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Victoria Nuland

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Victoria Nuland
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factoids
|term_start = September 18, 2013|term_end = January 25, 2017|predecessor = Philip GordonJohn A. Heffern {{small>(Acting)}}|office1 = Spokesperson for the United States Department of State|president1 = Barack Obama|term_start1 = May 31, 2011|term_end1 = February 11, 2013Philip J. Crowley>Philip Crowley|successor1 = Jen PsakiUnited States Permanent Representative to NATO>United States Ambassador to NATO|president2 = George W. Bush|term_start2 = June 20, 2005|term_end2 = May 2, 2008R. Nicholas Burns>Nicholas Burns|successor2 = Kurt Volker|birth_name = Victoria Jane Nuland19611}}New York, New York>New York, New York (state), United States>U.S.|death_date = |death_place = |spouse = Robert Kagan|alma_mater = Brown University (BA)}}Victoria Jane Nuland (born July 1, 1961) is the former Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs at the United States Department of State.WEB,weblink Bureau of Public Affairs Front Office Changes, She held the rank of Career Ambassador, the highest diplomatic rank in the United States Foreign Service.WEB,weblink PN1907 - 2 nominees for Foreign Service, 114th Congress (2015-2016), December 7, 2016, She is the former CEO of the Center for a New American Security, (CNAS), serving from January 2018 until early 2019, and is also the Brady-Johnson Distinguished Practitioner in Grand Strategy at Yale University, and a Member of the Board of the National Endowment for Democracy.

Education and personal life

Victoria Nuland was born in 1961 to Sherwin B. Nuland, a distinguished surgeon, and Rhona McKhann.Victoria Nuland (1961–), U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian. She graduated with a B.A. in 1983 from Brown University, where she studied Russian literature, political science, and history.WEB,weblink ALUMS IN THE STATE DEPT: No Praying from the Podium, Brown Alumni Magazine, Schwartzapfel, Beth, April 2013, Nuland's husband is Robert Kagan, an American historian and foreign policy commentator at the Brookings Institution.

Career

(File:Victoria Nuland State Department.jpg|upright|thumb|Nuland in 2005)File:Assistant Secretary Victoria Nuland Meeting with Georgian Defense Ministry leadership 2013.jpg|thumb|Nuland meeting with Georgian defense ministry leadership, December 6, 2013]]File:Secretary Kerry Meets With Ukrainian Opposition Leaders in Munich (12253362394).jpg|thumb|John Kerry and Victoria Nuland with Ukrainian opposition leaders Poroshenko, Yatsenyuk and Klitschko, Munich, February 1, 2014]]During Bill Clinton presidency, Nuland was chief of staff to Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott before moving on to serve as deputy director for former Soviet Union affairs. She also served as the principal deputy foreign policy adviser to Vice President Dick Cheney and then as U.S. ambassador to NATO.Nuland became special envoy for Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and then became State Department spokesperson in summer 2011.NEWS,weblink Victoria Nuland to be State Department spokesman, May 16, 2011, Foreign Policy, She was nominated to serve as Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs in May 2013NEWS,weblink Obama nominates Nuland for assistant secretary of state, May 23, 2013, Politico, weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130715095413weblink |date=July 15, 2013 }} and was sworn in on September 18, 2013.WEB, Swearing-in Ceremony for Victoria Nuland as Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs,weblink 2015-04-01, In her role as assistant secretary, she managed diplomatic relations with 50 countries in Europe and Eurasia, as well as with NATO, the European Union and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. She was the lead U.S. point person for the Ukrainian crisis. Nuland was a key figure in establishing loan guarantees to Ukraine, including a $1 billion loan guarantee in 2014, and the provisions of non-lethal assistance to the Ukrainian military and border guard.NEWS,weblink Nuland On Ukraine, Voice of America, 17 March 2015, 20 May 2016, WEB,weblink Testimony on Ukraine Before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, Victoria Nuland, U.S. State Department, 4 March 2015, 20 May 2016, Along with Secretary of State John Kerry and Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, she is seen as a leading supporter of defensive weapons delivery to Ukraine. In 2016, Nuland urged Ukraine to start prosecuting corrupt officials: "It's time to start locking up people who have ripped off the Ukrainian population for too long and it is time to eradicate the cancer of corruption".NEWS,weblink US Urges Ukraine to Jail Corrupt Officials, Isabela Cocoli, Voice of America, 27 April 2016, 20 May 2016, While serving as the Department of State's lead diplomat on the Ukraine crisis, Nuland pushed European allies to take a harder line on Russian expansionism.WEB,weblink The Undiplomatic Diplomat, Foreign Policy, 2018-01-08, During a June 7, 2016, Senate Foreign Relations Committee Hearing titled "Russian Violations of Borders, Treaties, and Human Rights", Nuland described U.S. diplomatic outreach to the former Soviet Union and efforts to build a constructive relationship with Russia. During her testimony, Nuland noted Russia's 2014 invasion of Ukraine which she said, "shattered any remaining illusions about this Kremlin's willingness to abide by international law or live by the rules of the institutions that Russia joined at the end of the Cold War."WEB,weblink U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee Hearing Transcript of June 7, 2016, Nuland, Victoria, June 7, 2016, www.senate.gov, Nuland described four essential elements of the U.S. foreign policy towards Russia:
  1. Deter further aggression through the projection of strength and unity with allies;
  2. Build resilience and reduce vulnerability among friends and Allies facing Russian pressure and coercion;
  3. Cooperate on core national security priorities when U.S. interests and Russia's do align;
  4. Sustain ties to the Russian people and business community to preserve the potential for a more constructive relationship in the future.WEB,weblink Testimony of Victoria Nuland, Assistant Secretary, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs Senate Foreign Relations Committee Hearing: “Russian Violations of Borders, Treaties, and Human Rights” June 7, 2016, Nuland, Victoria, June 7, 2016,
Nuland left the State Department in January 2017, amid the departure of many career officials who left in the early days of the Trump administration.WEB, Elise Labott,weblink Trump administration asks top State Department officials to leave, CNN, January 27, 2017, {{As of|2019|4}} she serves as a nonresident fellow in the foreign policy program at the Brookings InstitutionWEB,weblink Victoria Nuland, April 2, 2019, and senior counselor at the Albright Stonebridge Group.WEB,weblink Press Release: Victoria Nuland Rejoins ASG, 18 April 2019, Albright Stonebridge Group, 30 April 2019,

Interference with Ukraine

On February 4, 2014, a recording of a phone call between Nuland and U.S. ambassador to Ukraine, Geoffrey Pyatt, on January 28, 2014, was published on YouTube.NEWS,weblink Марионетки Майдана, Puppets in the Public Square (marionetke maidana), YouTube, Re Post, February 4, 2014, June 19, 2014, {{citation |title=Ukraine crisis: Transcript of leaked Nuland-Pyatt call |date=February 7, 2014 |work=BBC News |accessdate=October 9, 2014 |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26079957}} The State Department and the White House suggested that an assistant to the deputy prime minister of Russia Dmitry Rogozin was the source of the leak, which he denied.NEWS,weblink Leaked audio reveals embarrassing U.S. exchange on Ukraine, EU, Doina, Chiacu, Arshad, Mohammed, Feb 6, 2014, Reuters, May 19, 2014, NEWS,weblink BBC News - Victoria Nuland: Leaked phone call 'impressive tradecraft', February 7, 2014, BBC Online, May 19, 2014, NEWS,weblink Angela Merkel: Victoria Nuland's remarks on EU are unacceptable, Ed Pilkington, Luke Harding and agencies, February 7, 2014, May 19, 2014, In their phone conversation, Nuland and Pyatt discussed who should be in the government after Viktor Yanukovych's ouster, to include Arseniy Yatsenyuk, and in what ways they might achieve that transition. Specifically, the two spoke about which opposition leaders they would like to see in government, what pitches they would give each opposition leader in subsequent calls to achieve this, and strategies on how they would try to manage the 'personality problems' and conflicts between the different opposition leaders with ambitions to become president.Nuland notified Pyatt that after the review of the three opposition candidates for the post of Prime Minister of Ukraine, the US State Department had selected Arseniy Yatsenyuk. She said: "I think Yats is the guy who's got the economic experience, the governing experience. What he needs is Klitsch and Tyahnybok on the outside. He needs to be talking to them four times a week". Pyatt asked: "Do you want us to set up a call with him as the next step?" Nuland told Pyatt that the next step should be to set up a telephone conversation between her and the three Ukrainian candidates, with Pyatt also possibly participating. Pyatt agreed: "I think you reaching out directly to him helps with the personality management among the three and it gives you also a chance to move fast on all this stuff and put us behind it". Yatsenyuk became prime minister of Ukraine on February 27, 2014.NEWS,weblink Ukraine's Arseniy Yatsenyuk warns of tough days ahead, BBC News, February 26, 2014, After discussing Ukrainian opposition figures Nuland states that she prefers the United Nations as mediator, instead of the European Union, adding "Fuck the EU", and Pyatt responds, "Oh, exactly ...."NEWS,weblink Intercepted Phone Call Shows U.S. Role in Ukraine, Atlas, Terry, Gaouette, Nicole, February 6, 2013, February 6, 2014, bloomberg.com, Leaked audio reveals embarrassing US exchange on Ukraine, EU, Reuters (February 6, 2014) According to the Washington Post,A spokeswoman for EU foreign-policy chief Catherine Ashton stated on the that the EU would not comment on a "leaked alleged" conversation. The following day, Christiane Wirtz, Deputy Government Spokesperson and Deputy Head of the Press and Information Office of the German Federal Government, stated that German Chancellor Angela Merkel termed Nuland's remark "absolutely unacceptable."Angela Merkel: Victoria Nuland's remarks on EU are unacceptable, The Guardian (February 7, 2014) The president of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy, condemned the remark as "unacceptable."{{citation |first=Sylvie |last=Kauffmann |url=http://www.lemonde.fr/europe/article/2014/02/09/les-cinq-lecons-du-fuck-the-eu-d-une-diplomate-americaine_4363017_3214.html |title=Les cinq leçons du " fuck the EU ! " d'une diplomate américaine |trans-title=The five lessons of "fuck the EU" from an American diplomat |work=Le Monde |date=February 9, 2014 |accessdate=February 9, 2014}}Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who had left the State Department by the time of the leak, argued in 2017 that the incident "didn't have lasting diplomatic repercussions". She said it was notable as an early example of Russia "weaponizing" intelligence against other states: "the Russians were not just stealing information for intelligence purposes, as all countries do; they were now using social media and strategic leaks to 'weaponize' that information."BOOK, What Happened, Clinton, Hillary Rodham, Simon & Schuster, 2017, 9781501175565, New York,

Comments on the Trump administration

On January 24, 2018, the Washington Post published an interview with Nuland where she opined on the work of President Trump and Secretary of State Rex Tillerson. She described an exodus of career foreign service officials and dysfunction within the State Department, and stated that the American judiciary and media were under assault. Nuland also decried a trend towards American isolationism stating: "When we withdraw and say it's every nation for itself, you open the door for countries dissatisfied with their territorial position and influence in the international system — or with the system itself." She encouraged whole-government responses to international issues stating, "Military leaders would be the first to say military solutions alone result in more and longer military entanglements. The role of American diplomats and political leaders is to work concurrently with the military to bring to bear all of the political tools we have."NEWS,weblink Opinion {{!, A year of Trump foreign policy: More is broken than the State Department |last=Rubin |first=Jennifer |newspaper=The Washington Post |date=January 24, 2018 |access-date=January 25, 2018}}In January 2018, the Trump administration began new high-level engagements with Russian government officials by scheduling a meeting between Russia's top general Valery Gerasimov and the NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe, General Curtis Scaparrotti. Nuland stated, "These channels are especially vital at a time when relations at the leader level are so unpredictable." She said Scaparrotti was "uniquely positioned" to address concerns about Russia's "ongoing military role in Ukraine, its INF treaty violations, its active measures to undermine Transatlantic democracies and the other strategic tensions that are driving the US and its allies to take stronger deterrent measures."NEWS,weblink Trump Administration Set for Broad Engagement with Russia in Early 2018, Hudson, John, BuzzFeed, January 7, 2018, January 8, 2018,

References

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External links

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