University of Toronto

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University of Toronto
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{{about|the university's main campus in downtown Toronto}}{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2012}}

style="vertical-align:top; font-size:90%; white-space:nowrap;"
image_name Utoronto coa.svg|logo = UofT Logo.svg|logo_size = 250px|caption = Coat of arms of the University of Toronto|name = University of Toronto|latin_name = Universitas Torontonensis

Horace Odes (Horace)>Odes, book I, ode 12, line 45: "crescit occulto velut arbor ævo fama Marcelli" ("The fame of Marcellus grows like a tree over time unseen").Public university|former_names = King's College (1827–1849)
  • C$2.84 billion (incl. colleges)}}|city = Toronto|province = Ontario|country = Canada
  • 43427942region:CA-ON_type:edu|display=title}}University of Toronto Scarborough>Scarborough and University of Toronto Mississauga, refer to the respective articles. PASK-AUBé TITLE=UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO FACTS AND FIGURES YEAR=2012,weblink |staff = 4,590Rose M. PattenHTTP://WWW.CHANCELLOR.UTORONTO.CA/ ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 17, 2018, |president = Meric GertlerPUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, 2018-10-12, |undergrad = 43,820|postgrad = 17,51971acre}}start}}{{cell|#002A5C}}{{cell|#FFFFFF}}{{scarf|end}} |mascot = True Blue (the Beaver)U Sports – Ontario University Athletics>OUA, CUFLA|sports = 44 varsity teamsToronto Varsity Blues>Varsity BluesAssociation of American Universities>AAU, Association of Commonwealth Universities, Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada>AUCC, U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities, Universities Research Association>URA|website =}}The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution. As a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Scarborough and Mississauga.The university is commonly ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School. The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, and was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, and the development of the theory of NP-completeness. By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Quebec.WEB,weblink Association of American Universities,, 2012-11-05, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 14, 2013, mdy-all, The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s. The university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre, simultaneously serving cultural, intellectual, and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex.The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, and fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court. As of 2018, ten Nobel laureates, three Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.


    The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada.WEB,weblink Simcoe, John Graves, November 2, 2008, Volume V, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, 2000, As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States.WEB,weblink Who was an early advocate for higher education in Upper Canada?, November 2, 2008, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} The Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital.File:UniversityCollegeUofT 1800s.jpg|left|thumb| A painting by Sir Edmund Walker depicts University College as it appeared in 1858.]]On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University ... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, and for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature ... to continue for ever, to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, July 10, 2012, The story of the University of Toronto's original charter, November 2, 2008, University of Toronto Archives and Records Management Services, The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.WEB,weblink What university was founded 175 years ago?, November 2, 2008, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}{{citation |title=University College, A Portrait 1853-1953 |last=Bissell |first=Claude T., ed. |publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=1953}}WEB, Peppiatt, Liam, Chapter 17: Universities Old and New,weblink Robertson's Landmarks of Toronto Revisited, Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact.WEB,weblink Strachan, John, November 2, 2008, Volume IX, Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, 2000, Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized.WEB,weblink How does history remember the 1849 conversion of King's College to the University of Toronto?, November 2, 2008, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church.BOOK, The University of Toronto: A History, Friedland, Martin L., 2002, University of Toronto Press, 0-8020-4429-8, 4, 31, 143, 156, 313, 376, 593–6, Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary.NEWS, Faught, Brad, The Cast of Presidents, University of Toronto Magazine, Summer 2000, 2000,weblink University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866.WEB,weblink In what battle did the University Rifle Corps first see action?, November 2, 2008, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}File:AirplaneInFrontOfUC.jpg|thumb|A Sopwith CamelSopwith CamelEstablished in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, which has been nicknamed Skule since its earliest days.WEB,weblink In 1878, what disciplines were launched in the University of Toronto's "Little Red Skulehouse"?, November 2, 2008, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees.WEB,weblink What medical school was recognized as among the "best on the continent" within 20 years of its opening?, November 2, 2008, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} The university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884.WEB,weblink What was front page news in the inaugural issue of the student paper The Varsity in 1880?, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, July 19, 2007, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library,WEB,weblink What was so heartbreaking about Valentine's Day, 1890?, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, July 19, 2007, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904. The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968; both still retain close ties with the university as independent institutions.BOOK, The Museum Makers: the Story of the Royal Ontario Museum, Dickson, Lovat, 1986, University of Toronto Press, 0-8020-7441-3, BOOK, There's Music in These Walls: A History of the Royal Conservatory of Music, Schabas, Ezra, 2005, Dundurn Press Ltd., 1-55002-540-6, The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Parker, George L., 2009, University Presses,weblink The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Foundation of Canada, The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toronto Schools.The First and Second World Wars curtailed some university activities as undergraduate and graduate men eagerly enlisted.WEB,weblink In 1914, why were students marching in the University of Toronto's Hart House under the command of a chemistry professor?, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, November 11, 2008, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} Intercollegiate athletic competitions and the Hart House Debates were suspended, although exhibition and interfaculty games were still held.WEB,weblink How many University of Toronto students and alumni served in the Canadian Armed Forces during the Second World War?, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, November 11, 2008, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} The David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill opened in 1935, followed by the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies in 1949.JOURNAL, Russel, C. H., February 1999, The Legacy Continues:C. A. Chant and the David Dunlap Observatory, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 93, 1, The university opened satellite campuses in Scarborough in 1964 and in Mississauga in 1967. The university's former affiliated schools at the Ontario Agricultural College and Glendon Hall became fully independent of the University of Toronto and became part of University of Guelph in 1964 and York University in 1965, respectively. Beginning in the 1980s, reductions in government funding prompted more rigorous fundraising efforts. The University of Toronto was the first Canadian university to amass a financial endowment greater than C$1 billion in 2007.NEWS, Canadian university endowment funds skyrocket,weblink Ottawa Citizen, Canwest, CanWest Global, October 26, 2007, March 13, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 27, 2007, mdy-all,


    File:WWTower-in-university-of-toronto cropped.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Soldiers' Tower, a memorial to alumni fallen in the World Wars, contains a 51-bell carilloncarillonThe university grounds lie about {{convert|2|km|mi}} north of the Financial District in Downtown Toronto and immediately south of the neighbourhoods of Yorkville and The Annex. The site encompasses {{convert|71|ha|acre}} bounded mostly by Bay Street to the east, Bloor Street to the north, Spadina Avenue to the west and College Street to the south. An enclave surrounded by university grounds, Queen's Park, contains the Ontario Legislative Building and several historic monuments. With its green spaces and many interlocking courtyards, the university forms a distinct region of urban parkland in the city's downtown core. The namesake University Avenue is a ceremonial boulevard and arterial thoroughfare that runs through downtown between Queen's Park and Front Street. The {{ttcs|Spadina}}, {{ttcs|St. George}}, {{ttcs|Museum}}, and {{ttcs|Queen's Park}} stations of the Toronto subway system are nearby.File:Philosopher's Walk.JPG|left|thumb|Stone pillars of the Bennett Gates mark the southern entrance of Philosopher's Walk. ]]The architecture is epitomized by a combination of Romanesque and Gothic Revival buildings spread across the eastern and central portions of campus, most dating between 1858 and 1929. The traditional heart of the university, known as Front Campus, is near the campus centre in an oval lawn enclosed by King's College Circle.JOURNAL, Allsop, Robert, Investing in the Landscape, The Open Space Steering Committee, University of Toronto, 1999,weblink January 11, 2009, etal, —,weblink" title="">weblink July 28, 2009, yes, mdy-all, The centrepiece is the main building of University College, built in 1857 with an eclectic blend of Richardsonian Romanesque and Norman architectural elements.BOOK, Illustrated Toronto, Past and Present, Timperlake, J., 1877, Peter A. Gross, Toronto, 209, The dramatic effect of this blended design by architect Frederick William Cumberland drew praise from European visitors of the time: "Until I reached Toronto," remarked Lord Dufferin during his visit in 1872, "I confess I was not aware that so magnificent a specimen of architecture existed upon the American continent."BOOK, Fred Cumberland: Building the Victorian Dream, Simmins, Geoffrey, 1997, University of Toronto Press, 0-8020-0679-5, 92, The building was declared a National Historic Site of Canada in 1968.CONFERENCE, Minutes of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, National Historic Sites Directorate, 1968,weblink Fed/Prov/Terr identifier 558, Built in 1907, Convocation Hall is recognizable for its domed roof and Ionic-pillared rotunda. Although its foremost function is hosting the annual convocation ceremonies, the building is a venue for academic and social events throughout the year.JOURNAL,weblink As Canadian as a Snowflake, University of Toronto Magazine, 2002, Spring 2002, Duffy, Dennis, January 11, 2009, The sandstone buildings of Knox College epitomizes the North American collegiate Gothic design, with its characteristic cloisters surrounding a secluded courtyard.File:Uoft conhall-2.jpg|right|thumb|The neoclassical Convocation Hall is characterized by its domed roof and Ionic-pillared rotunda. ]]A lawn at the northeast is anchored by Hart House, a Gothic-revival student centre complex. Among its many common rooms, the building's Great Hall is noted for large stained-glass windows and a long quotation from John Milton's Areopagitica inscribed around the walls.BOOK, A Strange Elation: Hart House, The First Eighty Years, Kilgour, David, 1999, Hart House (University of Toronto), Hart House, Toronto, 978-0-7727-0649-2, BOOK, Canadian Literary Landmarks, Colombo, John Robert, 1984, Dundurn Press Ltd., 0-88882-073-9, 194, The adjacent Soldiers' Tower stands {{convert|143|ft|m|0}} tall as the most prominent structure in the vicinity, its stone arches etched with the names of university members lost to the battlefields of the two World Wars.WEB,weblink Soldiers' Tower Committee Information, March 15, 2009, Soldiers' Tower Committee, University of Toronto,weblink" title="">weblink February 24, 2009, yes, mdy-all, The tower houses a 51-bell carillon played on special occasions such as Remembrance Day and convocation.JOURNAL, Leeper, Muriel, 1998, Ringing the bells – Carillon demonstration by musician Gerald Martindale at the Soldiers' Tower Carillon at the University of Toronto in Canada, Performing Arts & Entertainment in Canada, 32, 1, 1185-3433, North of University College, the main building of Trinity College displays Jacobethan Tudor architecture, while its chapel was built in the Perpendicular Gothic style of Giles Gilbert Scott.BOOK, Toronto, No Mean City, Arthur, Eric Ross, Otto, Stephen A., 1986, University of Toronto Press, 0-8020-6587-2, 130, The chapel features exterior walls of sandstone and interiors of Indiana Limestone and was built by Italian stonemasons using ancient building methods.WEB,weblink Trinity College Chapel, Trinity College, Toronto, University of Trinity College, Philosopher's Walk is a scenic footpath that follows a meandering, wooded ravine, the buried Taddle Creek, linking with Trinity College, Varsity Arena and the Faculty of Law. Victoria College is on the eastern side of Queen's Park, centred on a Romanesque main building made of contrasting red sandstone and grey limestone.WEB,weblink One Hundred Years of Architecture, Houghton, Sarah, March 15, 2009, The Strand, March 12, 2003,weblink" title="">weblink September 15, 2007, yes, mdy, Developed after the Second World War, the western section of the campus consists mainly of modernist and internationalist structures that house laboratories and faculty offices. The most significant example of Brutalist architecture is the massive Robarts Library complex, built in 1972 and opened a year later in 1973. It features raised podia, extensive use of triangular geometric designs and a towering fourteen-storey concrete structure that cantilevers above a field of open space and mature trees.BOOK, Concrete Toronto: A Guidebook to Concrete Architecture from the Fifties to the Seventies, McClelland, Michael, Stewart, Graeme, E.R.A. Architects, 2007, Coach House Books, 1-55245-193-3, 34, 164, 173, Sidney Smith Hall is the home to the Faculty of Arts and Science, as well as a few departments within the faculty. The Leslie L. Dan Pharmacy Building, completed in 2006, exhibits the high-tech architectural style of glass and steel by British architect Norman Foster.JOURNAL, McKeough, Tim, 2007, The Leslie L. Dan Pharmacy Building, Toronto, Architectural Record, May 2007,weblink March 14, 2009,

    Governance and colleges

    File:Victoria College.jpg|right|thumb|Old Vic, the main building of Victoria College, typifies the Richardsonian RomanesqueRichardsonian RomanesqueThe University of Toronto has traditionally been a decentralized institution, with governing authority shared among its central administration, academic faculties and colleges.JOURNAL, Ross, Murray G., April 1972, The dilution of academic power in Canada: The University of Toronto Act, Minerva, Springer Netherlands, 10, 2, 242–258, 10.1007/BF01682420, The Governing Council is the unicameral legislative organ of the central administration, overseeing general academic, business and institutional affairs.CANLAW, The University of Toronto Act, S.O., 1971, 56, 2, 10, 12,weblink S.O. 1978 c. 88, Before 1971, the university was governed under a bicameral system composed of the board of governors and the university senate. The chancellor, usually a former governor general, lieutenant governor, premier or diplomat, is the ceremonial head of the university. The president is appointed by the council as the chief executive.Unlike most North American institutions, the University of Toronto is a collegiate university with a model that resembles those of the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford in Britain.BOOK, The University of Toronto and Its Colleges, 1827–1906, Alexander, William John, 1906, H. H. Langton, The University Library, Toronto, The colleges hold substantial autonomy over admissions, scholarships, programs and other academic and financial affairs, in addition to the housing and social duties of typical residential colleges. The system emerged in the 19th century, as ecclesiastical colleges considered various forms of union with the University of Toronto to ensure their viability. The desire to preserve religious traditions in a secular institution resulted in the federative collegiate model that came to characterize the university.File:Trinity chapel.jpg|left|thumb|upright|The Chapel of Trinity College reflects the college's Anglican heritage. ]]University College was the founding nondenominational college, created in 1853 after the university was secularized. Knox College, a Presbyterian institution, and Wycliffe College, a low church seminary, both encouraged their students to study for non-divinity degrees at University College.WEB,weblink What theological college bucked the federation trend with the University of Toronto in 1888?, December 26, 2008, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} In 1885, they entered a formal affiliation with the University of Toronto, and became federated schools in 1890.BOOK, Church, College, and Clergy: A History of Theological Education at Knox College, Toronto, 1844–1994, Fraser, Brian J., 1995, McGill-Queen's University Press, 126, 978-0-7735-1351-8, WEB,weblink History & Mission, December 27, 2008, Wycliffe College, Toronto, Wycliffe College, 2008, The idea of federation initially met strong opposition at Victoria University, a Methodist school in Cobourg, but a financial incentive in 1890 convinced the school to join.WEB,weblink What small town fought to keep its college from moving to Toronto and federating with U of T?, December 26, 2008, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} Decades after the death of John Strachan, the Anglican seminary Trinity College entered federation in 1904,WEB,weblink Historical Background, December 27, 2008, Trinity College, Toronto, University of Trinity College, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 29, 2009, mdy-all, followed in 1910 by St. Michael's College, a Roman Catholic college founded by the Basilian Fathers.WEB,weblink About St Mike's: Our History, December 27, 2008, St. Michael's College, Toronto, St. Michael's College, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2009, yes, mdy-all, Among the institutions that had considered federation but ultimately remained independent were McMaster University, a Baptist school that later moved to Hamilton, and Queen's College, a Presbyterian school in Kingston that later became Queen's University.WEB,weblink History: Campus & People, December 27, 2008, Queen's University, 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2011, mdy-all, {| style="float:right; border:1px solid #ddd; background:#fefefe; padding:3px; margin:5px; width:33%;"
    Colleges of the University of Toronto
    Constituent colleges Theological colleges Federated colleges Postgraduate college
    The post-war era saw the creation of New College in 1962, Innis College in 1964 and Woodsworth College in 1974, all of them nondenominational.WEB,weblink Introduction to New College, December 27, 2008, New College, University of Toronto, 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 21, 2009, mdy-all, WEB,weblink About Innis College, December 27, 2008, Innis College, University of Toronto, 2005,weblink" title="">weblink December 10, 2008, yes, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Mission and History, December 27, 2008, Woodsworth College, University of Toronto, 2006, Along with University College, they comprise the university's constituent colleges, which are established and funded by the central administration and are therefore financially dependent.BOOK, Riggall, Catherine, University of Toronto Financial Report, Office of the Vice-President, Business Affairs, 2010,weblink October 15, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2011, yes, mdy-all, JOURNAL, Funding for the Federated Universities: Policy and Procedures, Memorandum, 1974, 1998, University of Toronto,weblink December 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink August 2, 2008, yes, mdy, Massey College was established in 1963 by the Massey Foundation as a college exclusively for graduate students.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, February 19, 1999, Massey College, December 27, 2008, Massey College, Toronto, Massey College, 2007, Regis College, a Jesuit seminary, entered federation with the university in 1979.WEB,weblink History of Regis College, December 27, 2008, Regis College, 2008, In contrast with the constituent colleges, the colleges of Knox, Massey, Regis, St. Michael's, Trinity, Victoria and Wycliffe continue to exist as legally distinct entities, each possessing a separate financial endowment. While St. Michael's, Trinity and Victoria continue to recognize their religious affiliations and heritage, they have since adopted secular policies of enrolment and teaching in non-divinity subjects. Some colleges have, or once had, collegiate structures of their own: Emmanuel College is a college of Victoria and St. Hilda's College is part of Trinity;WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, February 5, 2009, The History of Victoria University and Emmanuel College, December 27, 2008, Victoria University, 2004, St. Joseph’s College had existed as a college within St. Michael's until it was dissolved in 2006. Ewart College existed as an affiliated college until 1991, when it was merged into Knox College.WEB,weblink History, December 27, 2008, Knox College, University of Toronto, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2008, Postgraduate theology degrees are conferred by the colleges of Knox, Regis and Wycliffe, along with the divinity faculties within Emmanuel, St. Michael's and Trinity, including joint degrees with the university through the Toronto School of Theology.WEB,weblink TST Member and Affiliate Schools with Location Information, December 27, 2008, Toronto School of Theology, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2007, yes, mdy,


    File:Munk Centre for International Studies.JPG|thumb|right|The Munk School of Global AffairsMunk School of Global AffairsThe Faculty of Arts and Science is the university's main undergraduate faculty, and administers most of the courses in the college system.WEB,weblink A&S at a Glance, November 8, 2008, University of Toronto Faculty of Arts and Science, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink June 17, 2008, yes, mdy, While the colleges are not entirely responsible for teaching duties, most of them house specialized academic programs and lecture series. Among other subjects, Trinity College is associated with programs in international relations, as are University College with Canadian studies, Victoria College with Renaissance studies, Innis College with film studies and urban studies, New College with gender studies, Woodsworth College with industrial relations and St. Michael's College with Medievalism.WEB,weblink International Relations, Trinity College Programs, University of Trinity College, ; WEB,weblink Canadian Studies home, University College, yes,weblink" title="">weblink April 3, 2009, mdy-all, ; WEB,weblink The Renaissance Studies Program, Victoria College, March 15, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink March 7, 2009, yes, mdy-all, ; WEB,weblink Innis Programs, Innis College, 2005, September 17, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2013, yes, mdy-all, ; WEB,weblink Women and Gender Studies, New College, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2009, mdy-all, ; WEB,weblink Mediaeval Studies, Undergraduate Studies, University of St. Michael's College, 2008, September 17, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink March 24, 2012, yes, mdy-all, The faculty teaches undergraduate commerce in collaboration with the Rotman School of Management. The Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering is the other major direct-entry undergraduate faculty.WEB,weblink University of Toronto 2009–2010 Viewbook, January 12, 2009, University of Toronto, 2008, The University of Toronto is the birthplace of an influential school of thought on communication theory and literary criticism, known as the Toronto School.BOOK, The Alphabet Effect, Logan, Robert K., Robert K. Logan, 1986, William Morrow and Company, New York, 978-0-312-00993-9, 22, BOOK, The World on Paper: The Conceptual and Cognitive Implications of Writing and Reading, Olson, David R., 1994, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-0-521-57558-4, 15, JOURNAL, Murray, Oswyn, The Word is Mightier than the Pen, The Times Literary Supplement, 4, 498, 655, Described as "the theory of the primacy of communication in the structuring of human cultures and the structuring of the human mind", the school is rooted in the works of Eric A. Havelock and Harold Innis and the subsequent contributions of Edmund Snow Carpenter, Northrop Frye and Marshall McLuhan. Since 1963, the McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology of the Faculty of Information has carried the mandate for teaching and advancing the Toronto School.WEB, History and Mandate, November 15, 2008, McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, September 21, 2003, File:Uoft SF-01.jpg|left|thumb|The Sandford Fleming Building contains offices of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering. ]]Several notable works in arts and humanities are based at the university, including the Dictionary of Canadian Biography since 1959 and the Collected Works of Erasmus since 1969.WEB,weblink Outline of the Project, January 19, 2009, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, 2000, yes,weblink" title="">weblink March 10, 2009, mdy-all, BOOK, Collected works of Erasmus: Vol. 1 – 78, Erasmus, Desiderius Erasmus, 1969, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, The Records of Early English Drama collects and edits the surviving documentary evidence of dramatic arts in pre-Puritan England,WEB,weblink What is REED?, January 19, 2009, Records of Early English Drama, Centre for Research in Early English Drama, University of Toronto, 2006, while the Dictionary of Old English compiles the early vocabulary of the English language from the Anglo-Saxon period.WEB,weblink About the Dictionary of Old English, January 19, 2009, Dictionary of Old English, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto, The Munk School of Global Affairs encompasses the university's various programs and curricula in international affairs and foreign policy. As the Cold War heightened, Toronto's Slavic studies program evolved into an important institution on Soviet politics and economics, financed by the Rockefeller, Ford and Mellon foundations.WEB,weblink What helped launch Slavic studies as a growth discipline at the University of Toronto?, January 18, 2009, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} The Munk School is also home to the G20 Research Group, which conducts independent monitoring and analysis on the Group of Twenty, and the Citizen Lab, which conducts research on Internet censorship as a joint founder of the OpenNet Initiative.WEB,weblink Advanced Research Projects, November 20, 2008, Citizen Lab, 2004,weblink" title="">weblink June 3, 2008, yes, mdy, WEB,weblink Welcome to Psiphon, November 20, 2008, Citizen Lab, The university operates international offices in Berlin, Hong Kong and Siena.WEB,weblink University of Toronto International Centres, 1 September 2010, University of Toronto, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 1, 2010, mdy-all, The Dalla Lana School of Public Health is a Faculty of the University of Toronto that began as one of the Schools of Hygiene begun by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1927. The School went through a dramatic renaissance after the 2003 SARS crisis, and it is now Canada's largest public health school, with more than 750 faculty, 800 students, and research and training partnerships with institutions throughout Toronto and the world. With more than $39 million in research funding per year, the School supports discovery in global health, tobacco impacts on health, occupational disease and disability, air pollution, inner city, circumpolar health, and many other pressing issues in population health.The Faculty of Medicine is affiliated with a network of ten teaching hospitals, providing medical treatment, research and advisory services to patients and clients from Canada and abroad.WEB,weblink Hospital Partners, March 15, 2009, Experience Research, Office of the Vice-President, Research, University of Toronto, 2008, A core member of the network is University Health Network, itself a specialized federation of Toronto General Hospital, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, and Toronto Rehabilitation Institute.WEB,weblink Toronto General Hospital, November 30, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 5, 2006, mdy-all, ; WEB,weblink Princess Margaret Hospital, November 30, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 4, 2006, mdy-all, ; WEB,weblink Toronto Western Hospital, November 30, 2008, University Health Network, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 4, 2006, mdy-all, Physicians in the medical institutes have cross-appointments to faculty and supervisory positions in university departments. The Rotman School of Management developed the discipline and methodology of integrative thinking, upon which the school bases its curriculum.BOOK, Rethinking the MBA: Business Education at a Crossroads, Srikant M. Datar, David A. Garvin, Patrick G. Cullen, 2010, Harvard Business Publishing, Harvard Business Press, Boston, 131–136, 1-4221-3164-5, Founded in 1887, the Faculty of Law's emphasis on formal teachings of liberal arts and legal theory was then considered unconventional, but gradually helped shift the country's legal education system away from the apprenticeship model that prevailed until the mid-20th century.BOOK, The Law Society of Upper Canada and Ontario's lawyers, 1797–1997, Moore, Christopher, 1997, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 237–262, 0-8020-4127-2, The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education is the teachers college of the university, affiliated with its two laboratory schools, the Institute of Child Study and the University of Toronto Schools, the lattermost of which is a private high school run by the university.WEB,weblink History and Function of OISE, March 15, 2009, Graduate Studies in Education Bulletin, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 2008, Autonomous institutes at the university include the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies and the Fields Institute.{| style="border:1px solid #ddd; background:#fefefe; padding:3px; margin:0; margin:auto;" Faculties of the University of Toronto style="vertical-align:top; font-size:90%;"|

    Library and collections

    File:Robartslibrary4.jpg|thumb|right|Robarts LibraryRobarts LibraryThe University of Toronto Libraries is the third-largest academic library system in North America, following those of Harvard and Yale, measured by number of volumes held.BOOK, Kyrillidou, Martha, Morris, Shaneka, Roebuck, Gary, ARL Statistics 2010–11, Association of Research Libraries, Washington, D.C., 2012,weblink The collections include more than ten million bound volumes, 5.4 million microfilms, 70,000 serial titles and one million maps, films, graphics and sound recordings.BOOK, Annual Statistics: 2006–07, University of Toronto Libraries, 2007,weblink 0-10-171382-7, Statistics Commission ; presented to Parliament by the Financial Secretary to the Treasury by Command of Her Majesty, July 2007., The largest of the libraries, Robarts Library, holds about five million bound volumes that form the main collection for humanities and social sciences. The Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library constitutes one of the largest repositories of publicly accessible rare books and manuscripts. Its collections range from ancient Egyptian papyri to incunabula and libretti;WEB,weblink Index to Collections, Manuscript Collections, November 15, 2008, Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, the subjects of focus include British, Western and Canadian literature, Aristotle, Darwin, the Spanish Civil War, the history of science and medicine, Canadiana and the history of books.WEB,weblink Book Collections, November 15, 2008, Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, Most of the remaining holdings are dispersed at departmental and faculty libraries, in addition to about 1.3 million bound volumes the colleges hold. The university has collaborated with the Internet Archive since 2005 to digitize some of its library holdings.NEWS, Kesmodel, David, Vara, Vauhini, Building an Online Library, One Volume at a Time, The Wall Street Journal, November 9, 2005,weblink Housed within University College, the University of Toronto Art Centre contains three major art collections. The Malcove Collection is primarily represented by Early Christian and Byzantine sculptures, bronzeware, furniture, icons and liturgical items.WEB,weblink Malcove Collection Objects List, December 13, 2008, University of Toronto Art Centre, It also includes glassware and stone reliefs from the Greco-Roman period, and the painting Adam and Eve by Lucas Cranach the Elder, dated from 1538. The University of Toronto Collection features Canadian contemporary art,WEB,weblink University of Toronto and University College Collections, December 13, 2008, University of Toronto Art Centre, while the University College Art Collection holds significant works by the Group of Seven and 19th century landscape artists.


    {{Canadian university rankings| UniName = University of Toronto| ARWU_W = 23| ARWU_CAN = 1| QS_W = 28| QS_N = 1| THES_W = 21| THES_N = 1| MAC_med = 1| USNWR_GU = 20| USNWR_N=1}}The University Ranking by Academic Performance places the University of Toronto 2nd in the world in research performance.WEB, University Ranking by Academic Performance, University Ranking by Academic Performance, Quacquarelli Symonds,weblink The Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2019 ranks the University of Toronto at 21st place globally and 1st in Canada, while the QS World University Rankings of 2019 placed the university at 31st in the world and 1st in Canada. In the Academic Ranking of World Universities of 2018, the University of Toronto is placed at 23rd in the world and 1st in Canada. It ranked 25th worldwide in the 2012 report compiled by Human Resources & Labor Review on graduate performance,WEB,weblink World Top 300 Universities Alumni Ranking,, June 6, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2011, mdy, 9th worldwide in the 2010 Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities,WEB,weblink The Top 100 World Universities, Higher Education Evaluation & Accreditation Council of Taiwan, July 31, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 11, 2010, mdy-all, 14th in the High Impact Universities ranking,WEB,weblink The High Impact Universities 2010 World University Rankings, University of Western Australia, March 30, 2011, 14th in a New York Times employment survey in 2013,NEWS,weblink Ready for the Job Market?, New York Times, The New York Times Company, October 28, 2013, October 31, 2013, and 2nd globally in the University Ranking by Academic Performance of 2014–2015.WEB, URAP World Ranking 2012,weblink URAP Research Laboratory, In 2011, the university received a grade of A- for environmental sustainability from the Sustainable Endowments Institute.WEB, University of Toronto,weblink Sustainable Endowments Institute, 2011, June 21, 2012, The university has placed first among Canada's research universities in the annual ranking by Research Infosource since 2001. In 2011, the University of Toronto was named by Newsweek as one of the top three schools outside of the United States.WEB,weblink Newsweek names U of T one of top three schools outside U.S, after the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford., March 16, 2013, University of Toronto, 2011, In 2018, it was also ranked 20th in the world by the U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking.The University of Toronto ranked as the nation's top medical-doctoral (category) university in Maclean's magazine for eleven consecutive years between 1994 and 2004.WEB,weblink Maclean's historical rankings, University of Waterloo Communications and Public Affairs, 2006, March 27, 2007, Since 2009, it has joined 22 other national institutions in withholding data from the magazine, citing continued concerns regarding methodology.PRESS RELEASE, 11 universities bow out of Maclean's university rankings, University of Toronto, August 14, 2006,weblink August 15, 2006, In 2013, the Faculty of Law was named the top law school in Canada by Maclean's for the seventh consecutive year.WEB, The 2013 Maclean's Canadian Law School Ranking,weblink October 1, 2013, Maclean's, September 19, 2013, According to Business Insider, it ranks among the top 50 engineering schools or universities in the world and is ranked 2nd in Canada.WEB,weblink The World's Best Engineering Schools, Business Insider, In 2018, University of Toronto Entrepreneurship was ranked the fourth best university-based incubatorWEB, Pelley, Lauren, Ryerson, U of T, York startup launchpads ranked among top university business incubators, accelerators,weblink CBC, CBC, Feb 28, 2018, in the world by UBI GlobalWEB, Murray, Andrew, REVEALED! The World’s Top University-linked Business Incubators & Accelerators 17/18,weblink UBI Global, 6 March 2018, in the "World Top Business Incubator – Managed by a University" category.


    File:AeroVelo Atlas top view.jpg|left|thumb|The AeroVelo Atlas was the first to win the Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition ]]Since 1926, the University of Toronto has been a member of the Association of American Universities, a consortium of the leading North American research universities. The university manages by far the largest annual research budget of any university in Canada, with sponsored direct-cost expenditures of $878 million in 2010.JOURNAL, Canada’s Top 50 Research Universities 2012, Research Infosource Inc, 2011,weblink April 18, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink March 24, 2012, mdy, JOURNAL, Challis, John R. G., 2005–2006 Annual Research Report, Office of the Vice-President, Research and Associate Provost, University of Toronto, 2006,weblink November 16, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 17, 2008, mdy-all, JOURNAL, Young, R. Paul, 2006–2007 Annual Research Report, Office of the Vice-President, Research and Associate Provost, University of Toronto, 2007,weblink November 16, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 21, 2011, mdy-all, JOURNAL, By the Numbers, Office of the Vice-President, Research and Associate Provost, University of Toronto, 2007,weblink December 19, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 21, 2008, mdy-all, The federal government was the largest source of funding, with grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council amounting to about one-third of the research budget. About eight percent of research funding came from corporations, mostly in the healthcare industry.File:Humanstemcell.JPG|left|thumb|The discovery of stem cells by McCulloch and Till is the basis for all modern stem cell research.]]The first practical electron microscope was built by the physics department in 1938.WEB,weblink James Hillier, November 20, 2008, Inventor of the Week, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, NEWS, Jeremy, Pearce, James Hillier, 91, Dies; Co-Developed Electron Microscope,weblink The New York Times, January 22, 2007, November 20, 2008, During World War II, the university developed the G-suit, a life-saving garment worn by Allied fighter plane pilots, later adopted for use by astronauts.JOURNAL,weblink Canada's Aerospace Medicine Pioneers, Lydia, Dotto, November 20, 2008, Canadian Space Agency, Development of the infrared chemiluminescence technique improved analyses of energy behaviours in chemical reactions.PRESS RELEASE, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986,weblink Nobel Foundation, October 15, 1986, November 20, 2008, In 1963, the asteroid 2104 Toronto is discovered in the David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill and is named after the university.WEB,weblink The Royal Astronomy Society of Canada, Canadian Asteroids, July 22, 2008, January 19, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2009, mdy, In 1972, studies on Cygnus X-1 led to the publication of the first observational evidence proving the existence of black holes.JOURNAL, Bolton, C. T., 1972, Identification of Cygnus X-1 with HDE 226868, Nature (journal), Nature, 235, 2, 271–273,weblink March 10, 2008, 10.1038/235271b0, 1972Natur.235..271B, Toronto astronomers have also discovered the Uranian moons of Caliban and Sycorax,WEB,weblink Two New Moons Of Uranus Discovered, November 20, 2008, Science Daily, November 1, 1997, the dwarf galaxies of Andromeda I, II and III, and the supernova SN 1987A. A pioneer in computing technology, the university designed and built UTEC, one of the world's first operational computers, and later purchased Ferut, the second commercial computer after UNIVAC I.JOURNAL, Williams, Michael R., 1994, UTEC and Ferut: The University of Toronto's Computation Centre, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 16, 2,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 13, 2004, November 17, 2008, 10.1109/85.279226, 4, yes, mdy, Multi-touch technology was developed at Toronto, with applications ranging from handheld devices to collaboration walls.JOURNAL, Mehta, Nimish, A Flexible Machine Interface, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Toronto, thesis, 1982, WEB,weblink Multi-Touch Systems that I Have Known and Loved, November 18, 2008, Buxton, Bill, Bill Buxton, August 22, 2008, The AeroVelo Atlas, which was the first to win the Igor I. Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition in 2013, was developed by the university's team of students and graduates and was tested in Vaughan.File:Doors Unlocked and Open May 2011.jpg|thumb|The Donnelly Centre is part of the Discovery DistrictDiscovery DistrictThe discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921 is considered among the most significant events in the history of medicine.NEWS, Lawrence K., Altman, The Tumultuous Discovery of Insulin: Finally, Hidden Story Is Told,weblink The New York Times, September 14, 1982, November 23, 2008, BOOK, Diabetes: From Research to Diagnosis and Treatment, Insulin analogues and the treatment of diabetes, Cheng, Alice Y.Y., Zinman, Bernard, 2002, Informa Health Care, 1-84184-151-X, The stem cell was discovered at the university in 1963, forming the basis for bone marrow transplantation and all subsequent research on adult and embryonic stem cells.NEWS, Evelyn, Strauss, 2005 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award,weblink Lasker Award, Lasker Foundation, 2005, November 23, 2008, This was the first of many findings at Toronto relating to stem cells, including the identification of pancreatic and retinal stem cells.JOURNAL, Seaberg, Raewyn M, Smukler, Simon R, Kieffer, Timothy J, Enikolopov, Grigori, Asghar, Zeenat, Wheeler, Michael B, Korbutt, Gregory, van der Kooy, Derek, August 22, 2004, Clonal identification of multipotent precursors from adult mouse pancreas that generate neural and pancreatic lineages, Nature Biotechnology, 22, 1115–1124,weblink 10.1038/nbt1004, 15322557, 9, JOURNAL, Tropepe, V., Coles, B.L., Chiasson, B.J., Horsford, D.J., Elia, A.J., McInnes, R.R., van der Kooy, D., March 2000, Retinal stem cells in the adult mammalian eye, Science (journal), Science, 287, 5460, 2032–6,weblink 10.1126/science.287.5460.2032, 10720333, 2000Sci...287.2032T, The cancer stem cell was first identified in 1997 by Toronto researchers,JOURNAL, Park, Alice, April 17, 2006, Stem Cells That Kill, Time (magazine), Time, 167, 17,weblink who have since found stem cell associations in leukemia, brain tumors and colorectal cancer.NEWS, Nicholas, Wade, Stem Cells May Be Key to Cancer,weblink The New York Times, February 21, 2006, November 23, 2008, NEWS, Jessica, Berman, Researchers Uncover Colon Cancer Stem Cells,weblinkweblink yes, January 10, 2007, Voice of America, November 27, 2006, November 23, 2008, Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the glycaemic index,JOURNAL, Jenkins, D. J., David J. Jenkins, 1981, Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34, 362–366, 0002-9165, 6259925, 3, etal, 10.1093/ajcn/34.3.362, the infant cereal Pablum,NEWS, Dr. Alan Brown, Pediatrician, 73, One of Developers of Pablum Is Dead, The New York Times, September 9, 1960, the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery and the first artificial cardiac pacemaker.NEWS, Jeremy, Pearce, Dr. Wilfred G. Bigelow, 91, A Pioneer in Heart Surgery, The New York Times, March 31, 2005, March 21, 2009,weblink The first successful single-lung transplant was performed at Toronto in 1981, followed by the first nerve transplant in 1988,NEWS, Lawrence K., Altman, New Direction for Transplants Raises Hopes and Questions,weblink The New York Times, May 2, 1999, November 23, 2008, and the first double-lung transplant in 1989. Researchers identified the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division, and discovered the T-cell receptor, which triggers responses of the immune system.WEB, Understanding the cell cycle,weblink Lasker Award, Lasker Foundation, October 1998, February 10, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 16, 2010, mdy-all, The university is credited with isolating the genes that cause Fanconi anemia, cystic fibrosis and early-onset Alzheimer's disease, among numerous other diseases.JOURNAL, C.A., Strathdee, Gavish, H., Shannon, W., Buchwald, M., 1992, Cloning of cDNAs for Fanconi’s anemia by functional complementation, Nature (journal), Nature, 356, 6372, 763–767, 10.1038/356763a0, 1574115, 1992Natur.356..763S, Between 1914 and 1972, the university operated the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, now part of the pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. Among the research conducted at the laboratory was the development of gel electrophoresis.WEB, Oliver Smithies autobiography,weblink Nobel Foundation, October 8, 2007, November 22, 2008, The University of Toronto is the primary research presence that supports one of the world's largest concentrations of biotechnology firms. More than 5,000 principal investigators reside within {{convert|2|km|mi}} from the university grounds in Toronto's Discovery District, conducting $1 billion of medical research annually.JOURNAL, Kleiner, Kurt, May 8, 2008, Toronto Rising, Nature, 453, 7192, 252–253, 1476-4687,weblink July 6, 2009, 10.1038/nj7192-252a, 18561361, MaRS Discovery District is a research park that serves commercial enterprises and the university's technology transfer ventures. In 2008, the university disclosed 159 inventions and had 114 active start-up companies. Its SciNet Consortium operates the most powerful supercomputer in Canada.NEWS, Omar, El Akkad, Canada's monster computer roars to life,weblink Globe and Mail, Canada, June 20, 2009, July 6, 2009,


    The 43 sports teams of the Varsity Blues represent the university in intercollegiate competitions. The two main leagues in which the Blues participate are U Sports (formerly known as Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS)) for national competitions and the auxiliary Ontario University Athletics conference at the provincial level. The athletic nickname of Varsity Blues was not consistently used until the 1930s; previously, references such as "Varsity", "The Big Blue", "The Blue and White" and "The Varsity Blue" also appeared interchangeably. The Blue and White is commonly played and sung in athletic games as a fight song.WEB, Rebecca Green,weblink College Songs and Songbooks,, 1990-10-09, 2012-11-16, File:Toronto varsity rowing.jpg|right|thumb|upright=1.3|The University of Toronto Rowing Club trains in Toronto Harbour for the 1924 Summer Olympics1924 Summer OlympicsNorth American (gridiron) football traces its very origin to the University of Toronto with the first documented football game played at University College on November 9, 1861.WEB,weblink Canada sets the international standard, December 13, 2008, IFAF Junior World Championship, USA Football, 2008, WEB,weblink Canadian Football Timelines (1860–present), December 13, 2008, Football Canada, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink March 29, 2008, yes, mdy, The Blues played their first intercollegiate football match in 1877 against the University of Michigan in a game that ended with a scoreless draw.JOURNAL, Football 2008 Media Guide, University of Toronto Varsity Blues, 2008,weblinkFootball/2008%20UofT%20Football%20Media%20Guide.pdf, December 13, 2008, —,, February 5, 2009, yes, mdy-all, Since intercollegiate seasons began in 1898, the Blues have won four Grey Cup, two Vanier Cup and 25 Yates Cup championships, including the inaugural championships for all three trophies. However, the football team has hit a rough patch following its last championship in 1993.NEWS, Peter, Cheney, Varsity Blues can't get no respect,, Globe and Mail, Canada, September 13, 2008, December 13, 2008, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} From 2001 until 2008, the Blues suffered the longest losing streak in Canadian collegiate history, recording 49 consecutive winless games.NEWS, Varsity Blues topple Waterloo for first win since 2001,weblink Globe and Mail, Canada, September 2, 2008, December 13, 2008, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} This was preceded by a single victory in 2001 that ended a run of 18 straight losses.NEWS, Dan, Ralph, Varsity Blues set futility mark,weblink Globe and Mail, Canada, October 13, 2007, December 13, 2008, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} The site of Varsity Stadium has served as the primary playing grounds of the Varsity Blues football and soccer programs since 1898. It also served as the venue for archery during the 2015 Pan American Games.Formed in 1891, the storied Varsity Blues men's ice hockey team has left many legacies on the national, professional and international hockey scenes. Conn Smythe played for the Blues as a centre during his undergraduate years, and was a Blues coach from 1923 to 1926. When Smythe took over the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1927, his new team adopted the Varsity Blue's familiar blue-and-white sweater design.JOURNAL, Varsity Blues Men's Hockey 2008–2009, University of Toronto Faculty of Physical Education and Health, 2008,weblink's%20Hockey%20Brochure.pdf, December 21, 2008, Blues hockey competed at the 1928 Winter Olympics and captured the gold medal for Canada.WEB,weblink Smythe, Conn biography, December 21, 2008, Legends of Hockey, Hockey Hall of Fame, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink February 6, 2005, yes, mdy-all, At the 1980 Winter Olympics, Blues coach Tom Watt served as co-coach of the Canadian hockey team in which six players were Varsity grads. In all, the Blues have won the U Sports University Cup national hockey title ten times, last in 1984. Varsity Arena has been the permanent home of the Blues ice hockey programs since it opened in 1926. In men's basketball, the Varsity Blues have won 14 conference titles, including the inaugural championship in 1909, but have not won a national title.JOURNAL, Varsity Blues Men's Basketball 2008–2009, University of Toronto Faculty of Physical Education and Health, 2008,weblink's%20Basketball%20Brochure.pdf, December 21, 2008, In swimming, the men's team has claimed the national crown 16 times since 1964, while the women's team has claimed the crown 14 times since 1970.WEB,weblink CIS Swimming Championship History, December 21, 2008, U Sports, Canadian Interuniversity Sport, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2009, mdy-all, Established in 1897, the University of Toronto Rowing Club is Canada's oldest collegiate rowing club. It earned a silver medal for the country in the 1924 Summer Olympics, finishing second to Yale's crew.JOURNAL, Patrick, Okens, Blues Before Sunrise: Rowing at the University of Toronto, University of Toronto Graduate Department of History, 1999, The back campus of University College was used for field hockey during the 2015 Pan American Games and the field was renamed Pan Am/Parapan Am Fields for the duration of the Pan American Games.

    Culture and student life

    File:Toronto - ON - Hart House.jpg|left|thumb|Generations of students have attended speeches, debates and concerts at Hart House.]]In the heart of social, cultural and recreational life at the University of Toronto lies Hart House, the sprawling neo-Gothic student activity centre that was conceived by alumnus-benefactor Vincent Massey and named for his grandfather Hart.ENCYCLOPEDIA, McGregor, Nancy, Wardrop, Patricia, Winters, Kenneth, Hart House, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Foundation of Canada,weblink Opened in 1919, the complex established a communitarian spirit in the university and its students, who at the time kept largely within their own colleges under the decentralized collegiate system.JOURNAL, Faught, Brad, 1999, The House Is Where the Heart Is, University of Toronto Magazine, Autumn 1999,weblink February 28, 2009, At Hart House, a student can read in the library, dine casually or formally, have a haircut,NEWS, Brown, Gord, Hart House Hair clips along for 90 years,weblink 15 November 2012, the newspaper, 12 November 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 15, 2013, mdy-all, visit the art gallery, watch a play in the theatre, listen to a concert, observe or join in debates, play billiards, or go for a swim and find a place to study, all under the same roof and within the span of a day. The confluence of assorted functions is the result of a deliberate effort to create a holistic educational experience, a goal summarized in the Founders' Prayer.WEB,weblink The Founders' Prayer, February 28, 2009, Hart House, yes,weblink" title="">weblink November 22, 2007, mdy-all, "... discover within its walls true education that is to be found within good fellowship, in friendly disputation and debate, in the conversation of wise and earnest men, in music, pictures and the play, in the casual book, in sports and games and the mastery of the body". The Hart House model was influential in the planning of student centres at other universities, notably Cornell University's Willard Straight Hall.WEB,weblink Willard Straight Hall Student Union, February 28, 2009, Office of the Dean of Students, Cornell University, 2009, As one of the United States first college unions, this Gothic structure was modeled after Hart House at the University of Toronto., WEB,weblink Question 9, February 28, 2009, Dear Uncle Ezra, Cornell University, The room itself is modeled after the University of Toronto's Hart House, the student union at U of T. The Memorial Room is a smaller version of the Great Hall in Hart House, which is about 3 times the size of the Straight and includes a large wing devoted to athletics., Hart House resembles some traditional aspects of student representation through its financial support of student clubs, and its standing committees and board of stewards that are composed mostly of undergraduate students. However, the main students' unions on administrative and policy issues are the University of Toronto Students' Union, Association of Part-time Undergraduate Students and the Graduate Students' Union. Student representative bodies also exist at the various colleges, academic faculties and departments.The Hart House Debating Club employs a debating style that combines the American emphasis on analysis and the British use of wit.JOURNAL, Webb, Margaret, 2003, Fighting Words, University of Toronto Magazine, Summer 2003,weblink February 28, 2009, Smaller debating societies at Trinity, University and Victoria College have served as initial training grounds for debaters who later progress to Hart House. The club won the World Universities Debating Championship in 1981 and 2006.WEB,weblink Dublin Worlds 2006, Flynn, Colm, World Debate Website, 2006, September 24, 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2007, mdy-all, The North American Model United Nations (NAMUN) hosts an annual Model United Nations conference on campus, while the United Nations Society participates in various North American and international conferences.WEB,weblink UTMUN, April 28, 2011, University of Toronto Model United Nations, WEB,weblink United Nations Society, March 11, 2010, United Nations Society,weblink" title="">weblink January 21, 2010, yes, mdy-all, The Toronto chess team has captured the top title six times at the Pan American Intercollegiate Team Chess Championship. The Formula SAE Racing Team won the Formula Student European Championships in 2003, 2005 and 2006.WEB,weblink Weinstock, Ruth, U of T Formula SAE team races to international victory, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, July 16, 2006, September 24, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink September 22, 2007, yes, mdy,

