aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{other uses}}{{redirect|Torino|other uses|Torino (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2017}}{{Use British English|date=August 2013}}

| pushpin_map = Italy Piedmont#Italy#Europe45450734display=inline,title}}| image_flag = Flag of Turin.svg| shield_alt = | imagesize = 270px| image_alt = | map_alt = | map_caption = | pushpin_map_alt = | coordinates_footnotes = | mayor = Chiara Appendino| mayor_party = Five Star Movement| postal_code = 10100, 10121-10156| area_code = 0039 011| footnotes =

(i)(ii)(iv)(v)| ID = 823bis| year = 1997| extension = 2010}}}}Turin ({{IPAc-en|tj|ʊəˈr|ɪ|n|,_|ˈ|tj|ÊŠÉ™r|ɪ|n}} {{respell|tewr|IN|,_|TEWR|in}},BOOK, Wells, John C., John C. Wells, 2008, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd, Longman, 978-1-40588118-0, Piedmontese: {{IPA-pms|tyˈriÅ‹||Turin.ogg}}; {{IPA-it|toˈriːno||It-Torino.ogg}}; , then Taurinum) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City of Turin, and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 875,698 (31 December 2018)WEB,weblink Statistiche demografiche ISTAT,, 2018-06-02, while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.WEB,weblink Competitive Cities in the Global Economy, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, 30 April 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2008, The city used to be a major European political centre. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy, and the first capital of the unified Italy (the Kingdom of Italy) from 1861 to 1865.WEB,weblink The city's history, Turismo e promozione, Città di Torino,weblink" title="">weblink 18 August 2007, dead, 31 August 2007, NEWS,weblink Turin – Culture & History, Sydney Morning Herald, 26 December 2009, {{dead link|date=August 2010|bot=RjwilmsiBot}} Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour.WEB,weblink Cavour, Count Camillo Benso di (1810–1861), 22 April 1998,, 26 December 2009, Even though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength.weblink" title="">CENSIS With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power.WEB,weblink City Mayors reviews the richest cities in the world in 2005, 11 March 2007,,weblink" title="">weblink 18 September 2012, dead, 26 December 2009, dmy-all, As of 2018, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city.WEB,weblink GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2018, 14 September 2018,,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2013, dead, 14 December 2018, Turin is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry, with the headquarters of Fiat, Lancia and Alfa Romeo.WEB,weblink Turin (Italy) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Encyclopædia Britannica,, 26 December 2009, The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, opera houses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo-classical, and Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles, gardens and elegant palazzi such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo EgizioWEB,weblink ITALIA – Egyptian Museum of Turin,, 26 December 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2010, dead, and the Mole Antonelliana which in turn hosts the Museo Nazionale del Cinema. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. The city also hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, and the Turin Polytechnic.WEB,weblink Euromonitor Internationals Top City Destinations Ranking Euromonitor archive,, 12 December 2008, 3 February 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2010, Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F.C. and Torino F.C., and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics.BOOK,weblink The Economic History of Italy 1860... – Google Books, Zamagni, Vera, 28 October 1993,, 978-0-19-829289-0, 26 December 2009,


{{See also|Timeline of Turin}}File:Torino-portapalatina01.jpg|thumb|left|The Roman Palatine TowersPalatine Towers
Kingdom of Odoacer 476–493
{{flagicon image|Teodorico re dei Goti (493-526).png}} Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553 (File:Simple Labarum.svg|12px) Eastern Roman Empire 553–569 (File:Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg|15px) Lombard Kingdom 569–773 (File:Charlemagne autograph.svg|15px) Carolingian Empire 773–888 (File:Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg|15px) March of Ivrea 888–941 (File:Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg|15px) March of Turin 941–1046 (File:Coat of arms of the House of Savoy (early).svg|15px) County of Savoy 1046–1416(File:Blason duche fr Savoie.svg|15px) Duchy of Savoy 1416–1792 (File:Flag of France (1790-1794).svg|15px|border) First French Republic 1792–1804 (File:Flag of France.svg|15px|border) First French Empire 1804–1814 (File:Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia.svg|15px|border) Kingdom of Sardinia 1814–1861 (File:Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg|15px|border) Kingdom of Italy 1861–1943 (File:War flag of the Italian Social Republic.svg|15px|border) Italian Social Republic 1943–1945 (File:Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg|15px|border) Kingdom of Italy 1945–1946 (File:Flag of Italy.svg|15px|border) Italian Republic 1946–present}}

Ancient origins

The Taurini were an ancient Celto-LigurianLivy XXI, 38: Taurini semigalli. Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont.File:BattleofTurin prince Anhalt.JPG|thumb|left|Siege of TurinSiege of TurinIn 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres. The Taurini chief town (Taurasia) was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege.Polybius iii. 60, 8 As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established after 28 BC under the name of Julia Augusta Taurinorum (modern Turin). Both Livyv. 34 and Straboiv. p. 209 mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.

Roman era

In the 1st century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans founded Augusta Taurinorum. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighbourhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano (Roman Quadrilateral). Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani, later incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama. The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theatre are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.

Middle Ages

File:Arduino d'ivrea.jpg|thumb|right|Arduin d'Ivrea.]]After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but then conquered again by the Lombards and then the Franks of Charlemagne (773). The Contea di Torino (countship) was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin (1092–1130 and 1136–1191) it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period.

Early modern

(File:Torino 1500-1600 vista dall'alto.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|Turin in the 17th century.)Emmanuel Philibert, also known under the nickname of Iron Head (Testa 'd Fer), made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale (named Piazza San Carlo today) and Via Nuova (current Via Roma) were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace of Turin) was also built. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid.In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquired Sicily, soon traded for Sardinia, and part of the former Duchy of Milan, and was elevated to king; thus Turin became the capital of a European kingdom. The architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city; Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time.

Late modern and contemporary

File:Maggi, Giovanni Battista - Torino - Panorama.jpg|thumb|left|A view of Turin in the late 19th century. In the background, the Mole AntonellianaMole AntonellianaTurin, like the rest of Piedmont, was annexed by the French Empire in 1802. The city thus became the seat of the prefecture of Pô department until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, when the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored with Turin as its capital. In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia led the struggle towards the unification of Italy. In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed united Kingdom of ItalyWEB,weblink Turin's History, Anthony Parenti, 9 May 2010, until 1865, when the capital was moved to Florence, and then to Rome after the 1870 conquest of the Papal States. The 1871 opening of the Fréjus Tunnel made Turin an important communication node between Italy and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the Mole Antonelliana, the Egyptian Museum, the Gran Madre di Dio church and Piazza Vittorio Veneto were built in this period. The late 19th century was also a period of rapid industrialization, especially in the automotive sector: in 1899 Fiat was established in the city, followed by Lancia in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often regarded as the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the same event in 1911. By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants.File:19TorinoGranMadreDio.JPG|thumb|Gran Madre di Dio.]]After World War I, harsh conditions brought a wave of strikes and workers' protests. In 1920 the Lingotto Fiat factory was occupied. The Fascist regime put an end to the social unrest, banning trade unions and jailing socialist leaders, notably Antonio Gramsci. On the other hand, Benito Mussolini largely subsidised the automotive industry, to provide vehicles to the army. Turin was then a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II, being heavily damaged in its industrial areas by the air raids. The Allied's campaign in Italy started off from the South and slowly moved northwards in the following two years, leaving the northern regions occupied by Germans and collaborationist forces for several years.Turin was not captured by the Allies until the end of Spring Offensive of 1945. By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of Brazilian Expeditionary Force reached the city, it was already freed by the Italian Partisans, that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April 1945. Days later, troops from the US Army's 1st Armored and 92nd Infantry Divisions came to substitute the Brazilians.Willis D. Crittenberger, "The final campaign across Italy"; year of edition 1952 {{ISBN|85-7011-219-X}}Mascarenhas de Moraes, The Brazilian Expeditionary Force, By Its Commander US Government Printing Office, 1966. ASIN B000PIBXCGIn the postwar years, Turin was rapidly rebuilt. The city's automotive industry played a pivotal role in the Italian economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s, attracting hundreds of thousands of immigrants to the city, particularly from the rural southern regions of Italy. The number of immigrants was so big that Turin was said to be "the third southern Italian city after Naples and Palermo". The population soon reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. The exceptional growth gains of the city gained it the nickname of the Automobile Capital of Italy and the Detroit of Italy (Turin has been "twinned" with Detroit since 1998). In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years. The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 to slightly over 900,000 by the end of the century. In 2006, Turin hosted the Winter Olympic Games.


