United States Army

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United States Army
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{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2018}}{{short description|Land warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces}}

As the Continental Army.}}({{Age in years and months6TITLE=THE CONTINENTAL ARMY (ARMY LINEAGE SERIES)PUBLISHER=CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY, UNITED STATES ARMYISBN=9780160019319OCLC=8806011, MAASS, JOHN R.>URL=HTTP://WWW.HISTORY.ARMY.MIL/HTML/FAQ/BIRTH.HTMLPUBLISHER=U.S. ARMY CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY, 30 October 2013, | dates =| country = {{USA}}| type = Army| role = Land warfareFIRST=JOHNWEBSITE=GLOBALSECURITY.ORG, 343,000 Army National Guard personnel (2017) 199,000 Army Reserve personnel (2017) 1,018,000 total uniformed personnel (2017) 330,000 civilian personnel 4,406 manned aircraftWORLD AIR FORCES 2018>JOURNAL=FLIGHTGLOBALURL=HTTPS://WWW.FLIGHTGLOBAL.COM/ASSET/21905, 13 June 2018, United States Department of the Army>U.S. Department of the ArmyThe Pentagon {{nowrap>Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.}}| garrison_label = Headquarters| nickname =| patron =| motto = "This We'll Defend"LAST=USA ACCESSDATE=2 AUGUST 2017 ARCHIVE-DATE=11 OCTOBER 2017 DF=DMY-ALL, {{color box#FFCB05}} {{color box|#FFFFFF}}| colors_label = ColorsThe Army Goes Rolling Along" {{audio>Army goes rolling along.ogg|Play}}| mascot = List of equipment of the United States Army>List of U.S. Army equipment| equipment_label =| battles = {{collapsible list| titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;| title = See list200px) American Revolutionary War (File:Streamer W1812.PNG>200px) War of 1812 (File:Streamer MW.PNGMexican–American War (File:Streamer CW.PNG>200px) American Civil War (File:Streamer IW.PNG>200px) American Indian Wars (File:Streamer SC.PNG>200px) Spanish–American War (File:Streamer CRE.PNG>200px) China Relief Expedition (File:Streamer PC.PNGPhilippine–American War>Philippine Insurrection (File:Streamer MS.PNGMexican Expedition (File:Streamer WWI V.PNG>200px) World War I (File:World War II - American Campaign Streamer (Plain).png200px) (File:European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal streamer.pngWorld War II (File:Korean Service Medal - Streamer.png>200px) Korean War 1958 Lebanon crisis (File:Vietnam Service Streamer vector.svgVietnam War>Vietnam Conflict (File:Streamer AFE.PNGDominican Civil War (File:Streamer AFE.PNG>200px) US invasion of Grenada (File:Streamer AFE.PNG>200px)United States Invasion of Panama>Invasion of Panama (File:Streamer AFE.PNGUnified Task Force>Somali Civil War (File:Streamer SAS.PNGGulf War>Persian Gulf War (File:Streamer KC.PNGKosovo War (File:Streamer gwotE.PNG>200px) Global War on Terrorism (File:Streamer AFGCS.PNGWar in Afghanistan (2001–present)>War in Afghanistan (File:Iraq Campaign streamer.svgIraq War (File:Inherent Resolve Campaign streamer.svg>200px) Operation Inherent Resolveweblink {{dead link|date=July 2019}} Battle of Khasham}}U.S. Army Birthdays>Army Birthday: 14 June| decorations =| battle_honours =weblink|}}President of the United States>President Donald TrumpPowers of the president of the United States#Commander-in-chief>Commander-in-Chief| commander2 = Mark EsperPAUL MCLEARY (23 July 2019) Esper Confirmed As SecDef; Budget Deal Leaves DoD Spending Flat Next Year United States Secretary of Defense>Secretary of DefenseRyan McCarthy (U.S. Army)>Ryan McCarthy Lolita C. Baldor (27 Sep 2019) Senate Confirms Former Ranger as New Army Secretary United States Secretary of the Army>Secretary of the ArmyGeneral (United States)>GEN James C. McConvilleSean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 9, 2019) New chief of staff: Taking care of people key to winning the fight Chief of Staff of the United States Army>Chief of Staff| commander6 = GEN Joseph M. MartinJoe Lacdan, Army News Service (August 1, 2019) Seasoned combat leader sworn in as Army's vice chief of staffVice Chief of Staff of the United States Army>Vice Chief of Staff| commander7 = SMA Michael A. (08.09.2019) Uniformed Army Leadership Changes Hands| commander7_label = Sergeant Major of the Army| notable_commanders =border|100px)Flag of the United States Army>Flag{{Efn|Adopted in 1956.}}100px)Adopted in 2001.}}border|100px)Adopted in 1962.}}| aircraft_helicopter =| aircraft_helicopter_attack =| aircraft_helicopter_cargo =| aircraft_helicopter_multirole =| aircraft_helicopter_observation =| aircraft_helicopter_utility =| aircraft_trainer =| aircraft_transport =| aircraft_helicopter_transport =}}The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution.Article II, section 2, clause 1 of the United States Constitution (1789). See also Title 10, Subtitle B, Chapter 301, Section 3001. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence,WEB, Department of Defense Directive 1005.8, 31 October 1977, Subject: "Order of Precedence of Members of Armed Forces of the United States When in Formation" (Paragraph 3. PRESCRIBED PROCEDURE),weblink, 7 July 2017, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed (14 June 1775) to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army.Library of Congress, Journals of the Continental Congress, Volume 27JOURNAL, 15 November 2004, Army Birthdays, United States Army Center of Military History,weblink 3 June 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 20 April 2010, The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.WEB, United States Army Center of Military History,weblink 14 June: The Birthday of the U.S. Army, 1 July 2011, an excerpt from Robert Wright, The Continental ArmyAs a uniformed military service, the U.S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, which is one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The U.S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the secretary of the Army (SECARMY) and by a chief military officer, the chief of staff of the Army (CSA) who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It is the largest military branch, and in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army (USA) was 476,000 soldiers; the Army National Guard (ARNG) had 343,000 soldiers and the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) had 199,000 soldiers; the combined-component strength of the U.S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers. As a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U.S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, sustained, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders".WEB,weblink The United States Army – Organization,, 1 April 2015, The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States.


The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U.S. Code defines the purpose of the army as:DA Pamphlet 10-1 Organization of the United States Army; Figure 1.2 Military Operations.WEB, 10 USC 3062: Policy; composition; organized peace establishment,weblink U.S. House of Representatives, 21 August 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 October 2013, dmy-all,
  • Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States
  • Supporting the national policies
  • Implementing the national objectives
  • Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States
In 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.The Army Strategy 2018 While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, and Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028.


{{more citations needed|section|date=May 2019}}{{Cleanup split|History of the United States Army|date=August 2010}}


The Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental CongressCont'l Cong., Formation of the Continental Army, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789 89–90 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905). as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander.Cont'l Cong., Commission for General Washington, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789 96-7 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905).Cont'l Cong., Instructions for General Washington, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789 100-1 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905).Cont'l Cong., Resolution Changing "United Colonies" to "United States", in 5 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789 747 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905). The army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills.File:Bataille Yorktown.jpg|thumb|left|Storming of Redoubt No. 10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted Great Britain's government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and Great Britain's recognition of the United States of America as an independent state.]]The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British.After the war, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The Regular Army was at first very small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash,WEB, Thomas E., Buffenbarger, U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center, St. Clair's Campaign of 1791: A Defeat in the Wilderness That Helped Forge Today's U.S. Army, 15 September 2011,weblink where more than 800 Americans were killed, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, which was established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796.

19th century

Early wars on the Frontier

{{further|Army on the Frontier}}File:Battle of New Orleans.jpg|thumb|right|General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders during the defense of New Orleans, the final major and most one-sided battle of the War of 1812]]The War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results. The U.S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U.S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U.S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U.S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, which was defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the previously rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed (but not ratified), Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, and became a national hero. U.S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane, Levant and Penguin in the final engagements of the war. Per the treaty, both sides (the United States and Great Britain) returned to the geographical status quo. Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict.The army's major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars (1818–1858) to finally defeat the Seminoles and move them to Oklahoma. The usual strategy in Indian wars was to seize control of the Indians' winter food supply, but that was no use in Florida where there was no winter. The second strategy was to form alliances with other Indian tribes, but that too was useless because the Seminoles had destroyed all the other Indians when they entered Florida in the late eighteenth century.Ron Field and Richard Hook, The Seminole Wars 1818–58 (2009)The U.S. Army fought and won the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), which was a defining event for both countries.WEB,weblink The U.S.-Mexican War – PBS,, 1 April 2015, The U.S. victory resulted in acquisition of territory that eventually became all or parts of the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico.

American Civil War

{{further|Union Army}}File:Thure de Thulstrup - L. Prang and Co. - Battle of Gettysburg - Restoration by Adam Cuerden.jpg|thumb|right|The Battle of GettysburgBattle of GettysburgThe American Civil War was the costliest war for the U.S. in terms of casualties. After most slave states, located in the southern U.S., formed the Confederate States, the Confederate States Army, led by former U.S. Army officers, mobilized a large fraction of Southern white manpower. Forces of the United States (the "Union" or "the North") formed the Union Army, consisting of a small body of regular army units and a large body of volunteer units raised from every state, north and south, except South Carolina.WEB, Tinkler, Robert, Southern Unionists in the Civil War,weblink, 21 November 2016, For the first two years Confederate forces did well in set battles but lost control of the border states.McPherson, James M., ed. The Atlas of the Civil War, (Philadelphia, PA, 2010) The Confederates had the advantage of defending a large territory in an area where disease caused twice as many deaths as combat. The Union pursued a strategy of seizing the coastline, blockading the ports, and taking control of the river systems. By 1863, the Confederacy was being strangled. Its eastern armies fought well, but the western armies were defeated one after another until the Union forces captured New Orleans in 1862 along with the Tennessee River. In the Vicksburg Campaign of 1862–1863, General Ulysses Grant seized the Mississippi River and cut off the Southwest. Grant took command of Union forces in 1864 and after a series of battles with very heavy casualties, he had General Robert E. Lee under siege in Richmond as General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta and marched through Georgia and the Carolinas. The Confederate capital was abandoned in April 1865 and Lee subsequently surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House. All other Confederate armies surrendered within a few months.The war remains the deadliest conflict in U.S. history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 men on both sides. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6.4% in the North and 18% in the South.Maris Vinovskis (1990). Toward a social history of the American Civil War: exploratory essays. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. {{ISBN|0-521-39559-3}}

Later 19th century

(File:Soldiers of 1890.jpg|thumb|right|Army soldiers in 1890)Following the Civil War, the U.S. Army had the mission of containing western tribes of Native Americans on the Indian reservations. They set up many forts, and engaged in the last of the American Indian Wars. U.S. Army troops also occupied several Southern states during the Reconstruction Era to protect freedmen.The key battles of the Spanish–American War of 1898 were fought by the Navy. Using mostly new volunteers, the U.S. Army defeated Spain in land campaigns in Cuba and played the central role in the Philippine–American War.

20th century

Starting in 1910, the army began acquiring fixed-wing aircraft.Cragg, Dan, ed., The Guide to Military Installations, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, 1983, p. 272. In 1910, during the Mexican Revolution, the army was deployed to U.S. towns near the border to ensure the safety of lives and property. In 1916, Pancho Villa, a major rebel leader, attacked Columbus, New Mexico, prompting a U.S. intervention in Mexico until 7 February 1917. They fought the rebels and the Mexican federal troops until 1918.

World wars

{{Hatnote|For a list of campaigns see List of United States Army campaigns during World War II}}File:At close grips2.jpg|thumb|right|U.S. Army troops assault a German bunker, FranceFranceThe United States joined World War I as an "Associated Power" in 1917 on the side of Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the other Allies. U.S. troops were sent to the Western Front and were involved in the last offensives that ended the war. With the armistice in November 1918, the army once again decreased its forces.In 1939, estimates of the Army's strength range between 174,000 and 200,000 soldiers, smaller than that of Portugal's, which ranked it 17th or 19th in the world in size. General George C. Marshall became Army Chief of Staff in September 1939 and set about expanding and modernizing the Army in preparation for war.NEWS,weblink U.S. army was smaller than the army for Portugal before World War II, Politifact, 2018-01-23, WEB,weblink Excerpt – General George C. Marshall: Strategic Leadership and the Challenges of Reconstituting the Army, 1939–41,, 2018-01-23,weblink" title="">weblink 24 January 2018, dead, File:U.S. Soldiers at Bougainville (Solomon Islands) March 1944.jpg|thumb|left|U.S. soldiers hunt Japanese infiltrators during the Bougainville CampaignBougainville CampaignThe United States joined World War II in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Some 11 million Americans were to serve in various Army operations. Nese DeBruyne, Congressional Research Service (18 September 2018) American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics Page 3, note j —World War II: 10.42 million (1 December 1941-31 August 1945). Note: other sources are counting the Army of Occupation up to 31 December 1946. By 30 June 1947 the Army's strength was down to 990,000 troops.United States Army Center of Military History, American Military History vol 2 Chapter 4: "GRAND STRATEGY AND THE WASHINGTON HIGH COMMAND": 10.4 million Page 122 On the European front, U.S. Army troops formed a significant portion of the forces that captured North Africa and Sicily and later fought in Italy. On D-Day 6 June 1944 and in the subsequent liberation of Europe and defeat of Nazi Germany, millions of U.S. Army troops played a central role.In the Pacific War, U.S. Army soldiers participated alongside the United States Marine Corps in capturing the Pacific Islands from Japanese control. Following the Axis surrenders in May (Germany) and August (Japan) of 1945, army troops were deployed to Japan and Germany to occupy the two defeated nations. Two years after World War II, the Army Air Forces separated from the army to become the United States Air Force in September 1947. In 1948, the army was desegregated by order of President Harry S. Truman.

Cold War


File:Exercise Desert Rock I (Buster-Jangle Dog) 003.jpg|thumb|upright|U.S. Army soldiers look on an atomic bomb test of Operation Buster-Jangle at the Nevada Test Site during the alt=The end of World War II set the stage for the East–West confrontation known as the Cold War. With the outbreak of the Korean War, concerns over the defense of Western Europe rose. Two corps, V and VII, were reactivated under Seventh United States Army in 1950 and U.S. strength in Europe rose from one division to four. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops remained stationed in West Germany, with others in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, until the 1990s in anticipation of a possible Soviet attack.WEB,weblink Perkins discusses operationalizing the Army Operating Concept, US Army TRADOC, 16 September 2015, YouTube, 2 November 2017, {{rp|minute 9:00–10:00}}During the Cold War, U.S. troops and their allies fought communist forces in Korea and Vietnam. The Korean War began in June 1950, when the Soviets walked out of a UN Security Council meeting, removing their possible veto. Under a United Nations umbrella, hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops fought to prevent the takeover of South Korea by North Korea and later to invade the northern nation. After repeated advances and retreats by both sides and the Chinese People's Volunteer Army's entry into the war, the s:Korean Armistice Agreement|Korean Armistice Agreement]] returned the peninsula to the status quo in July 1953.


The Vietnam War is often regarded as a low point for the U.S. Army due to the use of drafted personnel, the unpopularity of the war with the U.S. public and frustrating restrictions placed on the military by U.S. political leaders. While U.S. forces had been stationed in South Vietnam since 1959, in intelligence and advising/training roles, they were not deployed in large numbers until 1965, after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. U.S. forces effectively established and maintained control of the "traditional" battlefield, but they struggled to counter the guerrilla hit and run tactics of the communist Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army. On a tactical level, U.S. soldiers (and the U.S. military as a whole) did not lose a sizable battle.Woodruff, Mark. Unheralded Victory: The Defeat of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army 1961–1973 (Arlington, VA: Vandamere Press, 1999).File:DakToVietnam1966.jpg|thumb|left|A U.S. Army infantry patrol moves up to assault the last North Vietnamese ArmyNorth Vietnamese ArmyDuring the 1960s, the Department of Defense continued to scrutinize the reserve forces and to question the number of divisions and brigades as well as the redundancy of maintaining two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.Wilson, John B. (1997). Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, Chapter XII, for references see Note 48. In 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara decided that 15 combat divisions in the Army National Guard were unnecessary and cut the number to eight divisions (one mechanized infantry, two armored, and five infantry), but increased the number of brigades from seven to 18 (one airborne, one armored, two mechanized infantry and 14 infantry). The loss of the divisions did not sit well with the states. Their objections included the inadequate maneuver element mix for those that remained and the end to the practice of rotating divisional commands among the states that supported them. Under the proposal, the remaining division commanders were to reside in the state of the division base. However, no reduction in total Army National Guard strength was to take place, which convinced the governors to accept the plan. The states reorganized their forces accordingly between 1 December 1967 and 1 May 1968.


File:Operation Just Cause Rangers 3rd sqd la comadancia small.jpg|thumb|right|U.S. Army soldiers prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City during the United States invasion of PanamaUnited States invasion of PanamaThe Total Force Policy was adopted by Chief of Staff of the Army General Creighton Abrams in the aftermath of the Vietnam War and involves treating the three components of the army – the Regular Army, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve as a single force.WEB,weblink Army National Guard Constitution, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 May 2013, Believing that no U.S. president should be able to take the United States (and more specifically the U.S. Army) to war without the support of the U.S. people, General Abrams intertwined the structure of the three components of the army in such a way as to make extended operations impossible, without the involvement of both the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.Carafano, James, Total Force Policy and the Abrams Doctrine: Unfulfilled Promise, Uncertain Future {{webarchive|url= |date=10 April 2010 }}, Foreign Policy Research Institute, 3 February 2005.The 1980s was mostly a decade of reorganization. The army converted to an all-volunteer force with greater emphasis on training and technology. The Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 created unified combatant commands bringing the army together with the other four military services under unified, geographically organized command structures. The army also played a role in the invasions of Grenada in 1983 (Operation Urgent Fury) and Panama in 1989 (Operation Just Cause).By 1989 Germany was nearing reunification and the Cold War was coming to a close. Army leadership reacted by starting to plan for a reduction in strength. By November 1989 Pentagon briefers were laying out plans to reduce army end strength by 23%, from 750,000 to 580,000.An Army at War: Change in the Midst of Conflict, p. 515, via Google Books A number of incentives such as early retirement were used.


File:Abrams in formation.jpg|thumb|left|M1 Abrams move out before the Battle of Al Busayyah during the Gulf WarGulf WarIn 1990, Iraq invaded its smaller neighbor, Kuwait, and U.S. land forces quickly deployed to assure the protection of Saudi Arabia. In January 1991 Operation Desert Storm commenced, a U.S.-led coalition which deployed over 500,000 troops, the bulk of them from U.S. Army formations, to drive out Iraqi forces. The campaign ended in total victory, as Western coalition forces routed the Iraqi Army. Some of the largest tank battles in history were fought during the Gulf war. The Battle of Medina Ridge, Battle of Norfolk and the Battle of 73 Easting were tank battles of historical significance.WEB,weblink 10 Most Epic Tank Battles in Military History,, 2 November 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2017, dead, VUA CitationWEB,weblink These were the 6 most massive tank battles in US history, 24 March 2016,, 2 November 2017, File:Destroyed Iraqi tank TF-41.jpg|thumb|right|Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 InfantryTask Force 1-41 InfantryAfter Operation Desert Storm, the army did not see major combat operations for the remainder of the 1990s but did participate in a number of peacekeeping activities. In 1990 the Department of Defense issued guidance for "rebalancing" after a review of the Total Force Policy,Section 1101, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 {{Webarchive|url= |date=29 April 2011 }}, Department of Defense Interim Report to Congress, September 1990 (see "rebalancing" as used in finance.) but in 2004, Air War College scholars concluded the guidance would reverse the Total Force Policy which is an "essential ingredient to the successful application of military force".Downey, Chris, The Total Force Policy and Effective Force {{Webarchive|url= |date=29 April 2011 }}, Air War College, 19 March 2004.

21st century

(File:Flickr - DVIDSHUB - Operation in Nahr-e Saraj (Image 5 of 7).jpg|thumb|right|Army Rangers take part in a raid during operation in Nahr-e Saraj, Afghanistan)On 11 September 2001, 53 Army civilians (47 employees and six contractors) and 22 soldiers were among the 125 victims killed in the Pentagon in a terrorist attack when American Airlines Flight 77 commandeered by five Al-Qaeda hijackers slammed into the western side of the building, as part of the September 11 attacks.WEB,weblink September 11, 2001 Pentagon Victims,, 13 November 2015, In response to the 11 September attacks and as part of the Global War on Terror, U.S. and NATO forces invaded Afghanistan in October 2001, displacing the Taliban government. The U.S. Army also led the combined U.S. and allied invasion of Iraq in 2003; it served as the primary source for ground forces with its ability to sustain short and long-term deployment operations. In the following years, the mission changed from conflict between regular militaries to counterinsurgency, resulting in the deaths of more than 4,000 U.S. service members (as of March 2008) and injuries to thousands more.JOURNAL, John Pike, 4 September 2007, U.S. Casualties in Iraq, web page,weblink 16 January 2012, 5 September 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 368, 9545, 1421–1428, 17055943, 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69491-9, 2006, The Lancet, G, Burnham, Lafta, R, Doocy, S, Roberts, L, WEB,weblink The Human Cost of the War in Iraq: A Mortality Study, 2002–2006,  {{small|(603 KB)}}. By Gilbert Burnham, Shannon Doocy, Elizabeth Dzeng, Riyadh Lafta, and Les Roberts. A supplement to the second Lancet study. 23,813 insurgents were killed in Iraq between 2003–2011.597 killed in 2003, weblink, 23,984 killed from 2004 through 2009 (with the exceptions of May 2004 and March 2009), weblink 652 killed in May 2004, weblink 45 killed in March 2009, weblink 676 killed in 2010, weblink 451 killed in 2011 (with the exception of February), weblink weblink weblink weblink weblink weblink" title="http:/-/">weblink WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-10-22, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2012, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 15 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 October 2011, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-11-03, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 November 2011, dmy-all, for a total of 26,405 dead.File:BarawalaKalay.jpg|thumb|left|U.S. Army soldiers with 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division101st Airborne DivisionUntil 2009, the army's chief modernization plan, its most ambitious since World War II,NEWS, Defense Secretary Gates observes Army Future Combat Systems progress,weblinkweblink dead, 25 May 2017, 12 May 2017, US Fed News Service, 9 May 2008, was the Future Combat Systems program. In 2009 many systems were canceled, and the remaining were swept into the BCT modernization program.NEWS, FCS Program Transitions to Army BCT Modernization,weblink 21 November 2016,,, 26 June 2009, By 2017, the Brigade Modernization project was completed and its headquarters, the Brigade Modernization Command, was renamed the Joint Modernization Command, or JMC.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2017-03-22, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 February 2017, dmy-all, In response to Budget sequestration in 2013, Army plans were to shrink to 1940 levels,NEWS,weblink Pentagon Plans to Shrink Army to Pre-World War II Level, Shanker, Thom, Cooper, Helene, 23 February 2014, The New York Times Company, 23 February 2014, although actual Active-Army end-strengths were projected to fall to some 450,000 troops by the end of FY2017.WEB,weblink Army to realign brigades, cut 40,000 Soldiers, 17,000 civilians,, Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (March 13, 2019) Soldier pay, quality of life, modernization among priorities in budget proposal Requested troop strengths: Active (480,000), NG (336,000), and Reserve (189,500) for 2020 budget From 2016 to 2017, the Army retired hundreds of OH-58 Kiowa Warrior observation helicopters,NEWS, Kiowa Warriors pass torch to Apache attack helicopters in South Korea,weblink 13 May 2017, Stars and Stripes, 26 January 2017, while retaining its Apache gunships.WEB,weblink Don't Panic About Apaches: Army Not Junking Gunships, Barry, Rosenberg, The 2015 expenditure for Army research, development and acquisition changed from $32 billion projected in 2012 for FY15 to $21 billion for FY15 expected in 2014.Drwiega, Andrew. "Missions Solutions Summit: Army Leaders Warn of Rough Ride Ahead" Rotor&Wing, 4 June 2014. Accessed: 8 June 2014.



"Plans are of little importance, but planning is essential." –Winston ChurchillWEB,weblink A quote by Winston Churchill,, By 2017, a task force was formed to address Army modernization,Army Directive 2017–33 (Enabling the Army Modernization Task Force) (7 November 2017) References Decker-Wagner 2011 which triggered shifts of units: RDECOM, and ARCIC, from within Army Materiel Command (AMC), and TRADOC, respectively, to a new Army Command (ACOM) in 2018.Secretary of the Army, Mark T. Esper (4 June 2018), ESTABLISHMENT OF UNITED STATES ARMY FUTURES COMMAND Army General order G.O.2018-10 The Army Futures Command (AFC), is a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and AMC, the other ACOMs.Source: Organization, United States Army. For detail, see AR10-87 AFC's mission is modernization reform: to design hardware, as well as to work within the acquisition process which defines materiel for AMC. TRADOC's mission is to define the architecture and organization of the Army, and to train and supply soldiers to FORSCOM.WEB,weblink "The Future Army," featuring U.S. General David G. Perkins, Center for Strategic & International Studies, 29 April 2014, YouTube, 2 November 2017, {{rp|minutes 2:30–15:00}} AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs) are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future.WEB,weblink Acquisition reform requires culture shift, officials say,, In order to support the Army's modernization priorities, its FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years.WEB,weblink Army FY20 budget proposal realigns $30 billion,, The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.

Army components

(File:DA Pam 10-1 Figure 1-1.png|thumb|upright=1.40|U.S. Army organization chartDA Pam 10-1 Organization of the United States Army, Figure 1-1. '"Army Organizations Execute Specific Functions and Assigned Missions")The task of organizing the U.S. Army commenced in 1775.weblink" title="">Organization of the United States Army: America's Army 1775 – 1995, DA PAM 10–1. Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, 14 June 1994. In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works. During times of war, the U.S. Army was augmented by the much larger United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments. States also maintained full-time militias which could also be called into the service of the army.(File:American World War II senior military officials, 1945.JPEG|thumb|left|U.S. general officers, World War II, Europe)By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army had mobilized the U.S. Volunteers on four separate occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. During World War I, the "National Army" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S. Volunteers.BOOK, Finnegan, John Patrick, Romana Danysh, Jeffrey J. Clarke, 1998, Military Intelligence, Chapter 2: World War I, Army Lineage Series, Center of Military History, United States Army, 978-0160488283, 35741383, Washington, D.C., United States, online,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 August 2009, It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps and the State Militias. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed.JOURNAL, Pullen, Randy, 23 April 2008, Army Reserve Marks First 100 Years, online article, DefenceTalk, 24 April 2008, 8 August 2008,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink In 1941, the "Army of the United States" was founded to fight World War II. The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve. The Army of the United States was re-established for the Korean War and Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the draft.Currently, the Army is divided into the Regular Army, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard. Some states further maintain state defense forces, as a type of reserve to the National Guard, while all states maintain regulations for state militias.Department of Defense, Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, Military compensation background papers, Seventh edition, page 229. Department of Defense, 2005. State militias are both "organized", meaning that they are armed forces usually part of the state defense forces, or "unorganized" simply meaning that all able bodied males may be eligible to be called into military service.The U.S. Army is also divided into several branches and functional areas. Branches include officers, warrant officers, and enlisted Soldiers while functional areas consist of officers who are reclassified from their former branch into a functional area. However, officers continue to wear the branch insignia of their former branch in most cases, as functional areas do not generally have discrete insignia. Some branches, such as Special Forces, operate similarly to functional areas in that individuals may not join their ranks until having served in another Army branch. Careers in the Army can extend into cross-functional areas for officer,WEB,weblink Military (Officer) Corner: Army Acquisition Centralized Selection List, Aris, Morris, warrant officer, enlisted, and civilian personnel.{|class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"|+ U.S. Army branches and functional areas!Branch!Insignia! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|!Branch!Insignia! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|!Functional Area (FA)|Acquisition Corps (AC)x50px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|United States Army Air Defense Artillery>Air Defense Artillery (AD)x50px)|Information Network Engineering (FA 26)United States Army Adjutant General's Corps>Adjutant General's Corps (AG) Includes Army Bands (AB)x45px) (File:ArmyBand Collar Brass.PNG|x45px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|Armor Branch>Armor (AR) Includes Cavalry (CV)x40px) (File:US-Cavalry-Branch-Insignia.png|x35px)Information Operations (United States)>Information Operations (FA 30)United States Army Aviation Branch>Aviation (AV)x48px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command>Civil Affairs Corps (CA)40px)|Strategic Intelligence (FA 34)United States Army Chaplain Corps>Chaplain Corps (CH)x40px) (File:JewishChaplainBC.gifx45px) (File:BuddhistChaplainBC.gifx40px) (File:ChaplainAsstBC.gif|x45px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|United States Army Chemical Corps>Chemical Corps (CM)x28px)|Space Operations (FA 40)List of United States Army careers#Cyber Branch (CY)>Cyber Corps (CY)x45px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|United States Army Dental Command>Dental Corps (DC)x50px)Public affairs (military)>Public Affairs Officer (FA 46)United States Army Corps of Engineers>Corps of Engineers (EN)x35px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|United States Army Field Artillery Corps>Field Artillery (FA)x40px)|Academy Professor (FA 47)United States Army Finance Corps>Finance Corps (FI)x40px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|Infantry Branch (United States)>Infantry (IN)x38px)|Foreign Area Officer (FA 48)United States Army Judge Advocate General's Corps>Judge Advocate General's Corps (JA)x35px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|United States Army Logistics Branch>Logistics (LG)x50px)|Operations Research/Systems Analysis (FA 49)Medical Corps (United States Army)>Medical Corps (MC)x50px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|United States Army Military Intelligence>Military Intelligence Corps (MI)x55px)|Force Management (FA 50)United States Army Military Police Corps>Military Police Corps (MP)x38px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|Army Medical Department (United States)#Medical Service Corps (MS)>Medical Service Corps (MS)x50px)List of United States Army careers#Army Acquisition Corps (FA and CMF 51)>FA 51)Army Medical Department (United States)#Medical Specialist Corps (SP)>Medical Specialist Corps (SP)x50px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|Army Nurse Corps (United States)>Army Nurse Corps (AN)x50px)|Simulation Operations (FA 57)United States Army Ordnance Corps>Ordnance Corps (OD)x50px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|Psychological Operations (United States)>Psychological Operations (PO)50px)|Health Services (FA 70)Public affairs (military)>Public Affairs (PA)45px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|United States Army Quartermaster Corps>Quartermaster Corps (QM)x42px)|Laboratory Sciences (FA 71)United States Army Signal Corps>Signal Corps (SC)x40px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|United States Army Special Forces>Special Forces (SF)x35px)|Preventive Medicine Sciences (FA 72)United States Army Transportation Corps>Transportation Corps (TC)x50px)! style="background:#25185d; color:white;"|Veterinary Corps (United States Army)>Veterinary Corps (VC)x50px)|Behavioral Sciences (FA 73){{Clear}}Before 1933, members of the Army National Guard were considered state militia until they were mobilized into U.S. Army, typically on the onset of war. Since the 1933 amendment to the National Defense Act of 1916, all Army National Guard soldiers have held dual status. They serve as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and as a reserve members of the U.S. Army under the authority of the president, in the Army National Guard of the United States.Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations. For example, Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War, peacekeeping in Kosovo, Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Army commands and army service component commands

(File:Headquarters US Army SSI.png|25px) Headquarters, United States Department of the Army (HQDA):{|class="wikitable"!Army Commands!Current commander!Location of headquarters20px) United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) GEN Michael X. Garrett Fort Bragg, North Carolina20px) United States Army Futures Command (AFC) GEN John M. Murray Austin, Texas20px) U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) >Gustave F. Perna >| Redstone Arsenal, Alabama20px) United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) GEN Paul E. Funk II Fort Eustis, Virginia!Army Service Component Commands!Current commander!Location of headquarters22px) United States Army Africa (USARAF)/Ninth U.S. Army/United States Army Southern European Task Force >Roger L. Cloutier, Jr.HTTPS://WWW.AFRICOM.MIL/MEDIA-ROOM/ARTICLE/31105/USARAF-WELCOMES-NEW-COMMANDING-GENERALWEBSITE=AFRICOM.MIL, Caserma Ederle, Vicenza, Italy20px) United States Army Central (ARCENT)/Third U.S. Army >| Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina20px) United States Army Europe (USAREUR)/Seventh United States Army (U.S.) >Christopher CavoliHTTP://WWW.EUR.ARMY.MIL/LEADERS/website=Army.milarchive-url= D. Clay Kaserne>Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, Germany20px) United States Army North (ARNORTH)/Fifth U.S. Army >Laura J. Richardson >| Joint Base San Antonio, Texas20px) United States Army Pacific (USARPAC) GEN Robert Brooks Brown >| Fort Shafter, Hawaii20px) United States Army South (ARSOUTH)/Sixth United States Army >Daniel R. Walrath>| Joint Base San Antonio, Texas20px) U.S. Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER)HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO1402.PDF ACCESSDATE=2 FEBRUARY 2015ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150203010434/HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO1402.PDFDF=, HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO1026.PDF>TITLE=ARCHIVED COPYURL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=14 MAY 2011, HTTPS://WWW.ARMY.MIL/ARTICLE/46012/>TITLE=ARMY ESTABLISHES ARMY CYBER COMMANDDATE=1 OCTOBER 2010ACCESSDATE=28 JUNE 2016, LTG Stephen G. Fogarty Fort Belvoir, VirginiaHTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/SEARCH/EPUBSSEARCH/EPUBSSEARCHFORM.ASPX?X=DAGO >TITLE=ARCHIVED COPY URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=18 JULY 2016, dmy-all, 20px) United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command/United States Army Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) LTG James H. Dickinson Redstone Arsenal, Alabama20px) United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) LTG Francis M. Beaudette Fort Bragg, North Carolina!Operational Force Headquarters!Current commander!Location of headquarters20px) Eighth United States Army (EUSA)HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO1202.PDFACCESSDATE=2 FEBRUARY 2015ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160304193652/HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO1202.PDFDF=, LTG Michael A. BillsCamp Humphreys, South Korea!Direct reporting units!Current commander!Location of headquarters20px) Arlington National Cemetery and United States Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National CemeteryHTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO1475.PDFACCESSDATE=7 FEBRUARY 2015ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150203015921/HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO1475.PDFDF=, Katharine KelleyHTTP://WWW.ALLGOV.COM/NEWS/TOP-STORIES/SUPERINTENDENT-OF-ARLINGTON-NATIONAL-CEMETERY-WHO-IS-KATE-KELLEY-170507?NEWS=860171>TITLE=WHO IS KATE KELLEY?ACCESSDATE=13 DECEMBER 2018, {{small|(civilian)}} 20px) U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC)HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO0633.PDFACCESSDATE=2 FEBRUARY 2015ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160304115651/HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO0633.PDFDF=, Craig A. SpisakHTTPS://ASC.ARMY.MIL/WEB/LEADERS/>TITLE=CRAIG SPISAKACCESSDATE=13 DECEMBER 2018, {{small(civilian)}} >Fort Belvoir>Fort Belvoir, Virginia20px) United States Army Civilian Human Resources Agency (CHRA)DAGO 2017-03, DESIGNATION OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY CIVILIAN HUMAN RESOURCES AGENCY AND ITS SUBORDINATE ELEMENTS AS DIRECT REPORTING UNIT,, dated 4 January 2017, last accessed 13 January 2017 BG Larry D. GottardiHTTP://CPOL.ARMY.MIL/CHRA/INDEX.HTML>TITLE=ABOUT OUR LEADERSHIP TEAMACCESSDATE=13 DECEMBER 2018ARCHIVE-DATE=16 DECEMBER 2018PUBLISHER=CATALOG.ARCHIVES.GOV| Washington, D.C.20px) United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) LTG Todd T. SemoniteLieutenant General Todd T. Semonite, Biography article, undated. Retrieved 28 June 2016. Washington, D.C.20px) United States Army Criminal Investigation Command (USACIDC) MG David P. Glaser Quantico, Virginia20px) United States Army Human Resources Command (HRC)DAGO 2017-04, DESIGNATION OF UNITED STATES ARMY HUMAN RESOURCES COMMAND AND ITS SUBORDINATE ELEMENTS AS DIRECT REPORTING UNIT,, dated 4 January 2017, last accessed 13 January 2017 MG Jason T. Evans Alexandria, Virginia20px) United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) MG Christopher S. Ballard Fort Belvoir, Virginia20px) United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) LTG Nadja West Joint Base San Antonio, Texas20px) United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW) MG Michael L. Howard Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.20px) United States Army Recruiting Command (USAREC)AR 10–87, ARMY COMMANDS, ARMY SERVICE COMPONENT COMMANDS, AND DIRECT REPORTING UNITS,, dated 4 September 2007, last accessed 13 January 2017 MG Frank M. MuthHTTPS://WWW.CBSNEWS.COM/VIDEO/ARMY-RECRUITING-ESPORTS-GAMERS-FOR-NEXT-GENERATION-OF-US-SOLDIERS/>TITLE=ARMY RECRUITING ESPORTS GAMERS FOR NEXT GENERATION OF U.S. SOLDIERSFort Knox>Fort Knox, Kentucky20px) United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) MG Joel K. Tyler]weblink] {{Webarchiveweblink >date=15 August 2018 }} Alexandria, Virginia20px) United States Army War College (AWC)HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO1390.PDF >TITLE=ARCHIVED COPYURL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=3 FEBRUARY 2015John S. Kem >| Carlisle, Pennsylvania20px) United States Military Academy (USMA) LTG Darryl A. Williams West Point, New YorkSource: U.S. Army organizationOrganization, United States Army


See Structure of the United States Army for detailed treatment of the history, components, administrative and operational structure and the branches and functional areas of the Army.File:1-175 INF Trains at Fort Dix.jpg|thumb|right|U.S. Army soldiers of 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry Regiment, Maryland Army National Guard conduct an urban cordon and search exercise as part of the army readiness and training evaluation program in the mock city of Balad at Fort Dix, New Jersey]]The U.S. Army is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army; and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month – known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs) – and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code, while the National Guard is organized under Title 32. While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors. However, the District of Columbia National Guard reports to the U.S. president, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized. Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes.Perpich v. Department of Defense, 496 U.S. 334 (1990)File:Ramadi august 2006 patrol.jpg|thumb|left|U.S. soldiers from the 6th Infantry Regiment taking up positions on a street corner during a foot patrol in Ramadi, Iraq]]The U.S. Army is led by a civilian secretary of the Army, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the secretary of defense.WEB,weblink 10 U.S.C. 3013, 2 May 2016, The chief of staff of the Army, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the Secretary of the Army, i.e., its service chief; and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the president of the United States, the secretary of defense and the National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the chairman and vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.WEB,weblink 10 U.S.C. 3033, 2 May 2016, WEB,weblink 10 U.S.C. 151, 2 May 2016, In 1986, the Goldwater–Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the president to the secretary of defense directly to the unified combatant commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility, thus the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components. The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the secretary of defense.WEB,weblink 10 U.S.C. 162, 2 May 2016, File:1 CAV DIV charge.jpg|thumb|right|The 1st Cavalry Division's combat aviation brigade performs a mock charge with the horse detachment]]By 2013, the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands (COCOM): File:Army mil-54118-2009-10-27-091030big.jpg|thumb|left|U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers from the 3rd Special Forces Group patrol a field in the Gulistan district of Farah, Afghanistan]]The army also transformed its base unit from divisions to brigades. Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. As specified before the 2013 end-strength re-definitions, the three major types of ground combat brigades are:
  • Armored brigades, with strength of 4,743 troops as of 2014.
  • Stryker brigades, with strength of 4,500 troops as of 2014.
  • Infantry brigades, with strength of 4,413 troops as of 2014.
In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades. Combat support brigades include aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, fires (artillery) brigades (now transforms to division artillery) and expeditionary military intelligence brigades. Combat service support brigades include sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army.

Combat maneuver organizations

To track the effects of the 2018 budget cuts, see Transformation of the United States Army#Divisions and brigades
The U.S. Army currently consists of 10 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters (7th Infantry Division) as well as several independent units. The force is in the process of contracting after several years of growth. In June 2013, the Army announced plans to downsize to 32 active combat brigade teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active duty strength to 490,000 soldiers. Army Chief of Staff Raymond Odierno projected that the Army was to shrink to "450,000 in the active component, 335,000 in the National Guard and 195,000 in U.S. Army Reserve" by 2018.WEB,weblink CSA Odierno and SMA Chandler virtual town hall, Jan 6, 2015,, 2 May 2016, However, this plan was scrapped by the new administration and now the Army plans to grow by 16,000 soldiers to a total of 476,000 by October 2017. The National Guard and the Army Reserve will see a smaller expansion.WEB,weblink Army offers up to $90K bonuses to lure troops back, 6 June 2017,, WEB,weblink Needing troops, U.S. Army offers up to $90K bonuses to re-enlist,, 2 November 2017, Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve there are a further 8 divisions, over 15 maneuver brigades, additional combat support and combat service support brigades and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer and support battalions. The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units.(File:United States Army Forces Command SSI.svg|25px) United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM){|class="wikitable"!Direct reporting units!Current commander!Location of headquarters20px) I Corps (United States) >Gary J. Volesky >Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington (state)>Washington20px) III Corps (United States) >Paul E. Funk II >| Fort Hood, Texas20px) XVIII Airborne Corps LTG Paul LaCamera Fort Bragg, North Carolina20px) First United States Army (FUSA)HTTP://WWW.FIRST.ARMY.MIL/CONTENT.ASPX?CONTENTID=199WORK=ARMY.MILARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150307234001/HTTP://WWW.FIRST.ARMY.MIL/CONTENT.ASPX?CONTENTID=199URL-STATUS=DEAD, LTG Thomas S. James Jr. Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois20px) United States Army Reserve Command (USARC)HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/GO1102.PDF>TITLE=ARCHIVED COPYURL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=23 SEPTEMBER 2015| Fort Bragg, North Carolina{|class="wikitable"!colspan="4"|Combat maneuver units aligned under FORSCOM!scope="col" style="width:150px"|Name !! Headquarters !! Subunits !! Subordinate to(File:1st US Armored Division SSI.svgleft) 1st Armored Division|Fort Bliss, Texas and New MexicoACCESS-DATE=18 JUNE 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=17 JUNE 2019 1st Armored Division Artillery (United States)>DIVARTY), 1 Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB) and 1 sustainment brigade|III Corps20px1st Cavalry Division (United States)>1st Cavalry Division|Fort Hood, Texas1st Cavalry Division Artillery (United States)>DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade|III Corps20px) 1st Infantry Division|Fort Riley, Kansas1st Infantry Division Artillery (United States)>DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade|III Corps20px3rd Cavalry Regiment (United States)>3rd Cavalry Regiment|Fort Hood, Texas|4 Stryker squadrons, 1 fires squadron, 1 engineer squadron and 1 support squadron (overseen by the 1st Cavalry Division)Army announces Afghanistan deployment for 1,000 soldiers, ArmyTimes, by Michelle Tan, dated 2 March 2016, last accessed 3 October 2016|III Corps20px3rd Infantry Division (United States)>3rd Infantry DivisionFort Stewart, Georgia (U.S. state)>Georgia| 2 armored BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 48th Infantry Brigade Combat Team of the Georgia Army National Guard|XVIII Airborne Corps20px4th Infantry Division (United States)>4th Infantry Division|Fort Carson, Colorado2nd Infantry Division Artillery (United States)>DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade|III Corps20px7th Infantry Division (United States)>7th Infantry Division|Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington2nd Infantry Division Artillery (United States)>DIVARTY of the 2nd Infantry Division (United States) as well as the 81st Stryker Brigade Combat Team of the Washington Army National Guard>Washington and California Army National Guard TDA organization and is not deployable.|I Corps20px10th Mountain Division (United States)>10th Mountain DivisionFort Drum, New York (state)>New York10th Mountain Division Artillery (United States)>DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Mountain) of the Vermont Army National Guard|XVIII Airborne Corps20px|left) 82nd Airborne Division|Fort Bragg, North Carolina82nd Airborne Division Artillery>DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 airborne sustainment brigade|XVIII Airborne Corps20px|left) 101st Airborne Division|Fort Campbell, Kentucky|3 air assault infantry BCTs, 1 air assault DIVARTY, 1 CAB and 1 air assault sustainment brigade|XVIII Airborne Corps{|class="wikitable"!colspan="4"|Combat maneuver units aligned under other organizations!scope="col" style="width:150px"|Name !! Headquarters !! Subunits !! Subordinate to(File:US 2nd Cavalry Regiment SSI.jpgleft) 2nd Cavalry Regiment|Rose Barracks, Vilseck, Germany|4 Stryker squadrons, 1 engineer squadron, 1 fires squadron and 1 support squadronUnited States Army Europe>U.S. Army Europe20px2nd Infantry Division (United States)>2nd Infantry Division|Camp Humphreys, South Korea8th Infantry Division (South Korea)>ROK Army,HTTP://WWW.ARMYTIMES.COM/STORY/MILITARY/2015/01/14/SOUTH-KOREAN-TROOPS-FORM-COMBINED-DIVISION-WITH-US-ARMY-2ND-INFANTRY-KOREA-COMBINED-DIVISION/21748841/>TITLE=SOUTH KOREAN TROOPS FORM COMBINED DIVISION WITH U.S. ARMYWORK=ARMY TIMES2nd Infantry Division Artillery (United States)>DIVARTY (under administrative control of 7th ID), 1 sustainment brigade, and a stateside ABCT from another active division that is rotated in on a regular basisEighth United States Army>Eighth Army20px25th Infantry Division (United States)>25th Infantry Division|Schofield Barracks, Hawaii100th Infantry Battalion (United States)>100th Infantry Battalion, 442nd Infantry Regiment (United States) of the United States Army Reserve>Army Reserve), 1 airborne infantry BCT, 1 Stryker BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeUnited States Army Pacific>U.S. Army Pacific22px173rd Airborne Brigade>173rd Airborne Brigade Combat TeamCaserma Ederle>Camp Ederle, Vicenza, Italy143rd Infantry Regiment (United States)>1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment of the Texas Army National Guard), 1 airborne field artillery battalion, 1 cavalry squadron, 1 airborne engineer battalion,HTTP://WWW.EUR.ARMY.MIL/SKYSOLDIERS/STB/INDEX.HTML>TITLE=173RD AIRBORNE BRIGADE SITE REDIRECTARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20171011170801/HTTP://WWW.EUR.ARMY.MIL/SKYSOLDIERS/STB/INDEX.HTMLURL-STATUS=DEAD, dmy-all, and 1 airborne support battalion|U.S. Army Europe{|class="wikitable"!colspan="3"|(File:Seal of the United States Army National Guard.svg|25px) Combat maneuver units aligned under the Army National Guard, until federalized!scope="col" style="width:150px"|Name !! Locations !! Subunits(File:28th Infantry Division CSIB.svgleft) 28th Infantry Division|Pennsylvania, Ohio and Maryland2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (28th Division)>2nd Infantry BCT, 56th Stryker Brigade Combat Team and 28th Combat Aviation Brigade (United States)>28th CAB20px29th Infantry Division (United States)>29th Infantry Division|Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina and Florida15px) 30th Heavy Brigade Combat Team, (File:53rd Infantry Brigade SSI.svg>15px) 53rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), 116th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States)>116th Infantry BCT and 29th CAB22px34th Infantry Division (United States)>34th Infantry Division|Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa and Idaho1st Armored Brigade Combat Team (34th Division)>1st Armored BCT, 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (34th Division), (File:32nd infantry division shoulder patch.svg>11px) 32nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:116th Cavalry Brigade CSIB.svg>20px) 116th Cavalry Brigade Combat Team and 34th Aviation Brigade (United States)>34th CAB20px35th Infantry Division (United States)>35th Infantry DivisionKansas, Missouri, Illinois, Oklahoma, Georgia (U.S. state)>Georgia and Arkansas20px) 33rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:USArmy 39th Inf Brig Patch.svg>15px) 39th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:45thIBCTSSI.png>20px) 45th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States) and 35th Combat Aviation Brigade (United States)>35th CAB20px36th Infantry Division (United States)>36th Infantry Division|Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi56th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States)>56th Infantry BCT, 72nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:155th Armored Brigade Combat Team CSIB.svg>15px) 155th Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:256 INF BRGDE SSI.svg>15px) 256th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), Task Force Mustang>36th CAB and the 3rd Infantry BCT (Regular Army)20px38th Infantry Division (United States)>38th Infantry Division|Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Tennessee20px) 37th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:76th IBCT shoulder sleeve insignia.jpg>17px) 76th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:US278ACRSSI.svg>20px) 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment and 38th CAB20px40th Infantry Division (United States)>40th Infantry DivisionCalifornia, Oregon, Washington (state)>Washington and Hawaii15px) 29th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:41st Infantry Division SSI.svg>20px) 41st Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:79 Infantry Brigade Combat Team insignia.svg>15px) 79th Infantry BCT and 40th CAB20px42nd Infantry Division (United States)>42nd Infantry DivisionNew York (state)>New York, New Jersey and Vermont20px) 27th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States), (File:50InfantryBCTSSI.svg>16px) 50th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States) and 42nd Combat Aviation Brigade>42nd CABFor a description of U.S. Army tactical organizational structure, see: a U.S. context and also a global context.

Special operations forces

(File:US Army Special Operations Command SSI.svg|25px) United States Army Special Operations Command (Airborne) (USASOC):Army Special Operations Forces Fact Book 2018 {{Webarchive|url= |date=19 October 2016 }}, USASOC official website, dated 2018, last accessed 28 July 2019{|class="wikitable"!Name !! Headquarters !! Structure and purpose(File:US Army Special Forces SSI.pngleft) 1st Special Forces Command (Airborne)|Fort Bragg, North Carolina1st Special Forces Group (United States)>1st SFG(A), 3rd Special Forces Group (United States), 5th Special Forces Group (United States)>5th SFG(A), 7th Special Forces Group (United States), 10th Special Forces Group (United States)>10th SFG(A), 19th Special Forces Group (Army National Guard>ARNG) and 20th Special Forces Group (ARNG)] designed to deploy and execute nine doctrinal missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct action (military)>direct action, counter-insurgency, special reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, information operations, counterproliferation of weapon of mass destruction, and Security Force Assistance Brigade#Overview. The command also manages two Psychological operations (United States)>psychological operations groups [the 4th Psychological Operations Group and 8th Psychological Operations Group>8th POG(A)] tasked to work with foreign nations to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to U.S. objectives; the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade that enables military commanders and Ambassadors of the United States>U.S. ambassadors to improve relationships with various stakeholders via five battalions; and the 528th Sustainment Brigade (Special Operations) (Airborne) that provides combat service support and combat health support units via two battalions, various support/liaison elements, and Medical Role II teams. The command also has an organic 389th Military Intelligence Battalion (Airborne)389th Military Intelligence Battalion @1SFCMIBN, official Facebook page, last accessed 28 July 2019 providing multi-source intelligence information and analysis.25pxU.S. Army Special Operations Aviation Command (USASOAC)>Army Special Operations Aviation Command|Ft. Bragg, North Carolina160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (United States)>160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne).30px75th Ranger Regiment (United States)>75th Ranger Regiment|Fort Benning, Georgia|Three maneuver battalions and a special troops battalion of elite airborne infantry specializing in large-scale, joint forcible entry operations while simultaneously executing precision targeting operations raids across the globe. Additional capabilities include air assault and direct action raids seizing key terrain such as airfields, destroying strategic facilities, and capturing or killing the enemies of the Nation. The Regiment also helps develop the equipment, technologies, training, and readiness that bridge the gap between special operations and traditional combat maneuver organizations.25px|left) John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School|Ft. Bragg, North CarolinaEnlisted Professional Military Education#Army>Non-Commissioned Officers Academy.25pxDelta Force>1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta|Ft. Bragg, North CarolinaJoint Special Operations Command, a component command of (File:USSOCOM CSIB.png>15px) United States Special Operations Command—that specializes in hostage>hostage rescue, counter-terrorism, direct action (military), and special reconnaissance against high-value targets. SFOD-D is the U.S. Army's primary Tier 1 Special Mission Unit tasked with performing the most complex, classified, and dangerous missions directed by the National Command Authority.HTTPS://NATIONALINTEREST.ORG/BLOG/BUZZ/US-ARMYS-DELTA-FORCE-HOW-SECRET-GROUP-DEADLY-SOLDIERS-CAME-BE-55057DATE=30 APRIL 2019AGENCY=ASSOCIATED PRESS THE GAFFNEY LEDGER >LOCATION=GAFFNEY, SOUTH CAROLINA ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130928054611/HTTP://WWW.GAFFNEYLEDGER.COM/NEWS/2005-05-09/AP_NEWS/151.HTML URL-STATUS=DEAD,


These are the U.S. Army ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO designations. Although no living officer currently holds the rank of General of the Army, it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime.

Commissioned officers

There are several paths to becoming a commissioned officerFrom the Future Soldiers Web Site. including the United States Military Academy, Reserve Officers' Training Corps and Officer Candidate School. Regardless of which road an officer takes, the insignia are the same. Certain professions including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, lawyers and chaplains are commissioned directly into the army and are designated by insignia unique to their staff community.Most army commissioned officers are promoted based on an "up or out" system. The Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time.Army regulations call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as "General (last name)" regardless of the number of stars. Likewise, both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as "Colonel (last name)" and first and second lieutenants as "Lieutenant (last name)".WEB,weblink Army Regulation 600-20, 2 May 2016, {|style="border:1px solid #8888aa; background:#f7f8ff; padding:5px; font-size:95%; margin:0 12px 12px 0;"style="background:#ccc;"!U.S. DoD Pay Grade||O-1||O-2||O-3||O-4||O-5||O-6||O-7||O-8||O-9||O-10||Special gradealign=center|Insignia (File:US-O1 insignia.svg|22px) (File:US-O2 insignia.svg|22px) (File:US-O3 insignia.svg|60px) (File:US-O4 insignia.svg|60px) (File:US-O5 insignia.svg|60px) (File:US-O6 insignia.svg|70px) (File:US-O7 insignia.svg|32px) (File:US-O8 insignia.svg|65px) (File:US-O9 insignia.svg|100px) (File:US-O10 insignia.svg|135px) (File:US-O11 insignia.svg|90px)align=centerTitle Second Lieutenant First Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel Brigadier General Major General Lieutenant General General General of the Armyalign=centerAbbreviation2LT1LTCPTMAJLTCCOLBGMGLTGGENGA|align=centerNATO CodeOF-1OF-2OF-3OF-4OF-5OF-6OF-7OF-8OF-9OF-10Note: General of the Army is reserved for wartime.HTTP://WWW.DEFENSE.GOV/ABOUT/INSIGNIAS/OFFICERS.ASPX>TITLE=DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE – OFFICER RANK INSIGNIAACCESSDATE=1 APRIL 2015,

Warrant officers

Warrant officers are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area. They are initially appointed as warrant officers (in the rank of WO1) by the secretary of the Army, but receive their commission upon promotion to chief warrant officer two (CW2).By regulation, warrant officers are addressed as "Mr. (last name)" or "Ms. (last name)" by senior officers and as "sir" or "ma'am" by all enlisted personnel. However, many personnel address warrant officers as "Chief (last name)" within their units regardless of rank.{|style="border:1px solid #8888aa; background:#f7f8ff; padding:5px; font-size:95%; margin:0 12px 12px 0;"style="background:#ccc;"!U.S. DoD pay grade||W-1||W-2||W-3||W-4||W-5align=centerInsignia (File:US-Army-WO1.svg|22px) (File:US-Army-CW2.svg|22px) (File:US-Army-CW3.svg|22px) (File:US-Army-CW4.svg|22px) (File:US-Army-CW5.svg|22px)align=centerTitle Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer 2 Chief Warrant Officer 3 Chief Warrant Officer 4 Chief Warrant Officer 5align=centerAbbreviationWO1CW2CW3CW4CW5align=centerNATO RankWO-1WO-2WO-3WO-4WO-5

Enlisted personnel

Sergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs, short for non-commissioned officers.From the Enlisted Soldiers Descriptions Web Site. This distinguishes corporals from the more numerous specialists who have the same pay grade, but do not exercise leadership responsibilities.Privates and privates first class (E3) are addressed as "Private (last name)", specialists as "Specialist (last name)", corporals as "Corporal (last name)" and sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class and master sergeants all as "Sergeant (last name)". First sergeants are addressed as "First Sergeant (last name)" and sergeants major and command sergeants major are addressed as "Sergeant Major (last name)".{|style="border:1px solid #8888aa; background:#f7f8ff; padding:5px; font-size:95%; margin:0 12px 12px 0;"style="background:#ccc;"!U.S. DoD Pay grade||E-1||E-2||E-3||colspan=2|E-4||E-5||E-6||E-7||colspan=2|E-8||colspan=3|E-9align=centerInsignia No insignia (File:Army-USA-OR-02.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-03.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-04b.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-04a.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-05.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-06.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-07.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-08b.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-08a.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-09c.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-09b.svg|35px) (File:Army-USA-OR-09a.svg|35px)align=centerTitlePrivatePrivate (United States)HTTPS://ARMY.MIL/RANKS/WEBSITE=ARMY.MILARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190804143636/HTTPS://WWW.ARMY.MIL/RANKS/URL-STATUS=DEAD, Private First ClassSpecialistCorporalSergeantStaff SergeantSergeant First ClassMaster SergeantFirst SergeantSergeant MajorCommand Sergeant MajorSergeant Major of the Armyalign=center|SMAalign=centerRanks and insignia of NATO armies enlisted>NATO CodeOR-1OR-2OR-3OR-4OR-4OR-5OR-6OR-7OR-8OR-8OR-9OR-9OR-9align=left¹ PVT is also used as an abbreviation for both private ranks when pay grade need not be distinguished.HTTP://WWW.APD.ARMY.MIL/PDFFILES/R600_20.PDF>TITLE=ARCHIVED COPYURL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=6 FEBRUARY 2012, ² SP4 is sometimes encountered instead of SPC for specialist. This is a holdover from when there were additional specialist ranks at pay grades E-5 to E-7.


File:Rangers from the 75th Ranger Regiment fast-rope from an MH-47 Chinook during a capabilities exercise.jpg|thumb|right|Rangers practice fast roping techniques from an MH-47 during an exercise at Fort BraggFort BraggTraining in the U.S. Army is generally divided into two categories – individual and collective. Basic training consists of 10 weeks "this does not include processing & out-processing" most recruits followed by Advanced Individualized Training (AIT) where they receive training for their military occupational specialties (MOS). Some individual's MOSs range anywhere from 14–20 weeks of One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines Basic Training and AIT. The length of AIT school varies by the MOS. The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier and some highly technical MOS training may require many months (e.g., foreign language translators). Depending on the needs of the army, Basic Combat Training for combat arms soldiers is conducted at a number of locations, but two of the longest-running are the Armor School and the Infantry School, both at Fort Benning, Georgia. Sergeant Major of the Army Dailey notes that an infantrymen's pilot program for One Station Unit Training (OSUT) extends 8 weeks beyond Basic Training and AIT, to 22 weeks. The pilot, designed to boost infantry readiness, is due to end in December 2018. The new Infantry OSUT covered the M240 machine gun as well as the M249 squad automatic weapon.WEB,weblink Soldiers train on M240 machine gun during 22-week Infantry OSUT transformation,, The redesigned Infantry OSUT would start in 2019.WEB,weblink Sgt. Maj. of the Army: Extending training would bolster readiness, lethality,, WEB,weblink Extended OSUT allows repetition to hone combat skills, major general says,, Depending on the result of the 2018 pilot, OSUTs could also extend training in other combat arms beyond the infantry. One Station Unit Training will be extended to 22 weeks for Armor by Fiscal Year 2021. Additional OSUTs are expanding to Cavalry, Engineer, and Military Police (MP) in the succeeding Fiscal Years.WEB,weblink Preparing for current and future Army drill sergeant mission requirements through adaptive measures,, A new training assignment for junior officers is being instituted, that they serve as platoon leaders for Basic Combat Training (BCT) platoons. These lieutenants will assume many of the administrative, logistical, and day-to-day tasks formerly performed by the drill sergeants of those platoons and are expected to "lead, train, and assist with maintaining and enhancing the morale, welfare and readiness" of the drill sergeants and their BCT platoons.WEB,weblink Lieutenants to become BCT leaders,, These lieutenants are also expected to stem any inappropriate behaviors they witness in their platoons, to free up the drill sergeants for training.File:101st-Airborne-Soldiers-build-elite-Iraqi-force-with-Ranger-Training-7-480x319.jpg|thumb|left|A trainer with Company A, 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment, Task Force Strike, 101st Airborne Division101st Airborne DivisionThe United States Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) is being introduced into the Army, beginning with 60 battalions spread throughout the Army. The test is the same for all soldiers, men or women. It will take an hour to complete, including resting periods.WEB,weblink Post gets look at new fitness test,, The ACFT supersedes the Army physical fitness test (APFT),WEB,weblink Army Directive 2018–22 (8 Nov 2018) Retention Policy for Non-Deployable Soldiers,, 22 July 2019, WEB,weblink Non-deployable directive to help Army work toward more 'lethal' force,, as being more relevant to survival in combat.WEB,weblink ACFT ensures Soldiers are lethal, physically conditioned,, Six events were determined to better predict which muscle groups of the body were adequately conditioned for combat actions: three deadlifts,WEB,weblink Army Combat Fitness Test: 3 Repetition Maximum Deadlift (MDL) (Event 1), 24 October 2018, YouTube, a standing power throw of a ten-pound medicine ball,WEB,weblink Army Combat Fitness Test: Standing Power Throw (SPT) (Event 2), 24 October 2018, YouTube, hand-release pushupsWEB,weblink 5 Hand Release Pushup event execution, 17 May 2019, YouTube, (which replace the traditional pushup), a sprint/drag/carry 250 yard event,WEB,weblink Army Combat Fitness Test: Sprint-Drag-Carry (SDC) (Event 4), 29 October 2018, YouTube, three pull-ups with leg tucks (one needed to pass),WEB,weblink Army Combat Fitness Test: Leg Tuck (LTK) (Event 5), 24 October 2018, YouTube, a mandatory rest period, and a two-mile run.WEB,weblink Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT), 25 July 2018, YouTube, Eventually (by October 2020) all soldiers from all three components (Active Army, Reserve, and National guard)SGT Zach Mott (May 10, 2019) SECFOR Soldiers 'Crawl' Through ACFT Familiarization SECFOR Soldiers serve as the security force (force protection during a deployment) will be subject to this test.WEB,weblink Army secretary: New fitness test measures combat readiness,, Harry Sarles (July 24, 2019) Pre-Command Course conducts diagnostic Army Combat Fitness Test The ACFT will test all soldiers in basic training by October 2020. The ACFT movements directly translate to movements on the battlefield.Following their basic and advanced training at the individual-level, soldiers may choose to continue their training and apply for an "additional skill identifier" (ASI). The ASI allows the army to take a wide-ranging MOS and focus it into a more specific MOS. For example, a combat medic, whose duties are to provide pre-hospital emergency treatment, may receive ASI training to become a cardiovascular specialist, a dialysis specialist or even a licensed practical nurse. For commissioned officers, training includes pre-commissioning training, known as Basic Officer Leader Course A, either at USMA or via ROTC, or by completing OCS. After commissioning, officers undergo branch specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course B, (formerly called Officer Basic Course), which varies in time and location according to their future assignments. Officers will continue to attend standardized training at different stages of their career.WEB,weblink Pilot program provides a new option for Army officers' professional military education,, (File:Yudh Abhyas 2015 Soldiers familiarize with INSAS 1B1.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|U.S. Army soldiers familiarizing with the latest INSAS 1B1 during exercise Yudh Abhyas 2015)Collective training at the unit level takes place at the unit's assigned station, but the most intensive training at higher echelons is conducted at the three combat training centers (CTC); the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, Louisiana and the Joint Multinational Training Center (JMRC) at the Hohenfels Training Area in Hohenfels and Grafenwöhr,WEB,weblink Workshop guides future growth in Grafenwoehr,, Germany. ARFORGEN is the Army Force Generation process approved in 2006 to meet the need to continuously replenish forces for deployment, at unit level and for other echelons as required by the mission. Individual-level replenishment still requires training at a unit level, which is conducted at the continental U.S. (CONUS) replacement center (CRC) at Fort Bliss, in New Mexico and Texas before their individual deployment.(13 December 2017) CONUS Replacement Center receives new command CRC 5 transition to CRC 6Chief of Staff Milley notes that the Army is suboptimized for training in cold-weather regions, jungles, mountains, or urban areas where in contrast the Army does well when training for deserts or rolling terrain.WEB,weblink Army Officials Testify on FY 2019 Budget Request, 16 May 2018, YouTube, {{rp|minute 1:26:00}} Post 9/11, Army unit-level training was for counter-insurgency (COIN); by 2014–2017, training had shifted to decisive action training.WEB,weblink Army Updates Mobilization Model, 8 October 2018, Association of the United States Army,


The chief of staff of the Army has identified six modernization priorities, in order: artillery, ground vehicles, aircraft, network, air/missile defense, and soldier lethality.ASA(ALT) Weapon Systems Handbook 2018 Page 32 lists how this handbook is organized. 440 pages.


File:THAAD Launcher.jpg|thumb|right|Lockheed Martin Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system used by the army for ballistic missile protection]]

Individual weapons

The army employs various individual weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges. The most common weapon type used by the army is the M4 carbine, a compact variant of the M16 rifle,M4. U.S. Army Fact Files along with the 7.62×51mm variant of the FN SCAR for Army Rangers. The primary sidearm in the U.S. Army is the 9 mm M9 pistol; the M11 pistol is also used. Both handguns are to be replaced by the M17WEB,weblink Army Picks Sig Sauer's P320 Handgun to Replace M9 Service Pistol, Sean, O'Melveny,, through the Modular Handgun System program.Individual Weapons Future Innovations {{Webarchive|url= |date=24 July 2014 }}, Project Manager Soldier Weapons. Soldiers are also equipped with various hand grenades, such as the M67 fragmentation grenade and M18 smoke grenade.Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon), to provide suppressive fire at the squad level.M249, U.S. Army Fact Files Indirect fire is provided by the M320 grenade launcher. The M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the Mossberg 590 Shotgun are used for door breaching and close-quarters combat. The M14EBR is used by designated marksmen. Snipers use the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle, the M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle and the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle.

Crew-served weapons

The army employs various crew-served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons.The M240 is the U.S. Army's standard Medium Machine Gun.M240, U.S. Army Fact Files The M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun. In the same way, the 40 mm MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units.MK 19, U.S. Army Fact FilesThe U.S. Army uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224, normally assigned at the infantry company level.M224, U.S. Army Fact Files At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars.M252, U.S. Army Fact Files The largest mortar in the army's inventory is the 120 mm M120/M121, usually employed by mechanized units.M120, U.S. Army Fact FilesFire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the 105 mm M119A1M119, U.S. Army Fact Files and the 155 mm M777 (which will replace the M198).WEB,weblink M777 Lightweight 155mm howitzer (LW155), John Pike,, 1 April 2015, The U.S. Army utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an Anti-Armor Capability. The AT4 is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters. The FIM-92 Stinger is a shoulder-launched, heat seeking anti-aircraft missile. The FGM-148 Javelin and BGM-71 TOW are anti-tank guided missiles.


File:Patrol in Iraq, March 2008.jpg|thumb|A U.S. soldier on patrol with the support of a HumveeHumveeU.S. Army doctrine puts a premium on mechanized warfare. It fields the highest vehicle-to-soldier ratio in the world as of 2009.BOOK, Us Future Combat & Weapon Systems Handbook, 30 March 2009, Int'l Business Publications, 978-1-4387-5447-5, 15,weblink 12 May 2017, The army's most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly called the Humvee, which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform and ambulance, among many other roles.HMMWV, U.S. Army Fact Files While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles, one of the most common types centers on the family of HEMTT vehicles. The M1A2 Abrams is the army's main battle tank,Abrams {{webarchive|url= |date=15 November 2013 }}, U.S. Army Fact Files while the M2A3 Bradley is the standard infantry fighting vehicle.Bradley, United States Army Fact Files Other vehicles include the Stryker,Stryker, U.S. Army Fact Files the M113 armored personnel carrierM113, U.S. Army Fact Files and multiple types of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles.File:3rd ID M1A1 Abrams TC and Gunner 2008.jpg|thumb|left|3rd Infantry Division soldiers manning an M1A1 Abrams in Iraq]]The U.S. Army's principal artillery weapons are the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzerPaladin, and the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS),MLRS, U.S. Army Fact Files both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units.While the United States Army Aviation Branch operates a few fixed-wing aircraft, it mainly operates several types of rotary-wing aircraft. These include the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter,Apache, U.S. Army Fact Files the UH-60 Black Hawk utility tactical transport helicopterBlackhawk, U.S. Army Fact Files and the CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift transport helicopter.Chinook, U.S. Army Fact Files Restructuring plans call for reduction of 750 aircraft and from 7 to 4 types.{{citation|last=Stevenson|first=Beth|url=|title= US Army continues to face financial challenge of rotary fleet maintenance|work=Flightglobal|publisher=Reed Business Information|date=22 January 2015|accessdate=23 January 2015|archive-url=|archivedate=23 January 2015|url-status=live}}Under the Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966, the Army agreed to limit its fixed-wing aviation role to administrative mission support (light unarmed aircraft which cannot operate from forward positions). For UAVs, the Army is deploying at least one company of drone MQ-1C Gray Eagles to each Active Army division.WEB,weblink Army to build dedicated drone runway at Fort Bliss, Kyle, Jahner, 7 August 2017, Army Times,


(File:Army_greens.jpg|thumb|The 2020 Army Greens uniform)The Army Combat Uniform (ACU) currently features a camouflage pattern known as Operational Camouflage Pattern (OCP). This replaced a pixelated pattern known as Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) that proved to be ineffective in many environments.File:2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade-6.jpeg|thumb|An element of the 18th Infantry Regiment, wearing ASUs, representing the United States at the 2010 Victory Day commemoration in MoscowMoscowOn 11 November 2018, the Army announced a new version of 'Army Greens' based on uniforms worn during World War II will become the standard garrison service uniform.WEB,weblink U.S. Army to roll out new Army Greens uniform,, The blue Army Service Uniform will remain as the dress uniform. The Army Greens are projected to be first fielded in summer of 2020.


(File:Wayne Downing funeral honor guard.jpg|thumb|The Ranger Honor Platoon marching in their tan berets and former service uniform)The beret flash of enlisted personnel displays their distinctive unit insignia (shown above). The U.S. Army's black beret is no longer worn with the ACU for garrison duty, having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap. After years of complaints that it was not suited well for most work conditions, Army Chief of Staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011. Soldiers still wear berets who are currently in a unit in jump status, whether the wearer is parachute-qualified or not (maroon beret), while members of Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) wear brown berets. Members of the 75th Ranger Regiment and the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (tan beret) and Special Forces (rifle green beret) may wear it with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions. Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training environments or motor pools.


The Army has relied heavily on tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment (Force Provider Expeditionary (FPE) ).{{rp|p.146}} The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities),Joe Lacdan (August 13, 2018) Automated meal entitlement system, food trucks to improve Soldier dining experience Accomplishes paperwork reduction based on reading each soldier's Common Access Card at each use at DFAC. forward operating bases (FOBs), after action review (AAR), tactical operations center (TOC), morale, welfare and recreation (MWR) facilities, as well as security checkpoints. Furthermore, most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of Natick Soldier Systems Center. Each FPE contains billeting, latrines, showers, laundry and kitchen facilities for 50–150 Soldiers,{{rp|p.146}} and is stored in Army Prepositioned Stocks 1, 2, 4 and 5. This provisioning allows combatant commanders to position soldiers as required in their Area of Responsibility, within 24 to 48 hours.The U.S. Army is beginning to use a more modern tent called the deployable rapid assembly shelter (DRASH). In 2008, DRASH became part of the Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System.NG, DHS Technologies to support SICPS/TMSS United Press International

See also

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  • {{ACMH|url=|article=Army Birthdays}}

Further reading

  • WEB, Desert Storm/Shield Valorous Unit Award (VUA) Citations,weblink US Army Center of Military History, 26 December 2014,
  • Bailey, Beth. America's Army: Making the All-Volunteer Force (2009) {{ISBN|0674035364}}
  • BOOK, Bluhm, Jr, Raymond K. (Editor-in-Chief), U.S. Army: A Complete History, 2004, The Army Historical Foundation, Arlington, VA, 978-0-88363-640-4, 744, Beaux Arts, Andrade, Dale, Jacobs, Bruce, Langellier, John, Newell, Clayton R., Seelinger, Matthew,
  • Chambers, John Whiteclay, ed. The Oxford Guide to American Military History (1999) online at many libraries
  • Clark, J. P. Preparing for War: The Emergence of the Modern U.S. Army, 1815–1917 (Harvard UP, 2017) 336 pp.
  • Coffman, Edward M. The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I (1998), a standard history
  • Kretchik, Walter E. U.S. Army Doctrine: From the American Revolution to the War on Terror (University Press of Kansas; 2011) 392 pages; studies military doctrine in four distinct eras: 1779–1904, 1905–1944, 1944–1962, and 1962 to the present.
  • Woodward, David R. The American Army and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2014). 484 pp. online review

External links

{{Sister project links|United States Army}} {{US Army navbox}}{{United States Armed Forces}}{{United States Department of Defense}}{{NATO Land Forces}}{{Authority control}}

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