    Greek life

    The University of Toronto is home to the first collegiate fraternity in Canada, Zeta Psi, whose Toronto chapter has been active since 1879.WEB,weblink Breaking New Ground, February 28, 2009, The History of Zeta Psi, Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America, 2007, Other fraternity chapters at the University of Toronto include Alpha Delta Phi, Alpha Epsilon Pi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Sigma Chi, Delta Upsilon, Phi Delta Theta, Phi Kappa Sigma, Phi Gamma Delta, Psi Upsilon, Beta Theta Pi, Phi Kappa Pi, Lambda Phi Epsilon, Sigma Nu, Theta Delta Chi, Alpha Kappa Nu, Alpha Omicron Pi, Delta Delta Delta, Pi Beta Phi and Lambda Chi Alpha.WEB,weblink Directory of Fraternities and Sororities, February 28, 2009, Canadians Go Greek!, Other Greek-letter societies include Alpha Gamma Delta, Alpha Phi, Alpha Sigma Nu, Delta Phi Nu,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 2014-12-13, Delta Phi Nu Toronto, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Alpha Society, Delta Psi Delta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, and alpha Kappa Delta Phi. A secret society known as Episkopon has operated from Trinity College since 1858.

    Theatre and music

    File:Skule Choir imgp8938.jpg|right|thumb|Sunlight fills Knox College Chapel during a Christmas concert of the engineering faculty's Skule Choir.]]Hart House Theatre is the university's student amateur theatre, generally producing four major plays every season. As old as Hart House itself, the theatre is considered a pioneer in Canadian theatre for introducing the Little Theatre Movement from Europe.BOOK, The Cambridge Guide to Theatre, Banham, Martin, 1995, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-43437-8, 161, BOOK, The History of North American Theater, Londré, Felicia Hardison, Watermeier, Daniel J., 1998, Continuum International Publishing Group, 978-0-8264-1079-5, 353, It has cultivated numerous performing-arts talents, including Donald Sutherland, Lorne Michaels, Wayne and Shuster and William Hutt. Three members of the Group of Seven painters (Harris, Lismer and MacDonald) have been set designers at the theatre, and composer Healey Willan was director of music for fourteen productions.WEB,weblink What university theatre was the centre of the cultural universe (okay, in Toronto)?, February 24, 2009, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}} The theatre also hosts annual variety shows run by several student theatrical companies at the colleges and academic faculties, the most prominent of which are U.C. Follies of University College, Skule Nite of the Faculty of Engineering, and Daffydil of the Faculty of Medicine, the latter in its hundredth year of production in 2010–2011.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, October 15, 2011, Internuts, February 25, 2009, Daffydil 2009, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, 2009, The main musical ensembles at Hart House are the orchestra, the chamber strings, the chorus, the jazz choir, the jazz ensemble and the symphonic band. The Jazz at Oscar's concert series performs big band and vocal jazz on Friday nights at the period lounge and bar of the Hart House Arbor Room.JOURNAL, March 2003, Kicks for free: bargain activities, Toronto Life, St. Joseph Communications, Toronto, 0049-4194, Open Stage is the monthly open mic event featuring singers, comics, poets and storytellers. The Sunday Concert is the oldest musical series at Hart House; since 1922, the series has performed more than 600 classical music concerts in the Great Hall, freely attended by the university community and general audiences.NEWS, Rupert M. K. Schieder 1915–2008, Globe and Mail, Canada, September 5, 2008, WEB,weblink Sunday Concert, February 25, 2009, Hart House Music Committee, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 8, 2009, mdy-all, The public may also screen midday events held at noon, when concerts are recited prior to formal debut.

    Student media

    File:UndergradKingStudying.jpg|thumb|William Lyon Mackenzie KingWilliam Lyon Mackenzie KingThe Varsity is one of Canada's oldest student-run newspapers, in publication since 1880. The paper was originally a daily broadsheet, but has since adopted a compact format and is now weekly during the Fall and Winter semesters. It publishes online in the summer. Hart House Review, a literary magazine, publishes prose, poetry, and visual art from emerging Canadian writers and artists. The Newspaper is an independent student-run community newspaper, published weekly since 1978. CIUT-FM is the university's campus radio station, while the University of Toronto Television broadcasts student-produced content. Students at each college and academic faculty also produce their own set of journals and news publications. University College's The Gargoyle was an early training ground for such notables as journalist Naomi Klein, and musician/comedian Paul Shaffer. Victoria University's Acta Victoriana is the oldest active literary journal in Canada, and provided first publication credits to such literary figures as Margaret Atwood and Northrop Frye.Members of the student press have contributed to activist causes on several notable occasions. At the height of debate on coeducation in 1880, The Varsity published an article in its inaugural issue voicing in favour of admitting women. In 1895, the university suspended the editor of The Varsity for breach of collegiality, after he published a letter that harshly criticized the provincial government's dismissal of a professor and involvement in academic affairs. University College students then approved a motion by Varsity staff member and future Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King and boycotted lectures for a week.WEB,weblink What made the "blood fairly boil" in U of T student and future prime minister William Lyon Mackenzie King in 1895?, September 24, 2007, History Q & A, University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs, 2002, {{Dead link|date=September 2010|bot=H3llBot}}WEB,weblink Dale, William, February 28, 2009, Marshall, David B., Dictionary of Canadian Biography, 2000, After Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau decriminalized homosexuality throughout Canada in 1969, a medical research assistant placed an advertisement in The Varsity seeking volunteers to establish the first university homophile association in Canada.WEB,weblink Conception & birth, February 28, 2009, On the Origins of the Body Politic, Bébout, Rick, January 2000,


    File:Teefy Hall.JPG|right|thumb|Teefy House, a residence hall of St. Michael's College, is home to female first-year undergraduate students. ]]Each college at the University of Toronto operates its own set of residence halls and dining halls clustered in a different area of the campus. Innis, New, St. Michael's, Trinity, University, Victoria, and Woodsworth colleges reserve most of their dormitories for their undergraduate students within the Faculty of Arts and Science, while setting a portion available to students from the professional and postgraduate faculties.WEB, Engineering, Music, and Phys. Ed. students,weblink Student Housing Service, University of Toronto, 2008, March 29, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2009, mdy-all, Massey College is exclusively for graduate students, while Knox and Wycliffe Colleges mainly house graduate theology students. Annesley Hall of Victoria College, a National Historic Site, was the first university residence for women in Canada. After St. Hilda's College became coeducational in 2005, Annesley Hall and Loretto College of St. Michael's College are the last remaining women's halls at the university.As campus residences accommodate just 6,400 students in all, the university guarantees housing only for undergraduates in their first year of study, while most upper-year and graduate students reside off-campus.WEB, The Residence Guarantee,weblink Student Housing Service, University of Toronto, 2008, March 29, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 5, 2009, mdy-all, Traditionally, the adjacent neighbourhoods of The Annex and Harbord Village are popular settling grounds for University of Toronto students, forming a distinct student quarter enclave.BOOK, The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City, Ley, David, 1996, Oxford University Press, 0-19-823292-6, 182, NEWS, Bill, Schackner, For collegians in Canada, drinking is no big thing, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 8, 2007, March 29, 2009,weblink In 2004, the university purchased and converted a nearby hotel into the Chestnut Residence, which houses students from all colleges and faculties. There are also numerous fraternity houses and student housing cooperatives, where boarders pay reduced rent for assuming housekeeping duties.


    The University of Toronto is known for having a high enrollment of international students. In 2016–17, 19.7% of students were international.WEB,weblink
    , Enrolment Report 2016-17, 8 February 2017, University of Toronto Planning and Budget Office, 29 October 2017, The University plans to grow its international enrollment to 20.1% by 2021–22. In 2017, the University of Toronto had more international students enrolled than all other Canadian post-secondary institutions.WEB,weblink Foreign students flock to Canada as government struggles to get grads to stay, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 3 September 2017, 4 March 2018, CBCNews, Harris, Kathleen, WEB,weblink Climbing number of foreign students puts B.C. university's cap system to the test, 27 September 2017, 4 March 2018, The Globe and Mail, Xu, Xiao, The Woodbridge Company, {| style="text-align:center; float:right; font-size:85%; margin-left:2em; margin:10px" class="wikitable" ! !! Undergraduate !! Graduate! Male| 44.2%! Female| 55.8%! Canadian student| 84.4%! International student| 15.6%In 2001–02, the overall gender ratio was about 57.1% female to 42.9% male for enrolled students, or about 15 males for every 20 females.WEB,weblink Facts & Figures 2012, Xuelun Liang, 2012, University of Toronto, 29 October 2017, This gender gap has improved slightly in recent years to 55.8% female and 44.2% male, or about 16 males for every 20 females in 2014–15 (non-binary genders were not reported).WEB,weblink Common University Data Ontario 2015, 2015, University of Toronto, 29 October 2017,weblink" title="">weblink November 8, 2017, yes, mdy-all, This gap is more pronounced for graduation rates, with 59% of degrees conferred on females. Gender ratios also depend on undergraduate versus graduate enrollment, and department.The overall average of high school grades for first year students was about 86% for fall 2014. The retention rate was 92.1%.In 2011–12, 40.3% of the students were enrolled in the Social Science and Humanities departments, 23.9% were enrolled in Biology, Engineering, and Mathematics & Physical Sciences. General education accounted for 14.7% enrollment (all undergraduates). Health Professions was 12.7%, Education 5.8%, and Fine Arts 2.6%.

    Notable people

    File:King60th.jpg|William Lyon Mackenzie King, the longest-serving Prime Minister in Canadian history with over 21 years in officeFile:Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg|Lester B. Pearson, Canadian Prime Minister and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957File:John Kenneth Galbraith 1982.jpg|John Kenneth Galbraith, noted economist and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalismFile:John charles fields.jpg|John Charles Fields, mathematician and the founder of the prestigious Fields MedalFile:Harold Innis public-domain library archives-canada.jpg|Harold Innis helped develop the staples thesis and the Toronto School of communication theoryFile:Frederick Banting 3.jpg|Frederick Banting, Nobel Laureate in Medicine and the first person to use insulin on humansFile:Julie Payette in Ukraine - 2018 - (1516277015) (cropped).jpg|Julie Payette, CSA astronaut and the 29th Governor General of CanadaFile:Roberta Bondar NASA.jpg|Roberta Bondar, CSA astronaut and the first Canadian female in spaceIn addition to Havelock, Innis, Frye, Carpenter and McLuhan, former professors of the 20th century include Frederick Banting, Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter, Robertson Davies, John Charles Fields, Leopold Infeld and C. B. Macpherson. Ten Nobel laureates studied or taught at the University of Toronto. As of 2006, University of Toronto academics accounted for 15 of 23 Canadian members in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (65%) and 20 of 72 Canadian fellows in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (28%). Among honorees from Canada between 1980 and 2006, University of Toronto faculty made up 11 of 21 Gairdner Foundation International Award recipients (52%), 44 of 101 Guggenheim Fellows (44%), 16 of 38 Royal Society fellows (42%), 10 of 28 members in the United States National Academies (36%) and 23 of 77 Sloan Research Fellows (30%).Alumni of the University of Toronto's colleges, faculties and professional schools have assumed notable roles in a wide range of fields and specialties. In government, Governors General Vincent Massey and Adrienne Clarkson, Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King, Arthur Meighen, Lester B. Pearson and Paul Martin, and 14 Justices of the Supreme Court have all graduated from the university, while world leaders include President of Latvia Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Premier of the Republic of China Liu Chao-shiuan and President of Trinidad and Tobago Noor Hassanali. Economist John Kenneth Galbraith, political scientist David Easton, historian Margaret MacMillan, philosophers David Gauthier and Ted Honderich, anthropologist Davidson Black, social activist Ellen Pence, sociologist Erving Goffman, psychologists Endel Tulving, Daniel Schacter, and Lisa Feldman Barrett, physicians Norman Bethune and Charles Best, geologists Joseph Tyrrell and John Tuzo Wilson, mathematicians Irving Kaplansky and William Kahan, physicists Arthur Leonard Schawlow and Bertram Brockhouse, religion scholar Amir Hussain, architect James W. Strutt, engineer Gerald Bull, computer scientists Alfred Aho and Brian Kernighan, and astronauts Roberta Bondar and Julie Payette are also some of the most well-known academic figures from the university.In business, University of Toronto alumni include Rogers Communications' Ted Rogers, Toronto–Dominion Bank's W. Edmund Clark, Bank of Montreal's Bill Downe, Scotiabank's Peter Godsoe, Barrick Gold's Peter Munk, BlackBerry's Jim Balsillie, AGF's Blake GoldringWEB, University of Toronto Alumni - Blake C Goldring,weblink, University of Toronto, 20 June 2016,weblink" title="">weblink March 14, 2016, yes, mdy-all, eBay's Jeffrey Skoll, Fiat S.p.A.'s Sergio Marchionne, and Apotex's Bernard Sherman. In literature and media, the university has produced writers Stephen Leacock, John McCrae, Rohinton Mistry, Margaret Atwood and Michael Ondaatje, film directors Arthur Hiller, Norman Jewison, David Cronenberg and Atom Egoyan, actor Donald Sutherland, screenwriter David Shore, television producer and writer Hart Hanson, musician Paul Shaffer, journalists Malcolm Gladwell, Naomi Klein and Barbara Amiel.



    Further reading

    • Bissell, Claude T. (1974). Halfway up Parnassus: A Personal Account of the University of Toronto. University of Toronto Press. {{ISBN|0-8020-2172-7}}.
    • Ford, Ann Rochon. (1985). A Path Not Strewn with Roses. University of Toronto Press. {{ISBN|0-8020-3999-5}}.
    • Friedland, Martin L. (2002). The University of Toronto: A History. University of Toronto Press. {{ISBN|0-8020-4429-8}}.
    • Levi, Charles Morden. (2003). Comings and Goings. McGill-Queen's University Press. {{ISBN|0-7735-2442-8}}.
    • McKillop, A. Brian. (1994). Matters of Mind. University of Toronto Press. {{ISBN|0-8020-7216-X}}.
    • Slater, John G. (2005). Minerva's Aviary: Philosophy at Toronto. University of Toronto Press. {{ISBN|0-8020-3870-0}}.
    • Wallace, W. Stewart. A History of the University of Toronto, 1827–1927. University of Toronto Press, 1927.

    External links

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