(File:Torino panorama Superga.jpg|upright=1.35|thumb|left|Turin today)Turin is located in northwest Italy. It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural continuation of the hills of Monferrato. Four major rivers pass through the city: the Po and three of its tributaries, the Dora Riparia (once known as Duria Minor by the Romans, from the Celtic noun duria meaning "water"), the Stura di Lanzo and the Sangone.


Turin features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) in contrast to the Mediterranean climate characteristic of the coast of Italy.Winters are moderately cold but dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less frequent but heavier (thunderstorms are frequent). During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plainsWEB,weblink Torino Turistica – Servizio Telematico Pubblico – Città di Torino,, 6 May 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2009, but rarely on the city because of its location at the end of the Susa Valley.Its position on the east side of the Alps makes the weather drier than on the west side because of the föhn wind effect.The highest temperature ever recorded was {{convert|37.1|C|F}}, while the lowest was {{convert|-21.8|C|F}}.{{Weather box|width = 100%|location = Torino (Giardini Reali), 1971–2000 normals, extremes 1946–present|metric first = Yes|single line = Yes|Jan record high C = 25.1|Feb record high C = 24.8|Mar record high C = 27.4|Apr record high C = 31.0|May record high C = 32.3|Jun record high C = 35.6|Jul record high C = 36.8|Aug record high C = 37.1|Sep record high C = 32.2|Oct record high C = 30.0|Nov record high C = 22.8|Dec record high C = 21.4|year record high C = 37.1|Jan high C = 6.6|Feb high C = 9.1|Mar high C = 13.4|Apr high C = 16.6|May high C = 20.7|Jun high C = 24.8|Jul high C = 27.9|Aug high C = 27.1|Sep high C = 23.0|Oct high C = 17.3|Nov high C = 11.1|Dec high C = 7.6|year high C = 17.1|Jan mean C = 2.0|Feb mean C = 4.3|Mar mean C = 8.1|Apr mean C = 11.1|May mean C = 15.5|Jun mean C = 19.4|Jul mean C = 22.4|Aug mean C = 21.8|Sep mean C = 17.8|Oct mean C = 12.4|Nov mean C = 6.5|Dec mean C = 3.1|year mean C = 12.0|Jan low C = -2.5|Feb low C = -0.7|Mar low C = 2.7|Apr low C = 5.7|May low C = 10.4|Jun low C = 14.0|Jul low C = 16.9|Aug low C = 16.5|Sep low C = 12.7|Oct low C = 7.4|Nov low C = 1.9|Dec low C = -1.6|year low C = 7.0|Jan record low C = -18.5|Feb record low C = -21.8|Mar record low C = -10.5|Apr record low C = -3.8|May record low C = -2.3|Jun record low C = 4.3|Jul record low C = 6.6|Aug record low C = 6.3|Sep record low C = 1.8|Oct record low C = -3.9|Nov record low C = -8.2|Dec record low C = -13.8|year record low C = -21.8|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 47.8|Feb precipitation mm = 47.1|Mar precipitation mm = 72.5|Apr precipitation mm = 113.3|May precipitation mm = 145.3|Jun precipitation mm = 104.3|Jul precipitation mm = 70.5|Aug precipitation mm = 76.1|Sep precipitation mm = 83.8|Oct precipitation mm = 106.1|Nov precipitation mm = 69.1|Dec precipitation mm = 45.1|year precipitation mm = 981.0|Jan humidity = 75|Feb humidity = 75|Mar humidity = 67|Apr humidity = 72|May humidity = 75|Jun humidity = 74|Jul humidity = 72|Aug humidity = 73|Sep humidity = 75|Oct humidity = 79|Nov humidity = 80|Dec humidity = 80|year humidity = 75|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan precipitation days = 5.4|Feb precipitation days = 4.4|Mar precipitation days = 5.8|Apr precipitation days = 8.6|May precipitation days = 11.2|Jun precipitation days = 8.6|Jul precipitation days = 5.8|Aug precipitation days = 7.7|Sep precipitation days = 6.4|Oct precipitation days = 7.0|Nov precipitation days = 5.6|Dec precipitation days = 4.4|year precipitation days = 80.9|Jan sun = 111.6|Feb sun = 118.7|Mar sun = 158.1|Apr sun = 180.0|May sun = 195.3|Jun sun = 219.0|Jul sun = 260.4|Aug sun = 223.2|Sep sun = 168.0|Oct sun = 142.6|Nov sun = 105.0|Dec sun = 108.5|year sun = 1990.4|source 1 = Italian Air Force Meteorological ServiceWEB,weblink Torino/Caselle (TO), Atlante climatico, Servizio Meteorologico, 11 December 2014, WEB,weblink STAZIONE 059-TORINO CASELLE: medie mensili periodo 61 – 90, Servizio Meteorologico, Italian, 11 December 2014, WEB,weblink Torino Caselle: Record mensili dal 1946, Servizio Meteorologico dell’Aeronautica Militare, Italian, 11 December 2014, |date=August 2010}}{{Weather box | width = 100% | collapsed = y | open = | metric first = y | single line = yItalian Air Force - w:), elevation: {{convertmdisp=or}}, 1961-1990 normals
| Jan high C =5.0| Feb high C =6.0| Mar high C =9.6| Apr high C =13.6| May high C =17.5| Jun high C =21.4| Jul high C =24.6| Aug high C =23.5| Sep high C =20.1| Oct high C =14.7| Nov high C =8.8| Dec high C =6.2 | Jan low C =-0.5| Feb low C =0.3| Mar low C =3.0| Apr low C =6.0| May low C =10.0| Jun low C =13.6| Jul low C =16.4| Aug low C =15.9| Sep low C =13.4| Oct low C =9.1| Nov low C =3.6| Dec low C =0.7| precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm =29.7 | Feb precipitation mm =42.8 | Mar precipitation mm =51.5| Apr precipitation mm =90.4 | May precipitation mm =113.3 | Jun precipitation mm =82.3 | Jul precipitation mm =46.4 | Aug precipitation mm =73.4 | Sep precipitation mm =63.7| Oct precipitation mm =73.8 | Nov precipitation mm =51.1 | Dec precipitation mm =29.3 | Jan humidity =65| Feb humidity =70| Mar humidity =64| Apr humidity =72| May humidity =75| Jun humidity =75| Jul humidity =75| Aug humidity =75| Sep humidity =76| Oct humidity =79| Nov humidity =74| Dec humidity =67 | Jand sun =4.6 | Febd sun =4.6 | Mard sun =4.5 | Aprd sun =4.6 | Mayd sun =5.7 | Jund sun =6.0 | Juld sun =7.4 | Augd sun =7.0 | Sepd sun =4.7 | Octd sun =3.8 | Novd sun =3.9 | Decd sun =4.3 | Jan sun =142.6| Feb sun =128.8| Mar sun =139.5| Apr sun =138.0| May sun =176.7| Jun sun =180.0| Jul sun =229.4| Aug sun =217.0| Sep sun =141.0| Oct sun =117.8| Nov sun =117.0| Dec sun =133.3| unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm| Jan precipitation days =4.7 | Feb precipitation days =5.1 | Mar precipitation days =6.3 | Apr precipitation days =8.1 | May precipitation days =10.0 | Jun precipitation days =8.4 | Jul precipitation days =5.7 | Aug precipitation days =6.9 | Sep precipitation days =0| Oct precipitation days =5.8 | Nov precipitation days =5.9 | Dec precipitation days =4.1
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration>NOAAWEB,weblink Turin (16061) - WMO Weather Station, July 22, 2019National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration>NOAA, }}{{Weather box | width = 100% | collapsed = y | open = | metric first = y | single line = yTurin Airport>Turin-Caselle Airport), elevation: {{convertmdisp=or}}, 1961-1990 normals | Jan high C =5.8| Feb high C =8.4| Mar high C =12.7| Apr high C =16.6| May high C =20.7| Jun high C =24.7| Jul high C =27.6| Aug high C =26.5| Sep high C =23.1| Oct high C =17.3| Nov high C =10.8| Dec high C =6.9 | Jan low C =-3.3| Feb low C =-1.1| Mar low C =2.1| Apr low C =5.6| May low C =9.9| Jun low C =13.8| Jul low C =16.3| Aug low C =15.7| Sep low C =12.6| Oct low C =7.2| Nov low C =1.8| Dec low C =-2.3| precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm =40.5 | Feb precipitation mm =52.5 | Mar precipitation mm =76.9 | Apr precipitation mm =104.1 | May precipitation mm =120.3 | Jun precipitation mm =97.6 | Jul precipitation mm =66.6 | Aug precipitation mm =79.8 | Sep precipitation mm =70.1 | Oct precipitation mm =88.9 | Nov precipitation mm =75.5 | Dec precipitation mm =41.6 | Jan humidity =75| Feb humidity =75| Mar humidity =67| Apr humidity =72| May humidity =75| Jun humidity =74| Jul humidity =72| Aug humidity =73| Sep humidity =75| Oct humidity =79| Nov humidity =80| Dec humidity =80| Jand sun =3.6| Febd sun =4.2| Mard sun =5.1 | Aprd sun =6.0| Mayd sun =6.3 | Jund sun =7.3| Juld sun =8.4| Augd sun =7.2| Sepd sun =5.6 | Octd sun =4.6 | Novd sun =3.5| Decd sun =3.5| Jan sun =111.6| Feb sun =117.6| Mar sun =158.1| Apr sun =180.0| May sun =195.3| Jun sun =219.0| Jul sun =260.4| Aug sun =223.2| Sep sun =168.0| Oct sun =142.6| Nov sun =105.0| Dec sun =108.5| unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm| Jan precipitation days =4.4 | Feb precipitation days =5.2 | Mar precipitation days =7.0 | Apr precipitation days =8.4 | May precipitation days =10.4 | Jun precipitation days =8.7 | Jul precipitation days =5.9 | Aug precipitation days =7.2 | Sep precipitation days =6.0 | Oct precipitation days =5.8 | Nov precipitation days =6.8| Dec precipitation days =4.1National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration>NOAAWEB,weblink Turin (16059) - WMO Weather Station, July 21, 2019National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration>NOAA, }}


