SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

United Nations Human Rights Council

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
United Nations Human Rights Council
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{distinguish|United Nations Human Rights Committee|United Nations Commission on Human Rights|Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights}}{{Redirect-distinguish2|UNHRC|UNHCR, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees}}{{short description|United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world}}{{Multiple issues|{{update|Thematic mandate-holders|date=October 2017}}{{Unbalanced|date=April 2017}}}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2013}}







factoids
Coly Seck | status = Active Geneva, Switzerland| website = www.ohchr.org| parent = United Nations General Assembly| subsidiaries = 250px){{legend|#0000ff|African States (13)}}{{legend|#339900|Asia-Pacific States (13)}}{{legend|#cc0000|Eastern European States (6)}} {{legend|#cc3399|Latin American and Caribbean States (8)}}{{legend|#cc9900|Western European and Other States (7)}}}}
}}
File:UN Geneva Human Rights and Alliance of Civilizations Room.jpg|thumb|The Human Rights and Alliance of Civilizations Room is the meeting room of the United Nations Human Rights Council, in the Palace of Nations in GenevaGenevaThe United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC; ,WEB, Conseil des droits de l'homme,weblink March 9, 2019, CDH) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.WEB,weblink About the Human Rights Council, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 29 October 2016, The UNHRC has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis.WEB,weblink OHCHR {{!, HRC Sessions|website=www.ohchr.org|access-date=2019-07-04}} The headquarters of UNHRC is in Geneva, Switzerland.The UNHRC investigates allegations of breaches of human rights in UN member states, and addresses important thematic human rights issues such as freedom of association and assembly,WEB, Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association,weblink 2 June 2012, freedom of expression,WEB, HRC Freedom of Opinion and Expression Resolution,weblink 2 June 2012, freedom of belief and religion,WEB, USCIRF Welcomes Move Away from 'Defamation of Religions' concept,weblink 15 October 2013, women's rights,WEB, UNOG, Human Rights Council Establishes Working Group On Discrimination Against Women In Law And Practise,weblink 15 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131015234059weblink">weblink 15 October 2013, dmy-all, LGBT rights,WEB,weblink Council establishes mandate on Côte d'Ivoire, adopts protocol to child rights treaty, requests study on discrimination and sexual orientation, 17 June 2011, 15 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110624081557weblink">weblink 24 June 2011, dmy-all, and WEB, UN publishes first global report and recommendations to tackle gay rights abuses,weblink and the rights of racial and ethnic minorities.{{efn|For war crimes, see WEB, UN Adopts Resolution on Sri Lanka War Crimes Probe,weblink 2 June 2012, For intervention against nationwide human rights abuses, see
  • WEB, Human Rights Watch, UN: Rights Body Acts Decisively on Iran, Cote d’Ivoire,weblink 2 June 2012, ,
  • WEB, ISHR, Human Right Council follows up to special sessions on Cote-d'Ivoire and Libya,weblink 2 June 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110606120048weblink">weblink 6 June 2011, dmy-all, ,
  • WEB, Côte d’Ivoire: UN Human Rights Council strongly condemns post-electoral abuses,weblink 2 June 2012, ,
  • WEB, UN calls for investigation into Houla killings in Syria,weblink 2 June 2012, ,
  • WEB, Human Rights Watch, UN: Rights Council Condemns Violations in Kyrgyzstan,weblink 2 June 2012, ,
  • WEB, ISHR, Human Rights Council follows up to special sessions on Cote d'Ivoire & Libya,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110606120048weblink">weblink 6 June 2011, dmy-all, ,
  • WEB, Human Rights Watch, UN Human Rights Council: Positive Action on Burma, Guinea, North Korea,weblink 2 June 2012,
}}The UNHRC was established by the UN General Assembly on March 15, 2006 (by resolution A/RES/60/251) to replace the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR, herein CHR) that had been strongly criticised for allowing countries with poor human rights records to be members.NEWS,weblink BBC, 15 March 2006, UN creates new human rights body, UN Secretaries General Kofi Annan and Ban Ki-moon, former president of the council Doru Costea, the European Union, Canada, and the United States have accused the UNHRC of focusing disproportionately on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and many allege an anti-Israel bias – the Council has resolved more resolutions condemning Israel than the rest of the world combined.Secretary-General urges human rights activists to ‘fill leadership vacuum’, hold world leaders to account, in address to international day event, UN Department of Public Information 8 12 2008UN's Ban faults rights council over Israel, Reuters (reprinted in Ynet News) 21 06 2007Human Rights Council president wants reform, SwissInfo 29 09 2007 The UNHRC works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and engages the UN's special procedures.{{TOC limit|3}}

Structure

The members of the General Assembly elect the members who occupy the UNHRC's 47 seats. The term of each seat is three years, and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms. The seats are distributed among the UN's regional groups as follows: 13 for Africa, 13 for Asia, six for Eastern Europe, eight for Latin America and the Caribbean (GRULAC), and seven for the Western European and Others Group (WEOG). The previous CHR had a membership of 53 elected by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) through a majority of those present and voting.The General Assembly can suspend the rights and privileges of any Council member that it decides has persistently committed gross and systematic violations of human rights during its term of membership. The suspension process requires a two-thirds majority vote by the General Assembly. The resolution establishing the UNHRC states that "when electing members of the Council, Member States shall take into account the contribution of candidates to the promotion and protection of human rights and their voluntary pledges and commitments made thereto", and that "members elected to the Council shall uphold the highest standards in the promotion and protection of human rights".

Sessions

The UNHRC holds regular sessions three times a year, in March, June, and September.WEB, United Nations Human Rights Council, Sessions,weblink 2 June 2012, The UNHRC can decide at any time to hold a special session to address human rights violations and emergencies, at the request of one-third of the member states. To date there have been 28 special sessions.

Members

{{See also|List of members of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights}}The Council consists of 47 members, elected yearly by the General Assembly for staggered three-year terms. Members are selected via the basis of equitable geographic rotation using the United Nations regional grouping system. Members are eligible for re-election for one additional term, after which they must relinquish their seat.WEB,weblink Membership of the Human Rights Council, n.d., United Nations Human Rights Council, United Nations, 26 February 2019, The seats are distributed along the following lines:
  • 13 for the African Group
  • 13 for the Asia-Pacific Group
  • 6 for the Eastern European Group
  • 8 for the Latin American and Caribbean Group
  • 7 for the Western European and Others Group

Current {| class"wikitable"

! Term! African States (13)! Asia-Pacific States (13)! Eastern European States (6) ! Latin American & Caribbean States (8)! Western European & Other States (7) style="border-top: 2px solid #000000; background:#f7f7c7" !2019–2021WEB,weblink Election of the Human Rights Council (12 October 2018), 12 October 2018, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations, 26 February 2019, Burkina Faso}} {{flagcountryEritrea}} {{flagcountryTogo}}Bahrain}} {{flagcountryFiji}} {{flagcountryPhilippines}}Bulgaria}} {{flagcountry|Czech Republic}}Argentina}} {{flagcountryUruguay}}Austria}} {{flagcountryItaly}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000; background:#ddeeee" !2018–2020WEB,weblink Election of the Human Rights Council (16 October 2017), 16 October 2017, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations, 26 February 2019, Angola}} {{flagcountryNigeria}} {{flagcountry|Senegal}}Afghanistan}} {{flagcountryQatar}} {{flagcountry|Pakistan}}Slovakia}} {{flagcountry|Ukraine}}Chile}} {{flagcountryPeru}}Australia}} {{flagcountry|Spain}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;background:#eeffee"!2017–2019WEB,weblink Election of the Human Rights Council (28 October 2016), 16 October 2017, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations, 26 February 2019, Egypt}} {{flagcountryTunisia}} {{flagcountry|South Africa}}China}} {{flagcountryJapan}} {{flagcountry|Saudi Arabia}}Croatia}} {{flagcountry|Hungary}}Brazil}} {{flagcountry|Cuba}}UKUSAIceland}} {{efnUnited States.HTTPS://NEWS.UN.ORG/EN/STORY/2018/07/1014672 AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS NEWS ACCESS-DATE=26 FEBRUARY 2019, }}">

Previous {| class"wikitable"

