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Venera 7
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{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2018}}







factoids
Lander: 23 minutes| spacecraft = 4V-1 No. 630| manufacturer = Lavochkin| dry_mass = 1,180lb}} 500lb}}| power =Molniya-M>Molniya 8K78MBaikonur Cosmodrome>Baikonur 31/6Heliocentric orbit>Heliocentric0.69km}}1.01km}}| orbit_inclination = 2.0°| orbit_period = 287 days| apsis = helion|interplanetary =








factoids

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factoids
| insignia = 1972 CPA 4166.jpg| insignia_caption = Seal of Venera 7| insignia_size = 80pxVenera program>Venera| previous_mission = Venera 6| next_mission = Kosmos 359}}Venera 7 (, meaning Venus 7) was a Soviet spacecraft, part of the Venera series of probes to Venus. When it landed on the Venusian surface, it became the first spacecraft to land on another planet and first to transmit data from there back to Earth.WEB,weblink Time (magazine), Time, 8 February 1971, 2 January 2013, Science: Onward from Venus,

Design

The lander was designed to be able to survive pressure of up to {{convert|180|bar}} and temperatures of {{convert|580|°C}}. This was significantly greater than what was expected to be encountered but significant uncertainties as to the surface temperatures and pressure of Venus resulted in the designers opting for a large margin of error. The degree of hardening added mass to the probe which limited the amount of mass available for scientific instruments both on the probe itself and the interplanetary bus.BOOK, Huntress Jr, Wesley T., Marov, Mikhail, 2011, Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries, Springer-Praxis, 235, 9781441978974,

Launch

The probe was launched from Earth on 17 August 1970, at 05:38 UTC. It consisted of an interplanetary bus based on the 3MV system and a lander. During the flight to Venus two in-course corrections were made using the bus's on-board KDU-414 engine.BOOK, The Superpower Space Race: An Explosive Rivalry through the Solar System, Reeves, Robert, 1994, Plenum Press, 0-306-44768-1, 211–215,

Landing

Venera 7 entered the atmosphere of Venus on 15 December 1970. The lander remained attached to the interplanetary bus during the initial stages of atmospheric entry to allow the bus to cool the lander to −8 Â°C for as long as possible. The lander was ejected once atmospheric buffeting broke the interplanetary bus's lock-on with Earth. The parachute opened at a height of 60 km and atmospheric testing began with results showing the atmosphere to be 97% carbon dioxide. The parachute appeared to fail during the descent, resulting in a descent more rapid than planned. As a result, the lander struck the surface of Venus at about 16.5 m/s (37 mph) at 05:37:10 UTC. The landing coordinates are {{Venus coords and quad cat|5|S|351|E}}.Patrick Moore, The data book of astronomy. CRC Press, 2000, p. 92. See Table 5-5, Missions to Venus, 1961–2000. Landing near Navka PlanitiaThe probe appeared to go silent on impact but recording tapes kept rolling. A few weeks later, upon a review of the tapes by the radio astronomer Oleg Rzhiga another 23 minutes of very weak signals were found on them.BOOK, Harvey, Brian, 2007, Russian Planetry Exploration History, Development, Legacy and Prospects, Springer-Praxis, 114, 9780387463438, The spacecraft had landed on Venus and probably bounced onto its side, leaving the medium gain antenna not aimed correctly for strong signal transmission to Earth.WEB,weblink Larry Klaes, THE SOVIETS AND VENUS, PART 1, 1993., 29 September 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150929111636weblink">weblink 29 September 2015, yes, The probe transmitted information to Earth for 53 minutes, which included 20 minutes from the surface.{{Citation needed|date=February 2019|reason=seems to disagree with above (cited) statement of 23 minutes of transmission after landing}} It was found that the temperature at the surface of Venus was {{convert|475|C}} ± 20 Â°CИтоги работы станции "Венера-7" Using the temperature and models of the atmosphere a pressure of 9 Megapascal ± 1.5 MPa was calculated.BOOK, Ulivi, Paolo, Harland, David M, 2007, Robotic Exploration of the Solar System Part I: The Golden Age 1957-1982, Springer, 97–99, 9780387493268, From the spacecraft's rapid halt (from falling to stationary inside 0.2 seconds) it was possible to conclude that the craft had hit a solid surface with low levels of dust.The probe provided information about the surface of Venus, which could not be seen through a thick veil of atmosphere. The spacecraft definitively confirmed that humans cannot survive on the surface of Venus, and excluded the possibility that there is any liquid water on Venus.

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Venera}}{{Venus spacecraft}}{{Orbital launches in 1970}}

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