(File:TurinPanorama.JPG|thumb|upright=1.35|right|Closer bird-eye view of the city){{See also|List of mayors of Turin}}Turin is split up into 10 boroughs, locally called circoscrizioni; these do not necessarily correspond to the historical districts of the city, which are rather called quartieri, rioni, borghi, borgate or zone.The following list numerates the present day boroughs and today's location of the historical districts inside them:
  • Circoscrizione 1: Centro – Crocetta
  • Circoscrizione 2: Santa Rita – Mirafiori Nord
  • Circoscrizione 3: San Paolo – Cenisia – Pozzo Strada – Cit Turin – Borgata Lesna
  • Circoscrizione 4: San Donato – Campidoglio – Parella
  • Circoscrizione 5: Borgo Vittoria – Madonna di Campagna – Lucento – Vallette
  • Circoscrizione 6: Barriera di Milano – Regio Parco – Barca – Bertolla – Falchera – Rebaudengo – Villaretto
  • Circoscrizione 7: Aurora – Vanchiglia – Sassi – Madonna del Pilone
  • Circoscrizione 8: San Salvario – Cavoretto – Borgo Po
  • Circoscrizione 9: Nizza Millefonti – Lingotto – Filadelfia
  • Circoscrizione 10: Mirafiori Sud
The mayor of Turin is directly elected every five years. The current mayor of the city is Chiara Appendino: Turin's City Council is composed of 50 members.

