstones was attested by Bogumil Hrabak (1956) and Marian Wenzel (1962)Marian Wenzel, “Bosnian and Herzegovinian Tombstobes-Who Made Them and Why?” Sudost-Forschungen 21 (1962): 102-143 and by the archeological and anthropological researches of skeleton remains from the graves under stećci.Mužić, Ivan (2009). "Vlasi i starobalkanska pretkršćanska simbolika jelena na stećcima". Starohrvatska prosvjeta (in Croatian). Split: Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments. III (36): 315–349.

See also

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Notes

{{reflist|30em}}

References

  • BOOK, Birgül DemirtaÅŸ-CoÅŸkun, Ankara University. Center for Eurasian Strategic Studies, The Vlachs: a forgotten minority in the Balkans,weblink 2001, Frank Cass,
  • BOOK, Arno Tanner, The Forgotten Minorities of Eastern Europe: The History and Today of Selected Ethnic Groups in Five Countries,weblink 2004, East-West Books, 978-952-91-6808-8, 203–,
  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, Aromanian dialect, Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of North Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, {{ISBN|960-7760-86-7}}
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • Ilie Gherghel, Câteva consideraÅ£iuni la cuprinsul noÅ£iunii cuvântului "Vlach". Bucuresti: Convorbiri Literare,(1920).
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110210081132weblink">Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus ÅŸi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah ÅŸi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • G. Weigand, Die Aromunen, Bd.Α΄-B΄, J. A. Barth (A.Meiner), Leipzig 1895–1894.
  • A. Keramopoulos, Ti einai oi koutsovlachoi [What are the Koutsovlachs?], publ 2 University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 2000.
  • A.Hâciu, Aromânii, ComerÅ£. Industrie.Arte.Expasiune.Civiliytie, tip. Cartea Putnei, FocÅŸani 1936.
  • Τ. Winnifrith, Τhe Vlachs.Τhe History of a Balkan People, Duckworth 1987
  • A. Koukoudis, Oi mitropoleis kai i diaspora ton Vlachon [Major Cities and Diaspora of the Vlachs], publ. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 1999.
  • Th Capidan, Aromânii, Dialectul Aromân, ed2 Εditură FundaÅ£iei Culturale Aromâne, BucureÅŸti 2005

Further reading

  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, The Aromanian dialect. A Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Gheorghe Bogdan, MEMORY, IDENTITY, TYPOLOGY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RECONSTRUCTION OF VLACH ETHNOHISTORY, B.A., University of British Columbia, 1992
  • Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu, Aromâni, meglenoromâni, istroromâni : aspecte identitare ÅŸi culturale, Editura Universităţii din BucureÅŸti, 2012, {{ISBN|978-606-16-0148-6}}
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of North Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, {{ISBN|960-7760-86-7}}
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110210081132weblink">Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus ÅŸi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah ÅŸi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • Franck Vogel, a photo-essay on the Valchs published by GEO magazine (France), 2010.
  • John Kennedy Campbell, 'Honour Family and Patronage' A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community, Oxford University Press, 1974
  • The Watchmen, a documentary film by Alastair Kenneil and Tod Sedgwick (USA) 1971 describes life in the Vlach village of Samarina in Epiros, Northern Greece

External links

{{wiktionary|Vlach}}{{commons category|Vlachs}}{{EB1911 Poster|Vlachs}} {{Use dmy dates|date=February 2013}}{{Use British English|date=February 2013}}

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