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Turkic peoples
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{{distinguish|Turkish people}}{{pp-semi-indef}}







factoids
PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}Uzbekistan}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}Iran}}WORK=ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA, 24 January 2012, Russia}}date=August 2018}}Kazakhstan}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}China}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}Azerbaijan}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}European Union}} European Uniondate=September 2017}}Turkmenistan}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}Kyrgyzstan}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}Afghanistan}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}Iraq}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}Tajikistan}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}United States}}WORK=ST. LOUIS AMERICAN, 18 March 2015, Syria}}0949-1856}}): Presseausschnitte zu Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in Nordafrika und dem Nahen und Mittleren Osten. Autors: Deutsches Orient–Institut; Deutsches Übersee–Institut. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient–Institut, 1996, seite 33.{{pull quote|The number of Turkmens in Syria is not fully known, with unconfirmed estimates ranging between 800,000 and one million.}}| region16 = | pop16 = Ukraine}}WORK=STATE STATISTICS COMMITTEE OF UKRAINEACCESSDATE=2 SEPTEMBER 2017, North Cyprus}} North Cyprus| pop18 = 313,626weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160108225108weblink">TRNC SPO, Economic and Social Indicators 2014, pages=2–3Australia}}date=September 2017}}Saudi Arabia}}date=August 2018}}Mongolia}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}Lebanon}}URL=HTTP://ENGLISH.AL-AKHBAR.COM/CONTENT/LEBANESE-TURKS-SEEK-POLITICAL-AND-SOCIAL-RECOGNITIONARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180620232105/HTTPS://ENGLISH.AL-AKHBAR.COM/CONTENT/LEBANESE-TURKS-SEEK-POLITICAL-AND-SOCIAL-RECOGNITIONDEAD-URL=YESURL=HTTP://WWW.TODAYSZAMAN.COM/NEWSDETAIL_GETNEWSBYID.ACTION;JSESSIONID=9D641F96F47DDD54F28B8F8B07FFF815?NEWSID=233911DEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=11 JANUARY 2012, {{citationfirst=Yusratitle=Syrian Turkmen refugees face double suffering in Lebanonpublisher=Zaman Al WaslTITLE=SYRIA'S TURKMEN REFUGEES FACE CRUEL REALITY IN LEBANONACCESSDATE= 10 OCTOBER 2016, Moldova}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}North Macedonia}}PUBLISHER=THE WORLD FACTBOOK date=August 2018|reason=derived data not explicitly mentioning Turkic ethnicity}}| region26 = | pop26 = | ref26 = | langs = Turkic languages| rels = Islam(Sunni{{·}}Nondenominational Muslims{{·}}Cultural Muslim{{·}}Quranist Muslim{{·}}Alevi{{·}}Twelver Shia{{·}}Ja'fari)Christianity(Eastern Orthodox Christianity)Judaism(Djudios Turkos{{·}}Sabbataists{{·}}Karaites)Irreligion(Agnosticism{{·}}Atheism)Buddhism, Animism, Tengrism, Shamanism, Mani| group = Turkic people| native_name = Türk, 突厥| native_name_lang = | related_groups = }}The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. They speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family.Turkic people, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition, 2010 They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits, common ancestry and historical backgrounds. In time, different Turkic groups came in contact with other ethnicities, absorbing them, leaving some Turkic groups more diverse than the others. Many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples through language shift, acculturation, intermixing, adoption and religious conversion. In their genetic compositions, therefore, most Turkic groups differ significantly in origins from one group to the next.{{Citation needed|date=April 2019}}Despite this, many do share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics like cultural traits, ancestry from a common gene pool, and historical experiences.JOURNAL, Yunusbayev, Bayazit, Metspalu, Mait, Metspalu, Ene, Valeev, Albert, Litvinov, Sergei, Valiev, Ruslan, Akhmetova, Vita, Balanovska, Elena, Balanovsky, Oleg, 2015-04-21, The Genetic Legacy of the Expansion of Turkic-Speaking Nomads across Eurasia,weblink PLoS Genetics, 11, 4, 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005068, 1553-7390, 4405460, 25898006, The most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include Turkish people, Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Turkmens, Kyrgyz and Uyghur people.

Etymology

(File:Kashgari map.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.7|Map from Kashgari's Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.)The first known mention of the term Turk (Old Turkic: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Türük or 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰜𐰇𐰛 Kök Türük {{zh|突厥}}, Old Tibetan: duruggu/durgu (meaning "origin"),Tarihte Türk devletleri, Volume 1. Ankara Üniversitesi Basımevi, 1987. p. 1.Moše Weinfeld. Social Justice in Ancient Israel and in the Ancient Near East. 1995. p. 66: "For the concept of durgu | duruggu and its connection to piY (in its meaning "origin"), see H. Tadmor, (above n. 25), p. 28"Kultegin's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG Khöshöö Tsaidam MonumentsTonyukuk's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG Bain Tsokto Monument Pinyin: Tūjué, Middle Chinese (Guangyun): {{IPA-ltc|tʰuot-küot|}}) applied to a Turkic group was in reference to the Göktürks in the 6th century. A letter by Ishbara Qaghan to Emperor Wen of Sui in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan."WEB,weblink 新亞研究所 – 典籍資料庫, 18 March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140221113517weblink">weblink 21 February 2014, The Orhun inscriptions (735 CE) use the terms Turk and Turuk.Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some strongly feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times. This includes Chinese records Spring and Autumn Annals referring to a neighbouring people as Beidi.The Turkmen {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110318103736weblink |date=2011-03-18 }}During the first century CE, Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, and Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area.Pliny, Natural History – Harvard University Press, vol. II (Libri III-VII); reprinted 1961, p. 351Pomponius Mela's Description of the World, Pomponius Mela, University of Michigan Press, 1998, p. 67Prof. Dr. Ercümend Kuran, Türk Adı ve Türklük Kavramı, Türk Kültürü Dergisi, Yıl, XV, S. 174, Nisan 1977. s. 18–20. There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names could be the original form of "Türk/Türük" such as Togarma, Turukha/Turuška, Turukku and so on. But the information gap is so substantial that a connect of these ancient people to the modern Turks is not possible.Peter B. Golden, Introduction to the History of the Turkic People, p. 12: "... source (Herod.IV.22) and other authors of antiquity, Togarma of the Old Testament, Turukha/Turuska of Indic sources, Turukku of Assyrian..."German Archaeological Institute. Department Teheran, Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, Vol. 19, Dietrich Reimer, 1986, p. 90 Turkologist Peter B. Golden posits that the term Turk has roots in old-Turkic.Golden, Peter B. "Some Thoughts on the Origins of the Turks and the Shaping of the Turkic Peoples". (2006) In: Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Ed. Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press. p. 143: "Subsequently, "Tùrk" would find a suirable Turkic etymology, being conflated with the word tùrk, which means one in the prime of youth, powerful, mighty (Rona-Tas 1991,10–13)." It is generally accepted that the term "Türk" is ultimately derived from the Old-Turkic migration-term(Bŭlgarska akademii︠a︡ na naukite. Otdelenie za ezikoznanie/ izkustvoznanie/ literatura, Linguistique balkanique, Vol. 27–28, 1984, p. 17 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Türük/Törük, which means "created", "born",Faruk Suümer, Oghuzes (Turkmens): History, Tribal organization, Sagas, Turkish World Research Foundation, 1992, p. 16) or "strong",American Heritage Dictionary (2000). "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition – "Turk"". bartleby.com. Retrieved 2006-12-07. from the Old Turkic word root *türi-/töri- ("tribal root, (mythic) ancestry; take shape, to be born, be created, arise, spring up") and conjugated with Old Turkic suffix 𐰰 (-ik), perhaps from Proto-Turkic *türi-k ("lineage, ancestry"),“Türk” in Turkish Etymological Dictionary, Sevan Nişanyan. from the Proto-Turkic word root *töŕ ("foundation, root; origin, ancestors").“türe-” in Turkish Etymological Dictionary, Sevan Nişanyan.“*töŕ” in Sergei Starostin, Vladimir Dybo, Oleg Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples identifiable in Chinese sources are the Dingling, Gekun (Jiankun), and Xinli, located in South Siberia.The Peoples of the Steppe Frontier in Early Chinese Sources, Edwin G. Pulleyblank, page 35Studies on the Peoples and Cultures of the Eurasian Steppes, Peter B. Golden, page 27,weblink The Chinese Book of Zhou (7th century) presents an etymology of the name Turk as derived from "helmet", explaining that this name comes from the shape of a mountain where they worked in the Altai Mountains.Sinor, Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Page 295During the Middle Ages, various Turkic peoples of the Eurasian steppe were subsumed under the "umbrella-identity" of the "Scythians". Between 400 CE and the 16th century, Byzantine sources use the name Σκύθαι (Skuthai) in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples.G. Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica II, p. 236–39In the modern Turkish language as used in the Republic of Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term Türk corresponds specifically to the "Turkish-speaking" people (in this context, "Turkish-speaking" is considered the same as "Turkic-speaking"), while the term Türki refers generally to the people of modern "Turkic Republics" (Türki Cumhuriyetler or Türk Cumhuriyetleri). However, the proper usage of the term is based on the linguistic classification in order to avoid any political sense. In short, the term Türki can be used for Türk or vice versa.Jean-Paul Roux, Historie des Turks – Deux mille ans du Pacifique á la Méditerranée. Librairie Arthème Fayard, 2000.