Main sites

City centre

{{See also|Residences of the Royal House of Savoy}}(File:Torino, via Roma (01).jpg|thumb|right|Via Roma)Turin's historical architecture is predominantly Baroque and was developed under the Kingdom of Savoy. Nonetheless the main street of the city centre, Via Roma, was built during the Fascist era (from 1931 to 1937) as an example of Italian Rationalism, replacing former buildings already present in this area.Via Roma runs between Piazza Carlo Felice and Piazza Castello. Buildings on the portion between Piazza Carlo Felice and Piazza San Carlo were designed by rationalist architect Marcello Piacentini. These blocks were built into a reticular system, composed by austere buildings in clear rationalist style, such as the impressive Hotel Principi di Piemonte and the former Hotel Nazionale in Piazza CLN. Porches are built in a continuous entablature and marked with double columns, to be consistent with those of Piazza San Carlo. The section of the street between Piazza San Carlo and Piazza Castello was built in eclectic style, with arcades characterised by Serliana-type arches. To this day Via Roma is the street featuring the most fashionable boutiques of the city.File:Torino - Caval ëd Brons latoB.jpg|thumb|right|Piazza San Carlo and the Caval 'd Brons (Bronze Horse in Piedmontese language) equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert.]]Via Roma crosses one of the main squares of the city: the pedestrianized Piazza San Carlo, built by Carlo di Castellamonte in the 17th century. In the middle of the square stands the equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert, also known as Caval ëd Brons in local dialect ("Bronze Horse"); the monument depicts the Duke sheathing his sword after the Battle of St. Quentin. Piazza San Carlo arcades host the most ancient cafés of the city, such as Caffé Torino and Caffé San Carlo.File:529TorinoPalazzoReale.JPG|thumb|left|Piazza Castello with Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) in the background.]]On the northern edge of Via Roma stands Piazza Castello, regarded as the heart of the city. The half-pedestrianized square hosts some significant buildings such as Palazzo Reale (Former Savoy Royal House), the Palazzo Madama (which previously hosted the Savoy senate and, for few years, the Italian senate after Italian unification), the former Baroque Teatro Regio di Torino (rebuilt in modern style in the 1960s, after being destroyed by fire), the Royal Library of Turin which hosts the Leonardo da Vinci self-portrait, and the baroque Royal Church of San Lorenzo. Moreover, Piazza Castello hosts a Fascist era building, the Torre Littoria, a sort of skyscraper which was supposed to become the headquarters of the Fascist party, although it never served as such. The building's style is quite different from the Baroque style of Piazza Castello. The square regularly hosts the main open space events of the city, live concerts included.(File:Porta Nuova Piazza Carlo Felice Torino.JPG|thumb|left|Porta Nuova main railway station, in front of Piazza Carlo Felice square (before restyling).)As for the southern part of the street, Via Roma ends in Piazza Carlo Felice and in its Giardino Sambuy, a wide fenced garden right in the middle of the square. Across from Piazza Carlo Felice stands the monumental façade of Porta Nuova railway station, the central station of the city built between 1861 and 1868 by the architect Alessandro Mazzucchetti. The passengers building was renovated to host a shopping mall and more efficient passenger service offices. However, it is still an example of monumental architecture, with its stately foyer and some Baroque sights, such as the Sala Reale (the former Royal waiting room).(File:Torino, piazza Vittorio Veneto (04).jpg|thumb|right|Piazza Vittorio Veneto square.)In Piazza Castello converge some of the main streets of the city centre. Among them one of the most significant is the arcaded Via Po, built by Amedeo di Castellamonte in 1868 and featuring some interesting buildings, such as the first and original building of the University of Turin and the historical Caffè Fiorio, which was the favourite café of the 19th-century politicians. Via Po ends in Piazza Vittorio Veneto (simply called Piazza Vittorio locally), the largest Baroque square in Europe and today heart of Turin nightlife. Piazza Vittorio features the most fashionable bars and not far from here, along the Po riverfront, the Murazzi quays used to host several bars and nightclubs open till the morning until a few years ago.File:Museo del Risorgimento italiano.JPG|thumb|right|Baroque façade of Palazzo Carignano, the Museum of the Risorgimento.]]Parallel to Via Roma, other two popular pedestrian streets, namely Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto, cross the old town from Via Po to Corso Vittorio Emanuele II. Their recent pedestrianisation has improved their original commercial vocation. In particular, Via Lagrange has recently increased the presence of luxury boutiques. This street also hosts the Egyptian Museum of Turin, home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt.Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto cross two significant squares of the city, respectively. The former crosses Piazza Carignano, well known mainly for the undulating “concave – convex – concave” Baroque façade of Palazzo Carignano. This building used to host the Parlamento Subalpino (the “Subalpine Parliament”, Parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia which also became the Italian Parliament for a few years, after the Italian unification) and today houses the Museum of the Risorgimento. The square also features the Teatro Carignano, a well-conserved Baroque theatre.Via Carlo Alberto crosses Piazza Carlo Alberto, a big square hosting the rear façade of Palazzo Carignano, in eclectic style. On the other side stands the monumental Biblioteca Nazionale (National Library).File:Torino-mole10.jpg|thumb|left|Mole AntonellianaMole AntonellianaNot far from Via Po stands the symbol of Turin, namely the Mole Antonelliana, so named after the architect who built it, Alessandro Antonelli. Construction began in 1863 as a Jewish synagogue. Nowadays it houses the National Museum of Cinema and it is believed to be the tallest museum in the world at {{convert|167|m|ft|abbr=off}}. The building is depicted on the Italian 2-cent coin.File:Cupola sindone.jpg|thumb|left|Dome of Turin CathedralTurin CathedralJust behind Piazza Castello stands the Turin Cathedral, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, which is the major church of the city. It was built during 1491–1498 and is adjacent to an earlier bell tower (1470). Annexed to the cathedral is the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, the current resting place of the Shroud of Turin. The Chapel was added to the structure in 1668–1694, designed by Guarini. The Basilica of Corpus Domini was built to celebrate an alleged miracle which took place during the sack of the city in 1453, when a soldier was carrying off a monstrance containing the Blessed Sacrament; the monstrance fell to the ground, while the host remained suspended in air. The present church, erected in 1610 to replace the original chapel which stood on the spot, is the work of Ascanio Vitozzi.File:Torino - Porta Palatina.jpg|thumb|Right|Palatine TowersPalatine TowersNext to the Turin Cathedral stand the Palatine Towers, an ancient Roman-medieval structure that served as one of four Roman city gates along the city walls of Turin. This gate allowed access from north to the cardo maximus, the typical second main street of a Roman town. The Palatine Towers are among the best preserved Roman remains in northern Italy. Close to this site, the {{convert|51,300|m2|0|adj=mid|abbr=off}} Piazza della Repubblica plays host to the biggest open market in Europe, locally known as mercato di Porta Palazzo (Porta Palazzo or Porta Pila are the historical and local names of this area).West of the Porte Palatine stands the Quadrilatero Romano (Roman Quadrilateral), the old medieval district recently renewed. The current neighbourhood is characterised by its tiny streets and its several medieval buildings and today it is popular for its aperitivo bars and its small shops run by local artisans. The hub of the Quadrilatero is Piazza Emanuele Filiberto.South of the Quadrilatero Romano stands Via Garibaldi, another popular street of the city. It is a {{convert|1|km|1|abbr=on}} pedestrian street between Piazza Castello and Piazza Statuto which features some of the old shops of the city. Large Piazza Statuto is another example of Baroque square with arcades.File:Nouvelle gare TGV de Turin Porta Susa.jpg|thumb|left|Porta Susa railway station.]]Another main street of downtown is Via Pietro Micca, which starts in Piazza Castello and ends in the large Piazza Solferino. The street continues in Via Cernaia up to Piazza XXV Dicembre, which features the former Porta Susa passengers building, relocated in 2012 a little more southward. The new and larger passengers building is situated between Corso Bolzano and Corso Inghilterra and is an example of contemporary architecture, being a {{convert|300|m|ft|adj=mid|abbr=off|-long}} and {{convert|19|m|ft|adj=mid|abbr=off|-high}} glass and steel structure. Porta Susa is currently the international central station of the city (high speed trains to Paris) and it is becoming the central hub of railway transportation of the city, being the station in which local trains (so-called Ferrovie Metropolitane), national trains and high-speed national and international trains converge.Close to Via Cernaia stands the Cittadella (Citadel), located in the Andrea Guglielminetti garden. What remains of the old medieval and modern fortress of the city, it is a starting point for a tour into the old tunnels below the city.

