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Timurid Empire
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Rāstī rastī"In rectitude lies salvation"SUBTELNY TITLE=TIMURIDS IN TRANSITION: TURKO-PERSIAN POLITICS AND ACCULTURATION IN MEDIEVAL IRAN PUBLISHER=BRILL PAGES=260, 978-9004160316, |conventional_long_name = Timurid Empire|common_name = Timurid Empire|era = Middle Ages|government_type = Monarchy emirate|year_start = 1370|date_start = |year_end = 1507|event_pre = Timur begins conquests|date_pre = 1363|event_start = Establishment of Timurid Empire|event1 = Westward expansion begins|date_event1 = 1380|event2 = Battle of Ankara|date_event2 = 20 July 1402|event3 = Fall of Samarkand|date_event3 = 1505|event_end = Fall of Herat|event_post = Founding of the Mughal Empire|date_post = 1526|image_flag = Timurid.svg|flag_type = |flag_border = no|image_map = Timur Empire.jpg|image_map_caption = Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur|p1 = Chagatai Khanate|flag_p1 = Flag of Chagatai khanate.svg|p2 = Sufi Dynasty|flag_p2 = |p3 = Jalayirids|flag_p3 = Chupanid - Jalayerid dyansty 1337–1432 ad.PNG|p4 = Kurt dynasty|flag_p4 = Kartid-Kurtdynasty1244-1389.png|p5 = Muzaffarids of Iran{{!}}Muzaffarids|flag_p5 = MuzaffaridDynastyofIranMapHistoryofIran.png|p6 = Sarbadars|flag_p6 = Sarbadar map 1345.png|p7 = Marashis|flag_p7 = Marashiyan government 1359-1582 AD.png|p8 = Afrasiyab dynasty|p9 = Kara Koyunlu|p11 = Kingdom of Georgia|s1 = Khanate of Bukhara|flag_s1 = War flag of Khanate of Bukhara.svg|border_s1 = no|s2 = Safavid dynasty|flag_s2 = Safavid Flag.svg|s3 = Khanate of Khiva|flag_s3 = Bandera de Khiva 1917-1920.svg|s4 = Kara Koyunlu|flag_s4 = Karakoyunlular devleti.PNG|s5 = Aq Qoyunlu|flag_s5 = AkkoyunluFlag.png|s6 = Mughal Empire |flag_s6 = Alam of the Mughal Empire.svg|s7 = Kingdom of Georgia|flag_s7 = Flag of Kingdom of Georgia.svg
  • Persian (official, court language, high literature, lingua franca)
  • Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1999). The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, p.109. {{ISBN|0-521-63384-2}}. {{google books|2xDm2DCPRKMC|Limited preview}}. p.109. "In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled 'divan' was Persian."
  • B.F. Manz, W.M. Thackston, D.J. Roxburgh, L. Golombek, L. Komaroff, R.E. Darley-Doran. "Timurids" Encyclopaedia of Islam Brill Publishers 2007; "During the Timurid period, three languages, Persian, Turkish, and Arabic were in use. The major language of the period was Persian, the native language of the Tajik (Persian) component of society and the language of learning acquired by all literate and/or urban Turks. Persian served as the language of administration, history, belles lettres, and poetry."
  • WEB,weblink CENTRAL ASIA v. In the Mongol and Timurid Periodse, Bertold Spuler, Encyclopaedia Iranica, 2017-09-14, "Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 ... Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ...
  • Robert Devereux (ed.) "Muhakamat Al-Lughatain (Judgment of Two Languages)" Mir 'Ali Shir Nawāi; Leiden, E.J. Brill 1966: "Nawa'i also employs the curious argument that most Turks also spoke Persian but only a few Persians ever achieved fluency in Turkic. It is difficult to understand why he was impressed by this phenomenon, since the most obvious explanation is that Turks found it necessary, or at least advisable, to learn Persian – it was, after all, the official state language – while Persians saw no reason to bother learning Turkic which was, in their eyes, merely the uncivilized tongue of uncivilized nomadic tribesmen.
  • David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400–1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. pg 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not surprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanama."
  • Chagatai}}|religion =


{{nobold|State religion}}
{{hlist|Sunni Islam (Hanafi)}}
{{nobold|Other religions}}
{{hlist|Twelver Shia Islam|Ismail Shia Islam|Zoroastrianism|Hurufism|Nestorianism}}|currency =
Timurid dynasty>Emir|leader1 = Timur (first)Badi' al-Zaman Mirza>Badi' al-Zaman (last)|year_leader1 = 1370–1405|year_leader2 = 1506–1507LAST2=ADAMSLAST3=HALL TITLE = EAST-WEST ORIENTATION OF HISTORICAL EMPIRES DATE=DECEMBER 2006 ISSUE=2 URL =HTTP://JWSR.PITT.EDU/OJS/INDEX.PHP/JWSR/ARTICLE/VIEW/369/381ISSN= 1076-156X, SEPTEMBER 1997>TITLE=EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION PATTERNS OF LARGE POLITIES: CONTEXT FOR RUSSIAINTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY>VOLUME=41AT=P. 500AUTHOR=REIN TAAGEPERAJSTOR=2600793,weblink |stat_area1 = 4400000}}(File:TimuridFlag attributed.svg|thumb|right|250px|Option flag of the Timurid Empire)The Timurid Empire (, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateBOOK,weblink Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Iran, Subtelny, Maria, 2007, BRILL, 978-9004160316, 40–41, en, Nevertheless, in the complex process of transition, members of the Timurid dynasty and their Turko-Mongolian supporters became acculturated by the surrounding Persianate millieu adopting Persian cultural models and tastes and acting as patrons of Persian culture, painting, architecture and music. [...] The last members of the dynasty, notably Sultan-Abu Sa'id and Sultan-Husain, in fact came to be regarded as ideal Perso-Islamic rulers who develoted as much attention to agricultural development as they did to fostering Persianate court culture., B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Uzbekistan, Iran, the southern Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey.The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin.The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.

History

{{History of Greater Iran}}Timur conquered large parts of Central Asia, primarily Transoxiana and Khorasan, from 1363 onwards with various alliances (Samarkand in 1366, and Balkh in 1369), and was recognized as ruler over them in 1370. Acting officially in the name of Suurgatmish, the Chagatai khan, he subjugated Transoxania and Khwarazm in the years that followed. Already in the 1360s he had gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate and while as emir he was nominally subordinate to the khan, in reality it was now Timur that picked the khans who became mere puppet rulers. The western Chagatai khans were continually dominated by Timurid princes in the 15th and 16th centuries and their figurehead importance was eventually reduced into total insignificance.

Rise

{{See also|Siege of Balkh (1370)}}Timur began a campaign westwards in 1380, invading the various successor states of the Ilkhanate. By 1389, he had removed the Kartids from Herat and advanced into mainland Persia where he enjoyed many successes. This included the capture of Isfahan in 1387, the removal of the Muzaffarids from Shiraz in 1393, and the expulsion of the Jalayirids from Baghdad. In 1394–95, he triumphed over the Golden Horde, following his successful campaign in Georgia, after which he enforced his sovereignty in the Caucasus. Tokhtamysh, the khan of the Golden Horde, was a major rival to Timur in the region. He also subjugated Multan and Dipalpur in modern-day Pakistan in 1398. Timur gave the north Indian territories to a non-family member, Khizr Khan, whose Sayyid dynasty replaced the defeated Tughlaq dynasty of the Sultanate of Delhi.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}} Delhi became a vassal of the Timurids but obtained independence in the years following the death of Timur.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}}{{dubious|date=April 2016}} In 1400–1401 he conquered Aleppo, Damascus and eastern Anatolia, in 1401 he destroyed Baghdad and in 1402 defeated the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara. This made Timur the most preeminent Muslim ruler of the time, as the Ottoman Empire plunged into civil war. Meanwhile, he transformed Samarkand into a major capital and seat of his realm.Timur appointed his sons and grandsons to the main governorships of the different parts of his empire, and outsiders to some others. After his death in 1405, the family quickly fell into disputes and civil wars, and many of the governorships became effectively independent. However, Timurid rulers continued to dominate Persia, Mesopotamia, Armenia, large parts of Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan,{{citation needed|date=June 2015}} minor parts of India,{{citation needed|date=June 2015}} and much of Central Asia, though the Anatolian and Caucasian territories were lost by the 1430s. Due to the fact that the Persian cities were desolated by wars, the seat of Persian culture was now in Samarkand and Herat, cities that became the center of the Timurid renaissance.ENCYCLOPEDIA, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Timurids,weblink Sixth, Columbia University, New York City, 2006-11-08, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061205073939weblink">weblink 2006-12-05, The cost of Timur's conquests amount to the deaths of possibly 17 million people.WEB,weblink Selected Death Tolls: Timur Lenk (1369–1405), Necrometrics.com, 2013-02-11, Shahrukh Mirza, fourth ruler of the Timurids, dealt with Kara Koyunlu, who aimed to expand into Iran. But, Jahan Shah (bey of the Kara Koyunlu) drove the Timurids to eastern Iran after 1447 and also briefly occupied Herat in 1458. After the death of Jahan Shah, Uzun Hasan, bey of the Ak Koyunlu, conquered the holdings of the Kara Koyunlu in Iran between 1469 and 1471.

Fall

The power of Timurids declined rapidly during the second half of the 15th century, largely due to the Timurid tradition of partitioning the empire and by 1500, the divided and wartorn Timurid Empire had lost control of most of its territory, and in the following years was effectively pushed back on all fronts. Persia, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and Eastern Anatolia fell quickly to the Shiite Safavid dynasty, secured by Shah Ismail I in the following decade. Much of the Central Asian lands was overrun by the Uzbeks of Muhammad Shaybani who conquered the key cities of Samarkand and Herat in 1505 and 1507, and who founded the Khanate of Bukhara. From Kabul, the Mughal Empire was established in 1526 by Babur, a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal dynasty though it was directly inherited from the Timurids. By the 17th century, the Mughal Empire ruled most of India but eventually declined during the following century. The Timurid dynasty finally came to an end as the remaining nominal rule of the Mughals was abolished by the British Empire following the 1857 rebellion.

Culture

(File:Timur reconstruction01.jpg|thumb|Timur – Forensic facial reconstruction by M. Gerasimov, 1941)Although the Timurids hailed from the Barlas tribe, which was of Turkicized Mongol origin,M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, UNESCO Regional Office, 1998, {{ISBN|92-3-103467-7}}, p. 320: "One of his followers was ... Timur of the Barlas tribe. This Mongol tribe had settled ... in the valley of Kashka Darya, intermingling with the Turkish population, adopting their religion (Islam) and gradually giving up its own nomadic ways, like a number of other Mongol tribes in Transoxania ..." they had embraced Persian culture,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Lehmann, F., Encyclopædia Iranica, Zaher ud-Din Babor â€” Founder of Mughal empire,weblink 2012-09-17, Online, Columbia University Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies, New York City, 320–323, His origin, milieu, training, and culture were steeped in Persian culture and so Babor was largely responsible for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, the Mughals of India, and for the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results ..., converted to Islam, and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. Thus, the Timurid era had a dual character, reflecting both its Turco-Mongol origins and the Persian literary, artistic, and courtly high culture of the dynasty.

Language

During the Timurid era, Central Asian society was bifurcated, with the responsibilities of government and rule divided into military and civilian spheres along ethnic lines. At least in the early stages, the military was almost exclusively Turko-Mongolian, while the civilian and administrative element was almost exclusively Persian. The spoken language shared by all the Turko-Mongolians throughout the area was Chaghatay. The political organization hearkened back to the steppe-nomadic system of patronage introduced by Genghis Khan.The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. Translated, edited and annotated by W. M. Thackston (2002). Modern Library. The major language of the period, however, was Persian, the native language of the TājÄ«k (Persian) component of society and the language of learning acquired by all literate and/or urban people. Timur was already steeped in Persian cultureGérard Chaliand, Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube, translated by A. M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers, 2004. p. 75 and in most of the territories he incorporated, Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled "diwan" was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.Beatrice Forbes Manz. The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, 1999. pg 109: "In Temür's government, as in those of most nomad dynasties, it is impossible to find a clear distinction between civil and military affairs, or to identify the Persian bureaucracy solely civil, and the Turko-Mongolian solely with military government. It is in fact difficult to define the sphere of either side of the administration and we find Persians and Chaghatays sharing many tasks. (In discussiong the settled bureaucracy and the people who worked within it I use the word Persian in a cultural rather than ethnological sense. In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. The language of the settled population and the chancery ("diwan") was Persian, and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.) Temür's Chaghatay emirs were often involved in civil and provincial administration and even in financial affairs, traditionally the province of Persian bureaucracy." Persian became the official state language of the Timurid EmpireBOOK, Robert Devereux (ed.), Muhakamat Al-Lughatain (Judgment of Two Languages), Mir 'Ali Shir Nawāi, Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1966, 3615905, {{LCC, PL55.J31 A43, |quote=Any linguist of today who reads the essay will inevitably conclude that Nawa'i argued his case poorly, for his principal argument is that the Turkic lexicon contained many words for which the Persian had no exact equivalents and that Persian-speakers had therefore to use the Turkic words. This is a weak reed on which to lean, for it is a rare language indeed that contains no loan words. In any case, the beauty of a language and its merits as a literary medium depend less on size of vocabulary and purity of etymology that on the euphony, expressiveness and malleability of those words its lexicon does include. Moreover, even if Nawā'Ä«'s thesis were to be accepted as valid, he destroyed his own case by the lavish use, no doubt unknowingly, of non-Turkic words even while ridiculing the Persians for their need to borrow Turkic words. The present writer has not made a word count of Nawa'i's text, but he would estimate conservatively that at least one half the words used by Nawa'i in the essay are Arabic or Persian in origin. To support his claim of the superiority of the Turkic language, Nawa'i also employs the curious argument that most Turks also spoke Persian but only a few Persians ever achieved fluency in Turkic. It is difficult to understand why he was impressed by this phenomenon, since the most obvious explanation is that Turks found it necessary, or at least advisable, to learn Persian – it was, after all, the official state language – while Persians saw no reason to bother learning Turkic which was, in their eyes, merely the uncivilized tongue of uncivilized nomadic tribesmen.}}ENCYCLOPEDIA, Spuler, Bertold,weblink Central Asia, Encyclopædia Iranica, 2008-04-02, [Part] v. In the Mongol and Timurid periods: ... Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 ... Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ..., and served as the language of administration, history, belles lettres, and poetry.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Timurids, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill Publishers, Online, 2007, During the Timurid period, three languages, Persian, Turkish, and Arabic were in use. The major language of the period was Persian, the native language of the Tajik (Persian) component of society and the language of learning acquired by all literate and/or urban Turks. Persian served as the language of administration, history, belles lettres, and poetry., B. F. Manz, W. M. Thackston, D. J. Roxburgh, L. Golombek, L. Komaroff, R. E. Darley-Doran, The Chaghatay language was the native and "home language" of the Timurid family,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Timurids, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill Publishers, Online, 2007, What is now called Chaghatay Turkish, which was then called simply türki, was the native and 'home' language of the Timurids ..., B. F. Manz, W. M. Thackston, D. J. Roxburgh, L. Golombek, L. Komaroff, R. E. Darley-Doran, while Arabic served as the language par excellence of science, philosophy, theology and the religious sciences.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Timurids, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill Publishers, Online, 2007, As it had been prior to the Timurids and continued to be after them, Arabic language, Arabic was the language par excellence of science, philosophy, theology and the religious sciences. Much of the astronomical work of Ulugh Beg and his co-workers ... is in Arabic, although they also wrote in Persian. Theological works ... are generally in Arabic., B. F. Manz, W. M. Thackston, D. J. Roxburgh, L. Golombek, L. Komaroff, R. E. Darley-Doran,

Literature

Persian

File:Sultan 'Ali Mashhadi (Persian, 1442-1519). Folio of Poetry From the Divan of Sultan Husayn Mirza, ca. 1490.jpg|thumb|Folio of Poetry From the Divan of Sultan Husayn Mirza, c. 1490. Brooklyn MuseumBrooklyn MuseumFile:Jami Rose Garden.jpg|thumb|Illustration from JāmÄ«'s Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. The image blends Persian poetry and Persian miniaturePersian miniaturePersian literature, especially Persian poetry, occupied a central place in the process of assimilation of the Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamic courtly culture.David J. Roxburgh. The Persian Album, 1400–1600: From Dispersal to Collection. Yale University Press, 2005. p. 130: "Persian literature, especially poetry, occupied a central in the process of assimilation of Timurid elite to the Perso-Islamicate courtly culture, and so it is not surprising to find Baysanghur commissioned a new edition of Firdawsi's Shanameh ..." The Timurid sultans, especially Shāh Rukh MÄ«rzā and his son Mohammad Taragai OloÄŸ Beg, patronized Persian culture.B. Spuler, "Central Asia in the Mongol and Timurid periods", in Encyclopædia Iranica. "Like his father, Olōğ Beg was entirely integrated into the Persian Islamic cultural circles, and during his reign Persian predominated as the language of high culture, a status that it retained in the region of Samarqand until the Russian revolution 1917 ... Ḥoseyn Bāyqarā encouraged the development of Persian literature and literary talent in every way possible ..." Among the most important literary works of the Timurid era is the Persian biography of Timur, known as Zafarnāmeh (), written by Sharaf ud-DÄ«n AlÄ« YazdÄ«, which itself is based on an older Zafarnāmeh by Nizām al-DÄ«n ShāmÄ«, the official biographer of Timur during his lifetime. The most famous poet of the Timurid era was NÅ«r ud-DÄ«n JāmÄ«, the last great medieval Sufi mystic of Persia and one of the greatest in Persian poetry. In addition, some of the astronomical works of the Timurid sultan Ulugh Beg were written in Persian, although the bulk of it was published in Arabic.B. F. Manz, W. M. Thackston, D. J. Roxburgh, L. Golombek, L. Komaroff, R. E. Darley-Doran. "Timurids". In Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition (2007), Brill. "As it had been prior to the Timurids and continued to be after them, Arabic was the language par excellence of science, philosophy, theology and the religious sciences. Much of the astronomical work of Ulugh Beg and his co-workers ... is in Arabic, although they also wrote in Persian. Theological works ... are generally in Arabic." The Timurid prince Baysunghur also commissioned a new edition of the Persian national epic Shāhnāmeh, known as Shāhnāmeh of Baysunghur, and wrote an introduction to it. According to T. Lenz:"BÄ€YSONḠORĪ ŠĀH-NÄ€MA" in Encyclopædia Iranica by T. Lenz

Chagatai

The Timurids also played a very important role in the history of Turkic literature. Based on the established Persian literary tradition, a national Turkic literature was developed in the Chagatai language. Chagatai poets such as Mīr Alī Sher Nawā'ī, Sultan Husayn Bāyqarā, and Zāher ud-Dīn Bābur encouraged other Turkic-speaking poets to write in their own vernacular in addition to Arabic and Persian.WEB,weblink Persian Paintings, Persian Paintings, 2013-02-11, WEB,weblink MSN Encarta, Islamic Art and Architecture, 2017-11-28,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091102063538weblink">weblink 2009-11-02, dead, WEB,weblink Art Arena, Persian art – the Safavids, 2013-02-11, The Bāburnāma, the autobiography of Bābur (although being highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology, and vocabulary),Stephen Frederic Dale (2004). The Garden of the Eight Paradises: Babur and the Culture of Empire. Brill. p. 150 as well as Mīr Alī Sher Nawā'ī's Chagatai poetry are among the best-known Turkic literary works and have influenced many others.

Art

The golden age of Persian painting began during the reign of the Timurids.Czechoslovak Society for Eastern Studies (1968). New Orient. p. 139. During this period – and analogous to the developments in Safavid Persia – Chinese art and artists had a significant influence on Persian art. Timurid artists refined the Persian art of the book, which combines paper, calligraphy, illumination, illustration and binding in a brilliant and colourful whole.John Onians, Atlas of World Art, Laurence King Publishing, 2004. p. 132. The Mongol ethnicity of the Chaghatayid and Timurid Khans was the source of the stylistic depiction of Persian art during the Middle Ages. These same Mongols intermarried with the Persians and Turks of Central Asia, even adopting their religion and languages. Yet their simple control of the world at that time, particularly in the 13th–15th centuries, reflected itself in the idealised appearance of Persians as Mongols. Though the ethnic make-up gradually blended into the Iranian and Mesopotamian local populations, the Mongol stylism continued well after and crossed into Asia Minor and even North Africa.

Timurid architecture

Timurid architecture drew on and developed many Seljuq traditions. Turquoise and blue tiles forming intricate linear and geometric patterns decorated the facades of buildings. Sometimes the interior was decorated similarly, with painting and stucco relief further enriching the effect.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Timurid Dynasty", Online Academic Edition, 2007. "Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia. ... Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture." Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art in Central Asia. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid school of art in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated Mughal (or Mongol) school of architecture. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi in present-day Kazakhstan and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir in Samarkand. Timur's Gur-I Mir, the 14th-century mausoleum of the conqueror is covered with "turquoise Persian tiles".John Julius Norwich, Great Architecture of the World, Da Capo Press, 2001. p. 278. Nearby, in the center of the ancient town, a "Persian style madrassa" (religious school) and a "Persian style mosque" by Ulugh Beg is observed. The mausoleum of Timurid princes, with their turquoise and blue-tiled domes remain among the most refined and exquisite Persian architecture.Hugh Kennedy, The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In, Da Capo Press, 2007. p. 237 Axial symmetry is a characteristic of all major Timurid structures, notably the Shāh-e Zenda in Samarkand, the Musallah complex in Herat, and the mosque of Gowhar Shād in Mashhad. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliant colors. Timur's dominance of the region strengthened the influence of his capital and Persian architecture upon India.Banister Fletcher, Dan Cruickshan, Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture, Architectural Press, 1996. pg 606File:Akhangan.jpg|Akhangan's tomb, where Gowharšād's sister Gowhartāj is buried. The architecture is a fine example of the Timurid era in Persia.File:SamarkandBibiKhanym.jpg|Façade of Bibi Khanym Mosque.

Rulers

Emperors (Emir)

{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

Governors Mirza

{{unreferenced section|date=July 2017}}{{div col|colwidth=30em}}
  • Qaidu bin Pir Muhammad bin JahāngÄ«r 808–811 AH
  • Abu Bakr bin MÄ«rān Shāh 1405–1407 (807–809 AH)
  • Pir Muhammad (son of Umar Shaikh) 807–812 AH
  • Rustam 812–817 AH
  • Sikandar 812–817 AH
  • Ala al-Dawla Mirza 851 AH
  • Abu Bakr bin Muhammad 851 AH
  • Sultān Muhammad 850–855 AH
  • Muhammad bin Hussayn 903–906 AH
  • Abul A'la FereydÅ«n Hussayn 911–912 AH
  • Muhammad Mohsin Khān 911–912 AH
  • Muhammad Zamān Khān 920–923 AH
  • Shāhrukh II bin Abu Sa'id 896–897 AH
  • Ulugh Beg II 873–907 AH
  • Sultān Uways 1508–1522 (913–927 AH)
{{div col end}}

See also

{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • BÄ€YSONḠORĪ ŠĀH-NÄ€MA in Encyclopædia Iranica
  • JOURNAL, Aka, Ismail, 1996, The Agricultural and Commercial Activities of the Timurids in the First Half of the 15th Century, Oriente Moderno, 15, 76/2, Istituto per l'Oriente C. A. Nallino, 9–21, 25817400, 10.1163/22138617-07602003,
  • Elliot, Sir H. M.; edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–77. (Online Copy: weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929125948weblink">The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 — This online copy has been posted by: weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929132016weblink">The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in Translation; Also find other historical books: Author List and Title List)
  • JOURNAL, Subtelny, Maria Eva, 1988, Centralizing Reform and Its Opponents in the Late Timurid Period, Iranian Studies, 21, 1/2, 123–51, 4310597, 10.1080/00210868808701712,

External links

{{Commons category|Timurid dynasty}} {{-}}{{Timurid Empire}}{{Empires}}{{Iran topics}}{{Uzbekistan topics}}{{Inner Asia}}{{Authority control}}

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