University of Bologna

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
University of Bologna
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki

(Latin)|mottoeng = St. Peter is everywhere the father of the law, Bologna is its motherPublic university>Public|endowment =Francesco Ubertini (engineer)>Francesco Ubertini|students = 86,509|undergrad = 63,781|postgrad = 19,119|doctoral = 3,877|city = Bologna|state =|country = Italy|campus = Urban (University Town)|free_label = Sports teams|free = CUSB#CC142F}} Red1=|}}|logo =|image_name = Seal of the University of Bologna.svg|faculty = 2,850Coimbra Group, Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities, Utrecht Network, Mediterranean Universities Union>UNIMED}}The University of Bologna (, UNIBO) is a research university in Bologna, Italy. Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence studiorum), it is the oldest university in the world,Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan: "The heritage of European universities", 2nd edition, Higher Education Series No. 7, Council of Europe, 2006, ISBN {{isbn missing}}, p. 136 as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.WEB,weblink Ranking QS: l’Università di Bologna ancora nella top 200, e continua a crescere, 2019-06-19, It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking in the first places of national rankings.Dieci volte prima: l’Università di Bologna ancora al top in Italia tra i mega atenei.WEB,weblink Europe - Ranking Web of Universities,, It was the first place of study to use the term universitas for the corporations of students and masters, which came to define the institution (especially its famous law school) located in Bologna, Italy.Nove secoli di storia - Università di Bologna The university's emblem carries the motto Alma mater studiorum ("nourishing mother of studies") and the date A.D. 1088, and it has about 86,500 students in its 11 schools.WEB,weblink Schools, University of Bologna, 22 December 2015, It has campuses in Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires, Argentina.WEB,weblink Campuses and Structures, University of Bologna, 22 December 2015, It also has a school of excellence named Collegio Superiore di Bologna. An associate publisher of the University of Bologna is Bononia University Press S.p.A. (BUP).


File:Universität Bologna Deutsche Nation.jpg|thumbnail|left|The entry of some students in the Natio Germanica Bononiae, the nation of German students at Bologna; miniature of 1497.]]The date of its founding is uncertain, but believed by most accounts to have been 1088. The university was granted a charter (Authentica habita) by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158, but in the 19th century, a committee of historians led by Giosuè Carducci traced the founding of the University back to 1088, which would make it the oldest continuously-operating university in the world. Top Universities {{webarchive|url= |date=2008-01-15 }} World University Rankings Retrieved 2010-1-6Our History - Università di BolognaBOOK, Paul L. Gaston, 2012, The Challenge of Bologna: What United States Higher Education Has to Learn from Europe, and Why It Matters That We Learn It,weblink Stylus Publishing, LLC., 18, 978-1-57922-502-5, However, the development of the institution at Bologna into a university was a gradual process. Paul Grendler writes that “it is not likely that enough instruction and organization existed to merit the term university before the 1150s, and it might not have happened before the 1180s.”Paul F. Grendler, The Universities of the Italian Renaissance (JHU Press, 2002), 6.The university arose around mutual aid societies (known as universitates scholarium) of foreign students called "nations" (as they were grouped by nationality) for protection against city laws which imposed collective punishment on foreigners for the crimes and debts of their countrymen. These students then hired scholars from the city's pre-existing lay and ecclesiastical schools to teach them subjects such as liberal arts, notarial law, theology, and ars dictaminis (scrivenery).David A. Lines, “The University and the City: Cultural Interactions”, in A Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Bologna, ed. Sarah Rubin Blanshei (Leiden: Brill, 2017), 437–8. The lectures were given in informal schools called scholae. In time the various universitates scholarium decided to form a larger association, or Studium—thus, the university. The Studium grew to have a strong position of collective bargaining with the city, since by then it derived significant revenue through visiting foreign students, who would depart if they were not well treated. The foreign students in Bologna received greater rights, and collective punishment was ended. There was also collective bargaining with the scholars who served as professors at the university. By the initiation or threat of a student strike, the students could enforce their demands as to the content of courses and the pay professors would receive. University professors were hired, fired, and had their pay determined by an elected council of two representatives from every student "nation" which governed the institution, with the most important decisions requiring a majority vote from all the students to ratify. The professors could also be fined if they failed to finish classes on time, or complete course material by the end of the semester. A student committee, the "Denouncers of Professors", kept tabs on them and reported any misbehavior. Professors themselves were not powerless, however, forming collegia doctorum (professors’ committees) in each faculty, and securing the rights to set examination fees and degree requirements. Eventually, the city ended this arrangement, paying professors from tax revenues and making it a chartered public university.A University Built by the Invisible Hand, by Roderick T. Long. This article was published in the Spring 1994 issue of Formulations, by the Free Nation Foundation.(File:Biblioteca dell'Universita di Bologna.jpg|thumb|Bologna University Library)The university is historically notable for its teaching of canon and civil law;NEWS,weblink University of Bologna {{!, History & Development|work=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2017-08-21}} indeed, it was set up in large part with the aim of studying the Digest,Berman, Law and Revolution, ch. 3; Stein, Roman Law in European History, part 3. a central text in Roman law, which had been rediscovered in Italy in 1070, and the university was central in the development of medieval Roman law.See (Corpus Juris Civilis#Recovery in the West|Corpus Juris Civilis: Recovery in the West) Until modern times, the only degree granted at that university was the doctorate.


{{refimprove section|date=April 2019}}(File:Bologna-vista02.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Area above Bologna's old city centre.)File:Collegio-spagna3.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Interior view of the Porticum and Loggia of its oldest College, the Royal Spanish College.]]Higher education processes are being harmonised across the European Community. Nowadays the university offers 101 different "Laurea" or "Laurea breve" first-level degrees (three years of courses), followed by 108 "Laurea specialistica" or "Laurea magistrale" second-level degrees (two years). However, other 11 courses have maintained preceding rules of "Laurea specialistica a ciclo unico" or "Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico", with only one cycle of study of five years, except for medicine and dentistry which requires six years of courses. After the "Laurea" one may attain 1st level Master (one-year diploma, similar to a Postgraduate diploma). After second-level degrees are attained, one may proceed to 2nd level Master, specialisation schools (residency), or doctorates of research (PhD).The 11 Schools (which replace the preexisting 23 faculties) are:
  • School of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
  • School of Economics, Management and Statistics
  • School of Engineering and Architecture
  • School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Interpretation and Translation
  • School of Law
  • School of Arts, Humanities, and Cultural Heritage
  • School of Medicine and Surgery
  • School of Pharmacy, Biotechnologies and Sport Sciences
  • School of Political Sciences
  • School of Psychology and Education Sciences
  • School of Sciences
The university is structured in 33 departmentsList of the Departments of the University of Bologna (there were 66 until 2012), organized by homogeneous research domains that integrate activities related to one or more faculty. A new department of Latin history was added in 2015.The 33 departments are:

Affiliates and other institutions

{{unreferenced section|date=April 2019}}In the early 1950s, some students of the University of Bologna were among the founders of the review "il Mulino". On 25 April 1951 the first issue of the review was published in Bologna. In a short time, "il Mulino" became one of the most interesting reference points in Italy for the political and cultural debate, and established important editorial relationships in Italy and abroad. Editorial activities evolved along with the review. In 1954, the il Mulino publishing house (Società editrice il Mulino) was founded, which today represents one of the most relevant Italian publishers. In addition to this were initiated research projects (focusing mostly on the educational institutions and the political system in Italy), that eventually led, in 1964, to the establishment of the Istituto Carlo Cattaneo.

Notable people

File:Pope Alexander Vi.jpg|thumb|180px|right|Pope Alexander VIAlexander VIFile:Altichiero, ritratto di Francesco Petrarca.jpg|thumb|180px|right|PetrarchPetrarchFile:Alessandro Longhi - Ritratto di Carlo Goldoni (c 1757) Ca Goldoni Venezia.jpg|thumb|180px|right|Carlo GoldoniCarlo GoldoniFile:Guglielmo Marconi.jpg|thumb|180px|right|Guglielmo MarconiGuglielmo Marconi


  • Irnerius, founder of the School of GlossatorsWEB,weblink Irnerius {{!, Italian legal scholar|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Henry of Susa (Hostiensis)BOOK,weblink Medieval Canon Law, Brundage, James A., 2014-06-11, Routledge, 9781317895343,
  • Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas BecketWEB,weblink Saint Thomas Becket {{!, Biography, Death, & Significance|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • PetrarchWEB,weblink Petrarch, Foundation, Poetry, 2019-04-25, Poetry Foundation, 2019-04-26,
  • Leon Battista AlbertiWEB,weblink Leon Battista Alberti {{!, Italian architect and author|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Pope Alexander VIWEB,weblink Alexander VI {{!, Biography, Legacy, & Facts|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Pico della Mirandola{{Citation|last=Copenhaver|first=Brian|title=Giovanni Pico della Mirandola|date=2016|url=|work=The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy|editor-last=Zalta|editor-first=Edward N.|edition=Fall 2016|publisher=Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University|access-date=2019-04-26}}WEB,weblink Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, count di Concordia {{!, Italian scholar|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Erasmus of RotterdamWEB,weblink Erasmus {{!, Biography & Facts|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Albrecht DürerWEB,weblink Albrecht Dürer {{!, German artist|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}WEB,weblink Albrecht Dürer's Life: Second Journey to Venice,, 2019-04-26,
  • Nicolaus Copernicus, formulator of the heliocentric universal modelJOURNAL, Rutkowski, Boleslaw, Muszytowski, Marek, Ostrowski, Janusz, May 2011, Nicolaus Copernicus: not only a great astronomer but also a physician, Journal of Nephrology, 24 Suppl 17, S25–32, 10.5301/JN.2011.6490, 1724-6059, 21614776, WEB,weblink Studying at University of Bologna, Plone site, 2019-04-26,
  • Paracelsus, founder of the discipline of toxicologyWEB,weblink Famous people, guests and illustrious students - University of Bologna,, 2019-04-26,
  • Pope Innocent IXWEB,weblink Innocent Iv {{!,||access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Ulisse AldrovandiWEB,weblink Ulisse Aldrovandi - University of Bologna,, 2019-04-26, WEB,weblink Ulisse Aldrovandi {{!, Italian naturalist|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Gabriele PaleottiWEB,weblink PALEOTTI, Gabriele in "Dizionario Biografico",, it-IT, 2019-04-26,
  • Pope Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni)WEB,weblink Pope Gregory XIII: Accomplishments & Legacy,, 2019-04-26, WEB,weblink Gregory Xiii {{!,||access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Cardinal Paolo Burali d'ArezzoWEB,weblink Comune di Itri - Sito comunale,, 2019-04-26,
  • Saint Charles Borromeo, archbishop of MilanWEB,weblinkParish_InformationParish_Information/General_Information//Parish_Information/General_Information/SCBBiography.html, Biography of St. Charles Borromeo, Saint Charles Borromeo Catholic Church, 2019-04-26,
  • Torquato TassoWEB,weblink Torquato Tasso {{!,||access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Gasparo Tagliacozzi, pioneer of plastic and reconstructive surgeryWEB,weblink Gaspare Tagliacozzi (1545-99),, 2019-04-26, JOURNAL, Zimbler, Marc S., 2001-10-01, Gaspare Tagliacozzi (1545-1599): Renaissance Surgeon,weblink Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery, 3, 4, 283–284, 1521-2491, 10.1001/archfaci.3.4.283, JOURNAL, Ménard, Sophie, January 2019, An Unknown Renaissance Portrait of Tagliacozzi (1545–1599), the Founder of Plastic Surgery,weblink Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery – Global Open, 7, 1, e2006, 2169-7574, 10.1097/GOX.0000000000002006, 30859024, 6382240,
  • Pope Gregory XVWEB,weblink Gregory XV {{!, pope|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Pietro MengoliWEB,weblink Pietro Mengoli (1626-1686),, 2019-04-26,
  • Marcello MalpighiWEB,weblink Marcello Malpighi - University of Bologna,, 2019-04-26, WEB,weblink Marcello Malpighi {{!, Italian scientist|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Carlo GoldoniWEB,weblink The University from the 12th to the 20th century - University of Bologna,, 2019-04-26,
  • Laura Bassi, the world's first woman to earn a university chair in a scientific field of studiesWEB,weblink Laura Bassi - University of Bologna,, 2019-04-26, WEB,weblink Laura Bassi {{!, Italian scientist|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Lazzaro SpallanzaniWEB,weblink Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) {{!, The Embryo Project Encyclopedia||access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Luigi GalvaniWEB,weblink Luigi Galvani - University of Bologna,, 2019-04-26, WEB,weblink Luigi Galvani {{!,||access-date=2019-04-26}}WEB,weblink Luigi Galvani,, 2019-04-26,
  • Augusto Righi, pioneer in the study of electromagnetismWEB,weblink Augusto Righi,, 2019-04-26, WEB,weblink Righi, Augusto {{!,||access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Manuel Olivencia, lawyer and academicWEB,weblink Manuel Olivencia receives Premio Pelayo para Juristas de Reconocido Prestigio award, Cuatrecasas, 2019-04-26,
  • Giovanni PascoliWEB,weblink Giovanni Pascoli, appointed professor at the University of Bologna,..., Getty Images, it, 2019-04-26, WEB,weblink Giovanni Pascoli {{!, Italian poet|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Carlo SeveriniBOOK,weblink The Legacy of Mario Pieri in Geometry and Arithmetic, Marchisotto, Elena Anne, Smith, James T., 2007-12-05, Springer Science & Business Media, 9780817646035,
  • Guglielmo MarconiWEB,weblink Marconi itinerary in Bologna and surroundings, Bologna Welcome, 2019-04-26, WEB,weblink Guglielmo Marconi {{!, Italian physicist|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Michelangelo AntonioniWEB,weblink Michelangelo Antonioni {{!, Italian director|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}WEB,weblink Spotlight: Michelangelo Antonioni {{!, |date=2018-03-30||access-date=2019-04-26}}WEB,weblink Michelangelo Antonioni {{!,||access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Pier Paolo PasoliniWEB,weblink Pier Paolo Pasolini, Bologna Welcome, 2019-04-26, WEB,weblink Pier Paolo Pasolini {{!, Italian author and director|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}
  • Giacomo MatteottiWEB,weblink Giacomo Matteotti {{!, Italian social leader|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2019-04-26}}WEB,weblink Biography, House-Museum Giacomo Matteotti, 2019-04-26,

Faculty and staff

See: Serafino Mazzetti, Repertorio di tutti I professori antichi e moderni della famosa Università...di Bologna (Bologna 1848).

Rankings and reputation

THE_W_ref = HTTPS://WWW.TIMESHIGHEREDUCATION.COM/WORLD-UNIVERSITY-RANKINGS/2019/WORLD-RANKING>TITLE=WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGSDATE=26 SEPTEMBER 2018,, QS_W_ref = HTTPS://WWW.TOPUNIVERSITIES.COM/UNIVERSITY-RANKINGS/WORLD-UNIVERSITY-RANKINGS/2020>TITLE=QS WORLD UNIVERSITY RANKINGS 2019DATE=19 JUNE 2019,, USNWR_W_ref = U.S. News Education: Best Global Universities 2019}}The 2020 QS World University Rankings ranked the University of Bologna 177th in the world,WEB,weblink QS World University Rankings 2019, 2019-06-19, as well as 74th (1st in Italy) with reference to "academic reputation". In the 2019 THE World University Rankings, the University of Bologna was ranked among the world's top 200 universities.WEB,weblink THE World University Rankings 2019, 2018-09-25, In 2019, the Italian newspaper La Repubblica, in collaboration with CENSIS, has awarded the University of Bologna the 1st place in its academic ranking of Italian mega-universities (>40,000 students) for the tenth year in a row, recording its primacy in the fields of internationalization, academic structures and digital services.

Points of interest

See also

{{Commons category|University of Bologna}}



External links

{{Ita Uni}}{{Argentine universities}}{{Coimbra Group}}{{Utrecht network}}{{Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities}}{{UNIMED}}{{International Forum of Public Universities}}{{coord|44|29|38|N|11|20|34|E|source:nowiki_region:IT_scale:100000|display=title}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "University of Bologna" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 5:10am EDT - Thu, Aug 22 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott