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Vientiane
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{{about|the urban center and city|the mueang|Kingdom of Vientiane|city proper|Vientiane Prefecture|the province|Vientiane Province}}{{Update|date=October 2013}}







factoids
90px)Viang Chan| native_name_lang = loList of cities in Laos>Capital City | image_skyline = Vientiane montage.jpg| image_caption = Clockwise from top: Temple at That Luang, Haw Phra Kaew, That Dam, That Luang Stupa, Mekong Riverside, Patuxai, Wat Si Saket| pushpin_map = Laos#Asia|pushpin_relief=117N36region:LA|display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = CountryLaos}}| subdivision_type1 = Admin. division| subdivision_name1 = Vientiane PrefectureUTC+7 (Indochina Time>ICT)| established_title = SettledAUTHOR=LONELY PLANETACCESSDATE=18 JULY 2015, | leader_title = Mayor| leader_name = | area_total_km2 = 130| elevation_m = 174| elevation_ft = 570| population_total = 783,000| population_as_of = 2013 est| population_density_km2 = auto}}{{Contains Lao text}}Vientiane ({{IPAc-en|v|j|É›|n|ˈ|t|j|ɑː|n}}; {{IPA-fr|vjɛ̃ˈtjan}}; ; , Viang chan, {{IPA-lo|wíəŋ tɕàn|IPA}}) is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand. Vientiane became the capital in 1563 due to fears of a Burmese invasion but was later looted then razed to the ground in 1827 by the Siamese (Thai).WEB, Vientiane,weblink Farlex Encyclopedia, 25 Nov 2010, Vientiane was the administrative capital during French rule and, due to economic growth in recent times, is now the economic center of Laos.Vientiane is noted as the home of the most significant national monument in Laos: That Luang, which is a known symbol of Laos and an icon of Buddhism in Laos. Other significant Buddhist temples in Laos can be found there as well, such as Haw Phra Kaew, which formerly housed the Emerald Buddha.The estimated population of the city is 760,000 (2015). The city hosted the 25th Southeast Asian Games in December 2009, celebrating 50 years of the Southeast Asian Games.

Etymology

The name of the city is derived from Pali, the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism. Although the original meaning of the name of the city is "city of sandalwood", as shown by ancient Lao inscription which wrote according to etymology, unlike modern Lao which is written phonetically, in modern Lao, the meaning of the name Vientiane is ambiguous.Many, if not most, Lao people claim that the city's name means "city of the moon", while many also claim correctly that the city's name means "city of sandalwood" because the words for "moon" ( or from chandra in Sanskrit) and "sandalwood" (ຈັນ or ຈັນທນ໌ from chandana in Sanskrit) are written and pronounced identically as "chan" in modern Lao. Most academic and historic Lao sources claim that the city's name does in fact mean "city of sandalwood", reinforced by the city's Thai () and Khmer () names both retain the etymological spelling, which indicates "city of sandalwood".The romanised and garbled spelling "Vientiane" is of French origin, and reflects the difficulty the French had in pronouncing the {{IPA|/tɕ/|}} sound in the Lao language. A common English-based spelling is "Viangchan", or occasionally "Wiangchan".

History

File:Buddha sculptures at That Luang.jpg|thumb|BuddhaBuddhaFile:Vat Phra Kèo.JPG|thumb|Haw Phra KaewHaw Phra KaewFile:PhaThatLuang.jpg|thumb|Pha That LuangPha That LuangThe great Laotian epic, the Phra Lak Phra Lam, claims that Prince Thattaradtha founded the city when he left the legendary Lao kingdom of Muong Inthapatha Maha Nakhone because he was denied the throne in favor of his younger brother. Thattaradtha founded a city called Maha Thani Si Phan Phao on the western banks of the Mekong River; this city was said to have later become today's Udon Thani, Thailand. One day, a seven-headed Naga told Thattaradtha to start a new city on the east bank of the river opposite Maha Thani Si Phan Phao. The prince called this city Chanthabuly Si Sattanakhanahud; which was said to be the predecessor of modern Vientiane.{{citation needed|date=March 2017}}Contrary to the Phra Lak Phra Lam, most historians believe Vientiane was an early Khmer settlement centered around a Hindu temple, which the Pha That Luang would later replace. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the time when the Lao and Thai people are believed to have entered Southeast Asia from Southern China, the few remaining Khmers in the area were either killed, removed, or assimilated into the Lao civilization, which would soon overtake the area.{{citation needed|date=March 2017}}In 1354, when Fa Ngum founded the kingdom of Lan Xang.BOOK, Coedès, George, George Coedès, Walter F. Vella, trans.Susan Brown Cowing, The Indianized States of Southeast Asia, 1968, University of Hawaii Press, 978-0-8248-0368-1, {{rp|223}} Viangchan became an important administrative city, even though it was not made the capital. King Setthathirath officially established it as the capital of Lan Xang in 1563, to avoid Burmese invasion.WEB,weblink Vientiane marks 450 years anniversary, 18 July 2015, When Lan Xang fell apart in 1707, it became an independent Kingdom of Vientiane. In 1779, it was conquered by the Siamese general Phraya Chakri and made a vassal of Siam.When King Anouvong raised an unsuccessful rebellion, it was obliterated by Siamese armies in 1827. The city was burned to the ground and was looted of nearly all Laotian artifacts, including Buddha statues and people. Viangchan was in great disrepair, depopulated and disappearing into the forest, when the French arrived. It eventually passed to French rule in 1893. It became the capital of the French protectorate of Laos in 1899. The French rebuilt the city and rebuilt or repaired Buddhist temples such as Pha That Luang, Haw Phra Kaew, and left many colonial buildings behind. During French rule, the Vietnamese were encouraged to migrate to Laos, which resulted in 53% of the population of Vientiane being Vietnamese in the year of 1943.Stuart-Fox, Martin (1997). A History of Laos. Cambridge University Press, p. 51. {{ISBN|978-0-521-59746-3}}. As late as 1945, the French drew up an ambitious plan to move massive Vietnamese population to three key areas, i.e. the Vientiane Plain, Savannakhet region, Bolaven Plateau, which was only discarded by Japanese invasion of Indochina. If this plan had been implemented, according to Martin Stuart-Fox, the Lao might well have lost control over their own country.During World War II, Viangchan fell with little resistance and was occupied by Japanese forces, under the command of Sako Masanori.WEB, Far East and Australasia,weblink 25 Nov 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101121140017weblink">weblink November 21, 2010, On 9 March 1945 French paratroopers arrived, and reoccupied the city on 24 April 1945.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160417060708weblink">Far East and Australasia 2003 - Google BooksAs the Laotian Civil War broke out between the Royal Lao Government and the Pathet Lao, Vientiane became unstable. In August 1960, Kong Le seized the capital and insisted that Souvanna Phouma become prime minister. In mid-December, Phoumi Nosavan then seized the capital, overthrew the Phouma Government, and installed Boun Oum as prime minister. In mid-1975, Pathet Lao troops moved towards the city and Americans began evacuating the capital. On 23 August 1975, a contingent of 50 Pathet Lao women symbolically liberated the city. On 2 December 1975, the communist party of the Pathet Lao took over Vientiane, defeated the Kingdom of Laos, and renamed the country the Lao People's Democratic Republic, which ended the Laotian Civil War. The next day, an Insurgency in Laos began in the jungle, with the Pathet Lao fighting factions of Hmong and royalists.Vientiane was the host of the incident-free 2009 Southeast Asian Games. Eighteen competitions were dropped from the previous games held in Thailand, due to Laos' landlocked borders and the lack of adequate facilities in Vientiane.{{Clear}}

Geography and climate

Geography

Vientiane is on a bend of the Mekong River, at which point it forms the border with Thailand.

Climate

Vientiane features a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) with a distinct wet season and a dry season. Vientiane’s dry season spans from November through March. April marks the onset of the wet season which in Vientiane lasts about seven months. Vientiane tends to be hot and humid throughout the course of the year, though temperatures in the city tend to be somewhat cooler during the dry season than the wet season.{{Weather box|location = Vientiane|metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|Jan record high C = 35.6|Feb record high C = 37.8|Mar record high C = 40.0|Apr record high C = 41.1|May record high C = 38.9|Jun record high C = 37.8|Jul record high C = 36.1|Aug record high C = 37.2|Sep record high C = 38.9|Oct record high C = 38.9|Nov record high C = 34.4|Dec record high C = 33.4|year record high C = 41.1|Jan high C = 28.4|Feb high C = 30.3|Mar high C = 33.0|Apr high C = 34.3|May high C = 33.0|Jun high C = 31.9|Jul high C = 31.3|Aug high C = 30.8|Sep high C = 30.9|Oct high C = 30.8|Nov high C = 29.8|Dec high C = 28.1|year high C = 31.1|Jan low C = 16.4|Feb low C = 18.5|Mar low C = 21.5|Apr low C = 23.8|May low C = 24.6|Jun low C = 24.9|Jul low C = 24.7|Aug low C = 24.6|Sep low C = 24.1|Oct low C = 22.9|Nov low C = 19.3|Dec low C = 16.7|year low C = 21.8|Jan record low C = 0.0|Feb record low C = 7.6|Mar record low C = 12.1|Apr record low C = 17.1|May record low C = 20.0|Jun record low C = 21.1|Jul record low C = 21.2|Aug record low C = 21.1|Sep record low C = 21.2|Oct record low C = 12.9|Nov record low C = 8.9|Dec record low C = 5.0|year record low C = 0.0|rain colour = green|Jan rain mm = 7.5|Feb rain mm = 13.0|Mar rain mm = 33.7|Apr rain mm = 84.9|May rain mm = 245.8|Jun rain mm = 279.8|Jul rain mm = 272.3|Aug rain mm = 334.6|Sep rain mm = 297.3|Oct rain mm = 78.0|Nov rain mm = 11.1|Dec rain mm = 2.5|year rain mm = 1660.5|Jan rain days = 1|Feb rain days = 2|Mar rain days = 4|Apr rain days = 8|May rain days = 15|Jun rain days = 18|Jul rain days = 20|Aug rain days = 21|Sep rain days = 17|Oct rain days = 9|Nov rain days = 2|Dec rain days = 1|year rain days = |Jan humidity = 70|Feb humidity = 68|Mar humidity = 66|Apr humidity = 69|May humidity = 78|Jun humidity = 82|Jul humidity = 82|Aug humidity = 84|Sep humidity = 83|Oct humidity = 78|Nov humidity = 72|Dec humidity = 70|year humidity = 75|Jan sun = 254.4|Feb sun = 214.3|Mar sun = 216.8|Apr sun = 226.3|May sun = 207.1|Jun sun = 152.9|Jul sun = 148.6|Aug sun = 137.1|Sep sun = 137.7|Oct sun = 247.7|Nov sun = 234.3|Dec sun = 257.5|year sun = 2434.7|source 1 = World Meteorological Organization,WEB, World Weather Information Service - Vientiane (1951-2000),weblink World Meteorological Organization, May 14, 2010, Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes 1907–1990)WEB,weblink Klimatafel von Vientiane (Viangchan) / Laos, Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world, Deutscher Wetterdienst, German, January 23, 2016, |source 2 = NOAA (sun and humidity)WEB,weblink Vientiane Climate Normals 1961−1990, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, November 29, 2013, |date=August 2010}}

Tourism

File:Wat Si Muang.jpg|thumb|Wat Si MuangWat Si MuangFile:Buddha park, lao pdr.jpg|thumb|Buddha ParkBuddha ParkAlthough still a small city, the capital attracts many tourists. The city contains many temples and Buddhist monuments. A popular attraction for foreign visitors is Pha That Luang, an important national cultural monument of Laos and one of its best known stupas. It was originally built in 1566 by King Setthathirath, and was restored in 1953. The golden stupa is 45 metres tall and is believed to contain a relic of the Lord Buddha.Lao National Tourism Administration - Tourist Sites in Vientiane Capital {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110723080908weblink |date=July 23, 2011 }}Another site that is also popular amongst tourists is Wat Si Muang. The temple was built on the ruins of a Khmer Hindu shrine, the remains of which can be seen behind the ordination hall.WEB,weblink Wat Si Muang, 18 July 2015, It was built in 1563 and is believed to be guarded by the spirit of a local girl, Nang Si. Legend tells that Nang Si, who was pregnant at the time, leapt to her death as a sacrifice, just as the pillar was being lowered into the hole. In front of the temple stands a statue of King Sisavang Vong.The memorial monument, Patuxai, built between 1957 and 1968, is perhaps the most prominent landmark in the city. While the Arc de Triomphe in Paris inspired the architecture, the design incorporates typical Lao motifs including Kinnari, a mythical bird woman. Energetic visitors can climb to the top of the monument for a panoramic view of the city.Buddha Park was built in 1958 by Luang Pu Bunleua Sulilat and contains a collection of Buddhist and Hindu sculptures, scattered amongst gardens and trees. The park is 28 kilometres south of Vientiane at the edge of the Mekong River.WEB,weblink Buddha Park - Vientiane - Laos - Asia for Visitors, 18 July 2015, Vientiane is home to one of the three bowling alleys in Laos (the other two are in Luang Prabang and Pakse). Other sites include: File:Vientiane Patouxai Laos.jpg|thumb|center|900px|Vientiane from PatuxaiPatuxai

Colleges and universities

The National University of Laos, one of three universities in the country, is in Vientiane.WEB, National University of Laos (NUOL),weblink National University of Laos (NUOL), NUOL, 2014-12-08,

Broadcasting

  • Lao National Radio has a large mediumwave transmitter with a 277-metre guyed mast at 18° 20' 33"N, 102° 27' 01"E.
  • China Radio International (CRI) FM 93.0WEB,weblink China Radio International,

Economy

Vientiane is the driving force behind economic change in Laos. In recent years, the city has experienced rapid economic growth from foreign investment.Work begins on major new Vientiane shopping centre | Lao Voices {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110503191245weblink |date=May 3, 2011 }} In 2011, the stock exchange opened with two listed company stocks, with the cooperation of South Korea.WEB,weblink Laos stocks soar on debut – yes, both of them, Financial Times,

Transportation

Within Laos

There are regular bus services connecting Vientiane Bus Station with the rest of the country.In Vientiane, regular bus services around the city are provided by Vientiane Capital State Bus Enterprise.WEB,weblink Timetables, Vientiane Capital State Bus Enterprise, VCSBE, 2014-12-08,

From Thailand

File:Wattay Intl Airport Vientiane Laos.jpg|thumb|Wattay International AirportWattay International AirportFile:Meter Taxi in Vientiane 01.jpg|thumb|Older taxis in Vientiane are being replaced by newer Chinese-made cars, like this (Soueast|Soueast Lioncel]].WEB, Matthias Gasnier,weblink 2012-08-13, 2013-11-10, Laos 2012 Update: Chinese models keep spreading, bestsellingcarsblog.com, )(File:Thanaleng Train Station Vientiane.jpg|thumb|Thanaleng Train Station)The First Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge, built in the 1990s, crosses the river 18 kilometres downstream of the city of Nong Khai in Thailand, and is the major crossing between the two countries. The official name of the bridge was changed in 2007 by the addition of "First", after the Second Friendship Bridge linking Mukdahan in Thailand with Savannakhet in Laos was opened early in 2007.A metre gauge railway link over the bridge was formally inaugurated on 5 March 2009, ending at Thanaleng Railway Station, in Dongphosy village (Vientiane Prefecture), 20 km east of Vientiane.NEWS, Inaugural train begins Laos royal visit,weblink Railway Gazette International, 2009-03-05, NEWS,weblink First train to Laos, Andrew Spooner, The Guardian, 2009-02-27, 2011-03-13, As of November 2010, Lao officials plan to convert the station into a rail cargo terminal for freight trains, allowing cargo to be transported from Bangkok into Laos at a lower cost than would be possible with road transport.NEWS,weblink Laos rethinks rail project, 2010-11-09, 2011-03-13, TTR Weekly, Rapeepat Mantanarat, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110727101636weblink">weblink July 27, 2011,

To Thailand

Daily non-stop bus services run between Vientiane and Nong Khai, Udon Thani, and Khon Kaen.

From China

In October 2010, plans were announced for a 530 km high-speed railway linking Vientiane to Xishuangbanna, in Yunnan Province in China.WEB,weblink 2010-12-07, New China-Laos link, Railways Africa, yes,weblink January 31, 2014, mdy-all, which was later modified to a high speed train from the border town of Boten to Vientiane, with total distance of 421.243 km, to be served by 21 stations, including 5 major stations, passing through 165 bridges (total length of 92.6 km) and 69 tunnels (total length of 186.9 km)WEB,weblink 2011-01-18, Boten Vientiane Railway Link, Laos-Travel-Guide, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110713184310weblink">weblink July 13, 2011, WEB,weblink 2010-12-25, 中国铁路考察团对中老铁路进行全线考察 | China Railway Erju Group Corporation (中铁二局集团公司), yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110708170623weblink">weblink July 8, 2011, Construction on this line, as part of the longer Kunming to Singapore Railway, began on 25 April 2011.WEB,weblink Kunming-Singapore High-Speed Railway begins construction, People's Daily, 25 Apr 2011, 26 Apr 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429170416weblink">weblink April 29, 2011,

By air

Vientiane is served by Wattay International Airport with international connections to other Asian countries. Lao Airlines has regular flights to several domestic destinations in the country (including several flights daily to Luang Prabang, plus a few flights weekly to other local destinations).WEB, Route Map,weblink Lao Airlines, Lao Airlines, 2014-12-08, In Thailand, Udon Thani International Airport, one of Wattay's main connections, is less than 90 km distant.

Healthcare

The "Centre Medical de l'Ambassade de France" is available to the foreign community in Laos. The Mahosot Hospital is an important local hospital in treating and researching diseases and is connected with the University of Oxford. In 2011 the Alliance Clinic opened near the airport, with a connection to Thai hospitals. The Setthathirat International Clinic has foreign doctors. A free, 24/7 ambulance service is provided by Vientiane Rescue, a volunteer-run rescue service established in 2010.WEB, About,weblink Vientiane Rescue, 11 October 2016,

Twin towns – sister cities

Vientiane is twinned with:

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Askew, Marc, William Stewart Logan, and Colin Long. Vientiane: Transformations of a Lao Landscape. London: Routledge, 2007. {{ISBN|978-0-415-33141-8}}
  • Sharifi et al., Can master planning control and regulate urban growth in Vientiane, Laos?. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.07.014
  • Flores, Penelope V. Good-Bye, Vientiane: Untold Stories of Filipinos in Laos. San Francisco, CA: Philippine American Writers and Artists, Inc, 2005. {{ISBN|978-0-9763316-1-2}}
  • Renaut, Thomas, and Arnaud Dubus. Eternal Vientiane. City heritage. Hong Kong: Published by Fortune Image Ltd. for Les Editions d'Indochine, 1995.
  • Schrama, Ilse, and Birgit Schrama. ''Buddhist Temple Life in Laos: Wat Sok Pa Luang". Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2006. {{ISBN|978-974-524-073-5}}
  • Women's International Group (Viangchan, Laos). Vientiane Guide. [Vientiane]: Women's International Group, 1993.

External links

  • {{Wikivoyage-inline}}
{{Districts of Central Laos}}{{List of Asian capitals by region}}{{Authority control}}

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