! Term ! African States (13) ! Asia-Pacific States (13)! Eastern European States (6) ! Latin American & Caribbean States (8)! Western European & Other States (7) style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;"2016–2018HTTP://WWW.UN.ORG/EN/GA/70/MEETINGS/ELECTIONS/HRC.SHTML AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2019, Ivory Coast|name=Côte D'Ivoire}} {{ETH}} {{KEN}} {{TOG}}South Korea}} Republic of Korea {{KGZ}} {{MGL}} {{PHI}} {{UAE}}| {{GEO}} {{SLO}}Venezuela|name=Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of}}| {{BEL}} {{GER}} {{SWI}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;"2015–2017HTTP://WWW.UN.ORG/EN/GA/69/MEETINGS/ELECTIONS/HRC.SHTML AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2019, Congo}} {{GHA}} {{NGA}}| {{BGD}} {{IND}} {{IDN}} {{QAT}}| {{ALB}} {{LVA}}Bolivia|name=Bolivia (Plurinational State of)}} {{SLV}} {{PRY}}| {{NLD}} {{PRT}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" 2014–2016HTTPS://WWW.UN.ORG/EN/GA/68/MEETINGS/ELECTIONS/HRC.SHTML AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2019, | {{DZA}} {{MAR}} {{NAM}} {{ZAF}}Vietnam|name=Viet Nam}}MacedoniaNow the Republic of North Macedonia}} {{flagcountryname=Russian Federation}}| {{CUB}} {{MEX}}UK|name=United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" 2013–2015HTTPS://WWW.UN.ORG/EN/GA/67/MEETINGS/ELECTIONS/HRC.SHTML AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2019, Ivory Coast|name=Côte D'Ivoire}} {{GAB}} {{KEN}} {{SLE}}South Korea}} Republic of Korea {{ARE}} | {{EST}} {{MNE}}Venezuela|name=Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of}}USA|name=United States of America}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" 2012–2014HTTP://WWW.UN.ORG/EN/GA/65/MEETINGS/ELECTIONS/HRC.SHTML AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2019, Congo}}| {{IND}} {{INA}} {{KUW}} {{PHI}}| {{ROM}} {{CZE}}| {{CHI}} {{CRC}} {{PER}}| {{ITA}} {{AUT}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" 2011–2013HTTPS://WWW.UN.ORG/GA/64/ELECTIONS/HRC/INDEX.SHTML AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=26 JULY 2010, yes, 1977}} {{MTN}} {{UGA}}| {{QAT}} {{MAS}} {{MDV}} {{THA}}| {{MDA}} {{POL}}| {{ECU}} {{GUA}}| {{CHE}} {{ESP}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" 2010–2012HTTP://WWW.UN.ORG/EN/GA/63/ELECTIONS/HRC_ELECTIONS.SHTML AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2019, | {{DJI}} {{CMR}} {{MUS}} {{NGA}} {{SEN}}| {{BGD}} {{CHN}} {{JOR}} {{KGZ}} {{SAU}}Russia|name=Russian Federation}} {{HUN}}| {{CUB}} {{MEX}} {{URY}}USA|name=United States of America}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" 2009–2011HTTPS://WWW.UN.ORG/GA/62/ELECTIONS/HRC_ELECTIONS.SHTML AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=14 NOVEMBER 2008, yes, | {{BFA}} {{GAB}} {{GHA}} {{ZAM}}South Korea}} Republic of Korea| {{SVK}} {{UKR}}| {{ARG}} {{BRA}} {{CHL}}UK|name=United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" 2008–2010HTTPS://WWW.UN.ORG/GA/61/ELECT/HRC/ AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=10 JANUARY 2019, yes, | {{EGY}} {{AGO}} {{MAD}} {{RSA}}| {{IND}} {{INA}} {{QAT}} {{PHI}}| {{BIH}} {{SVN}}Bolivia|name=Bolivia (Plurinational State of)}} {{NIC}}| {{NLD}} {{ITA}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" 2006–2009HTTPS://WWW.UN.ORG/PRESS/EN/2006/GA10459.DOC.HTM AUTHOR= WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY ACCESS-DATE=26 FEBRUARY 2019, | {{DJI}} {{CMR}} {{MRI}} {{NGR}} {{SEN}}| {{BGD}} {{CHN}} {{JOR}} {{MAS}} {{KSA}}Russia|name=Russian Federation}}| {{CUB}} {{MEX}} {{URU}}| {{DEU}} {{CAN}} {{CHE}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" | 2006–2008 | {{GAB}} {{GHA}} {{MLI}} {{ZAM}}South Korea}} Republic of Korea| {{ROU}} {{UKR}}| {{BRA}} {{GUA}} {{PER}}UK|name=United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland}} style="border-top: 2px solid #000000;" | 2006–2007 | {{DZA}} {{MAR}} {{RSA}} {{TUN}}| {{BHR}} {{IND}} {{INA}} {{PHI}} | {{POL}} {{CZE}}| {{ARG}} {{ECU}}| {{FIN}} {{NLD}}

Presidents

{| class="wikitable"!No.! Name! Country! Time|13|Coly SeckSenegal}}1 January 2019 – presentHTTPS://WWW.OHCHR.ORG/EN/HRBODIES/HRC/PAGES/PRESIDENCY.ASPXLAST=DATE=ACCESS-DATE=2019-02-22, Slovenia}} 1 January 2018 – 31 December 2018El Salvador}} 1 January 2017 – 31 December 2017| 1 January 2016 – 31 December 2016The Human Rights Council elects Ambassador Ambassador Choi Kyong-lim of the Republic of Korea as its new President. Retrieved 4 January 2016.Joachim Rücker >| 1 January 2015 – 31 December 2015GAB}} 1 January 2014 – 31 December 2014POL}} 1 January 2013 – 31 December 2013HTTPS://WWW.UN.ORG/APPS/NEWS/STORY.ASP?CR=HUMAN+RIGHTS+COUNCIL&NEWSID=43731#.UP4PCSD9IVA>TITLE=UN NEWS - UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL: NEW PRESIDENT WILL HELP PROMOTE HUMAN RIGHTS EQUITABLYLAST=SECTIONWEBSITE=UN NEWS SERVICE SECTION, Laura Dupuy Lasserre >URY}} 19 June 2011 – 31 December 2012THA}} 19 June 2010 – 18 June 2011BEL}} 19 June 2009 – 18 June 2010HTTP://WWW2.OHCHR.ORG/ENGLISH/BODIES/HRCOUNCIL/MEMBERSHIP.HTM >TITLE=HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL – MEMBERSHIP OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL ACCESSDATE=2011-02-26 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110218214302/HTTP://WWW2.OHCHR.ORG/ENGLISH/BODIES/HRCOUNCIL/MEMBERSHIP.HTM, 18 February 2011, Martin Ihoeghian Uhomoibhi >NGA}} 19 June 2008 – 18 June 2009Doru Romulus Costea >ROU}} 19 June 2007 – 18 June 2008Luis Alfonso de Alba >MEX}} 19 June 2006 – 18 June 2007

Directly responsible subsidiary bodies

Universal Periodic Review Working Group

An important component of the Council consists in a periodic review of all 193 UN member states, called the Universal Periodic Review (UPR).WEB,weblink Human Rights Watch, 27 June 2006, 24 February 2009, The Universal Periodic Review Mechanism, The new mechanism is based on reports coming from different sources, one of them being contributions from NGOs. Each country's situation will be examined during a three-and-a-half-hour debate.Main points: What is the UPR, retrieved on 31 January 2016More details on: Information note for NGOs regarding the Universal Periodic Review mechanism (as of second cycle) , retrieved on 31 January 2016The first cycle of the UPR took place between 2008 and 2012,For complete calendar, see: Human Rights Council Universal Periodic Review and the second cycle of reviews started in 2012 and is expected to be completed in 2016.For complete calendar, see: Human Rights Council Universal Periodic ReviewThe General Assembly resolution establishing the Council, provided that "the Council shall review its work and functioning five years after its establishment”.Paragraph 16 of General Assembly Resolution 60/251 of 15 March 2006 The main work of the review was undertaken in an Intergovernmental Working Group established by the Council in its Resolution 12/1 of October 1, 2009.See: Resolution 12/1 of 1 October 2009, included in UN document A/65/53, containing the Report of the Human Rights Council on its Twelfth Session (14 September - 2 October 2009) The review was finalized in March 2011, by the adoption of an "Outcome" at the Council's sixteenth session, annexed to Resolution 16/21.WEB,weblink Resolution 16/21, upr-info.org, First cycle: The following terms and procedures were set out in General Assembly Resolution 60/251:
  • Reviews are to occur over a four-year period (48 countries per year). Accordingly, the 193WEB,weblink Member States {{!, United Nations|website=www.un.org|access-date=2018-12-07}} countries that are members of the United Nations shall normally all have such a Review between 2008 and 2011;
  • The order of review should follow the principles of universality and equal treatment;
  • All Member States of the Council will be reviewed while they sit at the Council and the initial members of the Council will be first;
  • The selection of the countries to be reviewed must respect the principle of equitable geographical allocation;
  • The first Member States and the first observatory States to be examined will be selected randomly in each regional group in order to guarantee full compliance with the equitable geographical allocation. Reviews shall then be conducted alphabetically.
Second cycle: HRC Resolution 16/21 brought the following changes:
  • Reviews are to occur over a four-and-a-half-year period (42 countries per year). Accordingly, the 193 countries that are members of the United Nations shall normally all have such a Review between 2012 and 2016;
  • The order of review will be similar to the 1st cycle;
  • The length of each Review will be extended from three to three-and-a-half hours;
  • The second and subsequent cycles of the review should focus on, inter alia, the implementation of the recommendations.
Similar mechanisms exist in other organizations: International Atomic Energy Agency, Council of Europe, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, International Labour Bureau and the World Trade Organization.Lars Müller, (ed.), The First 365 days of the United Nations Human Rights Council, p. 81 and ff.Except for the tri-annual reports on development of human rights policies, that Member States have to submit to the Secretary General since 1956, the Human Rights Council UPR procedure constitutes a first in the area. It marks the end of the discrimination that had plagued the work of the Human Rights Commission and had caused it to be harshly criticised. Finally, this mechanism demonstrates and confirms the universal nature of human rights.

Advisory Committee

The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights was the main subsidiary body of the CHR. The Sub-Commission was composed of 26 elected human rights experts whose mandate was to conduct studies on discriminatory practices and to make recommendations to ensure that racial, national, religious, and linguistic minorities are protected by law.WEB
, Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights
, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
, n.d.
,weblink
, 11 August 2009,
In 2006 the newly created UNHRC assumed responsibility for the Sub-Commission. The Sub-Commission's mandate was extended for one year (to June 2007), but it met for the final time in August 2006. At its final meeting, the Sub-Commission recommended the creation of a Human Rights Consultative Committee to provide advice to the UNHRC.WEB
, Report of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of human rights on its fifty-eighth session
, A/HRC/2/2
, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
, 9 November 2006
,weblink
, 11 August 2009,
In September 2007, the UNHRC decided to create an Advisory Committee to provide expert adviceWEB
, Human Rights Council Advisory Committee
, UN Human Rights Council
, n.d.
,weblink
, 11 August 2009, with 18 members, distributed as follows: five from African states; five from Asian states; three from Latin American and Caribbean states; three from Western European and other states; and two members from Eastern European states.Human Rights Council Advisory Committee Concludes Third Session Human Rights Council Advisory Committee Roundup 7 August 2009.

Complaints procedure

The UNHRC complaint procedure was established on June 18, 2007 (by UNHRC Resolution 5/1)WEB,weblink Resolution 5/1,weblink for reporting of consistent patterns of gross and reliably attested violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms in any part of the world and under any circumstances.The UNHRC has set up two working groups for its Complaint Procedure:
  • the Working Group on Communications (WGC) - consists of five experts designated by the Advisory Committee from among its members, one from each regional group. The experts serve for three years with the possibility of one renewal. The experts determine whether a complaint deserves investigation, in which case it is passed to the WGS.
  • the Working Group on Situations (WGS) - has five members, appointed by the regional groups from among its members on the Council for one year, which is renewable once. The WGS meets twice a year for five working days to examine the communications transferred to it by the WGC, including the replies of states thereon, as well as the situations which are already before the UNHRC under the complaint procedure. The WGS, on the basis of the information and recommendations provided by the WGC, presents the UNHRC with a report on consistent patterns of gross and reliably attested violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms and makes recommendations to the UNHRC on the course of actions to take.WEB,weblink Resolution 5/1,weblink


Filing a complaint
The Chairman of the WGC screens complaints for admissibility. A complaint must be in writing, and cannot be anonymous. Examples provided by the UNHRC of cases that would be considered consistent patterns of gross human rights violations include alleged deterioration of human rights of people belonging to a minority, including forced evictions, racial segregation and substandard living conditions, alleged degrading situation of prison conditions for both detainees and prison workers, resulting in violence and death of inmates.WEB,weblink Individuals, groups or non-governmental organizations can claim to be victims of humans rights violations or that have direct, reliable knowledge of such violations. Complaints by a single victim of a single incident that alleges violation of their human rights will not be accepted.Complaints can be regarding any state, regardless of whether it has ratified a particular treaty. Complaints are confidential and the UNHRC will only communicate with the complainant, unless it decides that the complaint will be addressed publicly.The interaction with the complainant and the UNHRC during the complaints procedure will be on an as needed basis. UNHRC Resolution 5/1, paragraph 86, emphasizes that the procedure is victims-oriented. Paragraph 106 provides that the complaint procedure shall ensure that complainants are informed of the proceedings at the key stages. The WGC may request further information from complainants or a third party.Following the initial screening a request for information will be sent to the state concerned, which shall reply within three months of the request being made. WGS will then report to the UNHRC, which will usually be in the form of a draft resolution or decision on the situation referred to in the complaint.The UNHRC will decide on the measures to take in a confidential manner as needed, but this will occur at least once a year. As a general rule, the period of time between the transmission of the complaint to the state concerned and consideration by the UNHRC shall not exceed 24 months. Those individuals or groups who make a complaint should not publicly state the fact that they have submitted a complaint.To be accepted complaints must:
  • be in writing and has to be submitted in one of the six UN official languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish).
  • contain a description of the relevant facts (including names of alleged victims, dates, location and other evidence), with as much detail as possible, and shall not exceed 15 pages.
  • not be manifestly politically motivated.
  • not be exclusively based on reports disseminated by mass media.
  • not be already dealt with by a special procedure, a treaty body or other United Nations or similar regional complaints procedure in the field of human rights.
  • be after domestic remedies have been exhausted, unless it appears that such remedies would be ineffective or unreasonably prolonged.
  • not use a language that is abusive or insulting.
The complaint procedure is not designed to provide remedies in individual cases or to provide compensation to alleged victims.
Effectiveness
Due to the confidential manner of the procedure, it is almost impossible to find out what complaints have passed through the procedure and also how effective the procedure is.There is a principle of non-duplication, which means that the complaint procedure cannot take up the consideration of a case that is already being dealt with by a special procedure, a treaty body or other United Nations or similar regional complaints procedure in the field of human rights.On the UNHRC website under the complaints procedure section there is a list of situations referred to the UNHRC under the complaint procedure since 2006. This was only available to the public as of 2014, however generally does not give any details regarding the situations that were under consideration other than the state that was involved.In some cases the information is slightly more revealing, for example a situation that was listed was the situation of trade unions and human rights defenders in Iraq that was considered in 2012, but the UNHRC decided to discontinue that consideration.McBeth, Nolan and Rice The International Law of Human Rights (OUP, 2011) at 231The complaints procedure has been said to be too lenient due to its confidential manner. Some have often questioned the value of the procedure, but its effectiveness should not be underestimated, 94% of states respond to the complaints raised with them.Moeckli, Shah, Sivakumaran, Harris International Human Rights Law 2nd ed (OUP, 2014) at 371The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) receives between 11,000 – 15,000 communications per year. During 2010-11, 1,451 out of 18,000 complaints were submitted for further action by the WGC. The UNHRC considered four complaints in their 19th session in 2012. Although the majority of the situations that have been considered have since been discontinued, the procedure should not be questioned as it still has an impact and should be continued.History shows that the procedure works almost in a petition like way; if enough complaints are received then the UNHRC is very likely to assign a special rapporteur to the state or to the issue at hand. It has been said that an advantage of the procedure is the confidential manner, which offers the ability to engage with the state concerned through a more [diplomatic] process, which can produce better results than a more adversarial process of public accusation.The procedure is a useful tool to have at the disposal on the international community for situations where naming and shaming has proved ineffective. Also another advantage is that a complaint can be made against any state, regardless of whether it has ratified a particular treaty.Due to the limited information that is provided on the complaints procedure it is hard to make comments on the process itself, the resources it uses versus its effectiveness. It is likely that a lot happens behind the scenes, such as communications between the WGS and states.

Other subsidiary bodies

In addition to the UPR, the Complaints Procedure and the Advisory Committee, the UNHRC's other subsidiary bodies include:
  • Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which replaced the CHR's Working Group on Indigenous Populations
  • Forum on Minority Issues,WEB,weblink Forum on Minority Issues, .ohchr.org, 24 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120702104345weblink">weblink 2 July 2012, dmy-all, established to provide a platform for promoting dialogue and cooperation on issues pertaining to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities
  • Social Forum,WEB,weblink Social Forum, Ohchr.org, 24 July 2012, established as a space for dialogue between the representatives of Member States, civil society, including grass-roots organizations, and intergovernmental organizations on issues linked with the national and international environment needed for the promotion of the enjoyment of all human rights by all.

Special procedures

"Special procedures"WEB, History of the United Nations Special Procedures Mechanism,weblink Universal Rights Group, 2016-02-10, en-US, WEB, Special Procedures: Determinants of Influence - Universal Rights Group,weblink Universal Rights Group, 2016-02-10, en-US, is the general name given to the mechanisms established by the Human Rights Council to gather expert observations and advice on human rights issues in all parts of the world. Special procedures are categorized as either thematic mandates, which focus on major phenomena of human rights abuses worldwide, or country mandates, which report on human rights situations in specific countries or territories. Special procedures can be either individuals (called "special rapporteurs" or "independent experts"), who are intended to be independent experts in a particular area of human rights, or working groups, usually composed of five members (one from each UN region). As of September 30, 2016 there were 43 thematic and 14 country mandates.WEB,weblink Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council, ohchr.org, 2016, 2016-10-29, The mandates of the special procedures are established and defined by the resolution creating them.WEB, Policy Report: UN Human Rights Council resolutions,weblink Universal Rights Group, 2016-02-10, en-US, Various activities can be undertaken by mandate-holders, including responding to individual complaints, conducting studies, providing advice on technical cooperation, and engaging in promotional activities. Generally the special procedures mandate-holders report to the Human Rights Council at least once a year on their findings."Special Procedures of the UN Human Rights Council". Section "Annual reports". International Justice Resource Center. Retrieved 2016-10-29.

Special procedures mandate-holders

Mandate-holders of the special procedures serve in their personal capacity, and do not receive pay for their work. The independent status of the mandate-holders is crucial in order to be able to fulfill their functions in all impartiality.WEB, Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council,weblink 2 June 2012, The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights provides staffing and logistical support to aid each mandate-holders in carrying out their work.Applicants for Special Procedures mandates are reviewed by a Consultative Group of five countries, one from each region. Following interviews by the Consultative Group, the Group provides a shortlist of candidates to the UNHRC President. Following consultations with the leadership of each regional grouping, the President presents a single candidate to be approved by the Member states of the UNHRC at the session following a new mandate's creation or on the expiration of the term of an existing mandate holder.WEB, Nomination, Selection and Appointment of Mandate Holders,weblink 2 June 2012, Country mandates must be renewed yearly by the UNHRC; thematic mandates must be renewed every three years. Mandate-holders, whether holding a thematic or country-specific mandate, are generally limited to six years of service."Special Procedures of the UN Human Rights Council". International Justice Resource Center. Retrieved 2016-10-29.Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council: Introduction". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. ohchr.org. Retrieved 2016-10-29.The following is a list of thematic special procedures mandate-holders:

Thematic mandate-holders

{{Multiple issues|{{External links|section|date=April 2017}}{{update|section|date=March 2019}}}}

Special rapporteurs

  • Adequate Housing,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context, www.ohchr.org, Leilani Farha (Canada)
  • Cultural Rights, Farida Shaheed (Pakistan)
  • Education,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the right to education, www.ohchr.org, Dr. Koumbou Boly Barry (Burkina Faso)
  • Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, www.ohchr.org, Christof Heyns (South Africa)
  • Extreme Poverty,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights, www.ohchr.org, Magdalena Sepúlveda Carmona (Chile)
  • Freedom of Assembly and Association,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Freedoms of peaceful assembly and of association, www.ohchr.org, Maina Kiai (Kenya)
  • Freedom of Opinion and Expression,WEB,weblink OHCHR - SR on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, www.ohchr.org, Frank La Rue (Guatemala)
  • Freedom of Religion or Belief,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, www.ohchr.org, Heiner Bielefeldt (Germany)
  • Hazardous Substances and Waste,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on Toxic Wastes, www.ohchr.org, Călin Georgescu (Romania)
  • Health,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the right to health, www.ohchr.org, Anand Grover (India)
  • Human Rights Defenders,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, www.ohchr.org, Margaret Sekaggya (Uganda)
  • Human Rights While Countering Terrorism,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on counter-terrorism and human rights, www.ohchr.org, Ben Emmerson (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
  • Independence of Judges and Lawyers,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers, www.ohchr.org, Gabriela Knaul (Brazil)
  • Indigenous peoples,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, www.ohchr.org, Victoria Tauli-Corpuz (Philippines)
  • Internally Displaced Persons,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, www.ohchr.org, Dr. Chaloka Beyani (Zambia)
  • Migrants,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, www.ohchr.org, François Crépeau (Canada)
  • Racism,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, www.ohchr.org, Mutuma Ruteere (Kenya)
  • Right to Food,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the right to food, www.ohchr.org, Olivier de Schutter (Belgium)
  • Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, www.ohchr.org, Najat Maalla M'jid (Morocco)
  • Slavery,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, www.ohchr.org,
  • Torture,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, www.ohchr.org, Juan E. Méndez (Argentina)
  • Trafficking in Persons,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on trafficking, www.ohchr.org, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo (Nigeria)
  • Truth, Justice, Reparation and Guarantees of non-Recurrence, Pablo de Greiff (Colombia)
  • Violence Against Women,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, www.ohchr.org, Rashida Manjoo (South Africa)
  • Water,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation, www.ohchr.org, Catarina de Albuquerque (Portugal)

Independent experts

  • Democratic and Equitable International Order, Alfred de Zayas (USA)
  • Environment (TBD)
  • Foreign Debt,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt, www.ohchr.org, Cephas Lumina (Zambia)
  • International Solidarity,WEB,weblink OHCHR - The independent expert on human rights and international solidarity, www.ohchr.org, Virginia B. Dandan (Philippines)
  • Minority Issues,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-06-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120603025241weblink">weblink 3 June 2012, dmy-all, {{interlanguage link|Rita Izsák|gd}} (Hungary)

Working groups

  • Arbitrary Detention,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, www.ohchr.org, El Hadji Malick Sow (Senegal), Shaheen Sardar Ali (Pakistan), {{interlanguage link|Roberto Garreton|es}} (Chile), Vladimir Tochilovsky (Ukraine), Mads Andenas (Norway)
  • Discrimination Against Women in Law and Practice,WEB,weblink OHCHR - WG on discrimination against women, www.ohchr.org, Kamala Chandrakirana (Indonesia), Emna Aouij, (Tunisia), Mercedes Barquet (Mexico), Frances Raday (Israel/United Kingdom), {{interlanguage link|Eleonora Zielinska|pl}} (Poland)
  • Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, www.ohchr.org, Olivier de Frouville (France), Ariel Dulitzky (Argentina/USA), Jazminka Dzumhur (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Jeremy Sarkin (South Africa), Osman el-Hajje (Lebanon)
  • Human Rights and Transnational Corporations,WEB,weblink OHCHR - WG on HR and transnational corporations and other business enterprises, www.ohchr.org, Margaret Jungk (USA), Michael K. Addo (Ghana), Alexandra Guaqueta (Colombia/USA), Puvan J. Selvanathan (Malaysia), Pavel Sulyandziga (Russian Federation)
  • Mercenaries,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Working Group on the use of mercenaries, www.ohchr.org, Faiza Patel (Pakistan), Patricia Arias (Chile), Elzbieta Karska (Poland), Anton Katz (South Africa), Gabor Rona (USA/Hungary)
  • Peoples of African Descent,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent, www.ohchr.org, Mirjana Najcevska (Republic of Macedonia), Monorama Biswas (Bangladesh), {{interlanguage link|Mireille Fanon-Mendes-France|fr}} (France), Maya Sahli (Algeria) and Verene Shepherd (Jamaica)

Country-specific mandate holders

Special rapporteurs

  • Cambodia,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-07-22, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130710075857weblink">weblink 10 July 2013, dmy-all, Dr. Rhona Smith (UK);
  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-06-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130314145047weblink">weblink 14 March 2013, dmy-all, Mr. Marzuki Darusman (Indonesia);
  • Palestinian territories occupied since 1967,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-12-08, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111203010922weblink">weblink 3 December 2011, dmy-all, Mr. Richard Falk (United States);
  • Islamic Republic of Iran,WEB,weblink OHCHR - Special Rapporteur on Iran, www.ohchr.org, Mr. Javaid Rehman (Pakistan);
  • Myanmar,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-06-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120620210316weblink">weblink 20 June 2012, dmy-all, Mr. Thomas Ojea Quintana (Argentina);
  • Syria, Mr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro (Brazil – to begin once Commission of Inquiry Ends)

Independent experts

  • Côte d'Ivoire, Mr. Doudou Diene (Senegal);
  • Haiti,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-06-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101104090727weblink">weblink 4 November 2010, dmy-all, Mr. Michel Forst (France);
  • Somalia,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-06-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120522165400weblink">weblink 22 May 2012, dmy-all, Mr. Shamsul Bari (Bangladesh);
  • Sudan,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-06-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111215050615weblink">weblink 15 December 2011, dmy-all, Mr. Mashood Baderin (Nigeria)

International response to election of Richard Falk as the Special Rapporteur on the "Occupied Palestinian Territories"

According to a UN press release, then Israeli Ambassador to the United Nations Itzhak LevanonStatement by H.E. permanent resident Ambassador to the United Nations Itzhak Levanon, March 22, 2007 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110718153137weblink |date=July 18, 2011 }} strongly criticized the appointment stating that Falk had written in an article that it was not "an irresponsible overstatement to associate the treatment of Palestinians with the criminalized Nazi record of collective atrocity," arguing that "someone who had publicly and repeatedly stated such views could not possibly be considered independent, impartial or objective".weblink" title="archive.today/20090101213057weblink">Human Rights Council Elects Advisory Committee Members, United Nations press release, March 26, 2008.According to The Jewish Daily Forward Falk said: "Is it an irresponsible overstatement to associate the treatment of Palestinians with this criminalized Nazi record of collective atrocity? I think not.""U.N. Taps American Jewish Critic of Israel as Rights Expert", The Forward, April 4, 2008. Levanon further stated, "He has taken part in a UN fact-finding mission which determined that suicide bombings were a valid method of 'struggle'. He has disturbingly charged Israel with 'genocidal tendencies,' and accused it of trying to achieve security through 'state terrorism'. Someone who has publicly and repeatedly stated such views cannot possibly be considered independent, impartial or objective.""UNHRC appointment infuriates Israel"{{dead link|date=April 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}, The Jerusalem Post, March 26, 2008. The Israeli government announced it would deny Falk a visa to Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, at least until the September 2008 meeting of the Human Rights Council."Israel to bar UN official for comparing Israelis to Nazis", Haaretz, April 8, 2008. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100309161812weblink |date=9 March 2010 }}Mohammad Abu-Koash, a Palestinian representative, said,

Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression

(File:2009 Protest at UN against China's re-election in the Human Rights Council 聯合國外抗議中國在人權委員會資格.jpg|thumb|Protest at UN against China's re-election in the Human Rights Council)The amendments to the duties of the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression, passed by the Human Rights Council on March 28, 2008, has given rise to sharp criticism from western countries and human rights NGOs. The additional duty is phrased thus:
(d) To report on instances in which the abuse of the right of freedom of expression constitutes an act of racial or religious discrimination, taking into account articles 19 (3) and 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and general comment No. 15 of the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which stipulates that the prohibition of the dissemination of all ideas based upon racial superiority or hatred is compatible with the freedom of opinion and expression
(quoted from p. 67 in the official draft recordHuman Rights Council: Session 7, draft report, addendum 1 Published 2008-03-28, accessed 6 June 2008. of the council). The amendment was proposed by Egypt and PakistanUS, Europeans: Islamic Nations Want To Limit Free Speech At UN {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080619133036weblink |date=19 June 2008 }}, Dow Jones Newswires, published 2008-04-01, accessed 4 April 2008. and passed by 27 votes to 15 against, with three abstentions with the support of other members of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, China, Russia and Cuba.Vote on freedom of expression marks the end of Universal Human Rights {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080406003132weblink |date=6 April 2008 }}, International Humanist and Ethical Union, published 2008-03-30, accessed 4 April 2008. As a result of the amendment over 20 of the original 53 co-sponsors of the main resolution – to renew the mandate of the Special Rapporteur – withdrew their support, although the resolution was carried by 32 votes to 0, with 15 abstentions. Inter alia'' the delegates from India and Canada protested that the Special Rapporteur now has as his/her duty to report not only infringements of the rights to freedom of expression, but in some cases also employment of the rights, which "turns the special rapporteur's mandate on its head".Outside the UN, the amendment was criticised by organizations including Reporters Without Borders, Index on Censorship, Human Rights Watch and the International Humanist and Ethical Union, all of whom share the view that the amendment threatens freedom of expression.In terms of the finally cast votes, this was far from the most controversial of the 36 resolutions adapted by the 7th session of the Council. The highest dissents concerned combating defamation of religions, with 21 votes for, 10 against, and 14 abstentions (resolution 19, pp. 91–97), and the continued severe condemnation of and appointment of a Special Rapporteur for North Korea, with votes 22–7 and 18 abstentions (resolution 15, pp. 78–80).Human Rights Council: Session 7, draft report, A/HRC/7/L.11/ Published 2008-03-28, accessed 6 June 2008. There were also varying degrees of dissent for most of the various reports criticising Israel; while on the other hand a large number of resolutions were taken unanimously without voting, including the rather severe criticism of Myanmar (resolutions 31 and 32),Session 7, draft report{{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=Tribe of Tiger |fix-attempted=yes }}, Published 2008-03-28, accessed 11 April 2008 and the somewhat less severe on Sudan (resolution 16).

Specific issues

Myanmar

In 2018, the UNHRC declared that six generals in Myanmar should be prosecuted for the genocide against the Rohingya Muslims.NEWS,weblink Politics this week, The Economist, 2018-09-03, en,

Israel

{{See also|Israel, Palestine, and the United Nations}}

Overview

As of 2018, Israel has been condemned in 78 resolutions by the Council since its creation in 2006—the Council has resolved more resolutions condemning Israel than the rest of the world combined.WEB,weblink Report: Since Inception, UNHRC Condemned Israel More Than Rest of World’s Countries Combined, Algemeiner.com, By April 2007, the Council had passed eleven resolutions condemning Israel, the only country which it had specifically condemned.NEWS, A Shadow on the Human Rights Movement, Jackson, Diehl, 25 June 2007, A19,,weblink Washingtonpost.com, Toward Sudan, a country with human rights abuses as documented by the Council's working groups, it has expressed "deep concern".NEWS
, Bad counsel
, The Economist
, 4 April 2007
,weblink
, 16 August 2006,
The council voted on June 30, 2006 to make a review of alleged human rights abuses by Israel a permanent feature of every council session. The council's special rapporteur on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict is its only expert mandate with no year of expiry. The resolution, which was sponsored by Organisation of the Islamic Conference, passed by a vote of 29 to 12 with five abstentions. Human Rights Watch urged it to look at international human rights and humanitarian law violations committed by Palestinian armed groups as well. Human Rights Watch called on the Council to avoid the selectivity that discredited its predecessor and urged it to hold special sessions on other urgent situations, such as that in Darfur.U.N.: Mixed Start for New Human Rights Council Human Rights Watch, 30 6 2006The special rapporteur on the question of Palestine to the previous UNCHR, the current UNHRC and the General Assembly was, between 2001 and 2008, John Dugard. Bayefski quotes him as saying that his mandate is to "investigate human rights violations by Israel only, not by Palestinians".His job description, or U.N. mandate, deliberately excludes Palestinian human-rights abuses. As Dugard said on 19 October, "I have a limited mandate, which is to investigate human rights violations by Israelis, not by Palestinians." The pre-determined outcome, however, has never been a problem for this lawyer. Far from being embarrassed, he launched into this year’s diatribe this way: "Today I deliver my annual criticism of Israel’s human rights record." Bayefsky, Anne. www.nationalreview.com "The U.N.'s Spokesperson for Suicide Bombers" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081012090543weblink |date=12 October 2008 }}. National Review, 23 October 2006. Dugard was succeeded in 2008 by Richard Falk, who has compared Israel's treatment of Palestinians with the Nazis' treatment of Jews during the Holocaust.After describing the Nazi horrors, [Falk] asked: "Is it an irresponsible overstatement to associate the treatment of Palestinians with this criminalized Nazi record of collective atrocity? I think not. The recent developments in Gaza are especially disturbing because they express so vividly a deliberate intention on the part of Israel and its allies to subject an entire human community to life-endangering conditions of utmost cruelty." U.N. Taps American Jewish Critic of Israel as Rights Expert By Marc Perelman, Forward Magazine 27 March 2008, issue of 4 April 2008.NEWS, UN expert stands by Nazi comments,weblink BBC, 8 April 2008, Tim, Franks, WEB,weblink Slouching toward a Palestinian Holocaust, Richard Falk, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080219013704weblink">weblink 19 February 2008, dmy-all, Like his predecessor, Falk's mandate only covers Israel's human rights record."He submits periodic reports to the UNHRC on the human rights situation in the West Bank and Gaza, but his mandate only covers Israel's human rights record." WEB, Richard Falk under attack from the Palestinian authority, Omar, Radwan, Middle East Monitor, 10 March 2010,weblink The Palestinian Authority has informally asked Falk to resign, among other reasons due to viewing him as "a partisan of Hamas". Falk disputes this and has called the reasons given "essentially untrue".WEB,weblink UN expert Richard Falk: PA told me to quit | Maan News Agency, Maannews.net, 22 June 2010, 18 July 2012, In July 2011, Richard Falk posted a cartoon critics has described as anti-Semitic onto his blog. The cartoon depicted a bloodthirsty dog with the word "USA" on it wearing a kippah, or Jewish headcovering. In response, Falk was heavily criticized by world leaders in the United States and certain European countries.WEB, 2019-08-13, UN's Richard Falk under fire for ‘anti-Semitic’ cartoon - World News - Jerusalem Post,weblink www.jpost.com, The United States called Falk's behavior "shameful and outrageous" and "an embarrassment to the United Nations", and officially called on him to resign. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, chairwoman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs, called on Falk to resign as well. The Anti-Defamation League described the cartoon as a "message of hatred".Pillay says Falk's cartoon was anti-Semitic, objectionable, Jerusalem Post 2011-07-14US, Jewish groups demand Falk resign over blog entry, Jerusalem Post 2011-07-10NEWS, Evans, Robert, U.S. urges U.N. sleuth resign over blog cartoon,weblink 9 October 2011, Reuters, 8 July 2011, Reuters, Geneva, The United States said on Friday it has called on the U.N. human rights investigator for the Palestinian territories to resign after he published a cartoon on his blog which he later withdrew as 'anti-semitic.', The UN Human Rights Council was castigated by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu for facilitating an event featuring a Hamas politician. The Hamas parliamentarian had spoken at an NGO event in the UN Geneva building. Israel's ambassador to the United Nations Ron Prosor denounced the speech stating that Hamas was an internationally recognized terrorist organization that targeted civilians. “Inviting a Hamas terrorist to lecture to the world about human rights is like asking Charles Manson to run the murder investigation unit at the NYPD”, he said.NEWS, Netanyahu to UNHRC: You should ashamed,weblink The Jerusalem Post, 19 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120320091305weblink">weblink 20 March 2012, dmy-all, On July 3, 2015, UNHRC voted Resolution A/HRC/29/L.35 "ensuring accountability and justice for all violations of international law in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem.".Resolution A/HCR/29/L.35. It passed by 41 votes in favor including the eight sitting EU members (France, Germany, Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Latvia and Estonia), one against (the US) and five absentions (India, Kenya, Ethiopia, Paraguay and Macedonia). India explained that its abstention was due to the reference to International Criminal Court (ICC) in the resolution whereas "India is not a signatory to the Rome Statute establishing the ICC".WEB,weblink India abstains in UNHRC vote against Israel, 4 July 2015, The Economic Times, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170809041417weblink">weblink 9 August 2017, dmy-all,

UN Secretaries General

In 2006, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan argued that the Commission should not have a "disproportionate focus on violations by Israel. Not that Israel should be given a free pass. Absolutely not. But the Council should give the same attention to grave violations committed by other states as well".WEB,weblink Secretary-General Urges Human Rights Activists To ‘Fill Leadership Vacuum’, Hold World Leaders To Account, In Address To International Day Event, United Nations, 8 December 2006, 26 February 2011, On June 20, 2007, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon issued a statement that read: "The Secretary-General is disappointed at the council's decision to single out only one specific regional item given the range and scope of allegations of human rights violations throughout the world."WEB,weblink Secretary-General Urges Human Rights Council To Take Responsibilities Seriously, Stresses Importance of Considering All Violations Equally, United Nations, 20 June 2007, 26 February 2011,

United States and UNHRC President

The Council's charter preserves the watchdog's right to appoint special investigators for countries whose human rights records are of particular concern, something many developing states have long opposed. A Council meeting in Geneva in 2007 caused controversy after Cuba and Belarus, both accused of abuses, were removed from a list of nine special mandates. The list, which included North Korea, Cambodia and Sudan, had been carried forward from the defunct Commission.NEWS,weblink The Wall Street Journal, The U.N.'s Human-Rights Sham, Ronan, Farrow, 29 January 2008, Commenting on Cuba and Belarus, the UN statement said that Ban noted "that not having a Special Rapporteur assigned to a particular country does not absolve that country from its obligations under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights."The United States said a day before the UN statement that the Council deal raised serious questions about whether the new body could be unbiased. Alejandro Wolff, deputy US permanent representative at the United Nations, accused the council of "a pathological obsession with Israel" and also denounced its action on Cuba and Belarus. "I think the record is starting to speak for itself", he told journalists.UN's Ban faults rights council over Israel Ynet 21 June 2007.Why single out Israel? {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080725083749weblink |date=25 July 2008 }} The Globe and Mail 21 June 2007.The UNHRC President Doru Costea responded: "I agree with him. The functioning of the Council must be constantly improved". He added that the Council must examine the behaviour of all parties involved in complex disputes and not place just one state under the magnifying glass.www.swissinfo.org Human Rights Council president wants reform SwissInfo.sc 29 September 2007.Steven Edwards: Controversial changes to UN rights body passes {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071120055850weblink |date=20 November 2007 }} CanWest News Service/National Post 16 November 2007.

Netherlands

Speaking at the IDC's Herzliya Conference in Israel in January 2008, Dutch Foreign Minister Maxime Verhagen criticized the actions of the Human Rights Council actions against Israel. "At the United Nations, censuring Israel has become something of a habit, while Hamas's terror is referred to in coded language or not at all. The Netherlands believes the record should be set straight, both in New York and at the Human Rights Council in Geneva", Verhagen said.WEB,weblink MinBuza.nl, MinBuza.nl, 26 February 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090706165852weblink">weblink 6 July 2009, yes, dmy-all,

2006 Lebanon conflict

At its Second Special Session in August 2006, the Council announced the establishment of a High-Level Commission of Inquiry charged with probing allegations that Israel systematically targeted and killed Lebanese civilians during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.Second Special Session of Human Rights Council Decides to Establish High-level Iinquiry Commission For Lebanon UN Press release 11 August 2006. The resolution was passed by a vote of 27 in favour to 11 against, with 8 abstentions. Before and after the vote several member states and NGOs objected that by targeting the resolution solely at Israel and failing to address Hezbollah attacks on Israeli civilians, the Council risked damaging its credibility. The members of the Commission of Inquiry, as announced on September 1, 2006, were Clemente Baena Soares of Brazil, Mohamed Chande Othman of Tanzania, and Stelios Perrakis of Greece. The Commission noted that its report on the conflict would be incomplete without fully investigating both sides, but that "the Commission is not entitled, even if it had wished, to construe [its charter] as equally authorizing the investigation of the actions by Hezbollah in Israel", as the Council had explicitly prohibited it from investigating the actions of Hezbollah.WEB,weblink Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Lebanon pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution S-2/1*, Human Rights Council, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070115172923weblink">weblink 15 January 2007,

January 2008 decree

The Council released a statement calling on Israel to stop its military operations in the Gaza Strip and to open the Strip's borders to allow the entry of food, fuel and medicine. The Council adopted the resolution by a vote of 30 to 1, with 15 states abstaining."Unfortunately, neither this resolution nor the current session addressed the role of both parties. It was regretful that the current draft resolution did not condemn the rocket attacks on Israeli civilians," said Canada's representative Terry Cormier, the lone voter against.Human Rights Council opens special session on violations stemming from Israeli incursions in occupied Palestinian territory UNHRC Press release, 23 January 2008.The United States and Israel boycotted the session. U.S. ambassador Warren Tichenor said the Council's unbalanced approach had "squandered its credibility" by failing to address continued rocket attacks against Israel. "Today's actions do nothing to help the Palestinian people, in whose name the supporters of this session claim to act," he said in a statement. "Supporters of a Palestinian state must avoid the kind of inflammatory rhetoric and actions that this session represents, which only stoke tensions and erode the chances for peace", he added.Human Rights Council slams Israel over Gaza; EU abstains {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080131211809weblink |date=31 January 2008 }} AFP, 24 January 2008. "We believe that this council should deplore the fact that innocent civilians on both sides are suffering", Slovenian Ambassador Andrej Logar said on behalf of the seven EU states on the council.At a press conference in Geneva on Wednesday, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon responded when asked about its special session on Gaza, that "I appreciate that the council is looking in depth into this particular situation. And it is rightly doing so. I would also appreciate it if the council will be looking with the same level of attention and urgency at all other matters around the world. There are still many areas where human rights are abused and not properly protected", he said.UNHRC slams Israel's actions in Gaza Jerusalem Post 24 January 2008.

Gaza report

On April 3, 2009, South African Judge Richard Goldstone was named as the head of the independent United Nations Fact-Finding Mission to investigate international human rights and humanitarian law violations related to the Gaza War. The Mission was established by Resolution S-9/1WEB,weblink Archived copy, 23 February 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110219083233weblink">weblink 19 February 2011, of the United Nations Human Rights Council.JOURNAL, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Richard J. Goldstone Appointed to Lead Human Rights Council Fact-finding mission on Gaza Conflict,weblink 3 April 2009, On September 15, 2009, the UN Fact-Finding mission released its report. The report found that there was evidence "indicating serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law were committed by Israel during the Gaza conflict, and that Israel committed actions amounting to war crimes, and possibly crimes against humanity". The mission also found that there was evidence that "Palestinian armed groups committed war crimes, as well as possibly crimes against humanity, in their repeated launching of rockets and mortars into Southern Israel".JOURNAL, UN Fact Finding Mission finds strong evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the Gaza conflict,weblink 15 September 2009, United Nations Human Rights Council, 15 September 2009, JOURNAL, Report of the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict,weblink United Nations Human Rights Council, 15 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091007093730weblink">weblink 7 October 2009, WEB,weblink UN Inquiry Finds Israel "Punished and Terrorized" Palestinian Civilians, Committed War Crimes During Gaza Assault, The mission called for referring either side in the conflict to the UN Security Council for prosecution at the International Criminal Court if they refuse to launch fully independent investigations by December 2009.WEB,weblink UN must ensure Goldstone inquiry recommendations are implemented, Amnesty.org, 15 September 2009, 26 February 2011, Goldstone has since partially retracted the report's conclusions that Israel committed war crimes, as new evidence has shed light upon the decision making by Israeli commanders. He said, "I regret that our fact-finding mission did not have such evidence explaining the circumstances in which we said civilians in Gaza were targeted, because it probably would have influenced our findings about intentionality and war crimes."WEB,weblink Reconsidering the Goldstone Report on Israel and war crimes, Amnesty.org, 2 April 2009, 2 April 2011, Goldstone acknowledged that Israel has "to a significant degree" implemented the report's recommendations that "each party to investigate [the incidents] transparently and in good faith," but "Hamas has done nothing". The Palestinian Authority has also implemented the report's recommendations by investigating "assassinations, torture and illegal detentions, perpetrated by Fatah in the West Bank", but Goldstone noted that "most of those allegations were confirmed by this inquiry".

March 2011 controversy

At the UNHRC's opening session in February 2011, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton criticized the council's "structural bias" against the State of Israel: "The structural bias against Israel – including a standing agenda item for Israel, whereas all other countries are treated under a common item – is wrong. And it undermines the important work we are trying to do together."NEWS, Lazaroff, Tovah, Clinton: UNHRC bias against Israel undermines its work,weblink 21 March 2011, The Jerusalem Post, 28 February 2011, The United Nations Human Rights Council must abandon its bias against Israel, which undermines its work, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said on Monday in Geneva., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110303125605weblink">weblink 3 March 2011, dmy-all, An editorial in the Jerusalem Post subsequently revealed that the UNHRC was "poised to adopt six resolutions ... condemning Israel," noting that it was the highest number of resolutions ever to be adopted against Israel in a single session. Human rights activist and Hudson Institute senior fellow Anne Bayefsky accused the UNHRC of failing to remove antisemitic propaganda distributed by the IHH during one of its sessions. The material in question was an illustration depicting Israel as a sinister Nazi octopus seizing control of a ship.NEWS, Bayefsky, Anne, The UNHRC: Hard at work condemning Israel,weblink 21 March 2011, The Jerusalem Post, 21 March 2011, The Council is poised to adopt six resolutions this week condemning just Israel – the highest number of resolutions dedicated to bashing the Jewish state at a single session., Chair of the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R) said she would propose legislation making U.S. funding for the UN contingent on extensive reform. Her bill will also call for the United States to withdraw from the UNHRC, as "Israel is the only country on the council's permanent agenda, while abuses by rogue regimes like Cuba, China, and Syria are ignored".NEWS, Goodenough, Patrick, House Foreign Affairs Chairman: U.S. Must Withdraw from U.N. Human Rights Council,weblink 22 March 2011, Cybercast News Service, 22 March 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110324225208weblink">weblink 24 March 2011, dmy-all,

The hosting of a Hamas member controversy

In March 2012, the UN Human Rights Council was criticized for facilitating an event featuring a Hamas politician. The Hamas parliamentarian had spoken at an NGO event in the UN Geneva building. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu castigated the UNHRC's decision stating, "He represents an organization that indiscriminately targets children and grown-ups, and women and men. Innocents – is their special favorite target". Israel's ambassador to the UN Ron Prosor denounced the speech stating that Hamas was an internationally recognized terrorist organization that targeted civilians. “Inviting a Hamas terrorist to lecture to the world about human rights is like asking Charles Manson to run the murder investigation unit at the NYPD”, he said.

March 2012 criticism

The United States urged the United Nations Human Rights Council in Geneva to stop its anti-Israel bias. It took particular exception to the council's Agenda Item 7, under which at every session, Israel's human rights record is debated. No other country has a dedicated agenda item. The US Ambassador to the UNHRC Eileen Chamberlain Donahoe said that the United States was deeply troubled by the "Council’s biased and disproportionate focus on Israel." She said that the hypocrisy was further exposed in the Golan Heights resolution that was advocated by the Syrian regime at a time when it was murdering its own citizens.WEB, US to UNHRC: ‘Stop anti-Israel bias’,weblink The Jerusalem Post, 19 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120320025507weblink">weblink 20 March 2012, dmy-all,

"Defamation of religion"

From 1999 to 2011, the CHR and the UNHRC adopted resolutions in opposition to the "defamation of religion".