San Salvario

(File:Borgo medievale TO.jpg|thumb|Borgo Medievale.)File:Valentino castle.jpg|thumb|right|Castello del Valentino in Parco del ValentinoParco del ValentinoSoutheast of the city centre stands San Salvario district, which extends from Corso Vittorio Emanuele II to Corso Bramante and is delimited by the Turin-Genoa railway on the west side and by the Po river on the east side. Home to an increasing immigrants' community, the district is an example of integration among different cultures; it also features an incremented nightlife after the opening of several low-cost bars and restaurants.San Salvario is crossed by two main roads, Via Nizza and Via Madama Cristina, and just as the city centre it is characterised by the grid plan typical of Turin's old neighbourhoods. The hub of the district is Piazza Madama Cristina which hosts a big open market, while several commercial activities flourish around it.The celebrated Parco del Valentino is situated in the east side of San Salvario and, albeit not in downtown, it represents kind of central park of Turin. Thanks to the vicinity to the city centre, the park is very popular among the local people, during the day but also at night, because of the several bars and nightclubs placed here. From the terraces of Parco del Valentino, many sights of the hills on the other side of the river can be appreciated.In the centre of the park stands the Castello del Valentino, built in the 17th century. This castle has a horseshoe shape, with four rectangular towers, one at each angle, and a wide inner court with a marble pavement. The ceilings of the false upper floors are in transalpino (i.e. French) style. The façade sports the huge coat of arms of the House of Savoy.Another cluster of buildings in the park is the Borgo Medievale (Medieval village), a replica of medieval mountain castles of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, built for the 1884 International Exhibition.Other buildings in Corso Massimo d'Azeglio include the Torino Esposizioni complex (Turin's exhibition hall built in the 1930s) featuring a monumental entrance with a large full height porch, the circular building which hosts a night club, and the Teatro Nuovo, a theatre mostly focused on ballets exhibitions. Another building is the largest synagogue of the city, located in Piazzetta Primo Levi square. Its architecture stands in the main sight of the city, as characterised by four large towers – {{convert|27|m|ft|abbr=off}} high – topped by four onion-shaped domes.


(File:MonumentoVittorioEmanueleII.JPG|thumb|right|Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II)File:Politecnico Torino.JPG|thumb|right|Turinese Institute of Technology Politecnico ]](File:Boulevard Spina Centrale Torino.JPG|thumb|left|The Spina Centrale is a new under-construction boulevard built over the undergrounded railway. It is already completed in Crocetta)South of Centro stands the Crocetta district, considered one of the most exclusive districts of the city, because of highly rated residential buildings. At the heart of the district is the partially pedestrianised area crossed by Corso Trieste, Corso Trento and Corso Duca D'Aosta, plenty of some notable residential buildings in eclectic, neo-Gothic and Art Nouveau style. The area was built between 1903 and 1937 replacing the old parade ground, which was moved in the Southern part of the city.North of this area stands the GAM (Galleria d'Arte Moderna), one of the two Museum of Modern Arts of the Turin Metro area (the second and largest one is hosted in Castello di Rivoli, a former Savoy Royal castle in the suburbs). The Museum stands in front a huge monument situated in the centre of the roundabout between Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and Corso Galileo Ferraris: the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, a King of Savoy statue situated on a 39-meters high column. Next to the Museum, another significant residential building previously hosted the head office of Juventus, one of the two main Turin football clubs.West of this area, the main building of Polytechnic University of Turin stands along Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi. The 1958 building, a {{convert|122,000|m2|0|adj=mid|abbr=off}} complex, hosts approximately 30,000 students and is considered one of the major Institutes of Technology of the country – mainly due to the vocation of the city for the industrialisation, pushed by the automotive sector. This institute recently expanded in the western district of Cenisia with additional modern buildings.Crocetta is crossed by large and modern avenues, such as Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, Corso Galileo Ferraris, and Corso Einaudi. These avenues feature long rows of trees, symbolic of Turin's typical urbanity. However, the most popular avenue is Corso De Gasperi, which, albeit smaller than other avenues of the district, hosts one of the most fashionable open markets of the city, the so-called Mercato della Crocetta, in which it is possible to find some discounted branded clothing among the more popular ones.The Western border of Crocetta is instead an example of contemporary architecture. The huge avenue, made up of Corso Mediterraneo and Corso Castelfidardo, is part of Spina Centrale boulevard and was recently built over the old railway (now undergrounded): as a result, the avenue is very large (up to {{convert|60|m|ft|abbr=off}}) and modern, having been rebuilt with valuable materials, including a characteristic lighting system supported by white high poles. This avenue hosts some examples of contemporary art, such as Mario Merz's Igloo fountain or the Per Kirkeby's Opera per Torino monument in Largo Orbassano.The East side of the district is also known as Borgo San Secondo and was so named after the church of the same name standing in Via San Secondo, a major street in the neighbourhood. This area is located near Porta Nuova railway station and is actually older than the rest of the district, featuring several apartment buildings from the late 19th century, to include the birthplace and home of author Primo Levi on Corso Re Umbertoweblink A local open market is held in Piazza San Secondo and along Via Legnano. The market square also hosts the former washhouse and public baths of the neighbourhood, among the oldest examples of their kind in Turin (1905).One of the main thoroughfares crossing Borgo San Secondo is Via Sacchi, which serves as an ideal gate to the city centre: its Serlian arcades on the west side of the street (the east side is enclosed by Porta Nuova railway station service buildings) host some significant boutiques and hotels, such as the historic Pfatisch pastry shop and the Turin Palace Hotel (totally refurbished and reopened in 2015). South of Via Sacchi, Ospedale Mauriziano is one of the ancient and major hospitals of the city. Going further southwards, it is possible to appreciate an interesting residential cluster of old public housing gravitating around Via Arquata.


(File:PiazzaCarloAlbertoTorino.jpg|thumb|left|The Piazza Carlo Alberto.)File:Aperitif for four.JPG|thumb|left|A typical Italian AperitivoAperitivoBordered by Corso Castelfidardo, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, Corso Trapani and Corso Peschiera, this small district is mainly significant for hosting the recent expansion of Turinese Institute of Technology Politecnico. The expansion was possible after under-grounding the railway under Corso Castelfidardo and the subsequent disposal of the old buildings dedicated to the train maintenance present in this area (so-called Officine Grandi Riparazioni or OGR). Politecnico expanded its facilities through two huge overpass buildings over the avenue, linked to new buildings on the west side. This cluster of buildings forms an evocative square with a unique architectural style. The main building on the west side hosts a General Motors research centre, the General Motors Global Propulsion Systems (formerly known as General Motors Powertrain Europe). Politecnico area extends till Via Boggio with further facilities hosted in the former OGR facilities. The Institute plans to further build new facilities in the current parking area.North of Politecnico facilities, the main building of the OGR former cluster, which consists in three 180-meters long joint parallel buildings, became recently a big open space which hosts temporary exhibitions and during the hot seasons, its external spaces became a fashionable site to have a typical Italian aperitivo.North of OGR, a former prison complex called Le Nuove is a significant example of old European prison building. The complex was built between 1857 and 1869 during the reign of Victor Emmanuel II. After being disposed of during the 1990s, the complex was changed into a museum and it is possible to visit its facilities.An example of contemporary art is the heating plant in Corso Ferrucci, which has been covered with aluminium panels. Another building (19th century), now abandoned, is the former Westinghouse factory of train brakes situated in Via Borsellino.The remaining part of the district is mainly formed by residential buildings with not significant architectural value. The district had its development mainly after the World War II, following the industrial development of the town – in particular, the expansion of Lancia automotive factories in the Borgo San Paolo neighbourhood, culminated in the construction of Palazzo Lancia in 1954, the company's former headquarters. Industrialization led to consequent population growth in the nearby areas, including Cenisia. Main avenues which are crossing the district are Corso Ferrucci and Corso Racconigi. This last one is hosting a huge daily open market, the Mercato di Corso Racconigi.

Cit Turin

(File:Palazzo della Vittoria - panoramio (3).jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Casa della Vittoria (1918-1920) is an example of Turin's neo-gothic architecture.)The smallest district of the city is Cit Turin ("Little Turin" in Piedmontese language). This small triangle surrounded by Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, Corso Francia and Corso Inghilterra hosts some high rated residential buildings and is regarded as a prestigious residential neighbourhood by local people.File:Grattacielo Intesa San Paolo - panoramio (3).jpg|thumb|left|Intesa SanpaoloIntesa SanpaoloThe district features many buildings in Art Nouveau, Art Deco and Neo-Gothic style. Among them, one of the most impressive and well known is the Casa Della Vittoria (architect Gottardo Gussoni). Another notable example is Casa Fenoglio-Lafleur. Both buildings face Corso Francia.The district is well known for its commercial vocation mainly in its two main streets, Via Duchessa Jolanda and Via Principi d'Acaja, ideally crossing each other among the gardens Giardino Luigi Martini, locally called Piazza Benefica, which hosts a popular open market.The district is also characterised by two massive recent buildings: the Palazzo di Giustizia, Turin's new courthouse built in the 1990s (in a 350-metre long facility), and the first real skyscraper of Turin, the Torre Intesa Sanpaolo,WEB,weblink Intesa’s Turin tower is named one of the 10 most environmentally friendly new buildings in the world – Intesa Sanpaolo World,, which house the headquarters of one of the major Italian private banks.

San Donato

(File:Torino-CampanileChiesaDiNostraSignoradelSuffragio.png|thumb|upright=0.7|Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita)File:Torre littoria Torino.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|The Torre LittoriaTorre LittoriaSan Donato district is located between Corso Francia, Corso Lecce, Corso Potenza, Via Nole, the Parco Dora and Corso Principe Oddone. It was populated since the medieval era, but becomes bigger during the 19th century, prospering around the canal Canale di San Donato, which does not exist any more, currently replaced by the central street of the district, Via San Donato. Buildings in the district are relatively recent (around 1820), except for the oldest group of small houses located in the area of Brusachœr (Palazzo Forneris building) located along Via Pacinotti near the small Piazza Paravia. The conservation of the street and of this old building influences the straightness of Via San Donato, which makes a slight curve to result in parallel with Via Pacinotti before ending in central Piazza Statuto square.Main church of the district is the Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita, which with its {{convert|83|m|ft|abbr=off}} height of its bell tower, is well known to be the fifth tallest structure in the city of Turin, after the Mole Antonelliana, the Intesa-Sanpaolo skyscraper, the Torre Littoria and the two pennons of the Juventus Stadium. The church is hosting the Istituto Suore Minime di Nostra Signora del Suffragio and it was promoted and designed by Francesco Faà di Bruno. The legend says, that he wanted to build the tallest bell tower of the town and put a clock on the top, to all the poor people to know the time for free. The small building near the church is what remains of Casa Tartaglino, a small residential building which was also extended and modified by Faa di Bruno.Villino Cibrario in Via Saccarelli is another significant building designed by Barnaba Panizza in 1842. The building was equipped with a large garden which was eliminated to host the street. The neighbourhood has a high concentration of historic buildings in Art Nouveau style designed by architect Pietro Fenoglio (among the others, the prestigious Villino Raby in Corso Francia 8). Other significant buildings are the Villa Boringhieri in Via San Donato, and other Art Nouveau and Neo-Gothic buildings are situated in Via Piffetti and Via Durandi.Among the modern buildings of the district, the most significant one is, of course, the Torre BBPR Tower (which took the name from the architecture office who designed it). The building is representing the post-rationalism Italian architecture (same style of the better known Torre Velasca tower in the city of Milan). The tower is facing the central Piazza Statuto square.The district is crossed by some significant avenues: on Corso Svizzera, which crosses the district from North To South, faces the Business Centre Piero Della Francesca, where the offices of Tuttosport, one of the three national sports daily newspapers has its head offices. Also on Corso Svizzera, stands one of the oldest hospitals of the city, the Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia, specialised in infectious diseases. Other major avenues are Corso Umbria and Corso Tassoni.Another big avenue, which borders the district on its East, is Corso Principe Oddone, which in the past was along the railway to Milan. Currently the railway has been under-grounded: the avenue will be enlarged and have same architecture style of southern Corso Inghilterra in downtown, becoming one of the major avenue of Turin.The northern part of the district was part of the former industrial district of Turin, recently reconverted to a park called Parco Dora. Mainly, in San Donato the portion reconverted was the one occupied by the plant of Michelin (west of Via Livorno) and FIAT ironwork plants (on the East). Differently for other portions of Parco Dora, this part has been totally reconverted to park without letting any evidence of the industrial area except for the cooling tower which stands along Corso Umbria and became a symbol of the park. Works are completed in the western area, where Corso Mortara has been closed to traffic and moved just a bit northern and covered by an artificial tunnel. It is possible to access the southern shore of the Dora river. South of the Park, an interesting architecture of different levels is hosting a new shopping mall called Centro Commerciale Parco Dora. East of Via Livorno, works are still partially in progress, with the Dora river still to be uncovered by a big slab, on which the FIAT plants used to stand). West of Via Livorno, the Environment Park is a research centre for renewable energy.


(File:BorgoDora.JPG|thumb|right|Tiny streets of Borgo Dora)Aurora is one of the most ancient districts which developed out of the medieval city walls, north of the historical city centre. It stretches from downtown northern boundaries in Corso Regina Margherita (an extended and important thoroughfare of Turin) up to Corso Vigevano and Corso Novara in the North Side (namely the old excise boundary till the early 20th century); the western boundary is Corso Principe Oddone (now part of the Spina Centrale boulevard) and the eastern border is the Dora river.The district was named Aurora after the so-called Cascina Aurora, an old farmstead lying north of the Dora river, right at the intersection between Corso Giulio Cesare and Corso Emilia. The farmstead has long been demolished and the area has been converted to office buildings, hosting the Turinese textile company Gruppo Finanziario Tessile (GFT) headquarters until the early 21st century.The historical hub of the district is Borgo Dora (The "Dora Borough"), a small neighbourhood next to Porta Palazzo and enclosed by Corso Regina Margherita, Via Cigna, the Dora river and Corso Giulio Cesare. Once known as Borgo del Pallone (literally "Ball Borough") or Balon in Piedmontese dialect ({{IPA-it|baˈlun|local}}), this neighbourhood is famous for its mercatino del Balon or simply Balon, the Turinese flea market that opens every Saturday in its tiny and twisted streets. Borgo Dora hosts several remarkable places, such as: Piccola Casa della Divina Provvidenza ("Little House of the Divine Providence"), also known as Cottolengo, a well-known charitable organization which has been operating for almost 200 years in the city; Arsenale della Pace ("Arsenal of Peace"), a former weapons factory that currently hosts the headquarters of SERMIG (Servizio Missionario Giovani), a nonprofit association which assists poor and homeless people; Caserma Cavalli ("Cavalli Barracks"), one of the most representative buildings of the district, a former barracks topped by a clock tower which now hosts Scuola Holden, a storytelling and performing arts school; the evocative Cortile del Maglio ("Mallet Courtyard"), a covered pedestrian area featuring bars and clubs. Across from Cortile del Maglio and Arsenale della Pace stands a wide pedestrian area which features a hot air balloon, a clear allusion to the neighbourhood's old name Balon: recently installed, the balloon is open to public which can now take an interesting view of the city from this new high observation point.Right at the borders of Borgo Dora stands part of Porta Palazzo open market which hosts the New Exhibition Hall, designed by the Italian architect Massimiliano Fuksas. The building has replaced the Clothes Market, one of the four covered pavilions of Porta Palazzo market, but unfortunately, this glass green-shaded building has been highly criticized because of its lack of usability for commercial activities, albeit an example of contemporary architecture.Another interesting building at the borders of the neighbourhood is Porta Milano (a.k.a. stazione della Ciriè-Lanzo), a former 19th-century railway station that marked the terminus of Ciriè-Lanzo railway line until the 1980s. To this day, the station is no longer in use as well as the rails up to Piazza Baldissera. The station building was recently renovated and now hosts some old locomotives, even though it is not open to the public. Unfortunately, the old rails crossing the district are totally disused and neglected, adding decay to the whole area.Borgo Dora, as many other pockets of Aurora, is characterized by the marked multi-ethnicity of its population, being home to a large community of immigrants from emerging countries.(File:Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice Torino.jpg|thumb|right|Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice)West of Borgo Dora stands Rione Valdocco ("Valdocco neighbourhood"), enclosed by Via Cigna, Corso Regina Margherita, Corso Principe Oddone and the Dora river. This neighbourhood hosts the significant architecture of Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice ("Maria Ausiliatrice Sanctuary") in the homonymous square and behind the church stands San Pietro in Vincoli old cemetery.Overall, the main thoroughfares of the West side of Aurora are Via Cigna, which crosses the district from North to South, Corso Vercelli, a historical avenue starting north of the Dora river, and Corso Principe Oddone, part of the long Spina Centrale boulevard that will be built over the underground Turin-Milan railway. However, the Spina Centrale project is proceeding slowly because of the lack of funds and the boulevard is still occupied by a large worksite along its span. Once completed, Aurora district will be connected to Eastern San Donato, thanks to a better connection among the roads of the two adjacent districts (i.e. Corso Ciriè will continue in Corso Gamba and Strada del Fortino in Corso Rosai).As for the rest of Aurora, the district is crossed by an important thoroughfare named Corso Giulio Cesare, a long boulevard that extends from Porta Palazzo up to Turin-Trieste motorway entrance in the Northern urban fringe of Turin. Other significant roads are Corso Palermo, Via Bologna and Corso Regio Parco, mostly in the East side of Aurora which is known as Borgo Rossini ("Rossini Borough"). Albeit not a road, the Dora river is also a significant element for the whole district, since it completely crosses it from West to East.File:Caffè corretto (cropped).jpg|thumb|right|LavazzaLavazzaThe area north of the river features a mix of old residential buildings and remains of former factories and facilities from the 20th century. An example are the remains of FIAT Officine Grandi Motori (OGM) in Corso Vigevano, an old factory that produced big industrial and automotive Diesel engines, a sort of symbol of the industrial history of Turin. Another disused facility is Astanteria Martini ("Martini Emergency Department") in Via Cigna, a former emergency department from the 1920s which has been lying vacant since long.As for the old residential buildings of the area, this part of Aurora hosts the oldest public housing block of the city, built by Istituto Autonomo Case Popolari (IACP) in 1908 in lieu of an old dilapidated small farm once known as Chiabotto delle Merle.Despite its run-down look, the famous Lavazza coffee company, along with IAAD School of Design, chose this part of the city as the location for their new headquarters, which will be built in a contemporary building dubbed Nuvola ("Cloud") right at the borders of Borgo Rossini. Designed by the architect Gino Zucchi, this project is still a work in progress but excavations in the area revealed the remains of a medieval cemetery and an early Christian basilica; these findings will be preserved and will be shown to the public.Borgo Rossini hosts a number of businesses, for instance, the Robe di Kappa flagship store (Kappa is a noted Italian sportswear brand founded in Turin) and the Cineporto ("Cineport") a.k.a. La Casa dei Produttori ("The Filmmakers' House", which hosts the Turin Piedmont Film Commission Foundation).


File:Torino, grattacielo della Regione Piemonte (03).jpg|right|thumb|Piedmont Region HeadquartersPiedmont Region Headquarters(File:La Fetta di Polenta - panoramio.jpg|left|thumb|upright=0.7|Fetta Di Polenta, northern side)Vanchiglia is bordered by Corso San Maurizio, Corso Regio Parco and the Po river, crossed also by the Dora Riparia river and by two big avenues, Corso Regina Margherita and Corso Tortona.Borgo Vanchiglia is the historical district: a little triangle next to downtown, situated between Corso San Maurizio, Corso Regina Margherita and the Po river. The district is quite popular nowadays because being quite closer to the heart of Turin nightlife Piazza Vittorio Veneto, many bars and restaurants opened recently in this area. However, Vanchiglia also includes the area called Vanchiglietta, north of Borgo Vanchiglia.Notable church in Borgo Vanchiglia is the French neo-Gothic Chiesa di Santa Giulia situated into Piazza Santa Giulia.A notable and unusual building in the area is the so-called "Fetta di Polenta" (literally: "polenta slice"), formerly known as Casa Scaccabarozzi. This building is located at the intersection of Corso San Maurizio and Via Giulia di Barolo, and it is one of the most peculiar examples of Turin architecture: a thin trapezoid 27 meters wide on Via Giulia Di Barolo, 5 meters on Corso San Maurizio and just 0.70 meters wide on the opposite end. It was designed in 1840 by Alessandro Antonelli for his wife, Francesca Scaccabarozzi, probably because of a bet. The curious name comes from the shape of the palace, which resembles a "slice of polenta", and also because it is painted with an ocher colour.In the surroundings, in Via Vanchiglia 8, (although in downtown and not really in Vanchiglia anymore) there is another trapezoid house, albeit with less extreme design: similarly, this building is nicknamed "Fetta di Formaggio" (cheese slice), built in 1832 for the rich Marchese Birago di Vische by the architect Antonio Talentino.Other notable buildings are the town public baths, eclectic building built in 1905 (Corso Regina Margherita crossing Via Vanchiglia), and theTeatro della Caduta theatre, opened in 2003 in Via Michele Buniva 23, which with its 45 seats is the smallest theatre in Turin and among the smallest theatres in Europe.In Corso Regina Margherita, another notable building is the former Opera pia Reynero, a charitable organization. The building was built in 1892. Being abandoned for a long time after it closed in 1996, it was then occupied by the Askatasuna Social Center, a non-profit anarchic organization, hosting since then various activities such as concerts, dinners, seminars and homeless solidarity initiatives.(File:Campus Luigi Einaudi Torino - panoramio (1).jpg|thumb|upright=2.8|Campus Luigi Einaudi)North of Corso Regina Margherita, district is losing the flavour and architecture typical of Turin downtown, cause a significant portion of the district was formerly occupied by factories, nowadays partially abandoned or replaced by modern buildings. A significant example was the area occupied by gas companies between Corso Regina Margherita and the Dora river, which were partially demolished to make place to the new modern Faculty of Law building (Campus "Luigi Einaudi"), designed by the architect Norman Foster. This building was classified by the American television company CNN among the 10 most spectacular university buildings in the world.NEWS,weblink 10 of the world's most spectacular university buildings to impress travellers, 19 February 2014, CNN Travel, 10 August 2017, In the campus courtyard, a large wood statue representing a bull (symbol of Turin) has been erected by Mario Ceroli. The area hosts also a student campus.Next to the campus, a new cycling and pedestrian bridge on the Dora river was opened on 16 April 2010, linking the campus area to Corso Verona. Bridge is entitled to the architect Franco Mellano.Parco Colletta is a big park area touched by the two rivers of the district, which also hosts some sport facilities, mainly football fields and a swimming pool.The district is completed by the Cimitero Monumentale cemetery. This huge complex (formerly known as Cimitero Generale) is the largest cemetery in Turin, and among the first in Italy for the number of buried people (over 400,000). It is located close to the Colletta park. The ancient part of the cemetery rises from the main entrance of Corso Novara with his octagonal shape. It contains numerous historical tombs and 12  km of arcades, enriched by artistic sculptures (that's why is called "monumental cemetery"). Over the years there have been subsequent extensions of the central historical body in the direction of the Colletta park. In the cemetery, there is a crematory temple built in 1882, the second largest in Italy after that of Milan one.

Main churches

File:Duomo Torino.jpg|thumb|left|Turin Cathedral featuring the Chapel of the Holy Shroud.]]File:Basilica di superga.jpg|thumb|right|Basilica of SupergaBasilica of Superga{{See also|List of places of worship in Turin}}The Santuario della Consolata, a sanctuary much frequented by pilgrims, stands on the site of the 10th-century Monastery of St. Andrew, and is a work by Guarini. It was sumptuously restored in 1903. Outside the city are: the Basilica of Our Lady, Help of Christians built by St. John Bosco, the Gran Madre built in 1818 on occasion of the return of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and Santa Maria del Monte (1583) on Monte dei Cappuccini.In the hills overlooking the city, the Basilica of Superga provides a view of Turin against a backdrop of the snow-capped Alps. The basilica holds the tombs of many of the dukes of Savoy, as well as many of the kings of Sardinia. Superga can be reached by means of the Superga Rack Railway from Sassi suburb. The Basilica of Superga was built by Amadeus II of Savoy as an ex-voto for the liberation of Turin (1706), and served as a royal mausoleum since 1772.WEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Turin – Wikisource,, 7 March 2007, 14 June 2010,

Villas, parks and gardens

File:Borgomedievale sul PO.jpg|thumb|The medieval village in Valentino Park.]]File:Area dei Laghi.jpg|thumb|La Mandria Regional ParkLa Mandria Regional ParkThe most popular park in the city is Parco del Valentino. In 1961, during the celebrations of Italia61 (Italian unification centenary), an important international exhibition (FLOR61: Flowers of the world in Turin) took place in the park with 800 exhibitors from 19 countries. For the occasion the plan for the new lighting of the park, along with its fountains and paths, was assigned to Guido Chiarelli, the head engineer at the city hall.Other large parks are Parco della Pellerina, Parco Colletta, Parco Rignon, Parco Colonnetti and the University botanical gardens. Around the city, there are several other parks, such as La Mandria Regional Park and the Parco della Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi, once hunting grounds of the Savoy, and those situated on the hill of Turin. Many parks are smaller, located in the various districts: there is also a total of 240 playgrounds in these parks. In the early 1960s, mayor Amedeo Peyron had the first garden in Italy with games for children inaugurated. According to a Legambiente report from 2007, Turin is the first Italian city as far as structures and policies on childcare are concerned.20com% 20St% 20ecosistema% 20bambino% 202007.pdf Ecosystem child. Report Legambiente |{{Dead link|date=May 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} One of the most famous parks featuring a children's playground is Parco della Tesoriera, which is also home to Andrea della Corte Municipal Music Library; this facility is housed in a villa built in 1715 and was once the Royal Treasurer's residence. The park is located in Parella suburb (Turin's West Side) and it plays host to various concerts in summer.Rosa Vercellana, commonly known as Rosina and, in Piedmontese as La Bela Rosin ("the beautiful Rosin"), was the mistress and later wife of King Victor Emmanuel II. She was made Countess of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda, but never Queen of Italy. As the Savoy family refused to allow her to be buried next to her husband in the Pantheon, her children had a mausoleum built for her in a similar form and on a smaller scale in Turin, next to the road to the Castello di Mirafiori. The circular copper-domed neoclassical monument, surmounted by a Latin cross and surrounded by a large park, was designed by Angelo Dimezzi and completed in 1888.‘Mausoleo della Bela Rosin’, Piemontefeel (Regione Piemonte, 2005).‘Parco fluviale del Po tratto torinese: Punti di Interesse’, (Rome: Federazione Italiana Parchi e Riserve Natural).


{{Historical populations|type=Istituto Nazionale di Statistica>ISTAT 2001329691415667499823590753629115719300102582211679681117154962507865263872367897265}}In 2009, the city proper had a population of about 910,000, which is a significant increase on the 2001 census figure. This result is due to a growing immigration from Southern Italy and abroad. Approximately 13.5 per cent (122.946) of the population is composed of foreigners, the largest numbers coming from Romania (51,017), Morocco (22,511), Albania (9,165), China (5,483), and Moldova (3,417).WEB,weblink Statistiche demografiche ISTAT,, 30 April 2009, Like many Northern Italian cities, there is a large proportion of pensioners in comparison to youth. Around 18 per cent of the population is under 20 years of age, while 22 per cent is over 65.WEB,weblink Statistiche demografiche ISTAT,, 30 April 2009, The population of the Turin urban area totals 1.7 million inhabitants, ranking fourth in Italy, while the Turin metropolitan area has a population of 2.2 million inhabitants. The median age is 43.7.{|class="infobox" style="float:right;"Largest groups of foreign residentsHTTP://DATI.ISTAT.IT/INDEX.ASPX?DATASETCODE=DCIS_POPSTRRES1#>TITLE=STATISTICHE DEMOGRAFICHE CITTADINI STRANIERI TORINO 2019WEBSITE=LAST1=ACCESSDATE=4 JULY 2019, !Nationality ||Population (2019)Romania}} 51,234 (-1,174 units)Morocco}} 16,596 (-190 units)China}} 7,508 (-52 units)Peru}} 7,271 (-150 units)Nigeria}} 5,417 (+228 units)Albania}} 5,345 (-13 units)Egypt}} 5,060 (+41 units)Philippines}} 3,801 (+16 units)Moldova}} 3,575 (-132 units)Senegal}} 1,817 (+46 units)Bangladesh}} 1,736 (+141 units)Brazil}} 1,692 (-5 unit)Tunisia}} 1,213 (-2 units)Ecuador}} 1,188 (-61 units)Pakistan}} 1,136 (+123 units)| each

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Turin" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:58pm EDT - Tue, Oct 15 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott