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United States Navy
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{{redirect|USN}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{use American English|date=December 2014}}{{use dmy dates|date=October 2018}}{{short description|Naval warfare branch of US Armed Forces}}







factoids
| type = NavyNaval warfare, power projection, Massive retaliation>nuclear deterrence, and sealiftList of current ships of the United States Navy>total ships 3,900+ Dept. of Navy manned aircraft combined (U.S. Navy operates 2,623 manned aircraft and the U.S. Marine Corps operates 1,304 manned aircraft)WORLD AIR FORCES 2018 >JOURNAL=FLIGHTGLOBAL URL=HTTPS://WWW.FLIGHTGLOBAL.COM/ASSET/21905 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180614045619/HTTPS://WWW.FLIGHTGLOBAL.COM/ASSET/21905 URL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, United States Department of Defense>U.S. Department of Defense The Pentagon {{nowrap>Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.}}| garrison_label = Headquarters| nickname = | patron = Non sibi sed patriae" () (unofficial)PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES NAVYQUOTE=THE NAVY'S COLORS THEMSELVES HAVE SPECIAL MEANING: BLUE REPRESENTS THE OCEAN AND SEAS; GOLD IS THE COLOR OF INTEGRITY AND VALOR.ARCHIVE-DATE=10 FEBRUARY 2018DF=DMY-ALL, HTTP://RGB.TO/PANTONE/ >TITLE=PANTONE COLORS. CONVERT PANTONE COLORS TO RAL, CMYK, RGB, HEX, HSL, HSB, JSON PUBLISHER= ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20151229072803/HTTP://RGB.TO/PANTONE URL-STATUS=LIVE #002F6C}} {{color box|#FFB81C}}| colors_label = ColorsAnchors Aweigh" {{audio>AnchorsAweigh.ogg|Play}}| mascot = List of equipment of the United States Navy>List of U.S. Navy equipment| equipment_label = 177513}}){{NoteTagPUBLISHER=NAVAL HISTORY AND HERITAGE COMMANDDF=DMY-ALLARCHIVE-DATE=28 APRIL 2017, live, | battles = {hide}collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title = See list
American Revolutionary War Quasi-War First Barbary War War of 1812 Second Barbary War West Indies Anti-Piracy Operations of the United States>West Indies Anti-Piracy Operations Seminole Wars African Anti-Slavery Operations of the United States Aegean Sea Anti-Piracy Operations of the United States>Aegean Sea Anti-Piracy Operations First Sumatran expedition United States Exploring Expedition Patriot War Second Sumatran expedition Ivory Coast Expedition Capture of Monterey Mexican–American War Bombardment of San Juan del Norte>Bombardment of Greytown Battle of Ty-ho Bay First Fiji Expedition Filibuster War Second Opium War Second Fiji Expedition Reform War Paraguay expedition American Civil War Bombardment of Qui Nhon Shimonoseki Campaign Formosa Expedition United States expedition to Korea Egyptian Expedition (1882) Bering Sea Anti-Poaching Operations Kingdom of Hawaii overthrowal Second Samoan Civil War Banana Wars Philippine–American War Boxer Rebellion World War I Bombardment of Samsun World War II Korean War 1958 Lebanon crisis Vietnam War Occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965) Iranian Hostage Rescue Multinational Force in Lebanon Invasion of Grenada Bombing of Libya (1986) Tanker War Invasion of Panama Gulf War Iraqi no-fly zones Somali Civil War Bosnian War Kosovo War International Force for East Timor Operation Enduring Freedom Iraq War Operation Burnt FrostOperation Odyssey Dawn 2014 Intervention against ISIL Operation Inherent Resolve War in Afghanistan (2015–present) 2017 Shayrat missile strike{edih}| anniversaries = 13 October200px) Presidential Unit Citation (United States) (File:Navy Unit Commendation streamer (USMC).svg>200px) Navy Unit Commendation (File:Meritorious Unit Commendation (Navy-Marine) Streamer.jpg|200px) Meritorious Unit Commendation| battle_honours = www.navy.mil}}President of the United States>President Donald TrumpPowers of the president of the United States#Commander-in-chief>Commander-in-Chief| commander2 = Mark EsperUnited States Secretary of Defense>Secretary of Defense| commander3 = Richard V. SpencerUnited States Secretary of the Navy>Secretary of the NavyAdmiral (United States)>ADM Michael M. Gilday| commander4_label = Chief of Naval Operations| commander5 = ADM Robert P. Burke| commander5_label = Vice Chief of Naval Operations| commander6 = MCPON Russell L. Smith| commander6_label = Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy| notable_commanders = border|100px)Flag of the United States Navy>Flagborder|100px)Jack of the United States>Jack200px)Commissioning pennant>Pennant75px)| identification_symbol_5_label = Roundel| identification_symbol_6_label = Anchor, Constitution, and Eagle100px)}}The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations.WEB,weblink The Russian Navy Is Aiming To Be Much Larger Than The US Navy, 24 September 2014, Business Insider, 12 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151126035318weblink">weblink 26 November 2015, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Carl Lavo: The gigantic advantage the U.S. Navy has over all others, carllavo.blogspot.de, 12 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151023055436weblink">weblink 23 October 2015, live, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Time, If More Money Buys a Smaller Fleet, What Will Less Money Buy?, 3 December 2012, 13 May 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150518110616weblink">weblink 18 May 2015, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100521061551weblink">weblink dead, 21 May 2010, Speech View, defense.gov, 12 November 2015, It has the highest combined battle fleet tonnageJOURNAL,weblink A Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the Pentagon for a New Age, Gates, Robert M., Robert M. Gates, Foreign Affairs, January–February 2009, Council on Foreign Relations, 27 July 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130805043217weblink">weblink 5 August 2013, live, dmy-all, and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 336,978 personnel on active duty and 101,583 in the Ready Reserve, the U.S. Navy is the third largest of the U.S. military service branches in terms of personnel. It has 290 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft {{as of|2019|06|lc=y}},WEB,weblink The U.S. Navy, U.S. Navy, 23 August 2019, 28 August 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180614172413weblink">weblink 14 June 2018, live, dmy-all, making it the third-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force and the United States Army.The U.S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. After suffering significant loss of goods and personnel at the hands of the Barbary pirates from Algiers, the U.S. Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 for the construction of six heavy frigates, the first ships of the U.S. Navy. The U.S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers. It played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The U.S. Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world. The 21st century U.S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean. It is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and rapidly respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U.S. foreign and military policy.The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, which is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy. The Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.WEB, Responsibilities,weblink United States Navy, Chief of Naval Operations, 15 June 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130624095534weblink">weblink 24 June 2013, live, dmy-all,

Mission

}}The U.S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navy's three primary areas of responsibility:{{USC|10|5062}}
  • The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war.
  • The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, and all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy.
  • The development of aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization, and equipment of naval combat and service elements.
U.S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U.S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U.S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties.BOOK,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120927012607weblink">weblink dead, 27 September 2012, Basic Military Requirements, NAVEDTRA 14325, United States Navy, 20–7, February 2002,

History

Origins

}}}}}}The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors, captains, and shipbuilders.BOOK,weblink American Naval History, 1607–1865: Overcoming the Colonial Legacy, Dull, Jonathan R., U. of Nebraska Press, 2012, 978-0-8032-4471-9, 1–16, 17 October 2015,weblink 26 January 2016, live, dmy-all, In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia. The rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, and make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships; this resolution created the Continental Navy and is considered the first establishment of the U.S. Navy. The Continental Navy achieved mixed results; it was successful in a number of engagements and raided many British merchant vessels, but it lost twenty-four of its vesselsBOOK, Love, Robert W., Jr., History of the US Navy, Volume One: 1775–1941, Harrisburg, Stackpole Books, 1992, 978-0-8117-1862-2, and at one point was reduced to two in active service.BOOK, Howarth, Steven, To Shining Sea: A history of the United States Navy 1776–1991, New York, Random House, 1991, 0-394-57662-4,weblink In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold {{USS|Alliance|1778|2}}, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy.DANFS, Alliance,weblink 31 August 2009, Abbot 1896, Volume I Part I Chapter XVIn 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775.WEB,weblink Origins of the Navy, Naval History & Heritage Command, Naval History & Heritage Command, 1 July 2017, dmy-all,weblink 30 April 2017, live, WEB,weblink Establishment of the Navy, 13 October 1775, US Navy, Naval History & Heritage Command, 5 November 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19990204022651weblink">weblink 4 February 1999,

From re-establishment to the Civil War

{{see also|Union Navy}}File:USSConstellationVsInsurgente.jpg|thumb|right|USS Constellation vs L'Insurgente during the Quasi-WarQuasi-WarThe United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U.S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U.S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U.S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U.S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS (United States Revenue Cutter Service) conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794.WEB,weblink Launching the New U.S. Navy, 27 March 1794, National Archives and Records Administration Center for Legislative Archives Records of the U.S. Senate Record Group 46, 1 July 2017, dmy-all,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110107211812weblink">weblink 7 January 2011, live, The Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: {{USS|United States|1797|6}}, {{USS|Constellation|1797|6}}, and {{USS|Constitution}}. Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy".WEB,weblink John Adams I (Frigate) 1799–1867, USA.gov, 22 August 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150909083339weblink">weblink 9 September 2015, live, dmy-all, In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France.WEB,weblink Quasi-War, Randal Rust, R.Squared Communications, 5 April 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170415193423weblink">weblink 15 April 2017, live, dmy-all, From 1801 to 1805, in the First Barbary War, the U.S. Navy defended U.S. ships from the Barbary pirates, blockaded the Barbary ports and executed attacks against the Barbary' fleets.The U.S. Navy saw substantial action in the War of 1812, where it was victorious in eleven single-ship duels with the Royal Navy. It drove all significant British forces off Lake Erie and Lake Champlain and prevented them from becoming British-controlled zones. The result was a major defeat for the British invasion of New York state, and the defeat of the military threat from the Native American allies of the British. Despite this, the U.S. Navy was unable to prevent the British from blockading its ports and landing troops.WEB,weblink The Navy: The Continental Period, 1775–1890, Palmer, Michael A., Naval History and Heritage Command, 20 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150630012657weblink">weblink 30 June 2015, live, dmy-all, But after the War of 1812 ended in 1815, the U.S. Navy primarily focused its attention on protecting American shipping assets, sending squadrons to the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, where it participated in the Second Barbary War that ended piracy in the region, South America, Africa, and the Pacific. From 1819 to the outbreak of the Civil War, the Africa Squadron operated to suppress the slave trade, seizing 36 slave ships, although its contribution was smaller than that of the much larger British Royal Navy.File:USS Constitution vs Guerriere.jpg|thumb|left|USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere during the War of 1812War of 1812During the Mexican–American War the U.S. Navy blockaded Mexican ports, capturing or burning the Mexican fleet in the Gulf of California and capturing all major cities in Baja California peninsula. In 1846–1848 the Navy successfully used the Pacific Squadron under Commodore Robert Stockton and its marines and blue-jackets to facilitate the capture of California with large scale land operations coordinated with the local militia organized in the California Battalion. The Navy conducted the U.S. military's first large-scale amphibious joint operation by successfully landing 12,000 army troops with their equipment in one day at Veracruz, Mexico. When larger guns were needed to bombard Veracruz, Navy volunteers landed large guns and manned them in the successful bombardment and capture of the city. This successful landing and capture of Veracruz opened the way for the capture of Mexico City and the end of the war. The U.S. Navy established itself as a player in United States foreign policy through the actions of Commodore Matthew Perry in Japan, which resulted in the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.File:Officer, Union Army (6169770467).jpg|thumb|right|200px|A carte de visitecarte de visiteNaval power played a significant role during the American Civil War, in which the Union had a distinct advantage over the Confederacy on the seas. A Union blockade on all major ports shut down exports and the coastal trade, but blockade runners (mostly owned and operated by British companies) provided a thin lifeline. The Brown-water navy's control of the river systems made internal travel difficult for Confederates and easy for the Union. The war saw ironclad warships in combat for the first time at the Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, which pitted {{USS|Monitor}} against {{ship|CSS|Virginia}}.BOOK, McPherson, James M., War on the Waters: The Union and Confederate Navies, 1861–1865,weblink 2012, University of North Carolina Press, 978-0-8078-3588-3, 3–4, 17 October 2015,weblink 26 January 2016, live, dmy-all, For two decades after the war, however, the U.S. Navy's fleet was neglected and became technologically obsolete.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}

20th century

File:Us-atlantic-fleet-1907.jpg|thumb|The Great White Fleet demonstrates U.S. naval power in 1907; it was proof that the U.S. Navy had blue-water capability.]]A modernization program beginning in the 1880s when the first steel-hulled warships stimulated the American steel industry, and "the new steel navy" was born.BOOK, Hacker, Barton C., Vining, Margaret, American Military Technology,weblink 2007, 53, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 978-0-8018-8772-7, 17 October 2015,weblink 26 January 2016, live, dmy-all, This rapid expansion of the U.S. Navy and its easy victory over the Spanish Navy in 1898 brought a new respect for American technical quality. Rapid building of at first pre-dreadnoughts, then dreadnoughts brought the U.S. in line with the navies of countries such as Britain and Germany. In 1907, most of the Navy's battleships, with several support vessels, dubbed the Great White Fleet, were showcased in a 14-month circumnavigation of the world. Ordered by President Theodore Roosevelt, it was a mission designed to demonstrate the Navy's capability to extend to the global theater. By 1911, the U.S. had begun building the super-dreadnoughts at a pace to eventually become competitive with Britain.BOOK, O'Brien, Phillips P., British and American Naval Power: Politics and Policy, 1900–1936,weblink 7, 154–156, 1998, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-275-95898-5, 17 October 2015,weblink 26 January 2016, live, dmy-all, The 1911 also saw the first naval aircraft with the navyWEB,weblink US Naval & Marine Aircraft, Airplanes of the, Past, www.airplanesofthepast.com, 4 April 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180210160849weblink">weblink 10 February 2018, live, dmy-all, which would lead to the informal establishment of United States Naval Flying Corps to protect shore bases. It was not until 1921 US naval aviation truly commenced.File:Puck cover2.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Columbia, personification of the United States, wearing a warship bearing the words "World Power" as her "Easter bonnet" on the cover of Puck, 6 April 1901]]

World War I and interwar years

During World War I, the U.S. Navy spent much of its resources protecting and shipping hundreds of thousands of Soldiers and Marines of the American Expeditionary Force and war supplies across the Atlantic in U-boat infested waters with the Cruiser and Transport Force. It also concentrated on laying the North Sea Mine Barrage. Hesitation by the senior command meant that naval forces were not contributed until late 1917. Battleship Division Nine was dispatched to Britain and served as the Sixth Battle Squadron of the British Grand Fleet. Its presence allowed the British to decommission some older ships and reuse the crews on smaller vessels. Destroyers and U.S. Naval Air Force units like the Northern Bombing Group contributed to the anti-submarine operations. The strength of the United States Navy grew under an ambitious ship building program associated with the Naval Act of 1916.Naval construction, especially of battleships, was limited by the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–22. The aircraft carriers {{USS|Saratoga|CV-3}} and {{USS|Lexington|CV-2}} were built on the hulls of partially built battle cruisers that had been canceled by the treaty. The New Deal used Public Works Administration funds to build warships, such as {{USS|Yorktown|CV-5}} and {{USS|Enterprise|CV-6}}. By 1936, with the completion of {{USS|Wasp|CV-7}}, the U.S. Navy possessed a carrier fleet of 165,000 tonnes displacement, although this figure was nominally recorded as 135,000 tonnes to comply with treaty limitations. Franklin Roosevelt, the number two official in the Navy Department during World War I, appreciated the Navy and gave it strong support. In return, senior leaders were eager for innovation and experimented with new technologies, such as magnetic torpedoes, and developed a strategy called War Plan Orange for victory in the Pacific in a hypothetical war with Japan that would eventually become reality.JOURNAL, Holwitt, Joel I., Reappraising the Interwar US Navy, Journal of Military History, Book review, January 2012, 76, 1, 193–210,

World War II

File:New Mexico class battleship bombarding Okinawa.jpg|thumb|upright|The battleship {{USS|Idaho|BB-42|6}} shells Okinawa on 1 April 1945]]The U.S. Navy grew into a formidable force in the years prior to World War II, with battleship production being restarted in 1937, commencing with {{USS|North Carolina|BB-55}}. Though ultimately unsuccessful, Japan attempted to neutralize this strategic threat with the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Following American entry into the war, the U.S. Navy grew tremendously as the United States was faced with a two-front war on the seas. It achieved notable acclaim in the Pacific Theater, where it was instrumental to the Allies' successful "island hopping" campaign. The U.S. Navy participated in many significant battles, including the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Solomon Islands Campaign, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and the Battle of Okinawa. By 1943, the navy's size was larger than the combined fleets of all the other combatant nations in World War II.BOOK, Crocker III, H. W., Don't Tread on Me, Crown Forum, 2006, New York, 302, 978-1-4000-5363-6,weblink By war's end in 1945, the U.S. Navy had added hundreds of new ships, including 18 aircraft carriers and 8 battleships, and had over 70% of the world's total numbers and total tonnage of naval vessels of 1,000 tons or greater.JOURNAL, Weighing the US Navy, David T., Burbach, Marc, Devore, Harvey M., Sapolsky, Stephen, Van Evera, Defense Analysis, 17, 3, 1 December 2001, 259–265, 10.1080/07430170120093382, BOOK, King, Ernest J., USN, Ernest J. King,weblink US Navy at War 1941–1945: Official Report to the Secretary of the Navy, 3 December 1945, 8 April 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060711124522weblink">weblink 11 July 2006, live, dmy-all, At its peak, the U.S. Navy was operating 6,768 ships on V-J Day in August 1945.WEB,weblink U.S. Navy Active Ship Force Levels, 1886–present, U.S. Navy, Naval History & Heritage Command, 20 June 2015, 20 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150613070332weblink">weblink 13 June 2015, live, dmy-all, Doctrine had significantly shifted by the end of the war. The U.S. Navy had followed in the footsteps of the navies of Great Britain and Germany which favored concentrated groups of battleships as their main offensive naval weapons.JOURNAL, The Evolution of Fleet Tactical Doctrine in the U.S. Navy, 1922–1941, Trent, Hone, The Journal of Military History, 67, 4, October 2003, 1107–1148, Society for Military History, 3396884, 10.1353/jmh.2003.0300, The development of the aircraft carrier and its devastating utilization by the Japanese against the U.S. at Pearl Harbor, however, shifted U.S. thinking. The Pearl Harbor attack destroyed or took out of action a significant number of U.S. Navy battleships. This placed much of the burden of retaliating against the Japanese on the small number of aircraft carriers.JOURNAL, Tactical Use of Air Power in World War II: The Navy Experience, Henry M., Dater, Military Affairs, 14, 4, 1950, 192–200, Society for Military History, 1982840, 10.2307/1982840, During World War II some 4,000,000 Americans served in the United States Navy.WEB,weblink Expanding the Size of the U.S. Military in World War II, warfarehistorynetwork.com, 2019-03-13,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180812194913weblink">weblink 12 August 2018, live, dmy-all,

Cold War

(File:USS George Washington (SSBN-598).jpg|thumb|{{USS|George Washington|SSBN-598}}, a ballistic missile submarine)The potential for armed conflict with the Soviet Union during the Cold War pushed the U.S. Navy to continue its technological advancement by developing new weapons systems, ships, and aircraft. U.S. naval strategy changed to that of forward deployment in support of U.S. allies with an emphasis on carrier battle groups.WEB,weblink The Navy: The Transoceanic Period, 1945–1992, Palmer, Michael A., U.S. Navy, Naval History & Heritage Command, 20 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150630002739weblink">weblink 30 June 2015, live, dmy-all, The navy was a major participant in the Vietnam War, blockaded Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and, through the use of ballistic missile submarines, became an important aspect of the United States' nuclear strategic deterrence policy. The U.S. Navy conducted various combat operations in the Persian Gulf against Iran in 1987 and 1988, most notably Operation Praying Mantis. The Navy was extensively involved in Operation Urgent Fury, Operation Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm, Operation Deliberate Force, Operation Allied Force, Operation Desert Fox and Operation Southern Watch.The U.S. Navy has also been involved in search and rescue/search and salvage operations, sometimes in conjunction with vessels of other countries as well as with U.S. Coast Guard ships. Two examples are the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash incident and the subsequent search for missing hydrogen bombs, and Task Force 71 of the Seventh Fleet's operation in search for Korean Air Lines Flight 007, shot down by the Soviets on 1 September 1983.

21st century

|url=http://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/online-reading-room/title-list-alphabetically/u/us-navy-in-desert-shield-desert-storm.html |publisher=U.S. Navy |website=Naval History & Heritage Command |date=15 May 1991 |access-date=20 June 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150629190020weblink |archive-date=29 June 2015 |url-status=live |df=dmy-all }}}}
The U.S. Navy continues to be a major support to U.S. interests in the 21st century. Since the end of the Cold War, it has shifted its focus from preparations for large-scale war with the Soviet Union to special operations and strike missions in regional conflicts.WEB,weblink Forward ... From the Sea, Department of the Navy, March 1997, 25 July 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061121232752weblink">weblink 21 November 2006, live, dmy-all, The navy participated in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and is a major participant in the ongoing War on Terror, largely in this capacity. Development continues on new ships and weapons, including the {{sclass-|Gerald R. Ford|aircraft carrier|2}} and the Littoral combat ship. Because of its size, weapons technology, and ability to project force far from U.S. shores, the current U.S. Navy remains a potent asset for the United States. Moreover, it is the principal means through which the U.S. maintains international global order, namely by safeguarding global trade and protecting allied nations.WEB, Farley, Robert, A US Navy With 350 Ships... But What For?,weblink thediplomat.com, The Diplomat, 22 November 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161122153526weblink">weblink 22 November 2016, live, dmy-all, In 2007, the U.S. Navy joined with the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war. The strategy was presented by the Chief of Naval Operations, the Commandant of the Marine Corps, and Commandant of the Coast Guard at the International Sea Power Symposium in Newport, RI on 17 October 2007.NEWS,weblink Sea Services Unveil New Maritime Strategy, Navy News Service, 17 October 2007, Jim, Garamone, NNS071017-13, American Forces Press Service, 27 May 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090305040311weblink">weblink 5 March 2009, live, dmy-all, The strategy recognized the economic links of the global system and how any disruption due to regional crises (man-made or natural) can adversely impact the U.S. economy and quality of life. This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent these crises from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to prevent negative impacts on the U.S.In 2010, Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Gary Roughead, noted that demands on the Navy have grown as the fleet has shrunk and that in the face of declining budgets in the future, the U.S. Navy must rely even more on international partnerships.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120908023524weblink">weblink dead, 8 September 2012, CNO: Global challenges need global responses, Navy Times, 22 June 2010, Lance M., Bacon, In its 2013 budget request, the navy focused on retaining all eleven big deck carriers, at the expense of cutting numbers of smaller ships and delaying the SSBN replacement.NEWS,weblink Pentagon Saves Carrier At Other Programs’ Expense, 27 January 2012, Fabey, Michael, Aviation Week, By the next year the USN found itself unable to maintain eleven aircraft carriers in the face of the expiration of budget relief offered by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 and CNO Jonathan Greenert said that a ten ship carrier fleet would not be able to sustainably support military requirements.NEWS,weblink Navy's top admiral: Reducing carrier fleet would burn out sailors, ships, Harper, Jon, 22 May 2014, www.stripes.com, Stars and Stripes, 22 May 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140522160237weblink">weblink 22 May 2014, live, dmy-all, The British First Sea Lord George Zambellas said thatWEB, Stashwick, Steven, Road to 350: What Does the US Navy Do Anyway?,weblink thediplomat.com, The Diplomat, 22 November 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161122153836weblink">weblink 22 November 2016, live, dmy-all, the USN had switched from "outcome-led to resource-led" planning.NEWS,weblink Scotland, Missile Defense And Subs, Sweetman, Bill, 11 August 2014, aviationweek.com, Penton, 11 August 2014,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20170525032347weblink">weblink 25 May 2017, live, dmy-all, One significant change in U.S. policymaking that is having a major effect on naval planning is the Pivot to East Asia. In response, the Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus stated in 2015 that 60 percent of the total U.S. fleet will be deployed to the Pacific by 2020.WEB,weblink US Navy Secretary: We will Have Over 300 Ships by 2020, Franz-Stefan Gady, The Diplomat, The Diplomat, 12 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151023185658weblink">weblink 23 October 2015, live, dmy-all, The Navy's most recent 30-year shipbuilding plan, published in 2016, calls for a future fleet of 350 ships in order to meet the challenges of an increasingly competitive international environment. A provision of the 2018 National Defense Authorization Act called for expanding the naval fleet to 355 ships "as soon as practicable", but did not establish additional funding nor a timeline.WEB, Larter, David B., Trump just made a 355-ship Navy national policy,weblink www.defensenews.com, Defense News, 2 November 2018, File:US_Navy_100913-N-4973M-012_Lt._j.g._Craig_Mueller,_from_St._Louis,_Mo.,_and_Lt._j.g._Zach_Decker,_from_Boulder,_Co.,_monitor_the_defense_systems_ab.jpg|U.S. Navy officers aboard the aircraft carrier {{USS|Abraham Lincoln|CVN-72|6}} monitor defense systems during early 2010s maritime security operations exercisesFile:USS America (LHA-6) off Pascagoula in 2013.JPG|The amphibious assault ship {{USS|America|LHA-6|6}}, launched in 2012File:US Navy 090210-N-9671T-144 A port security boat patrols the waters near Kuwait Naval Base.jpg|U.S. Navy patrol boat near Kuwait Naval Base in 2009

Organization

(File:US Navy organization.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|Simplified flowchart of U.S. Navy command structure)The U.S. Navy falls under the administration of the Department of the Navy, under civilian leadership of the Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV). The most senior naval officer is the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), a four-star admiral who is immediately under and reports to the Secretary of the Navy. At the same time, the Chief of Naval Operations is one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which is the second-highest deliberative body of the armed forces after the United States National Security Council, although it only plays an advisory role to the President and does not nominally form part of the chain of command. The Secretary of the Navy and Chief of Naval Operations are responsible for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Navy so that it is ready for operation under the command of the unified combat command commanders.

Operating forces

File:USN Fleets (2009).png|alt=Areas of responsibility for each of the United States Navy Fleets.|thumb|Areas of responsibility for each of the United States Navy Fleets. Tenth Fleet serves as the numbered fleet for U.S. Fleet Cyber CommandU.S. Fleet Cyber CommandThere are nine components in the operating forces of the U.S. Navy: the United States Fleet Forces Command (formerly United States Atlantic Fleet), United States Pacific Fleet, United States Naval Forces Central Command, United States Naval Forces Europe, Naval Network Warfare Command, Navy Reserve, United States Naval Special Warfare Command, Operational Test and Evaluation Force, and Military Sealift Command. Fleet Forces Command controls a number of unique capabilities, including Military Sealift Command, Naval Expeditionary Combat Command, and Navy Cyber Forces.The United States Navy has seven active numbered fleets â€“ Second, Third, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh Fleet and Tenth Fleets are each led by a vice admiral, and the Fourth Fleet is led by a rear admiral. These seven fleets are further grouped under Fleet Forces Command (the former Atlantic Fleet), Pacific Fleet, Naval Forces Europe-Africa, and Naval Forces Central Command, whose commander also doubles as Commander Fifth Fleet; the first three commands being led by four-star admirals. The United States First Fleet existed after the Second World War from 1947, but it was redesignated the Third Fleet in early 1973. The United States Second Fleet was deactivated in September 2011 but reestablished in August 2018 amid heightened tensions with Russia.NEWS,weblink US Navy re-establishes Second Fleet amid Russia tensions, CNN, Ryan Browne,, CNN, 2018-11-16,weblink 30 October 2018, live, dmy-all, It is headquartered in Norfolk, Virginia, with responsibility over the East Coast and North Atlantic.NEWS,weblink Navy Establishes U.S. 2nd Fleet, Vice Adm. Lewis Assumes Command, Affairs, This story was written by U.S. Fleet Forces Public, 2018-11-16, en,weblink 5 October 2018, live, dmy-all, In early 2008, the Navy reactivated the United States Fourth Fleet to control operations in the area controlled by Southern Command, which consists of US assets in and around Central and South America.NEWS,weblink Navy Reestablishes U.S. Fourth Fleet, Navy News Service, 24 April 2008, Gragg, Alan, MCS3, NNS080424-13, 30 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080502014504weblink">weblink 2 May 2008, live, dmy-all, Other number fleets were activated during World War II and later deactivated, renumbered, or merged.{{further|Structure of the United States Navy#Numbered_fleets}}

Shore establishments

File:USS Kitty Hawk at Yokosuka.jpg|thumb|{{USS|Kitty Hawk|CV-63}} docks at the U.S. Navy base in Yokosuka, Japan ]]Shore establishments exist to support the mission of the fleet through the use of facilities on land. Among the commands of the shore establishment, {{as of|2011|04|lc=y}}, are the Naval Education and Training Command, the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, the Naval Supply Systems Command, the Naval Air Systems Command, the Naval Sea Systems Command, the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, the Bureau of Naval Personnel, the United States Naval Academy, the Naval Safety Center, the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center, and the United States Naval Observatory.WEB,weblink The shore establishment, United States Navy, Navy Organization, 28 November 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150423070709weblink">weblink 23 April 2015, dmy-all, Official Navy websites list the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Chief of Naval Operations as part of the shore establishment, but these two entities effectively sit superior to the other organizations, playing a coordinating role.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}

Relationships with other service branches

United States Marine Corps

File:F-18A Hornet VMFA-451 USS Coral Sea 1989.jpeg|thumb|A Marine F/A-18 from Coral Sea|CV-43}}In 1834, the United States Marine Corps came under the Department of the Navy.WEB,weblink Navy and Marine Corps History, Customs, and Courtesies – Fundamentals, Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, United States Marine Corps,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120314062316weblink">weblink 14 March 2012, Historically, the Navy has had a unique relationship with the USMC, partly because they both specialize in seaborne operations. Together the Navy and Marine Corps form the Department of the Navy and report to the Secretary of the Navy. However, the Marine Corps is a distinct, separate service branchWEB,weblink PDF, National Security Act of 1947 (As amended 3 August 2007), (50 U.S.C. 426), 26 July 1947, §606.(9) p. 69, 20 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150213062458weblink">weblink 13 February 2015, live, dmy-all, with its own uniformed service chief – the Commandant of the Marine Corps, a four-star general.The Marine Corps depends on the Navy for medical support (dentists, doctors, nurses, medical technicians known as corpsmen) and religious support (chaplains). Thus Navy officers and enlisted sailors fulfill these roles. When attached to Marine Corps units deployed to an operational environment they generally wear Marine camouflage uniforms, but otherwise, they wear Navy dress uniforms unless they opt to conform to Marine Corps grooming standards.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}In the operational environment, as an expeditionary force specializing in amphibious operations, Marines often embark on Navy ships to conduct operations from beyond territorial waters. Marine units deploying as part of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) operate under the command of the existing Marine chain of command. Although Marine units routinely operate from amphibious assault ships, the relationship has evolved over the years much as the Commander of the Carrier Air Group/Wing (CAG) does not work for the carrier commanding officer, but coordinates with the ship's CO and staff. Some Marine aviation squadrons, usually fixed-wing assigned to carrier air wings train and operate alongside Navy squadrons; they fly similar missions and often fly sorties together under the cognizance of the CAG. Aviation is where the Navy and Marines share the most common ground since aircrews are guided in their use of aircraft by standard procedures outlined in a series of publications known as NATOPS manuals.

United States Coast Guard

(File:Flickr - Official U.S. Navy Imagery - U.S. Coast Guard helicopters land aboard USS Wasp..jpg|thumb|right|A U.S. Coast Guard helicopter prepares to land on the flight deck of the amphibious assault ship {{USS|Wasp|LHD-1}})The United States Coast Guard, in its peacetime role with the Department of Homeland Security, fulfills its law enforcement and rescue role in the maritime environment. It provides Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) to Navy vessels, where they perform arrests and other law enforcement duties during naval boarding and interdiction missions. In times of war, the Coast Guard operates as a service in the Navy.WEB,weblink Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School, 14 USC 3. Relationship to Navy Department, 28 July 2013, At other times, Coast Guard Port Security Units are sent overseas to guard the security of ports and other assets. The Coast Guard also jointly staffs the Navy's naval coastal warfare groups and squadrons (the latter of which were known as harbor defense commands until late-2004), which oversee defense efforts in foreign littoral combat and inshore areas.

Personnel

File:US Navy SEALs at Zhawar Kili cave entrance.jpg|thumb|Navy SEALs at one of the entrances to the Zhawar KiliZhawar KiliThe United States Navy has over 400,000 personnel, approximately a quarter of whom are in ready reserve. Of those on active duty, more than eighty percent are enlisted sailors and around fifteen percent are commissioned officers; the rest are midshipmen of the United States Naval Academy and midshipmen of the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps at over 180 universities around the country and officer candidates at the Navy's Officer Candidate School.Enlisted sailors complete basic military training at boot camp and then are sent to complete training for their individual careers.WEB,weblink Training After Boot Camp, 10 Steps to Joining the Military, Military.com, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160818221303weblink">weblink 18 August 2016, 16 September 2017, dmy-all, Sailors prove they have mastered skills and deserve responsibilities by completing Personnel Qualification Standards (PQS) tasks and examinations. Among the most important is the "warfare qualification", which denotes a journeyman level of capability in Surface Warfare, Aviation Warfare, Information Dominance Warfare, Naval Aircrew, Special Warfare, Seabee Warfare, Submarine Warfare or Expeditionary Warfare. Many qualifications are denoted on a sailor's uniform with U.S. Navy badges and insignia.

Uniforms

{{See also|Uniforms of the United States Navy}}The uniforms of the U.S. Navy have evolved gradually since the first uniform regulations for officers were issued in 1802 on the formation of the Navy Department. The predominant colors of U.S. Navy uniforms are navy blue and white. U.S. Navy uniforms were based on Royal Navy uniforms of the time, and have tended to follow that template.WEB, History of US Navy Uniforms, 1776–1981,weblink Naval History and Heritage Command, US Navy, 22 November 2016,weblink 9 December 2016, live, dmy-all,

Commissioned officers

{{See also|United States Navy officer rank insignia|Ranks and insignia of NATO navies officers}}The commissioned officer ranks of the U.S. Navy are divided into three categories: junior officers, senior officers, and flag officers. Junior officers are those officers in pay grades O-1 to O-4, while senior officers are those in pay grades O-5 and O-6, and flag officers are those in pay grades of O-7 and above.{{Ranks and Insignia of United States Navy}}Navy officers serve either as a line officer or as a staff corps officer. Line officers wear an embroidered gold star above their rank of the naval service dress uniform while staff corps officers and commissioned warrant officers wear unique specialty devices.U.S. Navy Uniform Regulations, 4102 – Sleeve Designs for Line and Staff Corps {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181119091858weblink |date=19 November 2018 }}, updated 28 January 11, accessed 22 January 12U.S. Navy Personnel Command, Officer, Community Managers, LDO/CWO OCM, References, LDO/CWO Designators {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130927085427weblink |date=2013-09-27 }}, rout page updated 4 October 11, accessed 22 January 12{| style="text-align:center; border:1px solid #8888aa; background-color:white; padding:5px; font-size:95%; margin: 0px 8px 8px 0px;"! Type !! Line officer !! Medical Corps !! Dental Corps !! Nurse Corps !! Medical Service Corps !! Judge Advocate General's Corps| Insignia60px)40px)40px)40px)40px)60px)List of Naval Officer Designators>Designator11XXX210X220X290X230X250X! Chaplain Corps(Christian Faith) !! Chaplain Corps(Jewish Faith) !! Chaplain Corps(Muslim Faith) !! Chaplain Corps(Buddhist Faith) !! Supply Corps !! Civil Engineer Corps !! Law Community(Limited Duty Officer)50px)40px)50px)60px)60px)70px)60px)|655X

Warrant officers

(File:USN Chief Warrant Officer Specialty Devices.png|450px|thumb|U.S. Navy warrant officer specialty insignias)The warrant and chief warrant officer ranks are technical specialists who directs specific activities essential to the proper operation of the ship, which also require commissioned officer authority.WEB,weblinkHist_of_Army_WO.htm#Introduction, History of the Warrant Officer, United States Army Warrant Officer Association, 18 March 2007, Navy warrant officers serve in 30 specialties covering five categories. Warrant officers should not be confused with the limited duty officer (LDO) in the Navy. Warrant officers perform duties that are directly related to their previous enlisted service and specialized training. This allows the Navy to capitalize on the experience of warrant officers without having to frequently transition them to other duty assignments for advancement.WEB, http:www.usawoa.org/woheritagWO_Prog_Other_Svc.htm, Warrant Officer Programs of Other Services, United States Army Warrant Officer Association, 18 March 2007, https:web.archive.org/web/20061230211659weblink 30 December 2006, dead, Most Navy warrant officers are accessed from the chief petty officer pay grades, E-7 through E-9, analogous to a senior non-commissioned officers in the other services, and must have a minimum 14 years time in service.WEB,weblink ACTIVE DUTY LIMITED DUTY OFFICER AND CHIEF WARRANT OFFICER IN SERVICE PROCUREMENT BOARDS, US Navy, United States Government, Washington, D.C., March 8, 2017, {| class="wikitable" style="margin-left: border: none; width:40%; text-align:center; cellpadding: 2; cellspacing: 0;"! Pay grade!!W-1!!W-2!!W-3!!W-4!!W-5!Insignia40px)40px)40px)40px)40px)!TitleWarrant Officer (United States)>Warrant Officer OneWarrant Officer (United States)>Chief Warrant Officer TwoWarrant Officer (United States)>Chief Warrant Officer ThreeWarrant Officer (United States)>Chief Warrant Officer FourWarrant Officer (United States)>Chief Warrant Officer Five!Abbreviation|CWO-5

Enlisted

{{See also|List of United States Navy enlisted rates|Ranks and insignia of NATO navies enlisted|List of United States Navy ratings}}Sailors in pay grades E-1 through E-3 are considered to be in apprenticeships.WEB, Group rate marks for pay grades E-1 through E-3, U. S. Navy,weblink 25 January 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061122204030weblink">weblink 22 November 2006, live, dmy-all, They are divided into five definable groups, with colored group rate marks designating the group to which they belong: Seaman, Fireman, Airman, Constructionman, and Hospitalman. E-4 to E-6 are non-commissioned officers (NCOs), and are specifically called Petty officers in the Navy.BOOK, United States Navy Uniform Regulations, BUPERS, U. S. Navy,weblink 26 January 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061206095348weblink">weblink 6 December 2006, Petty Officers perform not only the duties of their specific career field but also serve as leaders to junior enlisted personnel. E-7 to E-9 are still considered Petty Officers, but are considered a separate community within the Navy. They have separate berthing and dining facilities (where feasible), wear separate uniforms, and perform separate duties.After attaining the rate of Master Chief Petty Officer, a service member may choose to further his or her career by becoming a Command Master Chief Petty Officer (CMC). A CMC is considered to be the senior-most enlisted service member within a command, and is the special assistant to the Commanding Officer in all matters pertaining to the health, welfare, job satisfaction, morale, utilization, advancement and training of the command's enlisted personnel.WEB
, Navy Enlisted Advancement System – Master Chief
, Navy Professional Development Center, Military.com
,weblink
, 28 January 2007
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061214104540weblink">weblink
, 14 December 2006
, live
, dmy-all
,
WEB
, Senior And Master Chiefs As Principal Enlisted Advisor
, Military Requirements for Senior and Master Chief Petty Officer Chief
, Integrated Publishing
,weblink
, 28 January 2007
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929102806weblink">weblink
, 29 September 2007
,
, CMCs can be Command level (within a single unit, such as a ship or shore station), Fleet level (squadrons consisting of multiple operational units, headed by a flag officer or commodore), or Force level (consisting of a separate community within the Navy, such as Subsurface, Air, Reserves).WEB
, Chief of Naval Operations OPNAV Instructions 1306.2D
, Navydata, U. S. Navy
,weblink
, 28 January 2007
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070205214731weblink">weblink
, 5 February 2007
, live
, dmy-all
,
CMC insignia are similar to the insignia for Master Chief, except that the rating symbol is replaced by an inverted five-point star, reflecting a change in their rating from their previous rating (i.e., MMCM) to CMDCM. The stars for Command Master Chief are silver, while stars for Fleet or Force Master Chief are gold. Additionally, CMCs wear a badge, worn on their left breast pocket, denoting their title (Command/Fleet/Force).WEB, United States Navy Uniform Regulations CPO Rating, BUPERS, U. S. Navy,weblink 26 January 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061206095333weblink">weblink 6 December 2006, {{Enlisted Ranks and Insignia of the United States Navy}}

Badges of the United States Navy

{{See also|Badges of the United States Navy}}Insignia and badges of the United States Navy are military "badges" issued by the United States Department of the Navy to naval service members who achieve certain qualifications and accomplishments while serving on both active and reserve duty in the United States Navy. Most naval aviation insignia are also permitted for wear on uniforms of the United States Marine Corps.As described in Chapter 5 of U.S. Navy Uniform Regulations,WEB
,weblink
, United States Navy Uniform Regulations
, United States Navy
, 16 October 2009
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110415092642weblink">weblink
, 15 April 2011
, live
, dmy-all
,
"badges" are categorized as breast insignia (usually worn immediately above and below ribbons) and identification badges (usually worn at breast pocket level).
WEB
,weblink
, Uniform Regulations, Chapter 5, Identification Badges/Awards/Insignia
, United States Navy
, 2 April 2007
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110418091253weblink">weblink
, 18 April 2011
, live
, dmy-all
,
Breast insignia are further divided between command and warfare and other qualification.
WEB
,weblink
, Uniform Regulations, Chapter 5, Section 2, Breast Insignia
, United States Navy
, 18 November 2007
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110610003155weblink">weblink
, 10 June 2011
, live
, dmy-all
,
Insignia come in the form of metal "pin-on devices" worn on formal uniforms and embroidered "tape strips" worn on work uniforms. For the purpose of this article, the general term "insignia" shall be used to describe both, as it is done in Navy Uniform Regulations. The term "badge", although used ambiguously in other military branches and in informal speak to describe any pin, patch, or tab, is exclusive to identification badgesWEB
,weblink
, Uniform Regulations, Chapter 5, Section 2, Article 5201.2, Warfare and Other Qualifications
, United States Navy
, 18 November 2007
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110610003155weblink">weblink
, 10 June 2011
, live
, dmy-all
,
and authorized marksmanship awards
WEB
,weblink
, Uniform Regulations, Chapter 5, Section 3, Article 5310, Marksmanship Awards (Badges)
, United States Navy
, 18 November 2007
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110607024714weblink">weblink
, 7 June 2011
, live
, dmy-all
,
according to the language in Navy Uniform Regulations, Chapter 5. Below are just a few of the many badges maintained by the Navy. The rest can be seen in the article cited at the top of this section:
File:Naval Aviator Badge.jpg|Naval Aviator BadgeFile:USN - Submarine Officer and Enlisted.jpg|Submarine Officer and EnlistedFile:Surface Warfare Officer Insignia.png|Surface Warfare Officer Insignia

Bases

(File:United States Navy bases.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|Map of Navy bases in the United States)The size, complexity, and international presence of the United States Navy requires a large number of navy installations to support its operations. While the majority of bases are located inside the United States itself, the Navy maintains a significant number of facilities abroad, either in U.S.-controlled territories or in foreign countries under a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA).

Eastern United States

The second largest concentration of installations is at Hampton Roads, Virginia, where the navy occupies over {{convert|36000|acres}} of land. Located at Hampton Roads are Naval Station Norfolk, homeport of the Atlantic Fleet; Naval Air Station Oceana, a Master Jet Base; Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek; and Training Support Center Hampton Roads as well as a number of Navy and commercial shipyards that service navy vessels. The Aegis Training and Readiness Center is located at the Naval Support Activity South Potomac in Dahlgren, Virginia. Maryland is home to NAS Patuxent River, which houses the Navy's Test Pilot School. Also located in Maryland is the United States Naval Academy, situated in Annapolis. NS Newport in Newport, Rhode Island is home to many schools and tenant commands, including the Officer Candidate School, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, and more, and also maintains inactive ships.{{clarify|date=December 2017}}There is also a naval base in Charleston, South Carolina. This is home to the Nuclear A-School, and the Nuclear Field Power school, and one of two nuclear 'Prototype' Schools. The state of Florida is the location of three major bases, NS Mayport, the Navy's fourth largest, in Jacksonville, Florida; NAS Jacksonville, a Master Air Anti-submarine Warfare base; and NAS Pensacola; home of the Naval Education and Training Command, the Naval Air Technical Training Center that provides specialty training for enlisted aviation personnel and is the primary flight training base for Navy and Marine Corps Naval Flight Officers and enlisted Naval Aircrewman. There is also NSA Panama City, Florida which is home to the Navy Diving and Salvage Training Center.The main U.S. Navy submarine bases on the east coast are located in Naval Submarine Base New London in Groton, Connecticut and NSB Kings Bay in Kings Bay, Georgia. The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard near Portsmouth, New Hampshire,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160122174351weblink">weblink dead, 22 January 2016, MilitaryINSTALLATIONS – U.S. Department of Defense, scot.greber, which repairs naval submarines. NS Great Lakes, north of Chicago, Illinois is the home of the Navy's boot camp for enlisted sailors.The Washington Navy Yard in Washington, DC is the Navy's oldest shore establishment and serves as a ceremonial and administrative center for the U.S. Navy, home to the Chief of Naval Operations, and is headquarters for numerous commands.

Western United States and Hawaii

File:US Navy SEALs SEAL jumps over side boat.jpg|thumb|Underwater Demolition TeamUnderwater Demolition TeamFile:US Navy 120209-N-XD935-302 Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Shane Tuck, assigned to the Expeditionary Combat Camera Underwater Photo Team, c.jpg|thumb|right|Combat Camera Underwater Photo Team – A US Navy diver during underwater photographyunderwater photographyThe navy's largest complex is Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, California, which covers {{convert|1.1|million acres}} of land, or approximately 1/3 of the United States Navy's total land holdings.Naval Base San Diego, California, is the main homeport of the Pacific Fleet (although its headquarters is located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii). NAS North Island is located on the north side of Coronado, and is home to Headquarters for Naval Air Forces and Naval Air Force Pacific, the bulk of the Pacific Fleet's helicopter squadrons, and part of the West Coast aircraft carrier fleet. NAB Coronado is located on the southern end of the Coronado Island and is home to the navy's west coast SEAL teams and special boat units. NAB Coronado is also home to the Naval Special Warfare Center, the primary training center for SEALs.The other major collection of naval bases on the west coast is in Puget Sound, Washington. Among them, NS Everett is one of the newer bases and the navy states that it is its most modern facility.WEB,weblink Naval Station Everett, Naval Station Everett Official Site,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050909071923weblink">weblink 9 September 2005, NAS Fallon, Nevada serves as the primary training ground for navy strike aircrews, and is home to the Naval Strike Air Warfare Center. Master Jet Bases are also located at NAS Lemoore, California and NAS Whidbey Island, Washington, while the carrier-based airborne early warning aircraft community and major air test activities are located at NAS Point Mugu, California. The naval presence in Hawaii is centered on NS Pearl Harbor, which hosts the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet and many of its subordinate commands.

United States territories

File:US Navy 030527-N-0000X-001 The aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) pier side in Apra Harbor, Guam.jpg|thumb|{{USS|Carl Vinson|CVN-70}} pier side in Apra Harbor, GuamGuamGuam, an island strategically located in the Western Pacific Ocean, maintains a sizable U.S. Navy presence, including NB Guam. The westernmost U.S. territory, it contains a natural deep water harbor capable of harboring aircraft carriers in emergencies.WEB,weblink Guam, GlobalSecurity, 19 May 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070510124045weblink">weblink 10 May 2007, live, dmy-all, Its naval air station was deactivatedWEB,weblink Naval Air Station, Agana [Tiyan], GlobalSecurity, 19 February 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150626111740weblink">weblink 26 June 2015, live, dmy-all, in 1995 and its flight activities transferred to nearby Andersen Air Force Base.Puerto Rico in the Caribbean formerly housed NS Roosevelt Roads, which was shut down in 2004 shortly after the controversial closure of the live ordnance training area on nearby Vieques Island.

Foreign countries

The largest overseas base is the United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka, Japan,WEB,weblink Yokosuka, Japan 35°17'N 139°40'E, GlobalSecurity, 19 April 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060420184052weblink">weblink 20 April 2006, live, dmy-all, which serves as the home port for the navy's largest forward-deployed fleet and is a significant base of operations in the Western Pacific.European operations revolve around facilities in Italy (NAS Sigonella and Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station Naples) with NSA Naples as the homeport for the Sixth Fleet and Command Naval Region Europe, Africa, Southwest Asia (CNREURAFSWA), and additional facilities in nearby Gaeta. There is also NS Rota in Spain and NSA Souda Bay in Greece.In the Middle East, naval facilities are located almost exclusively in countries bordering the Persian Gulf, with NSA Bahrain serving as the headquarters of U.S. Naval Forces Central Command and U.S. Fifth Fleet.NS Guantanamo Bay in Cuba is the oldest overseas facility and has become known in recent years as the location of a detention camp for suspected al-Qaeda operatives.WEB,weblink Naval facilities outside the US, United States Navy, 20 June 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150518160349weblink">weblink 18 May 2015,

Equipment

{{As of|2018}}, the navy operates over 460 ships, including vessels operated by the Military Sealift Command (MSC) crewed by a combination of civilian contractors and a small number of uniformed Naval personnel, 3,650+ aircraft, 50,000 non-combat vehicles and owns 75,200 buildings on {{convert|3300000|acre|km2}}.

Ships

{{See also|List of currently active United States military watercraft|United States Navy ships|United States ship naming conventions}}The names of commissioned ships of the U.S. Navy are prefixed with the letters "USS", designating "United States Ship".WEB,weblink Ship Naming in the United States Navy, United States Navy, Naval History & Heritage Command, 20 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150617070146weblink">weblink 17 June 2015, live, dmy-all, Non-commissioned, civilian-manned vessels of the navy have names that begin with "USNS", standing for "United States Naval Ship" The names of ships are officially selected by the secretary of the navy, often to honor important people or places.O'Rourke, Ronald. (2013). Navy Ship Names: Background For Congress. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150928194627weblink |date=28 September 2015 }} Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Additionally, each ship is given a letter-based hull classification symbol (for example, CVN or DDG) to indicate the vessel's type and number. All ships in the navy inventory are placed in the Naval Vessel Register, which is part of "the Navy List" (required by article 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea).{{dubious |date=July 2013}} The register tracks data such as the current status of a ship, the date of its commissioning, and the date of its decommissioning. Vessels that are removed from the register prior to disposal are said to be stricken from the register. The navy also maintains a reserve fleet of inactive vessels that are maintained for reactivation in times of need.The U.S. Navy was one of the first to install nuclear reactors aboard naval vessels;WEB,weblink CVN-65 Enterprise, GlobalSecurity, 7 March 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070314090341weblink">weblink 14 March 2007, live, dmy-all, today, nuclear energy powers all active U.S. aircraft carriers and submarines. In the case of the {{sclass-|Nimitz|aircraft carrier|0}} carrier, two naval reactors give the ship almost unlimited range and provide enough electrical energy to power a city of 100,000 people.WEB,weblink CVN-68 Nimitz Class, GlobalSecurity, 8 April 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060406020159weblink">weblink 6 April 2006, live, dmy-all, The U.S. Navy previously operated nuclear-powered cruisers, but all have been decommissioned.The U.S. Navy had identified a need for 313 combat ships in early 2010s, but under its plans at the time could only afford 232 to 243.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, 25 May 2017, Vice Adm. Barry McCullough, Defense News, dmy-all, In March 2014, the Navy started counting self-deployable support ships such as minesweepers, surveillance craft, and tugs in the "battle fleet" in order to reach a count of 272 as of October 2016,Fleet Size {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161019001420weblink |date=19 October 2016 }} US Navy Retrieved 17 October 2016WEB,weblinkweblink dead, 9 March 2014, US Navy Budget Plan: Major Questions Abound, CAVAS, CHRISTOPHER P., 9 March 2014, defensenews.com, Gannett Government Media, 9 March 2014, and it includes ships that have been put in "shrink wrap".WEB,weblink Outrage on Capitol Hill As Navy Changes Ship-Counting Rules, Freedberg Jr., Sydney J., 11 March 2014, breakingdefense.com, Breaking Media, Inc., 11 March 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140312213008weblink">weblink 12 March 2014, live, dmy-all,

Aircraft carriers

(File:USS Nimitz in Victoria Canada 036.jpg|thumb|{{USS|Nimitz}}, a {{sclass-|Nimitz|aircraft carrier}})An aircraft carrier is typically deployed along with a host of additional vessels, forming a carrier strike group. The supporting ships, which usually include three or four Aegis-equipped cruisers and destroyers, a frigate, and two attack submarines, are tasked with protecting the carrier from air, missile, sea, and undersea threats as well as providing additional strike capabilities themselves. Ready logistics support for the group is provided by a combined ammunition, oiler, and supply ship. Modern carriers are named after American admirals and politicians, usually presidents.The Navy has a statutory requirement for a minimum of 11 aircraft carriers.NEWS,weblink US Navy to Gates: Yes, we need 11 aircraft carriers, Reuters, 6 May 2010, Wolf, Jim, Currently there are 10 that are deployable and one, {{USS|Gerald R. Ford}}, that is currently undergoing extensive systems and technologies testing until around 2021.WEB, Sam, LaGrone, Delay in Aircraft Carrier Ford Testing Could Compress Workups for First Deployment,weblink United States Naval Institute, USNI News, 18 January 2017, 8 June 2017, live,weblink 18 February 2017, dmy-all,

Amphibious warfare vessels

(File:USS Bataan (LHD-5);10080504.jpg|thumb|{{USS|Bataan|LHD-5|6}}, a {{sclass-|Wasp|amphibious assault ship}})(File:LPD-17 Class.jpg|thumb|{{USS|San Antonio|LPD-17|6}}, a {{sclass-|San Antonio|amphibious transport dock}})Amphibious assault ships are the centerpieces of US amphibious warfare and fulfill the same power projection role as aircraft carriers except that their striking force centers on land forces instead of aircraft. They deliver, command, coordinate, and fully support all elements of a 2,200-strong Marine Expeditionary Unit in an amphibious assault using both air and amphibious vehicles. Resembling small aircraft carriers, amphibious assault ships are capable of V/STOL, STOVL, VTOL, tiltrotor, and rotary wing aircraft operations. They also contain a well deck to support the use of Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) and other amphibious assault watercraft. Recently, amphibious assault ships have begun to be deployed as the core of an expeditionary strike group, which usually consists of an additional amphibious transport dock and dock landing ship for amphibious warfare and an Aegis-equipped cruiser and destroyer, frigate, and attack submarine for group defense. Amphibious assault ships are typically named after World War II aircraft carriers.Amphibious transport docks are warships that embark, transport, and land Marines, supplies, and equipment in a supporting role during amphibious warfare missions. With a landing platform, amphibious transport docks also have the capability to serve as secondary aviation support for an expeditionary group. All amphibious transport docks can operate helicopters, LCACs, and other conventional amphibious vehicles while the newer San Antonio class of ships has been explicitly designed to operate all three elements of the Marines' "mobility triad": Expeditionary Fighting Vehicles (EFVs), the V-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft, and LCACs. Amphibious transport docks are typically named after U.S. cities.The dock landing ship is a medium amphibious transport that is designed specifically to support and operate LCACs, though it is able to operate other amphibious assault vehicles in the United States inventory as well. Dock landing ships are normally deployed as a component of an expeditionary strike group's amphibious assault contingent, operating as a secondary launch platform for LCACs. All dock landing ships are named after cities or important places in U.S. and U.S. Naval history.

Cruisers

(File:US Navy 030903-N-5024R-003 USS Port Royal (DDG 73) departed on deployment.jpg|thumb|{{USS|Port Royal|CG-73|6}}, a {{sclass-|Ticonderoga|cruiser}})Cruisers are large surface combat vessels that conduct anti-air/anti-missile warfare, surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, and strike operations independently or as members of a larger task force. Modern guided missile cruisers were developed out of a need to counter the anti-ship missile threat facing the United States Navy. This led to the development of the AN/SPY-1 phased array radar and the Standard missile with the Aegis combat system coordinating the two. {{sclass-|Ticonderoga|cruiser|2}}s were the first to be equipped with Aegis and were put to use primarily as anti-air and anti-missile defense in a battle force protection role. Later developments of vertical launch systems and the Tomahawk missile gave cruisers additional long-range land and sea strike capability, making them capable of both offensive and defensive battle operations. The Ticonderoga class is the only active class of cruiser. All cruisers in this class are named after battles.

Destroyers

File:Future USS Zumwalt's first underway at sea.jpg|thumb|{{USS|Zumwalt|DDG-1000|6}}, a Zumwalt-class stealth guided missile destroyerguided missile destroyerDestroyers are multi-mission medium surface ships capable of sustained performance in anti-air, anti-submarine, anti-ship, and offensive strike operations. Like cruisers, guided missile destroyers are primarily focused on surface strikes using Tomahawk missiles and fleet defense through Aegis and the Standard missile. Destroyers additionally specialize in anti-submarine warfare and are equipped with VLA rockets and LAMPS Mk III Sea Hawk helicopters to deal with underwater threats. When deployed with a carrier strike group or expeditionary strike group, destroyers and their fellow Aegis-equipped cruisers are primarily tasked with defending the fleet while providing secondary strike capabilities. With very few exceptions, destroyers are named after U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard heroes.

Frigates and Littoral combat ships

{{See also|Littoral combat ship}}File:USS Independence LCS-2 at pierce (cropped).jpg|thumb|{{USS|Independence|LCS-2}}, a Littoral combat shipLittoral combat shipFile:USS-Freedom-130222-N-DR144-174-crop.jpg|thumb|{{USS|Freedom|LCS-1}} underway in special naval camouflage ]]Modern U.S. frigates mainly perform anti-submarine warfare for carrier and expeditionary strike groups and provide armed escort for supply convoys and merchant shipping. They are designed to protect friendly ships against hostile submarines in low to medium threat environments, using torpedoes and LAMPS helicopters. Independently, frigates are able to conduct counterdrug missions and other maritime interception operations. As in the case of destroyers, frigates are named after U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard heroes. As of autumn 2015, the U.S. Navy has retired its most recent class of frigates, and expects that by 2020 the Littoral Combat Ships (LCS) will assume many of the duties the frigate had with the fleet.The LCS is a class of relatively small surface vessels intended for operations in the littoral zone (close to shore). It was "envisioned to be a networked, agile, stealthy surface combatant capable of defeating anti-access and asymmetric threats in the littorals".{{citation needed|date=January 2019}} They have the capabilities of a small assault transport, including a flight deck and hangar for housing two helicopters, a stern ramp for operating small boats, and the cargo volume and payload to deliver a small assault force with fighting vehicles to a roll-on/roll-off port facility. The ship is easy to reconfigure for different roles, including anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures, anti-surface warfare, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, homeland defense, maritime intercept, special operations, and logistics, all by swapping mission-specific modules as needed.The LCS program is still relatively new as of 2018 with only ten active ships, but the navy has announced plans for up to 32 ships. (See: List of littoral combat ships) The navy has announced that a further 20 vessels to be built after that will be redesignated as 'frigates'.SNA: Modified Littoral Combat Ships to be Designated Frigates {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170806141654weblink |date=6 August 2017 }} – News.USNI.org, 15 January 2015A special case is the {{USS|Constitution}}, commissioned in 1797 as one of the original six frigates of the United States Navy, and which remains in commission at the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston. She serves as a tribute to the heritage of the Navy, and occasionally sails for commemorative events such as Independence Day and various victories during the War of 1812. Constitution is currently the oldest commissioned warship afloat. {{HMS|Victory}} is older, and in commission, but is in permanent drydock.

Mine countermeasures ships

(File:Uss warrior.jpg|thumb|{{USS|Warrior|MCM-10}} in port)Mine countermeasures vessels are a combination of minehunters, a naval vessel that actively detects and destroys individual naval mines, and minesweepers, which clear mined areas as a whole, without prior detection of the mines. The navy has approximately a dozen of these in active service, but the mine countermeasure (MCM) role is also being assumed by the incoming classes of littoral combat ships. MCM vessels have mostly legacy names of previous US Navy ships, especially WWII-era minesweepers.

Patrol boats

File:USS Typhoon (PC-5).jpg|thumb|{{USS|Typhoon|PC-5}} departing Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek in VirginiaVirginiaA patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defense duties. There have been many designs for patrol boats, though the navy currently only has a single class. They may be operated by a nation's navy or coast guard, and may be intended for marine ("blue water") or estuarine or river ("brown water") environments. The Navy has approximately a dozen in active service, which are mainly used in the littoral regions of the Persian Gulf, but have also been used for home port patrols and drug interdiction missions. The navy's current class of patrol boats have names based on weather phenomena.

Submarines

File:USS Kentucky (SSBN-737).jpg|thumb|{{USS|Kentucky|SSBN-737}}, an {{sclass-|Ohio|submarine|0}} ballistic missile submarineballistic missile submarineFile:US Navy 040730-N-1234E-002 PCU Virginia (SSN 774) returns to the General Dynamics Electric Boat shipyard.jpg|thumb|right|{{USS|Virginia|SSN-774}}, a {{sclass-|Virginia|submarine|0}} attack submarineattack submarineAll current and planned U.S. Navy submarines are nuclear-powered, as only nuclear propulsion allows for the combination of stealth and long duration, high-speed sustained underwater movement that makes modern nuclear submarines so vital to a modern blue-water navy. The U.S. Navy operates three types: ballistic missile submarines, guided missile submarines, and attack submarines. U.S. Navy (nuclear) ballistic missile submarines carry the stealthiest leg of the U.S. strategic triad (the other legs are the land-based U.S. strategic missile force and the air-based U.S. strategic bomber force). These submarines have only one mission: to carry and, if called upon, to launch the Trident nuclear missile. The primary missions of attack and guided missile submarines in the U.S. Navy are peacetime engagement, surveillance and intelligence, special operations, precision strikes, and control of the seas.WEB,weblink Submarine Missions, GlobalSecurity, 8 April 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060425071004weblink">weblink 25 April 2006, live, dmy-all, To these, attack submarines also add the battlegroup operations mission. Attack and guided missile submarines have several tactical missions, including sinking ships and other subs, launching cruise missiles, gathering intelligence, and assisting in special operations.As with other classes of naval vessels, most U.S. submarines (or "boats") are named according to specific conventions. The boats of the current U.S. ballistic missile submarine class, {{sclass-|Ohio|submarine|4}}, are named after U.S. states. As the four current U.S. guided missile submarines are converted Ohio-class boats, they have retained their U.S. state names. The members of the oldest currently-commissioned attack submarine class, the {{sclass-|Los Angeles|submarine|4}}, are typically named for cities. The follow-on {{sclass-|Seawolf|submarine|4}}' three submarines—Seawolf, Connecticut and Jimmy Carter—share no consistent naming scheme. With the current {{sclass-|Virginia|submarine|0}} attack submarines, the U.S. Navy has extended the Ohio class' state-based naming scheme to these submarines. Attack submarines prior to the Los Angeles class were named for denizens of the deep, while pre-Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines were named for famous Americans and foreigners with notable connections to the United States.

Aircraft

File:Four Super Hornets.jpg|thumb|left|Four Navy F/A-18F Super Hornets ]]{{See also|List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons|List of active United States military aircraft}}Carrier-based aircraft are able to strike air, sea, and land targets far from a carrier strike group while protecting friendly forces from enemy aircraft, ships, and submarines. In peacetime, aircraft's ability to project the threat of sustained attack from a mobile platform on the seas gives United States leaders significant diplomatic and crisis-management options. Aircraft additionally provide logistics support to maintain the navy's readiness and, through helicopters, supply platforms with which to conduct search and rescue, special operations, anti-submarine warfare (ASW), and anti-surface warfare (ASuW).The U.S. Navy began to research the use of aircraft at sea in the 1910s, with Lieutenant Theodore G. "Spuds" Ellyson becoming the first naval aviator on 28 January 1911, and commissioned its first aircraft carrier, {{USS|Langley|CV-1}}, in 1922.WEB,weblink A Brief History of U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers: Part I – The Early Years, United States Navy, The Carriers, 30 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120620115219weblink">weblink 20 June 2012, live, dmy-all, United States naval aviation fully came of age in World War II, when it became clear following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the Battle of the Coral Sea, and the Battle of Midway that aircraft carriers and the planes that they carried had replaced the battleship as the greatest weapon on the seas. Leading navy aircraft in World War II included the Grumman F4F Wildcat, the Grumman F6F Hellcat, the Chance Vought F4U Corsair, the Douglas SBD Dauntless, and the Grumman TBF Avenger. Navy aircraft also played a significant role in conflicts during the following Cold War years, with the F-4 Phantom II and the F-14 Tomcat becoming military icons of the era. The navy's current primary fighter and attack airplanes are the multi-mission F/A-18C/D Hornet and its newer cousin, the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. The F-35 Lightning II is presently under development and was scheduled to replace the C and D versions of the Hornet beginning in 2012.WEB,weblink F-35C Carrier Variant Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), GlobalSecurity, 18 July 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060819014535weblink">weblink 19 August 2006, live, dmy-all, Initial operational capability of the F-35C is now expected to be February 2019.NEWS,weblink Services Deliver F-35 Initial Operational Capability Timelines to Congress, Navy News Service, 31 May 2013, NNS130531-06, 1 June 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140306060623weblink">weblink 6 March 2014, live, dmy-all, The Navy is also looking to eventually replace its F/A-18E/F Super Hornets with the F/A-XX program.The Aircraft Investment Plan sees naval aviation growing from 30 percent of current aviation forces to half of all procurement funding over the next three decades.NEWS,weblink This Pentagon Needs Watching, The Huffington Post, Wheeler, Winslow T., 9 March 2010, 13 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100327071141weblink">weblink 27 March 2010, live, dmy-all,

Weapons

Current U.S. Navy shipboard weapons systems are almost entirely focused on missiles, both as a weapon and as a threat. In an offensive role, missiles are intended to strike targets at long distances with accuracy and precision. Because they are unmanned weapons, missiles allow for attacks on heavily defended targets without risk to human pilots. Land strikes are the domain of the BGM-109 Tomahawk, which was first deployed in the 1980s and is continually being updated to increase its capabilities. For anti-ship strikes, the navy's dedicated missile is the Harpoon Missile. To defend against enemy missile attack, the navy operates a number of systems that are all coordinated by the Aegis combat system. Medium-long range defense is provided by the Standard Missile 2, which has been deployed since the 1980s. The Standard missile doubles as the primary shipboard anti-aircraft weapon and is undergoing development for use in theater ballistic missile defense. Short range defense against missiles is provided by the Phalanx CIWS and the more recently developed RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile. In addition to missiles, the navy employs Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes and various types of naval mines.File:US Navy 050112-N-5345W-074 Aviation Ordnancemen prepare to load 500-pound laser guided bombs (GBU-12) onto weapon pylons under an F-14B Tomcat.jpg|thumb|Aviation Ordnancemen loading GBU-12 bombs in 2005]]Naval fixed-wing aircraft employ much of the same weapons as the United States Air Force for both air-to-air and air-to-surface combat. Air engagements are handled by the heat-seeking Sidewinder and the radar guided AMRAAM missiles along with the M61 Vulcan cannon for close range dogfighting. For surface strikes, navy aircraft utilize a combination of missiles, smart bombs, and dumb bombs. On the list of available missiles are the Maverick, SLAM-ER and JSOW. Smart bombs include the GPS-guided JDAM and the laser-guided Paveway series. Unguided munitions such as dumb bombs and cluster bombs make up the rest of the weapons deployed by fixed-wing aircraft.Rotary aircraft weapons are focused on anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and light to medium surface engagements. To combat submarines, helicopters use Mark 46 and Mark 50 torpedoes. Against small watercraft, they utilize Hellfire and Penguin air to surface missiles. Helicopters also employ various types of mounted anti-personnel machine guns, including the M60, M240, GAU-16/A, and GAU-17/A.Nuclear weapons in the U.S. Navy arsenal are deployed through ballistic missile submarines and aircraft. The Ohio-class submarine carries the latest iteration of the Trident missile, a three-stage, submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) with MIRV capability; the current Trident II (D5) version is expected to be in service past 2020.WEB,weblink Trident Fleet Ballistic Missile, U.S. Navy Fact File, 8 April 2006,weblink 5 April 2006, live, dmy-all, The navy's other nuclear weapon is the air-deployed B61 nuclear bomb. The B61 is a thermonuclear device that can be dropped by strike aircraft such as the F/A-18 Hornet and Super Hornet at high speed from a large range of altitudes. It can be released through free-fall or parachute and can be set to detonate in the air or on the ground.

Naval jack

(File:US Naval Jack.svg|thumb|upright=0.45|U.S. Naval Jack)(File:Naval jack of the United States (2002–2019).svg|thumb|upright=0.45|First Navy Jack)The current naval jack of the United States is the Union Jack, a small blue flag emblazoned with the stars of the 50 states. The Union Jack was not flown for the duration of the War on Terror, during which Secretary of the Navy Gordon R. England directed all U.S. naval ships to fly the First Navy Jack. While Secretary England directed the change on 31 May 2002, many ships chose to shift colors later that year in remembrance of the first anniversary of the September 11, 2001 attacks. The Union Jack, however, remained in use with vessels of the U.S. Coast Guard and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. A jack of similar design to the Union Jack was used in 1794, with 13 stars arranged in a 3–2–3–2–3 pattern. When a ship is moored or anchored, the jack is flown from the bow of the ship while the ensign is flown from the stern. When underway, the ensign is raised on the mainmast. Before the decision for all ships to fly the First Navy Jack, it was only flown on the oldest ship in the active American fleet, which is currently {{USS|Blue Ridge|LCC-19}}. U.S. Navy ships and craft returned to flying the Union Jack effective 4 June 2019. The date for reintroduction of the jack commemorates the Battle of Midway, which began on 4 June 1942.WEB,weblink Here’s why the Union Jack is back, Mark D., Faram, 23 February 2019, Navy Times, 4 April 2019,

Notable sailors

Many past and present United States historical figures have served in the navy. Notable officers include John Paul Jones, John Barry (Continental Navy officer and first flag officer of the United States Navy),WEB, One Hundred Ninth Congress, 109th United States Congress,weblink PDF, Joint Resolution Recognizing Commodore John Barry as the first flag officer of the United States Navy, United States Government Publishing Office, Government Printing Office, 30 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140306061915weblink">weblink 6 March 2014, live, dmy-all, Edward Preble, James Lawrence (whose last words "don't give up the ship" are memorialized in Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy), Stephen Decatur Jr., David Farragut, David Dixon Porter, Oliver Hazard Perry, Commodore Matthew Perry (whose Black Ships forced the opening of Japan), George Dewey (the only person in the history of the United States to have attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy), and the officers who attained the rank of Fleet Admiral during World War II: William D. Leahy, Ernest J. King, Chester W. Nimitz, and William F. Halsey Jr..The first American president who served in the navy was John F. Kennedy (who commanded the famous PT-109). Others included Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, and George H. W. Bush. Both Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt were the Assistant Secretary of the Navy prior to their presidencies. Many members of Congress served in the navy, notably U.S. Senators Bob Kerrey, John McCain, and John Kerry. Other notable former members of the U.S. Navy include astronauts, entertainers, authors and professional athletes.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}{{clear}}

See also

Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Commons category|United States Navy}}
  • {{Official website |url =weblink }}
  • WEB,weblink U.S. Naval Institute,
  • A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower
  • WEB,weblink Navy.com, USN official recruitment site,
  • WEB,weblink U.S. Navy News website, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071223134622weblink">weblink 23 December 2007, dmy-all, ; official news
  • WEB,weblink GlobalSecurity, US Navy,
  • WEB,weblink Naval Open Source Intelligence, Michael P., D'Alessandro,
  • WEB,weblink United States Navy Official Website,
  • WEB,weblink The Pacific War: The U.S. Navy, Tim, Lanzendörfer,
  • WEB,weblink United States Navy Memorial,
  • America's Naval Hardware – Life magazine slideshow
  • WEB,weblink Photographic History of The U.S. Navy, Naval History, NavSource,
  • WEB,weblink Haze Gray & Underway – Naval History and Photography, HazeGray.org,
  • WEB,weblink U.S. Navy Ships, Military Analysis Network, Federation of America Scientists,
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121215042844weblink">U.S. Navy during the Cold War from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
  • WEB,weblink 3 February 2007, United States Navy in World War I, World War I at Sea.net, (Includes warship losses.)
  • WEB,weblink U.S. Navy in World War II, World War II on the World Wide Web, Hyper War, (Includes The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II.)
  • WEB,weblink Our Fighting Ships, U.S. WW II Newsmap, Army Orientation Course, 29 June 1942, Hosted by the UNT Libraries Digital Collections
  • WEB,weblink 3 February 2007, Strict Neutrality â€“ Britain & France at War with Germany, September 1939 – May 1940, United States Navy and World War II, Naval-History.net,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061118003814weblink">weblink 18 November 2006, (Chronology of the lead up of U.S. entry into World War II.)
  • WEB,weblink The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070817104224weblink">weblink 17 August 2007, dmy-all,
  • WEB,weblink Naval recognition-Grand Valley State University Archives and Special Collections,
  • WEB,weblink US Navy SEALs Information,
  • WEB,weblink US Navy SEALs Directory, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100404070050weblink">weblink 4 April 2010,
  • WEB,weblink United States Navy, 1 April 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19970104104533weblink">weblink 4 January 1997, bot: unknown, dmy-all,
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