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{{short description|Web address to a particular file or page}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{other uses}}A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address,{{sfnp|W3C|2009}} is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI),WEB,weblink Forward and Backslashes in URLs,, en, 2018-09-19, {{sfnp|RFC 3986|2005}} although many people use the two terms interchangeably.{{sfnp|Joint W3C/IETF URI Planning Interest Group|2002}}{{efn|A URL implies the means to access an indicated resource and is denoted by a protocol or an access mechanism, which is not true of every URI.{{sfnp|RFC 2396|1998}}{{sfnp|Joint W3C/IETF URI Planning Interest Group|2002}} Thusweblink is a URL, while is not.WEB,weblink The Difference Between URLs and URIs, Miessler, Daniel, }} URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http), but are also used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and many other applications.Most web browsers display the URL of a web page above the page in an address bar. A typical URL could have the formweblink which indicates a protocol (http), a hostname (, and a file name (index.html).


(File:Uniform Resource Locator.svg|thumb|Uniform Resource Locator simple example)Uniform Resource Locators were defined in {{IETF RFC|1738}} in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web, and the URI working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF),{{sfnp|W3C|1994}} as an outcome of collaboration started at the IETF Living Documents Birds of a feather session in 1992.{{sfnp|IETF|1992}}{{sfnp|Berners-Lee|1994}}The format combines the pre-existing system of domain names (created in 1985) with file path syntax, where slashes are used to separate directory and filenames. Conventions already existed where server names could be prefixed to complete file paths, preceded by a double slash (//).{{sfnp|Berners-Lee|2000}}Berners-Lee later expressed regret at the use of dots to separate the parts of the domain name within URIs, wishing he had used slashes throughout,{{sfnp|Berners-Lee|2000}} and also said that, given the colon following the first component of a URI, the two slashes before the domain name were unnecessary.{{sfnp|BBC News|2009}}An early (1993) draft of the HTML SpecificationTECHREPORT, Hypertext Markup Language (draft RFCxxx), Tim, Berners-Lee, Daniel, Connolly, March 1993, 28,weblink referred to "Universal" Resource Locators. This was dropped some time between June 1994 (RFC 1630) and October 1994 (draft-ietf-uri-url-08.txt).TECHREPORT, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), T, Berners-Lee, L, Masinter, M, McCahill, October 1994,weblink cited in TECHREPORT, Constituent Component Interface++, C.S., Ang, D.C., Martin, UCSF Library and Center for Knowledge Management, January 1995,weblink


Every HTTP URL conforms to the syntax of a generic URI. {{#section:Uniform resource identifier|syntax}} A web browser will usually dereference a URL by performing an HTTP request to the specified host, by default on port number 80. URLs using the https scheme require that requests and responses be made over a secure connection to the website.

Internationalized URL

Internet users are distributed throughout the world using a wide variety of languages and alphabets and expect to be able to create URLs in their own local alphabets. An Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) is a form of URL that includes Unicode characters. All modern browsers support IRIs. The parts of the URL requiring special treatment for different alphabets are the domain name and path.{{sfnp|W3C|2008}}{{sfnp|W3C|2014}}The domain name in the IRI is known as an Internationalized Domain Name (IDN). Web and Internet software automatically convert the domain name into punycode usable by the Domain Name System; for example, the Chinese URLweblink becomesweblink The xn-- indicates that the character was not originally ASCII.{{sfnp|IANA|2003}}The URL path name can also be specified by the user in the local writing system. If not already encoded, it is converted to UTF-8, and any characters not part of the basic URL character set are escaped as hexadecimal using percent-encoding; for example, the Japanese URL weblink becomesweblink The target computer decodes the address and displays the page.{{sfnp|W3C|2008}}

Protocol-relative URLs {{anchor|prurl}}

Protocol-relative links (PRL), also known as protocol-relative URLs (PRURL), are URLs that have no protocol specified. For example, will use the protocol of the current page, either HTTP or HTTPS.BOOK,, Secure Development for Mobile Apps: How to Design and Code Secure Mobile Applications with PHP and JavaScript, CRC Press, J. D. Glaser, 2013, 193, 12 October 2015, BOOK,weblink HTML, XHTML, and CSS Bible, John Wiley & Sons, Steven M. Schafer, 2011, 124, 12 October 2015,

See also

{{div col|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}






  • WEB,weblink Berners-Lee "sorry" for slashes, BBC News, 2009-10-14, 2010-02-14, {{SfnRef, BBC News, 2009, }}
  • WEB,weblink Living Documents BoF Minutes, World Wide Web Consortium, 18 March 1992, 2011-12-26, {{SfnRef, IETF, 1992, }}
  • WEB,weblink Uniform Resource Locators (URL): A Syntax for the Expression of Access Information of Objects on the Network, Tim, Berners-Lee, Tim Berners-Lee, 21 March 1994, World Wide Web Consortium, 13 September 2015, {{SfnRef, W3C, 1994, }}
  • WEB,weblink Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Tim, Berners-Lee, Tim Berners-Lee, Larry, Masinter, Mark, McCahill, Internet Engineering Task Force, August 1998, 31 August 2015, {{SfnRef, RFC 1738, 1994, }}
  • WEB,weblink Tim, Berners-Lee, Tim Berners-Lee, Frequently asked questions, Why the //, , etc?, 2000, 2015, World Wide Web Consortium, 2010-02-03, {{SfnRef, Berners-Lee, 2000, }}
  • WEB,weblink Web addresses in HTML 5, Dan, Connolly, C. M., Sperberg-McQueen, 21 May 2009, World Wide Web Consortium, 13 September 2015, {{SfnRef, W3C, 2009, }}
  • WEB,weblink Completion of IANA Selection of IDNA Prefix, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, IETF-Announce mailing list, 14 February 2003, 3 September 2015, {{SfnRef, IANA, 2003, }}
  • WEB,weblink Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax, Tim, Berners-Lee, Tim Berners-Lee, Roy, Fielding, Roy Fielding, Larry, Masinter, Internet Engineering Task Force, August 1998, 31 August 2015, {{SfnRef, RFC 2396, 1998, }}
  • WEB,weblink Guidelines and Registration Procedures for URI Schemes, D., Thaler, T., Hansen, T., Hardie, Internet Engineering Task Force, June 2015, 2070-1721, {{SfnRef, IETF, 2015, }}
  • WEB,weblink Report from the Joint W3C/IETF URI Planning Interest Group: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), URLs, and Uniform Resource Names (URNs): Clarifications and Recommendations, M., Mealling, R., Denenberg, World Wide Web Consortium, August 2002, 13 September 2015, {{SfnRef, Joint W3C/IETF URI Planning Interest Group, 2002, }}
  • WEB,weblink Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax, Tim, Berners-Lee, Tim Berners-Lee, Roy, Fielding, Roy Fielding, Larry, Masinter, Internet Engineering Task Force, January 2005, 31 August 2015, {{SfnRef, RFC 3986, 2005, }}
  • WEB, An Introduction to Multilingual Web Addresses,weblink 9 May 2008, 11 January 2015, {{SfnRef, W3C, 2008, }}
  • WEB, What is Happening with "International URLs", A., Phillip,weblink World Wide Web Consortium, 2014, 11 January 2015, {{SfnRef, W3C, 2014, }}

External links

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