History

Origins and early expansion

{{Further|Xiongnu|Huns|Göktürks}}{{History of the Turks pre-14th century}}(File:East-Hem 500bc.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|left|Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE)

Origin and early homeland

It is generally agreed that the first Turkic people lived in a region extending from eastern Central Asia to Siberia, with the majority of them living in today China. A ethnolinguistic study (Robbeets et al. 2017) suggests that the early Turkic people originated somewhere in Manchuria and later adopted a nomadic lifestyle and started a migration to the west.WEB,weblink (PDF) Transeurasian theory: A case of farming/language dispersal, ResearchGate, 2019-03-13, Another study, based on genetic data of ancient Turkic samples, also suggests and origin and homeland somewhere in Northeastern China.JOURNAL, Yunusbayev, Bayazit, Metspalu, Mait, Metspalu, Ene, Valeev, Albert, Litvinov, Sergei, Valiev, Ruslan, Akhmetova, Vita, Balanovska, Elena, Balanovsky, Oleg, 2015-04-21, The Genetic Legacy of the Expansion of Turkic-Speaking Nomads across Eurasia,weblink PLoS Genetics, 11, 4, 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005068, 1553-7390, 4405460, 25898006,

Historical expansion

Historically they were established after the 6th century BCE.Peter Zieme: The Old Turkish Empires in Mongolia. In: Genghis Khan and his heirs. The Empire of the Mongols. Special tape for Exhibition 2005/2006, p. 64The earliest separate Turkic peoples appeared on the peripheries of the late Xiongnu confederation about 200 BCE (contemporaneous with the Chinese Han Dynasty).Findley (2005), p. 29. Turkic people may be related to the Xiongnu, Dingling and Tiele people. According to the Book of Wei, the Tiele people were the remnants of the Chidi (赤狄), the red Di people competing with the Jin in the Spring and Autumn period.WEB,weblink 丁零—铁勒的西迁及其所建西域政权, 18 March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150715184347weblink">weblink 15 July 2015, Turkic tribes such as the Khazars and Pechenegs probably lived as nomads for many years before establishing the Turkic Khaganate or Göktürk Empire in the 6th century. These were herdsmen and nobles who were searching for new pastures and wealth. The first mention of Turks was in a Chinese text that mentioned trade between Turk tribes and the Sogdians along the Silk Road."Etienne de la Vaissiere", Encyclopædia Iranica article:Sogdian Trade {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091220225254weblink |date=2009-12-20 }}, 1 December 2004. The first recorded use of "Turk" as a political name appears as a 6th-century reference to the word pronounced in Modern Chinese as Tujue. The Ashina clan migrated from Li-jien (modern Zhelai Zhai) to the Juan Juan seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from the prevalent dynasty. The tribe were famed metalsmiths and were granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet, from which they were said to have gotten their name 突厥 (tūjué). A century later their power had increased such that they conquered the Juan Juan and established the Turkic Khaganate.Turkic peoples originally used their own alphabets, like Orkhon and Yenisey runiforms, and later the Uyghur alphabet. Traditional national and cultural symbols of the Turkic peoples include wolves in Turkic mythology and tradition; as well as the color blue, iron, and fire. Turquoise blue (the word turquoise comes from the French word meaning "Turkish") is the color of the stone turquoise still used in jewelry and as a protection against the evil eye.It has often been suggested that the Xiongnu, mentioned in Han Dynasty records, were Proto-Turkic speakers.Silk-Road:XiongnuWEB,weblink Yeni Turkiye Research and Publishing Center, 18 March 2015, WEB,weblink An Introduction to the Turkic Tribes, 18 March 2015, WEB,weblink Early Turkish History, 2015-02-05, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091027144739weblink">weblink October 27, 2009, WEB,weblink An outline of Turkish History until 1923., 18 March 2015, Although little is known for certain about the Xiongnu language(s), it seems likely that at least a considerable part of Xiongnu tribes spoke a Turkic language.Lebedynsky (2006), p. 59. Some scholars believe they were probably a confederation of various ethnic and linguistic groups.Nicola di Cosmo, Ancient China and its Enemies, S. 163ff.BOOK, Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, 2010, 2nd, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-12433-1,weblink 69, A genetic research in 2003, on skeletons from a 2000 year old Xiongnu necropolis in Mongolia, found individuals with similar DNA sequences as modern Turkic groups, supporting the view that at least parts of the Xiongu were of Turkic origin.JOURNAL, Keyser-Tracqui C., Crubezy E., Ludes B., Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis of a 2,000-year-old necropolis in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia, American Journal of Human Genetics, 2003, 73, 2, 247–260, 12858290, 1180365, 10.1086/377005, Analysis of skeletal remains from sites attributed to the Xiongnu show predominantly Mongoloid phenotypes, similar to present day Kazakhs, Mongols and Han Chinese.JOURNAL, Sophia-Karin, Psarras, 2003, Han and Xiongnu: A Reexamination of Cultural and Political Relations (I), Monumenta Serica, 51, 55–236, 40727370, Xiongnu writing, older than Turkic, is agreed to have the earliest known Turkic alphabet, the Orkhon script. This has been argued recently using the only extant possibly Xiongu writings, the rock art of the Yinshan and Helan Mountains.MA Li-qing On the new evidence on Xiongnu's writings. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071019015743weblink |date=2007-10-19 }}(Wanfang Data: Digital Periodicals, 2004) Petroglyphs of this region dates from the 9th millennium BCE to the 19th century, and consists mainly of engraved signs (petroglyphs) and few painted images.Paola Demattè weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040207122609weblink">Writing the Landscape: the Petroglyphs of Inner Mongolia and Ningxia Province (China). (Paper presented at the First International Conference of Eurasian Archaeology, University of Chicago, 3–4 May 2002.) Excavations done during 1924–1925 in Noin-Ula kurgans located in the Selenga River in the northern Mongolian hills north of Ulaanbaatar produced objects with over 20 carved characters, which were either identical or very similar to the runic letters of the Turkic Orkhon script discovered in the Orkhon Valley.N. Ishjatms, "Nomads In Eastern Central Asia", in the "History of civilizations of Central Asia", Volume 2, Fig 6, p. 166, UNESCO Publishing, 1996, {{ISBN|92-3-102846-4}}The Hun hordes ruled by Attila, who invaded and conquered much of Europe in the 5th century, might have been, at least partially, Turkic and descendants of the Xiongnu.WEB,weblink Chinese History – Xiongnu 匈奴 (www.chinaknowledge.de), Ulrich Theobald, 18 March 2015, G. Pulleyblank, "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese: Part II", Asia Major n.s. 9 (1963) 206–65 Some scholars regard the Huns as one of the earlier Turkic tribes, while others view them as Proto-Mongolian or Yeniseian in origin.WEB,weblink The Origins of the Huns, 18 March 2015, VAJDA, Edward J. (2008). "Yeniseic" a chapter in the book Language isolates and microfamilies of Asia, Routledge, to be co-authored with Bernard Comrie; 53 pages). Linguistic studies by Otto Maenchen-Helfen and others have suggested that the language used by the Huns in Europe was too little documented to be classified. Nevertheless, many of the proper names used by Huns appear to be Turkic in origin.Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen. The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture. University of California Press, 1973WEB,weblink Otto Maenchen-Helfen, Language of Huns, 18 March 2015, In the 6th century, 400 years after the collapse of northern Xiongnu power in Inner Asia, the Göktürks assumed leadership of the Turkic peoples. Formerly in the Xiongnu nomadic confederation, the Göktürks inherited their traditions and administrative experience. From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership united the nomadic Turkic tribes into the Göktürk Empire on Mongolia and Cental Asia. The name derives from gok, "blue" or "celestial". Unlike its Xiongnu predecessor, the Göktürk Khaganate had its temporary Khagans from the Ashina clan, who were subordinate to a sovereign authority controlled by a council of tribal chiefs. The Khaganate retained elements of its original animistic-shamanistic religion, that later envolved into Tengriism, although it received missionaries of Buddhist monks and practiced a syncretic religion. The Göktürks were the first Turkic people to write Old Turkic in a runic script, the Orkhon script. The Khaganate was also the first state known as "Turk". It eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts, but many states and peoples later used the name "Turk".BOOK,weblink Türk Tarih Kongresi, 1999, Türk Tarih Kurumu, tr, West, Barbara A. (2010-05-19). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 829. ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-1-4381-1913-7|978-1-4381-1913-7). The first people to use the ethnonym Turk to refer to themselves were the Turuk people of the Gokturk Khanate in the mid sixth-century(File:First Turk Khaganate(600).PNG|thumb|First Turk Khaganate (600))(File:Asia 600ad.jpg|thumb|The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates)The Göktürks (First Turkic Kaganate) quickly spread west to the Caspian Sea. Between 581 and 603 the Western Turkic Khaganate in Kazakhstan separated from the Eastern Turkic Khaganate in Mongolia and Manchuria during a civil war. The Han-Chinese successfully overthrew the Eastern Turks in 630 and created a military Protectorate until 682. After that time the Second Turkic Khaganate ruled large parts of the former Göktürk area. After several wars between Turks, Chinese and Tibetans, the weakend Second Turkic Khaganate was replaced by the Uyghur Khaganate in the year 744.Haywood, John (1998), Historical Atlas of the Medieval World, AD 600-1492, Barnes & NobleThe Uyghur empire ruled large parts of Mongolia, Northern and Western China and parts of northern Manchuria. They followed largely Buddhism and animistic traditions. Professor James A. Millward described the original Turkic Uyghurs as phenotypically Mongoloid until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original, Caucasoid inhabitants, such as the Tocharians and eastern Iranian peoples.BOOK,weblink Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang, Millward, James A., Columbia University Press, 2007, 978-0231139243, illustrated, 43, {{harvid, |accessdate=10 March 2014}} During the same time, the Shatuo Turks emerged as power factor in Northern and Central China and were recognized by the Tang Empire as allied power. The Uyghur empire fall after several wars in the year 840.Haywood, John (1998), Historical Atlas of the Medieval World, AD 600-1492, Barnes & NobleWEB,weblink Shatuo Türks 沙陀突厥 (www.chinaknowledge.de), Theobald, Ulrich, www.chinaknowledge.de, en, 2019-04-30, (File:Later Tang.png|thumb|The Turkic Later Tang Dynasty)After the fall of the Tang-Dynasty in 907, the Shatuo Turks replaced them and created the Later Tang Dynasty in 923. The Shatuo Turks ruled over a large part of northern China, including Beijing. They adopted Chinese names and united Turkic and Chinese traditions. Later Tang fall in 937 but the Shatuo rose to become one of the most powerful clans of China. They created several other dynasies, including the Later Jin and Later Han. The Shatuo Turks were later assimilated into the Han Chinese ethnic group after they were conquerd by the Song dynasty.WEB,weblink Shatuo Türks 沙陀突厥 (www.chinaknowledge.de), Theobald, Ulrich, www.chinaknowledge.de, en, 2019-04-30, Mote, F.W.: Imperial China: 900–1800, Harvard University Press, 1999Turkic peoples and related groups migrated west from Northeastern China, present-day Mongolia, Siberia and the Turkestan-region towards Eastern Europe, the Iranian plateau and Anatolia (modern Turkey) in many waves. The date of the initial expansion remains unknown. After many battles, the western Oghuz Turks established their own state and later constructed the Ottoman Empire. The main migration of the Oghuz Turks occurred in medieval times, when they spread across most of Asia and into Europe and the Middle East.Carter V. Findley, The Turks in World History (Oxford University Press, October 2004) {{ISBN|0-19-517726-6}} They also took part in the military encounters of the Crusades.Moses Parkson, "Ottoman Empire and its past life" p. 98

Turks in Arabic texts

The Arab Muslim Umayyads and Abbasids fought against the pagan Turks in the Turgesh Khaganate in the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana. The Medieval Arabs recorded that Medieval Turks looked strange from their perspective and were extremely physically different from the Arabs, calling them "broad faced people with small eyes".The Turks of the Eurasian Steppes in Medieval Arabic Writing, R. Amitai, M. Biran, eds., Mongols, Turks and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World. Leyde, Brill, 2005, pp. 222–3.BOOK,weblink Mongols, Turks, and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World, Reuven Amitai, Michal Biran, Brill, 2005, 978-90-04-14096-7, 222, Medieval Muslim writers noted that Tibetans and Turks resembled each other, and that they often were not able to tell the difference between Turks and Tibetans.BOOK,weblink Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th–13th centuries, André Wink, BRILL, 2002, 978-0-391-04174-5, 69–,

Middle Ages

File:Byzantine emissaries to the Caliph.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9Turkic soldiers in the army of the Abbasid caliphs emerged as the de facto rulers of most of the Muslim Middle East (apart from Syria and Egypt), particularly after the 10th century. The Oghuz and other tribes captured and dominated various countries under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty and eventually captured the territories of the Abbasid dynasty and the Byzantine Empire.Meanwhile, the Yenisei Kyrgyz allied with China to destroy the Uyghur Khaganate in 840. The Kyrgyz people ultimately settled in the region now referred to as Kyrgyzstan. The Bulgars established themselves in between the Caspian and Black Seas in the 5th and 6th centuries, followed by their conquerors, the Khazars who converted to Judaism in the 8th or 9th century. After them came the Pechenegs who created a large confederacy, which was subsequently taken over by the Cumans and the Kipchaks. One group of Bulgars settled in the Volga region and mixed with local Volga Finns to become the Volga Bulgars in what is today Tatarstan. These Bulgars were conquered by the Mongols following their westward sweep under Genghis Khan in the 13th century. Other Bulgars settled in Southeastern Europe in the 7th and 8th centuries, and mixed with the Slavic population, adopting what eventually became the Slavic Bulgarian language. Everywhere, Turkic groups mixed with the local populations to varying degrees. In 1090–91, the Turkic Pechenegs reached the walls of Constantinople, where Emperor Alexius I with the aid of the Kipchaks annihilated their army.WEB,weblink The Pechenegs, 2009-10-27, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091027115640weblink">weblink October 27, 2009, , Steven Lowe and Dmitriy V. Ryaboy

{{anchor|Islamic empires}}Turkic dynasties after the 13th century

{{Multiple image|align=left|direction=vertical|image1=Hunername 264.jpg|image2=Babur and Humayun.jpg|caption1=Suleiman I taking control of Moldova.|caption2=Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire and Mughal emperor Humayun.}}{{Multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|image1=Timur.jpeg|image2=A Mamluk from Aleppo.jpg|caption1=Tamerlane and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan Tokhtamysh.|caption2=A Mamluk nobleman from Aleppo.}}As the Seljuk Empire declined following the Mongol invasion, the Ottoman Empire emerged as the new important Turkic state, that came to dominate not only the Middle East, but even southeastern Europe, parts of southwestern Russia, and northern Africa.The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi-based kingdoms three of which were of Turkic origin in medieval India. These Turkic dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320); and the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414). Southern India, also saw many Turkic origin dynasties like Bahmani Sultanate, Adil Shahi dynasty, Bidar Sultanate, Qutb Shahi dynasty, collectively known as Deccan sultanates.In Eastern Europe, Volga Bulgaria became an Islamic state in 922 and influenced the region as it controlled many trade routes. In the 13th century, Mongols invaded Europe and established the Golden Horde in Eastern Europe, western & northern Central Asia, and even western Siberia. The Cuman-Kipchak Confederation and Islamic Volga Bulgaria were absorbed by the Golden Horde in the 13th century; in the 14th century, Islam became the official religion under Uzbeg Khan where the general population (Turks) as well as the aristocracy (Mongols) came to speak the Kipchak language and were collectively known as "Tatars" by Russians and Westerners. This country was also known as the Kipchak Khanate and covered most of what is today Ukraine, as well as the entirety of modern-day southern and eastern Russia (the European section). The Golden Horde disintegrated into several khanates and hordes in the 15th and 16th century including the Crimean Khanate, Khanate of Kazan, and Kazakh Khanate (among others), which were one by one conquered and annexed by the Russian Empire in the 16th through 19th centuries.In Siberia, the Siberian Khanate was established in the 1490s by fleeing Tatar aristocrats of the disintegrating Golden Horde who established Islam as the official religion in western Siberia over the partly Islamized native Siberian Tatars and indigenous Uralic peoples. It was the northern-most Islamic state in recorded history and it survived up until 1598 when it was conquered by Russia.The Chagatai Khanate was the eastern & southern Central Asian section of the Mongol Empire in what is today part or whole of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Xinjiang ("Uyghurstan"). Like the Moghulistan and Golden Horde, the Chagatai Khanate became a Muslim state in the 14th century.The Timurid Empire were an Uzbek-based Turkic empire founded in the late 14th century by Timurlane, a descendant of Genghis Khan. Timur, although a self-proclaimed devout Muslim, brought great slaughter in his conquest of fellow Muslims in neighboring Islamic territory and contributed to the ultimate demise of many Muslim states, including the Golden Horde.The Mughal Empire was a Turkic-founded Indian empire that, at its greatest territorial extent, ruled most of the South Asia, including Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and parts of Uzbekistan from the early 16th to the early 18th centuries. The Mughal dynasty was founded by a Chagatai Turkic prince named Babur (reigned 1526–30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) on his father's side and from Chagatai, second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side.Encyclopædia Britannica Article:Mughal DynastyEncyclopædia Britannica Article:Babur A further distinction was the attempt of the Mughals to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state.WEB,weblink the Mughal dynasty, 18 March 2015, WEB,weblink Kamat's Potpourri, 18 March 2015, Babur: Encyclopædia Britannica ArticleThe Safavid dynasty of Persia were of mixed ancestry (KurdishRM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. Encyclopædia Iranica and Azerbaijani,"Peoples of Iran" Encyclopædia Iranica. RN Frye. which included intermarriages with Georgian,Aptin Khanbaghi (2006) The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early. London & New York. IB Tauris. {{ISBN|1-84511-056-0}}, pp. 130–1 Circassian,{{sfn|Yarshater|2001|p=493}}{{sfn|Khanbaghi|2006|p=130}} and Pontic GreekAnthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29 (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond" dignitaries). Through intermarriage and other political considerations, the Safavids spoke Persian and Turkish,BOOK, Savory, Roger, 2007, Iran Under the Safavids, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-04251-2,weblink 213, qizilbash normally spoke Azari brand of Turkish at court, as did the Safavid shahs themselves; lack of familiarity with the Persian language may have contributed to the decline from the pure classical standards of former times, E. Yarshater, "Iran", . Encyclopædia Iranica. "The origins of the Safavids are clouded in obscurity. They may have been of Kurdish origin (see R. Savory, Iran Under the Safavids, 1980, p. 2; R. Matthee, "Safavid Dynasty" at iranica.com), but for all practical purposes they were Turkish-speaking and Turkified. " and some of the Shahs composed poems in their native Turkish language. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp.John L. Esposito, The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press US, 1999. pp 364: "To support their legitimacy, the Safavid dynasty of Iran (1501–1732) devoted a cultural policy to establish their regime as the reconstruction of the historic Iranian monarchy. To the end, they commissioned elaborate copies of the Shahnameh, the Iranian national epic, such as this one made for Tahmasp in the 1520s."Ira Marvin Lapidus, A history of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 2nd edition. pg 445: To bolster the prestige of the state, the Safavid dynasty sponsored an Iran-Islamic style of culture concentrating on court poetry, painting, and monumental architecture that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also the glory of the ancient Persian traditions." The Safavid dynasty ruled parts of Greater Iran for more than two centuries.Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313.Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145.Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77.Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006). and established the Twelver school of Shi'a IslamRM Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed. as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim historyThe Afsharid dynasty was named after the Turkic Afshar tribe to which they belonged. The Afshars had migrated from Turkestan to Azerbaijan in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. Nader belonged to the Qereqlu branch of the Afshars.Cambridge History of Iran Volume 7, pp. 2–4 During Nader's reign, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sassanid Empire.Turkic peoples like the Karluks (mainly 8th century), Uyghurs, Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, and Turkmens later came into contact with Muslims, and most of them gradually adopted Islam. Some groups of Turkic people practice other religions, including their original animistic-shamanistic religion, Christianity, Burkhanism, Jews (Khazars, Krymchaks, Crimean Karaites), Buddhism and a small number of Zoroastrians.

Modern history

(File:Map of independent Turkic countries..png|thumb|upright=1.55|alt=Map highlighting present-day Turkic countries|Independent Turkic states shown in red)The Ottoman Empire gradually grew weaker in the face of poor administration, repeated wars with Russia, Austria and Hungary, and the emergence of nationalist movements in the Balkans, and it finally gave way after World War I to the present-day Republic of Turkey.Ethnic nationalism also developed in Ottoman Empire during the 19th century, taking the form of Pan-Turkism or Turanism.The Turkic peoples of Central Asia were not organized in nation-states during most of the 20th century, after the collapse of the Russian Empire living either in the Soviet Union or (after a short-lived First East Turkestan Republic) in the Chinese Republic.In 1991, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, five Turkic states gained their independence. These were Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Other Turkic regions such as Tatarstan, Tuva, and Yakutia remained in the Russian Federation. Chinese Turkestan remained part of the People's Republic of China.Immediately after the independence of the Turkic states, Turkey began seeking diplomatic relations with them. Over time political meetings between the Turkic countries increased and led to the establishment of TÃœRKSOY in 1993 and later the Turkic Council in 2009.

Ethnic groups

Turkic ethnic groups are prominent in the world today and there have been Turkic nations in the past.The modern list includes:{{div col}} {{div col end}}The historical list includes:{{div col}} {{div col end}}The origins of the Huns, Tuoba, and Xiongnu are unknown but may be of Turkic ancestry.Pritsak O. & Golb. N: Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century, Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982."Timur {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130922063332weblink |date=2013-09-22 }}", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001–05, Columbia University Press.Encyclopædia Britannica article: Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007.BOOK, Walton, Linda, World History: Journeys from Past to Present, 210, 2013,weblink

Geographical distribution

{{Refimprove section|date=February 2010}}(File:Carte peuples turcs.png|thumb|upright=1.15|Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.)(File:Map-TurkicLanguages.png|thumb|upright=1.15|Countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority.)Today most of the Turkic peoples today have their homelands in Central Asia, where the Turkic peoples settled from China. According to historian John Foster, "The Turks emerge from among the Huns in the middle of [the] fifth century. They were living in Liang territory when it began to be overrun by the greater principality of Wei. Preferring to remain under the rule of their own kind, they moved westward into what is now the province of Kansu. This was the territory of kindred Huns, who were called the Rouran. The Turks were a small tribe of only five hundred families, and they became serfs to the Rouran, who used them as iron-workers. It is thought that the original meaning of "Turk" is "helmet", and that they may have taken this name because of the shape of one of the hills near which they worked. As their numbers and power grew, their chief made bold to ask for the hand of a Rouran princess in marriage. The demand was refused, and war followed. In 546, the iron-workers defeated their overlords."BOOK, Foster, John, The Church of the Tang Dynasty, 13, 1939, Macmillan, Since then Turkic languages have spread, through migrations and conquests, to other locations including present-day Turkey. While the term "Turk" may refer to a member of any Turkic people, the term Turkish usually refers specifically to the people and language of the modern country of Turkey.The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some 30 languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, to Siberia and Western China, and through to the Middle East.Some 170 million people have a Turkic language as their native language;Turkic Language family tree entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking populations and regions. an additional 20 million people speak a Turkic language as a second language. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish proper, or Anatolian Turkish, the speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers.BOOK, Languages of the World, Third Edition, Katzner, Kenneth, March 2002, Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd., 978-0-415-25004-7, More than one third of these are ethnic Turks of Turkey, dwelling predominantly in Turkey proper and formerly Ottoman-dominated areas of Eastern Europe and West Asia; as well as in Western Europe, Australia and the Americas as a result of immigration. The remainder of the Turkic people are concentrated in Central Asia, Russia, the Caucasus, China, and northern Iraq.At present, there are six independent Turkic countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan; There are also several Turkic national subdivisionsAcross Central Asia, a New Bond Grows – Iron Curtain's Fall HasSpawned a Convergence for Descendants of Turkic Nomad Hordes in the Russian Federation including Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chuvashia, Khakassia, Tuva, Yakutia, the Altai Republic, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Karachayevo-Cherkessiya. Each of these subdivisions has its own flag, parliament, laws, and official state language (in addition to Russian).The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in western China and the autonomous region of Gagauzia, located within eastern Moldova and bordering Ukraine to the north, are two major autonomous Turkic regions. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine is a home of Crimean Tatars. In addition, there are several communities found in Iraq, Georgia, Bulgaria, the Republic of North Macedonia, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and western Mongolia.The Turks in Turkey are over 60 millionNEWS,weblink Türkiye'deki Kürtlerin sayısı!, The number of Kurds in Turkey!, tr, Milliyet, 6 June 2008, 16 November 2016, to 70 million worldwide, while the second largest Turkic people are the Azerbaijanis, numbering 22 to 38 million worldwide; most of them live in Azerbaijan and Iran.Turks in India are very small in number. There are barely 150 Turkish people from Turkey in India. These are recent immigrants. Descendants of Turkish rulers also exist in Northern India. Mughals who are part Turkic people also live in India in significant numbers. They are descendants of the Mughal rulers of India. Karlugh Turks are also found in the Haraza region and in smaller number in Azad Kashmir region of Pakistan. Small amount of Uyghurs are also present in India. Turks also exist in Pakistan in similar proportions. One of the tribe in Hazara region of Pakistan is Karlugh Turks which is direct descendant of Turks of Central Asia. Turkish influence in Pakistan can be seen through the national language, Urdu, which comes from a Turkish word meaning "horde" or "army".The Western Yugur at Gansu in China, Salar at Qinghai in China, the Dolgan at Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia, and the Nogai at Dagestan in Russia are the Turk minorities in the respective regions.

International organizations

File:Map-TurksoyMembers.png|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Map of TÜRKSOY members.]]{{further|Pan-Turkism}}There are several international organizations created with the purpose of furthering cooperation between countries with Turkic-speaking populations, such as the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture (TÜRKSOY) and the Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic-speaking Countries (TÜRKPA) and the Turkic Council.(File:Conseilturcique.svg|thumb|{{legend|#00a8a6|Members}}{{legend|#4fa6cf|Observer States}})The TAKM – Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status, was established on 25 January 2013. It is an intergovernmental military law enforcement (gendarmerie) organization of currently three Turkic countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey) and Kazakhstan as observer.

TÃœRKSOY

Türksoy carries out activities to strengthen cultural ties between Turkic peoples. One of the main goals to transmit their common cultural heritage to future generations and promote it around the world.WEB,weblink About :: TURKSOY, POLAT, Orhan, www.turksoy.org, 2016-05-17, Every year, one city in the Turkic world is selected as the "Cultural Capital of the Turkic World". Within the framework of events to celebrate the Cultural Capital of the Turkic World, numerous cultural events are held, gathering artists, scholars and intellectuals, giving them the opportunity to exchange their experiences, as well as promoting the city in question internationally.WEB,weblink Cultural Capital of the Turkic World 2016: Sheki :: TURKSOY, POLAT, Orhan, www.turksoy.org, 2016-05-17,

Turkic Council

The newly established Turkic Council, founded on November 3, 2009 by the Nakhchivan Agreement confederation, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey, aims to integrate these organizations into a tighter geopolitical framework.The member countries are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey. Uzbekistan announced its intention to join the council on 30 April 2018.WEB,weblink Uzbekistan decides to join 'Turkic alliance' during Erdogan's visit, hurriyetdailynews.com, 2018-04-30, The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006. Turkmenistan is currently not a official members of the council, however, it is a possible future member of the council.WEB,weblink Turk Dili Konusan Ulkeler Isbirligi Konseyi'nin Kurulmasina Dair Nahcivan Anlasmasi, Turkkon.org, 2014-03-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120106033538weblink">weblink 2012-01-06, yes, Hungary has announced to be interested in joining the Turkic council. Since August 2018, Hungary has officially observer status in the Turkic Council."Press Release of the Sixth Summit of the Turkic Council". Turkic Council. Retrieved 2018-09-04.

Demographics

File:Bashkir in Paris.jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|BashkirsBashkirsThe distribution of people of Turkic cultural background ranges from Siberia, across Central Asia, to Eastern Europe. {{As of | 2011}} the largest groups of Turkic people live throughout Central Asia—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan, in addition to Turkey and Iran. Additionally, Turkic people are found within Crimea, Altishahr region of western China, northern Iraq, Israel, Russia, Afghanistan, and the Balkans: Moldova, Bulgaria, Romania, and former Yugoslavia. A small number of Turkic people also live in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. Small numbers inhabit eastern Poland and the south-eastern part of Finland.Substantial numbers (possibly several millions) of maghrebis of the former Ottoman colonies in North Africa are of Ottoman Turkish descent. Finnish Tatars There are also considerable populations of Turkic people (originating mostly from Turkey) in Germany, United States, and Australia, largely because of migrations during the 20th century.Sometimes ethnographers group Turkic people into six branches: the Oghuz Turks, Kipchak, Karluk, Siberian, Chuvash, and Sakha/Yakut branches. The Oghuz have been termed Western Turks, while the remaining five, in such a classificatory scheme, are called Eastern Turks.Much of the Turkic population of Central Asia has significant Caucasoid and Mongoloid ancestry. The genetic distances between the different populations of Uzbeks scattered across Uzbekistan is no greater than the distance between many of them and the Karakalpaks. This suggests that Karakalpaks and Uzbeks have very similar origins. The Karakalpaks have a somewhat greater bias towards the eastern markers than the Uzbeks.The Karakalpak Gene Pool (Spencer Wells, 2001); and discussion and conclusions at www.karakalpak.com/genetics.htmlHistorical population:{| class="wikitable"! Year !! Population| 2–2.5 million?| 150–200 millionThe Turkic people display a great variety of ethnic types.Turkic people, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2008 They possess physical features ranging from Caucasoid to Northern Mongoloid. Mongoloid and Caucasoid facial structure is common among many Turkic groups, such as Chuvash people, Tatars, Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Bashkirs.The following incomplete list of Turkic people shows the respective groups' core areas of settlement and their estimated sizes (in millions):{| class="wikitable sortable" id="table1"! People! Primary homeland! Population! Modern language! Predominant religion and sectTurkish people>Turks| Turkey| 60 70 MTurkish language>Turkish| Sunni Islam| AzerbaijanisAzerbaijan (Iran)>Iranian Azerbaijan, Republic of Azerbaijan| 42 30–35 MAzerbaijani language>Azerbaijani| Shia Islam| Uzbeks| Uzbekistan| 32 28.3 MUzbeks>Uzbek| Sunni Islam| Kazakhs| Kazakhstan| 15 13.8 MKazakh language>Kazakh| Sunni Islam| Uyghurs| Altishahr (China)| 15 9 MUyghur language>Uyghur| Sunni Islam| Turkmens| Turkmenistan| 03 8 MTurkmen language>Turkmen| Sunni Islam| Tatars| Tatarstan (Russia)| 07 7 MTatar language>Tatar| Sunni IslamKyrgyz people>Kyrgyzs| Kyrgyzstan| 026 4.5 MKyrgyz language>Kyrgyz| Sunni IslamBashkir people>Bashkirs| Bashkortostan (Russia)| 009 2 MBashkir language>Bashkir| Sunni Islam| Crimean TatarsCrimea, Ukraine>Crimea (Russia/Ukraine)| 009 0.5 to 2 MCrimean Tatar language>Crimean Tatar| Sunni IslamQashqai people>Qashqai| Southern Iran (Iran)| 009 0.9 MQashqai language>Qashqai| Shia IslamChuvash people>Chuvashes| Chuvashia (Russia)| 010 1.7 MChuvash language>Chuvash| Orthodox Christianity| Karakalpaks| Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan)| 007 0.6 MKarakalpak language>Karakalpak| Sunni Islam| Yakuts| Yakutia (Russia)| 007 0.5 MSakha language>Sakha| Orthodox Christianity| Kumyks| Dagestan (Russia)| 007 0.4 MKumyk language>Kumyk| Sunni Islam| Karachays and Balkars| Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia)| 007 0.4 MKarachay-Balkar language>Karachay-Balkar| Sunni Islam| Tuvans| Tuva (Russia)| 009 0.3 MTuvan language>Tuvan| Tibetan BuddhismGagauz people>Gagauzs| Gagauzia (Moldova)| 009 0.2 MGagauz language>Gagauz| Orthodox ChristianityCrimean Karaites>Turkic Karaites and Krymchaks| Ukraine| 007 0.2 MKaraim language>Karaim and Krymchak| Judaism

Language

File:Codex Cumanicus 58.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.]]{{Further|Turkic alphabets (disambiguation)}}The Turkic alphabets are sets of related alphabets with letters (formerly known as runes), used for writing mostly Turkic languages. Inscriptions in Turkic alphabets were found in Mongolia. Most of the preserved inscriptions were dated to between 8th and 10th centuries CE.The earliest positively dated and read Turkic inscriptions date from c. 150, and the alphabets were generally replaced by the Old Uyghur alphabet in the Central Asia, Arabic script in the Middle and Western Asia, Cyrillic in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, and Latin alphabet in Central Europe. The latest recorded use of Turkic alphabet was recorded in Central Europe's Hungary in 1699 CE.The Turkic runiform scripts, unlike other typologically close scripts of the world, do not have a uniform palaeography as, for example, have the Gothic runes, noted for the exceptional uniformity of its language and paleography.Vasiliev D.D. Graphical fund of Turkic runiform writing monuments in Asian areal, М., 1983, p. 44 The Turkic alphabets are divided into four groups, the best known of them is the Orkhon version of the Enisei group. The Orkhon script is the alphabet used by the Göktürks from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic language. It was later used by the Uyghur Empire; a Yenisei variant is known from 9th-century Kyrgyz inscriptions, and it has likely cousins in the Talas Valley of Turkestan and the Old Hungarian script of the 10th century.The Turkic language family is traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family.Turkic peoples, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition, 2008The various Turkic languages are usually considered in geographical groupings: the Oghuz (or Southwestern) languages, the Kypchak (or Northwestern) languages, the Eastern languages (like Uygur), the Northern languages (like Altay and Yakut), and one existing Oghur language: Chuvash (the other Oghur languages, like Volga Bulgarian, are now extinct). The high mobility and intermixing of Turkic peoples in history makes an exact classification extremely difficult.The Turkish language belongs to the Oghuz subfamily of Turkic. It is for the most part mutually intelligible with the other Oghuz languages, which include Azerbaijani, Gagauz, Turkmen and Urum, and to a varying extent with the other Turkic languages.

Cuisine

Markets in the steppe region had a limited range of foodstuffs available—mostly grains, dried fruits, spices, and tea. Turks mostly herded sheep, goats and horses. Dairy was a staple of the nomadic diet and there are many Turkic words for various dairy products such as süt (milk), yagh (butter), ayran, qaymaq (similar to clotted cream), qi̅mi̅z (fermented mare's milk) and qurut (dried yoghurt). During the Middle Ages Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Tatars, who were historically part of the Turkic nomadic group known as the Golden Horde, continued to develop new variations of dairy products.BOOK, Food on the Move, Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 1996, The Horseback Kitchen of Central Asia, 2018-07-16,weblink Nomadic Turks cooked their meals in a qazan, a pot similar to a cauldron; a wooden rack called a qasqan can be used to prepare certain steamed foods, like the traditional meat dumplings called manti. They also used a saj, a griddle that was traditionally placed on stones over a fire, and shish. In later times, the Persian tava was borrowed from the Persians for frying, but traditionally nomadic Turks did most of their cooking using the qazan, saj and shish. Meals were served in a bowl, called a chanaq, and eaten with a knife (bïchaq) and spoon (qashi̅q). Both bowl and spoon were historically made from wood. Other traditional utensils used in food preparation included a thin rolling pin called oqlaghu, a colander called süzgu̅çh, and a grinding stone called tāgirmān.Medieval grain dishes included preparations of whole grains, soups, porridges, breads and pastries. Fried or toasted whole grains were called qawïrmach, while köchä was crushed grain that was cooked with dairy products. Salma were broad noodles that could be served with boiled or roasted meat; cut noodles were called tutmaj in the Middle Ages and are called kesme today.There are many types of bread doughs in Turkic cuisine. Yupqa is the thinnest type of dough, bawi̅rsaq is a type of fried bread dough, and chälpäk is a deep fried flat bread. Qatlama is a fried bread that may be sprinkled with dried fruit or meat, rolled, and sliced like pinwheel sandwiches. Toqach and chöräk are varieties of bread, and böräk is a type of filled pie pastry.Herd animals were usually slaughtered during the winter months and various types of sausages were prepared to preserve the meats, including a type of sausage called sujuk. Though prohibited by Islamic dietary restrictions, historically Turkic nomads also had a variety of blood sausage. One type of sausage, called qazi̅, was made from horsemeat and another variety was filled with a mixture of ground meat, offal and rice. Chopped meat was called qïyma and spit-roasted meat was söklünch—from the root sök- meaning "to tear off", the latter dish is known as kebab in modern times. Qawirma is a typical fried meat dish, and kullama is a soup of noodles and lamb.

Religion

File:Kyzyl Shaman.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|right|A shaman doctor of KyzylKyzyl

Early Turkic mythology and Tengrism

Pre-Islamic Turkic mythology was dominated by Shamanism, Animism and Tengrism. The Turkic animistic traditions were mostly focused on ancestor worship, polytheistic-animism and shamanism. Later this animistic tradition would form the more organized Tengrism.WEB,weblink The Ancient Practice of Tengriism, Shamanism and Ancient Worship of the Sky Gods, mrreese, www.ancient-origins.net, en, 2019-04-18, The chief deity was Tengri, a sky god, worshipped by the upper classes of early Turkic society until Manichaeism was introduced as the official religion of the Uyghur Empire in 763. The wolf symbolizes honour and is also considered the mother of most Turkic peoples. Asena (Ashina Tuwu) is the wolf mother of Tumen Il-Qağan, the first Khan of the Göktürks. The horse and predatory birds, such as the eagle or falcon, are also main figures of Turkic mythology.{{Citation needed|date=April 2019}}

Religious conversions

File:Pavlodar-Moschea.JPG|thumb|left|upright=0.7|Mosque in KazakhstanKazakhstan

Buddhism

Tengri Bögü Khan made the now extinct Manichaeism the state religion of Uyghur Khaganate in 763 and it was also popular in Karluks. It was gradually replaced by the Mahayana Buddhism.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}} It existed in the Buddhist Uyghur Gaochang up to the 12th century.WEB,weblink 关于回鹘摩尼教史的几个问题, 18 March 2015, Tibetan Buddhism, or Vajrayana was the main religion after Manichaeism.WEB,weblink 元明时期的新疆藏传佛教, 18 March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304092501weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, They worshipped Täŋri Täŋrisi Burxan,WEB,weblink 回鹘文《陶师本生》及其特点, 18 March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130506102536weblink">weblink 6 May 2013, Quanšï Im Pusar回鹘观音信仰考 and Maitri Burxan.WEB,weblink 回鶻彌勒信仰考, 18 March 2015, Turkic Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent and west Xinjiang attributed with a rapid and almost total disappearance of it and other religions in North India and Central Asia. The Sari Uygurs "Yellow Yughurs" of Western China, as well as the Tuvans and Altai of Russia are the only remaining Buddhist Turkic peoples.

Islam

Most Turkic people today are Sunni Muslims, although a significant number in Turkey are Alevis. Alevi Turks, who were once primarily dwelling in eastern Anatolia, are today concentrated in major urban centers in western Turkey with the increased urbanism.The major Christian-Turkic peoples are the Chuvash of Chuvashia and the Gagauz (Gökoğuz) of Moldova. The traditional religion of the Chuvash of Russia, while containing many ancient Turkic concepts, also shares some elements with Zoroastrianism, Khazar Judaism, and Islam.The Chuvash converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity for the most part in the second half of the 19th century. As a result, festivals and rites were made to coincide with Orthodox feasts, and Christian rites replaced their traditional counterparts. A minority of the Chuvash still profess their traditional faith.Guide to Russia:Chuvash {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050501105730weblink |date=2005-05-01 }} Church of the East was popular among Turks such as the Naimans.WEB,weblink 景教艺术在西域之发现, 18 March 2015, It even revived in Gaochang and expanded in Xinjiang in the Yuan dynasty period.高昌回鹘与环塔里木多元文化的融合 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110817230447weblink |date=2011-08-17 }}唐代中围景教与景教本部教会的关系 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111130074300weblink |date=2011-11-30 }}WEB,weblink 景教在西域的传播, 18 March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304101519weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, It disappeared after its collapse.WEB,weblink 新闻_星岛环球网, 18 March 2015, 7–11 世紀景教在陸上絲綢之路的傳播Today there are several groups that support a revival of the ancient traditions. Especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, many in Central Asia converted or openly practice animistic and shamanistic rituals. It is estimated that about 60% of Kyrgyz people practice a form of animistic rituals. In Kazakhstan there are about 54.000 followers of the ancient traditions.WEB,weblink Kyrgyz Religious Hatred Trial Throws Spotlight On Ancient Creed, RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty, en, 2019-04-18, WEB,weblink Religion in Kazakhstan, WorldAtlas, en, 2019-04-18,

Muslim Turks and non-Muslim Turks

File:Dunhuang Uighur king.jpg|thumb|200px|Uyghur king from TurpanTurpanThe Muslim Kara-Khanid Turks performed a mass conversion campaign against the Buddhist Uyghur Turks during the Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang.The non-Muslim Turks worship of Tengri and other gods was mocked and insulted by the Muslim Turk Mahmud al-Kashgari, who wrote a verse referring to them – The Infidels – May God destroy them!BOOK,weblink From Mahmud Kaşgari to Evliya Çelebi, Robert Dankoff, Isis Press, 2008, 978-975-428-366-2, 81, JOURNAL, Dankoff, Robert, Jan–Mar 1975, Kāšġarī on the Beliefs and Superstitions of the Turks, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 95, 68–80, 10.2307/599159, 599159, 1, The Basmil, Yabāḳu and Uyghur states were among the Turkic peoples who fought against the Kara-Khanids spread of Islam. The Islamic Kara-Khanids were made out of Tukhai, Yaghma, Çiğil and Karluk.BOOK,weblink The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Bernard Lewis, Johannes Hendrik Kramers, Charles Pellat, Joseph Schacht, Brill, 1998, 689, Kashgari claimed that the Prophet assisted in a miraculous event where 700,000 Yabāqu infidels were defeated by 40,000 Muslims led by Arslān Tegīn claiming that fires shot sparks from gates located on a green mountain towards the Yabāqu.BOOK,weblink From Mahmud Kaşgari to Evliya Çelebi, Robert Dankoff, Isis Press, 2008, 978-975-428-366-2, 79, The Yabaqu were a Turkic people.BOOK,weblink Early Mystics in Turkish Literature, Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, Gary Leiser, Robert Dankoff, Psychology Press, 2006, 978-0-415-36686-1, 147–, The Muslim Kara-Khanid Turk Mahmud Kashgari insulted the Uyghur Buddhists as "Uighur dogs" and called them "Tats", which referred to the "Uighur infidels" according to the Tuxsi and Taghma, while other Turks called Persians "tat"weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151118063834weblink">weblink p. 160.BOOK,weblink Harvard Ukrainian studies, Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1980, 160, While Kashgari displayed a different attitude towards the Turks diviners beliefs and "national customs", he expressed towards Buddhism a hatred in his Diwan where he wrote the verse cycle on the war against Uighur Buddhists. Buddhist origin words like toyin (a cleric or priest) and Burxān or Furxan (meaning Buddha, acquiring the generic meaning of "idol" in the Turkic language of Kashgari) had negative connotations to Muslim Turks.BOOK,weblink From Mahmud Kaşgari to Evliya Çelebi, Robert Dankoff, Isis Press, 2008, 978-975-428-366-2, 79, (File:Tyurki.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century))File:Uighur Prince.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|An Uyghur KhaganKhagan

Old sports

File:Catchthegirl.JPG|thumb|Kyz kuuKyz kuuThe Kyz kuu (chase the girl) – it has been played by Turkic people at festivals since time immemorial.BOOK, Mayor, Adrienne, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World, Princeton University Press.,weblink The Jereed – Horses have been essential and even sacred animals for Turks living as nomadic tribes in the Central Asian steppes. Turks were born, grew up, lived, fought and died on horseback. So became jereed the most important sporting and ceremonial game of Turkish people.WEB, Burak, Sansal,weblink Turkish Jereed (Javelin), All About Turkey, 16 November 2016, The kokpar began with the nomadic Turkic peoples who have come from farther north and east spreading westward from China and Mongolia between the 10th and 15th centuries.BOOK, Christensen, karen, Levinson, David, Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present,weblink The jigit which is used in the Caucasus and Central Asia to describe a skillful and brave equestrian, or a brave person in general.WEB, jigs,weblinkweblink

Gallery

Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes

Images of Buddhist and Manichean Turkic Uyghurs from the Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes.File:Dunhuang Uighur king.jpg|Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves.File:Uighur prince from Bezeklik murals.jpg|Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals.File:Uighur woman from Bezeklik murals.jpg|Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals.File:UighurPrincess.png|Uyghur Princess.File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 064.jpg|Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals.File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 063.jpg|Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals.File:Uigure-bezeklik-17.jpg|Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals.File:Uigure-bezeklik-19.jpg|Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals.File:Manichaean Temple Banner (MIK III 6283).jpg|Uyghur Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho.File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 067.jpg|Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals.File:ManichaeanElectaeKocho10thCentury.jpg|Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho.File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 066.jpg|Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho.File:Museum für Indische Kunst Dahlem Berlin Mai 2006 061.jpg|Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho.File:Manicheans.jpg|Manicheans from Qocho

Medieval times

File:Omurtag1.jpg|Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.

Modern times

File:SB - Altai man in national suit on horse.jpg|Altai man in national suit on horseback.File:Azerigirls.JPG|Azerbaijani girls in traditional dress.File:Young bashqorts.jpg|Bashkir boys in national dress.File:Тухья анат енчи.jpg|A Chuvash woman in traditional dress.File:Russian Winter Festival London 2007 115.jpg|A female Chuvash dancer in traditional dress.File:Gagauz-children.jpg|Young and old Gagauz people.File:Karachay patriarchs in the 19th century.jpg|Karachay patriarchs in the 19th century.File:SB - Inside a Kazakh yurt.jpg|Kazakh family inside a Yurt.File:Хакасы.JPG|Khakas people with traditional instruments.File:At the On-Archa village in Naryn district. Kyrgyzstan. 04.10.2012.jpg|Kyrgyz elders in On-Archa, Kyrgyzstan.File:Ногайцы 01.jpg|Nogai man in national costume.File:RIAN archive 477235 U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Tatarstan.jpg|U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Tatarstan.File:Tavla oynayan kadınlar, Serik - Women playing backgammon in Turkey.jpg|Turkish women playing backgammon.File:Turkman girl in national dress.jpg|Turkmen girl in national dress.File:Мөгелер биле Даңгыналар2. 2016.jpg|Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl, Tuva.File:Uigurs-Turpan.jpg|Two Uyghur elders from Turpan.File:Uyghur_girl_in_Turpan,_Xinjiang,_China_-_20050712.jpg|An Uyghur girl - a natural blond with epicanthic fold in Xinjiang, China.File:Uzbek Kids.JPG|Uzbek children in Samarkand.file:Sakha woman.jpg|An Yakut women.

See also

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References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Alpamysh, H.B. Paksoy: Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule (Hartford: AACAR, 1989)
  • BOOK, H. B. Paksoy, Alpamysh: Central Asian Identity Under Russian Rule,weblink 1989, AACAR, 978-0-9621379-9-0,
  • Amanjolov A.S., "History of the Ancient Turkic Script", Almaty, "Mektep", 2003, {{ISBN|9965-16-204-2}}
  • Baichorov S.Ya., "Ancient Turkic runic monuments of the Europe", Stavropol, 1989 (in Russian).
  • Baskakov, N.A. 1962, 1969. Introduction to the study of the Turkic languages. Moscow (in Russian).
  • Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009): Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton: Princeton University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-691-13589-2}}.
  • Boeschoten, Hendrik & Lars Johanson. 2006. Turkic languages in contact. Turcologica, Bd. 61. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. {{ISBN|3-447-05212-0}}.
  • Chavannes, Édouard (1900): Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) occidentaux. Paris, Librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient. Reprint: Taipei. Cheng Wen Publishing Co. 1969.
  • Clausen, Gerard. 1972. An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Deny, Jean et al. 1959–1964. Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Findley, Carter Vaughn. 2005. The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-516770-8}}; {{ISBN|0-19-517726-6}} (pbk.)
  • Golden, Peter B. An introduction to the history of the Turkic peoples: Ethnogenesis and state-formation in medieval and early modern Eurasia and the Middle East (Otto Harrassowitz (Wiesbaden) 1992) {{ISBN|3-447-03274-X}}
  • BOOK, Peter B. Golden, An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East,weblink 1 January 1992, O. Harrassowitz, 978-3-447-03274-2,
  • Heywood, Colin. The Turks (The Peoples of Europe) (Blackwell 2005), {{ISBN|978-0-631-15897-4}}.
  • Hostler, Charles Warren. The Turks of Central Asia (Greenwood Press, November 1993), {{ISBN|0-275-93931-6}}.
  • Ishjatms N., "Nomads In Eastern Central Asia", in the "History of civilizations of Central Asia", Volume 2, UNESCO Publishing, 1996, {{ISBN|92-3-102846-4}}.
  • Johanson, Lars & Éva Agnes Csató (ed.). 1998. The Turkic languages. London: Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-08200-5}}.
  • Johanson, Lars. 1998. "The history of Turkic." In: Johanson & Csató, pp. 81–125. Classification of Turkic languages
  • Johanson, Lars. 1998. "Turkic languages." In: Encyclopædia Britannica. CD 98. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 5 September. 2007. Turkic languages: Linguistic history.
  • Kyzlasov I.L., "Runic Scripts of Eurasian Steppes", Moscow, Eastern Literature, 1994, {{ISBN|5-02-017741-5}}.
  • Lebedynsky, Iaroslav. (2006). Les Saces: Les « Scythes » d'Asie, VIIIe siècle apr. J.-C. Editions Errance, Paris. {{ISBN|2-87772-337-2}}.
  • Malov S.E., "Monuments of the ancient Turkic inscriptions. Texts and research", M.-L., 1951 (in Russian).
  • Mukhamadiev A., "Turanian Writing", in "Problems Of Lingo-Ethno-History Of The Tatar People", Kazan, 1995 (Азгар Мухамадиев, "Туранская Письменность", "Проблемы лингвоэтноистории татарского народа", Казань, 1995) (in Russian).
  • Menges, K. H. 1968. The Turkic languages and peoples: An introduction to Turkic studies. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Öztopçu, KurtuluÅŸ. 1996. Dictionary of the Turkic languages: English, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Uighur, Uzbek. London: Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-14198-2}}
  • Samoilovich, A. N. 1922. Some additions to the classification of the Turkish languages. Petrograd.
  • Schönig, Claus. 1997–1998. "A new attempt to classify the Turkic languages I-III." Turkic Languages 1:1.117–133, 1:2.262–277, 2:1.130–151.
  • Vasiliev D.D. Graphical fund of Turkic runiform writing monuments in Asian areal. Ðœ., 198 (in Russian).
  • Vasiliev D.D. Corpus of Turkic runiform monuments in the basin of Enisei. Ðœ., 1983 (in Russian).
  • Voegelin, C.F. & F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and index of the World's languages. New York: Elsevier.
  • BOOK, Khanbaghi, Aptin, The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early Modern Iran, I.B. Tauris, 2006, 978-1845110567, harv,
  • BOOK, Yarshater, Ehsan, Encyclopedia Iranica, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 2001, 978-0933273566, harv,

External links

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