Unity (game engine)

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Unity (game engine)
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{{short description|Cross-platform video game and simulation engine}}{{Use American English|date=May 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2019}}{{About|the game engine|the user interface|Unity (user interface)|other uses|Unity (disambiguation)}}

| latest preview version = 2019.3.0a12TITLE=UNITY 2019.3A ACCESS-DATE=AUGUST 13, 2019, C++ (runtime)C Sharp (programming language)>C# (Unity Scripting API)}}| operating system = Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux (preview)|Supported platforms}}English (language)>English| genre = Game engine| license = Proprietary softwaredownAugust 2019WEBSITE=ALEXA INTERNET, August 1, 2019, | website = {{Official URL}}}}Unity is a cross-platform game engine developed by Unity Technologies, first announced and released in June 2005 at Apple Inc.'s Worldwide Developers Conference as a Mac OS X-exclusive game engine. As of 2018, the engine had been extended to support more than 25 platforms. The engine can be used to create three-dimensional, two-dimensional, virtual reality, and augmented reality games, as well as simulations and other experiences.NEWS, Unity at 10: For better—or worse—game development has never been easier, Axon, Samuel,weblink Ars Technica, September 27, 2016, October 17, 2018,weblink October 5, 2018, no, NEWS, John Riccitiello Q&A: How Unity CEO views Epic’s Fortnite success, Takahashi, Dean,weblink VentureBeat, September 15, 2018, October 17, 2018,weblink September 17, 2018, no, The engine has been adopted by industries outside video gaming, such as film, automotive, architecture, engineering and construction.Several major versions of Unity have been released since its launch. The latest stable version, 2019.2.1, was released in August 2019.


The Unity game engine launched in 2005, aiming to "democratize" game development by making it accessible to more developers.NEWS, Former EA CEO John Riccitiello is now head of Unity, McWhertor, Michael,weblink Polygon, October 22, 2014, October 17, 2018,weblink December 5, 2018, no, The next year, Unity was named runner-up in the Best Use of Mac OS X Graphics category in Apple Inc.'s Apple Design Awards.WEB, Apple Design Award winners announced, August 9, 2006, Jeff, Smykill, ArsTechnica,weblink January 18, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink January 19, 2015, no, Unity was initially released for Mac OS X, later adding support for Microsoft Windows and Web browsers.NEWS, How Unity3D Became a Game-Development Beast, Brodkin, Jon,weblink Dice Insights, June 3, 2013, October 30, 2018,weblink October 19, 2018, no, Unity 2.0 launched in 2007 with approximately 50 new features.NEWS, Unity 2.0 game engine now available, Cohen, Peter,weblink PCWorld, October 11, 2007, January 14, 2019,weblink March 20, 2019, no, The release included an optimized terrain engine for detailed 3D environments, real-time dynamic shadows, directional lights and spotlights, video playback, and other features. The release also added features whereby developers could collaborate more easily. It included a Networking Layer for developers to create multiplayer games based on User Datagram Protocol, offering Network Address Translation, and State Synchronization and Remote Procedure Calls.When Apple launched its App Store in 2008, Unity quickly added support for the iPhone. For several years, the engine was uncontested on the iPhone and it became well-known with iOS game developers.Unity 3.0 launched in September 2010 with features expanding the engine's graphics features for desktop computers and video game consoles.NEWS, Unity 3 brings very expensive dev tools at a very low price, Girard, Dave,weblink Ars Technica, September 27, 2010, January 14, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink February 24, 2014, no, In addition to Android support, Unity 3 featured integration of Illuminate Labs' Beast Lightmap tool, deferred rendering, a built-in tree editor, native font rendering, automatic UV mapping, and audio filters, among other things.In 2012 VentureBeat wrote, "Few companies have contributed as much to the flowing of independently produced games as Unity Technologies. [...] More than 1.3 million developers are using its tools to create gee-whiz graphics in their iOS, Android, console, PC, and web-based games. [...] Unity wants to be the engine for multi-platform games, period."INTERVIEW, Game developers, start your Unity 3D engines, David, Helgason, November 2, 2012, Dean Takahashi, VentureBeat, GamesBeat,weblink July 13, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2014, no, A May 2012 survey by Game Developer magazine indicated Unity as its top game engine for mobile platforms.WEB,weblink Mobile game developer survey leans heavily toward iOS, Unity, Gamasutra, May 24, 2012, July 14, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink July 3, 2014, no, In July 2014, Unity won the "Best Engine" award at the UK's annual Develop Industry Excellence Awards.WEB, Winners,weblink Develop Online, February 8, 2015, In November 2012, Unity Technologies delivered Unity 4.0.NEWS, Unity 4.0 available for download today with DX 11 support and Linux preview, Tach, Dave,weblink Polygon (website), Polygon, November 14, 2012, January 14, 2019,weblink March 20, 2019, no, This version added DirectX 11 and Adobe Flash support, new animation tools called Mecanim, and access to the Linux preview.Facebook integrated a software development kit for games using the Unity game engine in 2013.NEWS, How Facebook Integrated With The Unity Game Engine, Cohen, David,weblink Adweek, November 1, 2013, October 29, 2018,weblink December 12, 2018, no, This featured tools that allowed tracking advertising campaigns and deep linking, where users were directly linked from social media posts to specific portions within games, and easy in-game-image sharing. In 2016, Facebook developed a new PC gaming platform with Unity.NEWS, Facebook Developing New PC Gaming Platform; Teams Up With Unity Technologies, Cohen, David,weblink Adweek, August 19, 2016, October 29, 2018,weblink December 11, 2018, no, Unity provided support for Facebook's gaming platforms, and Unity developers could more quickly export and publish games to Facebook.The Verge said of 2015's Unity 5 release: "Unity started with the goal of making game development universally accessible. [...] Unity 5 is a long-awaited step towards that future."WEB, Unity officially releases its new game engine: Unity 5,weblink The Verge, November 26, 2015, March 3, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, no, With Unity 5, the engine improved its lighting and audio.NEWS, Unity 5 Announced With Better Lighting, Better Audio, And “Early” Support For Plugin-Free Browser Games, Kumparak, Greg,weblink March 18, 2014, January 14, 2019,weblink February 19, 2019, no, Through WebGL, Unity developers could add their games to compatible Web browsers with no plug-ins required for players. Unity 5.0 offered real-time global illumination, light mapping previews, Unity Cloud, a new audio system, and the Nvidia PhysX3.3 physics engine. The fifth generation of the Unity engine also introduced Cinematic Image Effects to help make Unity games look less generic.NEWS, How new graphics effects can make Unity Engine games look less generic, Orland, Kyle,weblink Ars Technica, March 15, 2016, January 14, 2019,weblink March 20, 2019, no, Unity 5.6 added new lighting and particle effects, updated the engine's overall performance, and added native support for Nintendo Switch, Facebook Gameroom, Google Daydream VR, and the Vulkan graphics API.NEWS, Unity 5.6 launches with support for Vulkan graphics, Nintendo Switch, and more, Grubb, Jeff,weblink VentureBeat, March 31, 2017, January 14, 2019,weblink March 20, 2019, no, It introduced a 4K video player capable of running 360-degree videos for virtual reality. However, some gamers criticized Unity's accessibility due to the high volume of quickly produced games published on the Steam distribution platform by inexperienced developers.WEB, Unity – does indie gaming's biggest engine have an image problem?,weblink The Guardian, August 14, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink August 14, 2015, no, CEO John Riccitiello said in an interview that he believes this to be a side-effect of Unity's success in democratizing game development: "If I had my way, I'd like to see 50 million people using Unity – although I don't think we're going to get there any time soon. I'd like to see high school and college kids using it, people outside the core industry. I think it's sad that most people are consumers of technology and not creators. The world's a better place when people know how to create, not just consume, and that's what we're trying to promote."WEB, The chaos of democracy,weblink Develop Online, August 14, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink October 17, 2017, no, In December 2016, Unity Technologies announced that they would change the versioning numbering system for Unity from sequence-based identifiers to year of release to align the versioning with their more frequent release cadence; Unity 5.6 was therefore followed by Unity 2017.WEB, Batchelor, James, Unity dropping major updates in favour of date-based model,weblink, March 18, 2017, jamesbatchelor2017unityversions,weblink" title="">weblink March 19, 2017, no, Unity 2017 tools featured a real-time graphics rendering engine, color grading and worldbuilding, live operations analytics and performance reporting.NEWS, Unity Technologies – The World’s Leading Game Engine,weblink Nanalyze, October 18, 2017, January 14, 2019,weblink February 12, 2019, no, Unity 2017.2 underscored Unity Technologies' plans beyond video games. This included new tools such as Timeline, which allowed developers to drag-and-drop animations into games, and Cinemachine, a smart camera system within games. Unity 2017.2 also integrated Autodesk's 3DS Max and Maya tools into the Unity engine for a streamlined asset sharing in-game iteration process.NEWS, Unity 2017.2 brings Autodesk integration into the fold, McAloon, Alissa,weblink Gamasutra, October 4, 2017, January 14, 2019,weblink March 20, 2019, no, Unity 2018 featured the Scriptable Render Pipeline for developers to create high-end graphics.NEWS, Unity 2018 detailed in GDC keynote, Batchelor, James,weblink, March 20, 2018, January 14, 2019,weblink March 20, 2019, no, This included the High-Definition Rendering Pipeline for console and PC experiences, and the Lightweight Rendering Pipeline for mobile, virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality. Unity 2018 also included machine learning tools, such as Imitation Learning, whereby games learn from real player habits, support for Magic Leap, and templates for new developers.


Unity gives users the ability to create games and experiences in both 2D and 3D, and the engine offers a primary scripting API in C#, for both the Unity editor in the form of plugins, and games themselves, as well as drag and drop functionality. Prior to C# being the primary programming language used for the engine, it previously supported Boo, which was removed with the release of Unity 5,WEB,weblink What's new in Unity 5.0, Unity Technologies, September 18, 2017,weblink October 17, 2017, no, and a version of JavaScript called UnityScript, which was deprecated in August 2017, after the release of Unity 2017.1, in favor of C#.WEB,weblink UnityScript's long ride off into the sunset, Fine, Richard, August 11, 2017, Unity Technologies Blog, September 18, 2017,weblink October 17, 2017, no, Within 2D games, Unity allows importation of sprites and an advanced 2D world renderer. For 3D games, Unity allows specification of texture compression, mipmaps, and resolution settings for each platform that the game engine supports,WEB,weblink Unity – Multiplatform, Unity, Unity Technologies, June 27, 2018,weblink June 12, 2018, no, and provides support for bump mapping, reflection mapping, parallax mapping, screen space ambient occlusion (SSAO), dynamic shadows using shadow maps, render-to-texture and full-screen post-processing effects.WEB, Using DirectX11 in Unity 4,weblink Unity Technologies, February 19, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink March 12, 2013, {{As of|2018}}, Unity has been used to create approximately half of the new mobile games on the market and 60 percent of augmented reality and virtual reality content.NEWS, DeepMind partners with gaming company for AI research, Bonfiglio, Nahila,weblink The Daily Dot, October 1, 2018, October 17, 2018,weblink October 2, 2018, no,

Supported platforms

Unity is a cross-platform engine.INTERVIEW, Dean Takahashi, John, Riccitiello, October 23, 2014,weblink John Riccitiello sets out to identify the engine of growth for Unity Technologies (interview), VentureBeat, January 18, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink January 17, 2015, no, The Unity editor is supported on Windows and macOS, with a version of the editor available for the Linux platform, albeit in an experimental stage,NEWS,weblink Unity Comes to Linux: Experimental Build Now Available – Unity Blog, Bard, Na'Tosha Bard, August 26, 2015, Unity Technologies Blog, June 28, 2018, while the engine itself currently supports building games for more than 25 different platforms, including mobile, desktop, consoles, and virtual reality.NEWS, Video game company grabs two buildings on Mission Street for big expansion, Kelliher, Fiona,weblink San Francisco Business Times, August 24, 2018, October 17, 2018, NEWS, Unity officially releases its new game engine: Unity 5, Robertson, Adi,weblink The Verge, March 3, 2015, October 17, 2018,weblink November 16, 2018, no, Platforms include iOS,NEWS, Unity CEO says half of all games are built on Unity, Dillet, Romain,weblink TechCrunch, September 5, 2018, December 3, 2018,weblink December 20, 2018, no, Android, Tizen,NEWS, Unity supporting Linux-based platform Tizen, Pitcher, Jenna,weblink Polygon (website), Polygon, May 24, 2013, December 3, 2018,weblink March 22, 2019, no, Windows, Universal Windows Platform,NEWS, Unity 5.5 can now be used to create HoloLens augmented reality titles, Coppock, Mark,weblink Digital Trends, November 30, 2016, December 3, 2018,weblink February 9, 2019, no, Mac, Linux,NEWS, Unity game engine heading to the browser without plug-ins, Bright, Peter,weblink Ars Technica, March 18, 2014, October 29, 2018,weblink March 22, 2019, no, WebGL, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Vita,NEWS, One of gaming's most-used engines arrives today on PlayStation Vita, Gilbert, Ben,weblink Engadget, January 15, 2014, December 3, 2018,weblink February 14, 2019, no, Xbox One, 3DS,NEWS, Unity now supports Nintendo 3DS, Jarvis, Matthew,weblink MCVUK, February 1, 2016, December 3, 2018,weblink March 22, 2019, no, Oculus Rift, Google Cardboard,NEWS, Unity game-making tool gets native support for Google's 5M Cardboard virtual reality devices, Grubb, Jeff,weblink VentureBeat, February 10, 2016, December 3, 2018,weblink March 22, 2019, no, Steam VR,NEWS, Unity and SteamVR Unite for Native Vive Support, Plummer, Quinten,weblink Tech News World, February 16, 2016, December 3, 2018,weblink March 22, 2019, no, PlayStation VR,NEWS, How to become a Unity developer for VR and AR, De Nisco Rayome, Alison,weblink Tech Republic, January 23, 2017, December 3, 2018,weblink December 13, 2018, no, Gear VR, Windows Mixed Reality,NEWS, Build in Unity? Want to Know More About Crafting for Windows Mixed Reality? Then Check out These new Videos From Microsoft, Graham, Peter,weblink VR Focus, February 17, 2018, December 4, 2018, Daydream,NEWS, Unity dropping major updates in favour of date-based model, Batchelor, James,weblink, December 14, 2016, October 29, 2018,weblink July 21, 2018, no, Android TV,BOOK, Getting Started with Unity 2018: A Beginner's Guide to 2D and 3D game development with Unity, 3rd Edition, Lavieri, Edward, 2018, Packt Publishing, 9781788832915, 20,weblink December 4, 2018, Samsung Smart TV,NEWS, Unity Adds Another Big Screen Option for Game Developers with Unity 4.5 for Samsung Smart TV, Harris, Richard,weblink App Developer Magazine, August 28, 2014, December 4, 2018,weblink March 22, 2019, no, tvOS,NEWS, Unity 5.3 launches with improved support for iOS 9 and WebGL, Suckley, Matt,weblink, December 10, 2015, December 4, 2018,weblink March 22, 2019, no, Nintendo Switch, Fire OS, Facebook Gameroom, Apple's ARKit,NEWS, Unity ARKit update includes persistent mapping and improved tracking, Clayton, Natalie,weblink, June 15, 2018, December 4, 2018,weblink March 22, 2019, no, Google's ARCore,NEWS, Unity 2017.2 Featuring Optimised Support for ARCore and ARKit launching This Month, Graham, Peter,weblink VR Focus, October 4, 2017, December 4, 2018, Vuforia, and Magic Leap.NEWS, Magic Leap Publishes More L.E.A.P. Developer Videos Featuring Insomniac Games, Weta Workshop & More, Palladino, Tommy,weblink Next Reality, November 9, 2018, December 4, 2018,weblink March 22, 2019, no, {{As of|2018}}, Unity had been used to create approximately half of the mobile games on the market and 60 percent of augmented reality and virtual reality content, including approximately 90 percent on emerging augmented reality platforms, such as Microsoft HoloLens, and 90 percent of Samsung Gear VR content.NEWS, With new realities to build, Unity positioned to become tech giant, Matney, Lucas,weblink TechCrunch, May 25, 2017, October 29, 2018,weblink October 20, 2018, no, Unity technology is the basis for most virtual reality and augmented reality experiences, and Fortune said Unity "dominates the virtual reality business".NEWS, This company dominates the virtual reality business, and it's not named Oculus, Gaudiosi, John,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, March 19, 2015, November 26, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink December 5, 2018, no, NEWS, Why Valve's Partnership With Unity Is Important to Virtual Reality, Gaudiosi, John,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, February 11, 2016, November 26, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2018, no, NEWS, Most Innovative Companies: Unity Technologies,weblink Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company, 2018, November 26, 2018,weblink September 27, 2018, no, Unity Machine Learning Agents is open-source software whereby the Unity platform connects to machine learning programs, including Google's TensorFlow.NEWS, Machine Learning Is Making Video Game Characters Smarter And Robots More Competent, Captain, Sean,weblink Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company, September 19, 2017, November 26, 2018,weblink November 21, 2018, no, Using trial and error in Unity Machine Learning Agents, virtual characters use reinforcement learning to build creative strategies in lifelike virtual landscapes. The software is used to develop robots and self-driving cars.Unity formerly supported other platforms including its own Unity Web Player, a Web browser plugin. However, it was deprecated in favor of WebGL.WEB,weblink Unity Web Player Roadmap, Unity Technologies Blog, April 18, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink April 25, 2016, no, Since version 5, Unity has been offering its WebGL bundle compiled to JavaScript using a 2-stage language translator (C# to C++ and finally to JavaScript).WEB,weblink Verge3D versus Unity WebGL, August 23, 2018, August 24, 2018,weblink August 24, 2018, no, Unity was the default software development kit (SDK) used for Nintendo's Wii U video game console, with a free copy included by Nintendo with each Wii U developer license. Unity Technologies called this bundling of a third-party SDK an "industry first".WEB,weblink Unity for Wii U opens up GamePad hardware and more to developers, McElroy, Griffin, August 20, 2013, Polygon, August 4, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink August 8, 2014, no,

Licensing model

During its first ten years as a product the paid versions of Unity were sold outright; in 2016 the corporation changed to a subscription model. Unity has free and paid licensing options. The free license is for personal use or smaller companies generating less than $100,000 annually, and the subscriptions are based on revenues generated by the games using Unity.

Unity Asset Store

Creators can develop and sell user-generated assets to other game makers via the Unity Asset Store. This includes 3D and 2D assets and environments for developers to buy and sell.NEWS, Unity is the little game engine that could revolutionize animated movies, Savov, Vlad,weblink The Verge, June 30, 2017, October 29, 2018,weblink September 9, 2018, no, In 2018, the store added Rokoko's motion-capture library.NEWS, Rokoko's motion-capture library will be available in Unity Asset Store, Takahashi, Dean,weblink VentureBeat, September 19, 2018, October 29, 2018,weblink September 20, 2018, no, Unity Asset Store launched in 2010. By 2018, there had been approximately 40 million downloads through the digital store.NEWS, Unity's asset store boss has big plans to gith Epic's Unreal, Grubb, Jeff,weblink VentureBeat, July 18, 2018, October 30, 2018,weblink September 9, 2018, no,

Other uses

In the 2010s, Unity Technologies used its game engine to transition into other industries using the real-time 3D platform, including film and automotive.NEWS, How Neill Blomkamp and Unity are shaping the future of filmmaking with Adam: The Mirror, Liptak, Andrew,weblink The Verge, November 30, 2017, October 17, 2018,weblink September 25, 2018, no, NEWS, How gaming company Unity is driving automakers toward virtual reality, Edelstein, Stephen,weblink Digital Trends, May 17, 2018, October 17, 2018,weblink August 7, 2018, no, Unity first experimented in filmmaking with Adam, a short film about a robot escaping from prison. Later, Unity partnered with filmmaker Neill Blomkamp, whose Oats Studios used the engine's tools, including real-time rendering and Cinemachine, to create two computer generated short films, Adam: The Mirror and Adam: The Prophet. At the 2017 Unite Europe conference in Amsterdam, Unity focused on filmmaking with Unity 2017.1's new Cinemachine tool. In 2018, Disney Television Animation launched three shorts, called Baymax Dreams, that were created using the Unity engine.NEWS, Disney Television Animation Launching 'Big Hero 6'-Themed Shorts, Giardina, Carolyn,weblink The Hollywood Reporter, August 9, 2018, October 17, 2018,weblink August 9, 2018, no, Automakers use Unity's technology to create full-scale models of new vehicles in virtual reality, build virtual assembly lines, and train workers. Unity's engine is used by DeepMind, an Alphabet Inc. company, to train artificial intelligence.NEWS, How Google's DeepMind will train its AI inside Unity's video game worlds, Captain, Sean,weblink Fast Co., September 26, 2018, October 17, 2018,weblink September 27, 2018, no, Other uses being pursued by Unity Technologies include architecture, engineering, and construction.NEWS, Why EA's former boss believes the 3D tech that powers video games will make way more money outside of gaming, Oreskovic, Alexei,weblink Business Insider, September 14, 2018, October 17, 2018,weblink September 15, 2018, no,


On December 16, 2013, Unity Technologies Japan revealed an official mascot character named {{nihongo|Unity-chan|ユニティちゃん|Yuniti-chan}}, real name {{nihongo|Kohaku Ōtori|大鳥 こはく|Ōtori Kohaku}} (voiced by {{Interlanguage link|Asuka Kakumoto|ja|角元明日香|zh|角元明日香}}). The character's associated game data was released in early 2014.WEB,weblink "Unity"開発者向けに無償利用可能なキャラクター"ユニティちゃん"が来春デビュー!, ja, June 22, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink June 30, 2016, no, WEB,weblink Meet Unity-chan, the Unity Engine's New Mascot in Japan, December 16, 2013, June 22, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink August 27, 2016, no, The character was designed by Unity Technologies Japan designer "ntny" as an open-source heroine character.WEB,weblink Unity Japan Introduces Their Mascot, Unity-Chan, And How She Was Made, April 15, 2014, June 22, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink August 15, 2016, no, The company allows the use of Unity-chan and related characters in secondary projects under certain licenses.WEB,weblink DATA DOWNLOAD-Guideline – UNITY-CHAN! OFFICIAL WEBSITE, UNITY-CHAN! OFFICIAL WEBSITE, November 27, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink November 26, 2015, no, For example, Unity-chan appears as a playable character in Runbow.WEB,weblink Exclusive: Check Out Runbow's Complete Cast of Colourful Crossover Characters, Nintendo Life, November 27, 2015, August 10, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink October 13, 2015, no,

See also



External links

{{Commons category|Unity (game engine)}}
  • {{Official website}}
{{Video game engines}}{{Wii U}}

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