Climate change

{{See also|Right to environmental protection}}The Human Rights Council has adopted the Resolution 10/4 about human rights and climate change.WEB,weblink Data, ohchr.org,

Eritrea report

{{See also|Human rights in Eritrea}}File:Helen Berhane.jpg|thumb|Helen BerhaneHelen BerhaneIn June 2015, a 500-page UNHRC report accused Eritrea's government of widespread human rights violations.These were alleged to include extrajudicial executions, torture, indefinitely prolonged national service and forced labour, and the report also indicated that sexual harassment, rape and sexual servitude by state officials are widespread.NEWS, Jones, Sam, Eritrea human rights abuses may be crimes against humanity, says UN,weblink 8 June 2015, The Guardian, 8 June 2015, WEB,weblink Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in Eritrea, UNHRC website, 2015-06-08, 2015-06-09, The Guardian claimed that the report 'catalogues a litany of human rights violations by the “totalitarian” regime of President Isaias Afwerki “on a scope and scale seldom witnessed elsewhere”'. The report also asserted that these serial violations may amount to crimes against humanity.The Eritrean Foreign Ministry responded by describing the Commission's report as "wild allegations" which were "totally unfounded and devoid of all merit" and countercharged the UNHRC with "vile slanders and false accusations".WEB,weblink Eritrea: Asmara Lashes Out at UN's 'Vile Slanders', AllAfrica news website, 2015-06-10, 2015-06-24,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150611062509weblink">weblink 11 June 2015, yes, The vice chairperson of the subcommittee on human rights at the European Parliament said the report detailed 'very serious human rights violations', and said that EU funding for development would not continue as at present without change in Eritrea.WEB,weblink Human rights: EU 'should put more pressure on Eritrea', Deutsche Welle, 2015-06-23, 2015-07-04,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150704105608weblink">weblink 2015-07-04,

Yemen

A report for the UNHRC says the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia may have committed war crimes during the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.NEWS, War Crimes Report on Yemen Accuses Saudi Arabia and U.A.E.,weblink The New York Times, 28 August 2018, NEWS, Saudi Arabia, UAE may be guilty of war crimes in Yemen: UN experts,weblink Global News, 30 August 2018,

Candidacy issues

Syria

{{See also|Human rights in Syria}}In July 2012, Syria announced that it would seek a UNHRC seat.WEB,weblink Syria Is Running for a Spot on U.N. Human Rights Council, The Weekly Standard, 5 July 2012, 18 July 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120719135053weblink">weblink 19 July 2012, yes, dmy-all, WEB,weblink UN Briefing, Unwatch.org, 4 July 2012, 18 July 2012, This was while there was serious evidence (provided by numerous human rights organizations including the UN itself) that Syrian President Bashar al-Assad had authorised and funded the slaughter of thousands of civilians, with estimates of 14,000 civilians being killed as of July 2012 during the Syrian civil war.WEB,weblink International News | World News – ABC News, Abcnews.go.com, 18 July 2012, WEB,weblink 14,000 killed in Syrian uprising, activists | Ya Libnan | World News Live from Lebanon, LB, Ya Libnan, 1 July 2012, 18 July 2012, WEB, The Associated Press,weblink Syrian rebels reject plan for transitional government because deal doesn't bar Bashar Assad from participating, NY Daily News, 1 July 2012, 18 July 2012, According to UN Watch, Syria's candidacy was virtually assured under the prevailing election system. Syria would be responsible for promoting human rights if elected. In response, the United States and European Union drafted a resolution to oppose the move.WEB,weblink Resolution, blog.unwatch.org, In the end, Syria was not on the ballot for the 12 November 2012 election to UNHRC.Elections and Appointments Retrieved 28 December 2014.

Sudan and Ethiopia

{{See also|Human rights in Sudan|Human rights in Ethiopia}}In July 2012, it was reported that Sudan and Ethiopia were nominated for a UNHRC seat, despite being accused by human rights organizations of grave human rights violations. UN Watch condemned the move to nominate Sudan, pointing out that Sudan's President Omar Al-Bashir was indicted for genocide by the International Criminal Court. According to UN Watch, Sudan was virtually assured of securing a seat.WEB, Outrage: Sudan's Al-Bashir, Indicted for Genocide,,weblink UN Watch, UN Watch, 12 July 2012, A joint letter of 18 African and international civil society organizations urged foreign ministers of the African Union to reverse its endorsement of Ethiopia and Sudan for a seat, accusing them of serious human rights violations and listing examples of such violations, and stating that they should not be rewarded with a seat.NEWS, Africa: Joint Letter On the {{sic, y, the, AU's Endorsement of Candidates to the UN Human Rights Council|url=http://allafrica.com/stories/201207120218.html|accessdate=12 July 2012|date=11 July 2012}}WEB, AU: Don't endorse Sudan, Ethiopia for Rights Council,weblink Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Watch, 12 July 2012, Sudan was not on the ballot for the 12 November 2012 election to UNHRC, but Ethiopia was elected.

Saudi Arabia

{{See also|Human rights in Saudi Arabia}}File:Destroyed house in the south of Sanaa 12-6-2015-3.jpg|thumb|Saudi Arabian-led airstrikes in Yemen, June 2015. Saudi Arabia is operating without a UN mandate.WEB,weblink The West should help Saudi Arabia limit its war in Yemen, The Economist, ]]In September 2015, Faisal bin Hassan Trad, Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the UN in Geneva, was elected Chair of the UNHRC Advisory Committee, the panel that appoints independent experts."UK helped Saudi Arabia get UN human rights role through 'secret deal' to exchange votes, leaked documents suggest". The Independent. 30 September 2015."When Beheading Won’t Do the Job, the Saudis Resort to Crucifixion ". The Atlantic. 24 September 2015. UN Watch executive director Hillel Neuer said: "It is scandalous that the UN chose a country that has beheaded more people this year [2015] than ISIS to be head of a key human rights panel. Petro-dollars and politics have trumped human rights.""U.N. Watchdog Slams 'Scandalous' Choice of Saudi Arabia to Head Human Rights Panel". Yahoo News. 21 September 2015. Saudi Arabia also shut down criticism, during the UN meeting.WEB,weblink Saudi Arabia Tries to Silence Center for Inquiry at UN Human Rights Council - 6/23/14, Center for Inquiry, 23 June 2014, YouTube, In January 2016, Saudi Arabia executed the prominent Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr who had called for free elections in Saudi Arabia.WEB, Saudi execution of Shia cleric sparks outrage in Middle East,weblink The Guardian, 2 January 2016, In September 2017, US President Donald Trump said that 'it is an “embarrassment” that there are countries on the UN human rights panel that have themselves committed atrocities', but not naming any particular country.Donald Trump attacks UN human rights council for including human rights abusers – like US ally Saudi Arabia

Country positions

Sri Lanka

{{Update|section|date=April 2017}}Sri Lanka has come under increasing scrutiny with a draft resolution tabledWEB,weblink News Today – An English evening daily published from Chennai, Newstodaynet.com, 8 March 2012, 18 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120816031921weblink">weblink 16 August 2012, dmy-all, by the United States on reconciliation and accountability in Sri Lanka.WEB,weblink States debate Sri Lanka resolution text at View from Geneva, Blog.unwatch.org, 8 March 2012, 18 July 2012, The draft resolution, which is under review,WEB,weblink Draft resolution, blog.unwatch.org, notes,Sri Lankan Ambassador in Geneva Tamara Kunanayakam pointed out that 80% of the UNHRC's funding requirements are supplied by powerful nations such as the United States and its allies. Also, key positions in the UNHRC are mostly held by those who have served in the foreign services of such countries.NEWS,weblink SL, Cuba and Pakistan seek resolution on transparency at UNHRC, Kelum Bandara, Daily Mirror, 22 February 2012, 25 February 2012, Sri Lanka's position is that this fact is significantly detrimental to the impartiality of the UNHRC activities, especially when dealing with the developing world. As a result, Sri Lanka, along with Cuba and Pakistan, sponsored a resolution seeking transparency in funding and staffing the UNHRC, during its 19th session starting in February 2012. The resolution passed on 4 April 2012.WEB,weblink Human Rights Documents, ap.ohchr.org,

United States

In regard to the United Nations Human Rights Council, the position of the United States is: "human rights have been a cornerstone of American values since the country's birth and the United States is committed to support the work of the UN Commission in promoting the principles embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.US Department of State: weblink" title="webarchive.loc.gov/all/20010617151752weblink">UN Commission on Human Rights U.S. President George W. Bush declared that the United States would not seek a seat on the Council, saying it would be more effective from the outside. He did pledge, however, to support the Council financially. State Department spokesman Sean McCormack said, "We will work closely with partners in the international community to encourage the council to address serious cases of human rights abuse in countries such as Iran, Cuba, Zimbabwe, Burma, Sudan, and North Korea".The U.S. State Department said on March 5, 2007 that, for the second year in a row, the United States has decided not to seek a seat on the Human Rights Council, asserting the body had lost its credibility with repeated attacks on Israel and a failure to confront other rights abusers.US Department of State: Daily Press Briefing 6 March Spokesman Sean McCormack said the council has had a “singular focus” on Israel, while countries such as Cuba, Myanmar and North Korea have been spared scrutiny. He said that though the United States will have only an observer role, it will continue to shine a spotlight on human rights issues. The most senior Republican member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the U.S. House of Representatives, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, supported the administration decision. “Rather than standing as a strong defender of fundamental human rights, the Human Rights Council has faltered as a weak voice subject to gross political manipulation,” she said.Upon passage of UNHRC's June 2007 institution-building package, the U.S. restated its condemnation of bias in the institution's agenda. Spokesman Sean McCormack again criticised the Commission for focusing on Israel in light of many more pressing human rights issues around the world, such as Sudan or Myanmar, and went on to criticise the termination of special rapporteurs to Cuba and Belarus, as well as procedural irregularities that prevented member-states from voting on the issues; a similar critique was issued by the Canadian representative.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120709081324weblink">weblink yes, 9 July 2012, US slams UNHRC's singling out of Israel, Staff, Tovah Lazaroff & AP, The Jerusalem Post, 20 June 2007, In September 2007, the US Senate voted to cut off funding to the council.WEB, Press, Associated,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120708181622weblink">weblink yes, 8 July 2012, Ban Ki-moon: End Gaza violence, blockades | International News | Jerusalem Post, Fr.jpost.com, 26 February 2011, The United States joined with Australia, Canada, Israel, and three other countries in opposing the UNHRC's draft resolution on working rules citing continuing misplaced focus on Israel at the expense of action against countries with poor human-rights records. The resolution passed 154–7 in a rare vote forced by Israel including the support of France, the United Kingdom, and China, although it is usually approved through consensus. United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Zalmay Khalilzad, spoke about the "council's relentless focus during the year on a single country – Israel," contrasting that with failure "to address serious human rights violations taking place in other countries such as Zimbabwe, DPRK (North Korea), Iran, Belarus and Cuba." Khalilzad said that aside from condemnation of the crackdown of the Burmese anti-government protests, the council's past year was "very bad" and it "had failed to fulfill our hopes."NEWS,weblink US attacks UN Human Rights Council, Associated Press, The Jerusalem Post, 17 November 2007, 18 November 2007, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=Tribe of Tiger |fix-attempted=yes }}On June 6, 2008, Human Rights Tribune announced that the United States had withdrawn entirely from the UNHRC,NEWS,weblink US quits Human Rights Council, Carole Vann/Juan Gasparini/Human Rights Tribune, Human Rights Tribune, 6 June 2008, 7 June 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080608095853weblink">weblink 8 June 2008, dmy-all, and had withdrawn its observer status.The United States boycotted the Council during the George W. Bush administration, but reversed its position on it during the Obama administration. Beginning in 2009 however, with the United States taking a leading role in the organization, American commentators began to argue that the UNHRC was becoming increasingly relevant.On March 31, 2009, the administration of Barack Obama announced that it would reverse the country's previous position and would join the UNHRC;NEWS,weblink US to join Human Rights Council, Colum Lynch, Washington Post, 31 May 2009, 31 March 2009, New Zealand indicated its willingness not to seek election to the council to make room for the United States to run unopposed along with Belgium and Norway for the WEOG seats.On June 19, 2018, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley announced that the United States, under President Donald Trump, was pulling out of the United Nations Human Rights Council, accusing the council being "hypocritical and self-serving" and, in the past, Haley had accused it of "chronic anti-Israel bias."NEWS,weblink US quits 'biased' UN human rights council, BBC News, 19 June 2018, 19 June 2018, "When the Human Rights Council treats Israel worse than North Korea, Iran, and Syria, it is the Council itself that is foolish and unworthy of its name. It is time for the countries who know better to demand changes," Haley said in a statement at the time, pointing to the council's adoption of five resolutions condemning Israel. "The United States continues to evaluate our membership in the Human Rights Council. Our patience is not unlimited."NEWS,weblink U.S. to withdraw from U.N. Human Rights Council,

China's Xinjiang policies

In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Australia, Britain, Canada, France, Spain, Germany and Japan, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China’s mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.NEWS, Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?,weblink The Diplomat, 15 July 2019, WEB, More than 20 ambassadors condemn China's treatment of Uighurs in Xinjiang {{!, Xinjiang {{!}} The Guardian |url=https://amp.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/11/more-than-20-ambassadors-condemn-chinas-treatment-of-uighurs-in-xinjiang |website=amp.theguardian.com}} In reaction to this, 37 countries including Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, UAE, Sudan, DRC, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Russia, Angola, Algeria and Myanmar have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC praising China's "remarkable achievements in Xinjiang." In August 2019, Qatar told the UNHRC president that it decided to withdraw from the joint letter.NEWS,weblink Qatar retracts support for China's detention of Uighur Muslims, Sanchez, Raf, 2019-08-21, The Telegraph, 2019-08-22, en-GB, 0307-1235, Human rights activists praised Qatar decision.WEB,weblink Activists hail Qatar withdrawal from pro-China text over Uighurs, www.aljazeera.com, 2019-08-22,

Western New Guinea

In March 2017, at the 34th regular session of the UN Human Rights Council, Vanuatu made a joint statement on behalf of Tonga, Nauru, Palau, Tuvalu, the Solomon Islands and Marshall Islands raising human rights violations in the Western New Guinea, which has been occupied by Indonesia since 1963,NEWS, Freedom of the press in Indonesian-occupied West Papua,weblink The Guardian, 22 July 2019, and requested that the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights produce a report.NEWS, Fox, Liam, Pacific nations call for UN investigations into alleged Indonesian rights abuses in West Papua,weblink ABC News, 2 March 2017, NEWS, Pacific nations want UN to investigate Indonesia on West Papua,weblink SBS News, 7 March 2017, Indonesia rejected Vanuatu's allegations. Also, a joint NGO statement was made.NEWS, NGOs deliver statement about the situation of indigenous Papuans at Human Rights Council,weblink The International Coalition for Papua: Human Rights and Peace for Papua, 23 March 2017, More then 100,000 Papuans have died during a 50-year Papua conflict.NEWS, Goodbye Indonesia,weblink Al-Jazeera, 31 January 2013,

Criticism

The United States boycotted the UNHRC during the George W. Bush administration to protest the repressive states among its membership,NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, U.S. to Seek Seat on U.N. Human Rights Council, Colum, Lynch, 1 April 2009, 26 May 2010, but in March 2009 the Obama administration reversed that position and decided to "reengage" and seek a seat on the UNHRC. Beginning in 2009 however, with the United States taking a leading role in the organization, American commentators began to argue that the UNHRC was becoming increasingly relevant.WEB, Patrick, Stewart, The Human Rights Council: Give Credit Where Credit is Due,weblink 2 June 2012, WEB, Traub, James, U.N. Human Rights Council Condemns Actual Human Rights Abusers!,weblink 2 June 2012, The UNHRC has been criticised for the repressive states among its membership. Countries with questionable human rights records that have served on the UNHRC include Cuba, Saudi Arabia, China, Indonesia and Russia.Australia presses for Human Rights Council seat despite UN criticismweblink

Disproportional focus on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict

The UNHRC has been accused of anti-Israel bias, a particular criticism being its focus on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict at each session as Agenda Item 7. The Council voted on 30 June 2006 to make a review of alleged human rights abuses by Israel a permanent feature of every council session:Resolution A/HRC/RES/5/1 – Institution-building of the United Nations Human Rights Council, 7 August 2007None of the nine other items deals exclusively with a specific conflict. The council's special rapporteur on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict is the council's only expert mandate with no year of expiry. The rapporteur between 2008 and 2014, Richard A. Falk,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111203010922weblink">Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights on Palestinian territories occupied since 1967 has been accused of being antisemitic.UN Secretaries General Kofi Annan and Ban Ki-moon, former president of the council Doru Costea, the European Union, Canada, and the United States have accused the UNHRC of focusing disproportionately on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and Israel's occupation of the West Bank.Boris Johnson, the then-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs on 18 June 2018 said: “We share the view that a dedicated agenda item focused solely on Israel and the occupied Palestinian territories is disproportionate and damaging to the cause of peace.”Britain Gives UNHCR Six Months to Cease Anti-Israel BiasOn 19 June 2018, the United States pulled out of the UNHRC accusing the body of bias against Israel and a failure to hold human rights abusers accountable. Nikki Haley, US Ambassador to the UN called the organisation a "cesspool of political bias".NEWS,weblink CNN, US leaving UN Human Rights Council -- "a cesspool of political bias.", 19 June 2018, 20 June 2018, At UNHRC's 38th Session, on 2 July 2018, Western nations held a de facto boycott of Agenda Item 7 by not speaking to the item.Western nations de-facto boycott condemnation of Israel at UNHRC

Bloc voting

A Reuters report in 2008 said that independent human rights groups say that UNHRC is being controlled by some Middle East and African nations, supported by China, Russia and Cuba, which protect each other from criticism."U.N. chief tells rights body drop rhetoric, blocs", Reuters, 12 December 2008. This drew criticism from the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon at the ineffectiveness of UNHRC, saying it had fallen short of its obligations. He urged countries to 'drop rhetoric' and rise above "partisan posturing and regional divides""UN chief urges rights council to rise above "partisan posturing"", Xinhua, 12 December 2008. and get on with defending people around the world. This follows criticism since UNHRC was set up, where Israel has been condemned on most occasions and other incidences in the world such as Darfur, Tibet, North Korea, and Zimbabwe have not been discussed at the council.Ban Ki-Moon also appealed for the United States to fully join the council and play a more active role.The UNHRC was criticized in 2009 for adopting a resolution submitted by Sri Lanka praising its conduct in Vanni that year, ignoring pleas for an international war crimes investigation."Sri Lanka forces West to retreat over ‘war crimes’ with victory at UN", Times, 28 May 2009

Accountability program

On 18 June 2007, one year after holding its first meeting, the UNHRC adopted its Institution-building package, to guide it in its future work. Among its elements was the Universal Periodic Review, which assesses the human rights situations in all 193 UN member states. Another element is an Advisory Committee, which serves as the UNHRC's think tank and provides it with expertise and advice on thematic human rights issues. A further element is a Complaint procedure, which allows individuals and organizations to bring complaints about human rights violations to the attention of the council.In the election of members, the General Assembly takes into account each candidate state's contribution to the promotion and protection of human rights, as well as their voluntary pledges and commitments in this regard. The General Assembly, by a two-thirds majority, can suspend the rights and privileges of any council member that it decides has persistently committed gross and systematic violations of human rights during its term of membership. The resolution establishing the UNHRC states that "members elected to the Council shall uphold the highest standards in the promotion and protection of human rights".WEB,weblink UN General Assembly Resolution 60/251.8, PDF, 18 July 2012,

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{commons category|United Nations Human Rights Council}} {{International human rights organizations}}{{United Nations}}{{UN Security Council}}{{United Nations Security Council elections}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "United Nations Human Rights Council" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 12:11pm EDT - Mon, Sep 23 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT