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Timeline of the evolutionary history of life

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Timeline of the evolutionary history of life
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{{short description|The current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life}}{{Distinguish|history of evolutionary thought}}{{About|the evolution of all life on Earth|more detailed and comprehensive coverage|evolutionary history of life}}This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth. In biology, evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization, from kingdoms to species, and individual organisms and molecules, such as DNA and proteins. The similarities between all present day organisms indicate the presence of a common ancestor from which all known species, living and extinct, have diverged through the process of evolution. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species,{{harvnb|McKinney|1997|p=110}} that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct.BOOK, Stearns, Beverly Peterson, Stearns, S. C., Stearns, Stephen C., Watching, from the Edge of Extinction,weblink 2000, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-08469-6, preface x, 30 May 2017, NEWS, Novacek, Michael J., November 8, 2014, Prehistory’s Brilliant Future,weblink The New York Times, New York, The New York Times Company, 0362-4331, 2014-12-25, Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million,{{harvnb|Miller|Spoolman|2012|p=62}} of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.JOURNAL, Mora, Camilo, Tittensor, Derek P., Adl, Sina, Simpson, Alastair G. B., Worm, Boris, Boris Worm, 3, August 23, 2011, How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean?, PLOS Biology, 9, 8, e1001127, 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127, 1545-7885, 3160336, 21886479, However, a May 2016 scientific report estimates that 1 trillion species are currently on Earth, with only one-thousandth of one percent described.NEWS, Staff, Researchers find that Earth may be home to 1 trillion species,weblink 2 May 2016, National Science Foundation, 11 April 2018, While the dates given in this article are estimates based on scientific evidence, there has been controversy between more traditional views of increased biodiversity through a cone of diversity with the passing of time and the view that the basic pattern on Earth has been one of annihilation and diversification and that in certain past times, such as the Cambrian explosion, there was great diversity.WEB,weblink The Burgess Shale & Models of Evolution, Hickman, Crystal, Starn, Autumn, Reconstructions of the Burgess Shale and What They Mean..., West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 2015-10-18, {{harvnb|Barton|Briggs|Eisen|Goldstein|2007|loc=Figure 10.20}} Four diagrams of evolutionary models

Extinction

(File:Geological time spiral.png|thumb|right|240px|Visual representation of the history of life on Earth as a spiral)Species go extinct constantly as environments change, as organisms compete for environmental niches, and as genetic mutation leads to the rise of new species from older ones. Occasionally biodiversity on Earth takes a hit in the form of a mass extinction in which the extinction rate is much higher than usual.WEB,weblink Measuring the sixth mass extinction - Cosmos, cosmosmagazine.com, A large extinction-event often represents an accumulation of smaller extinction- events that take place in a relatively brief period of time.WEB,weblink History of life on Earth, 2016-08-09,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160816103516weblink">weblink 2016-08-16, yes, The first known mass extinction in earth's history was the Great Oxygenation Event 2.4 billion years ago. That event led to the loss of most of the planet's obligate anaerobes. Researchers have identified five major extinction events in earth's history since:WEB,weblink The big five mass extinctions - Cosmos, cosmosmagazine.com, (Dates and percentages represent estimates.)Smaller extinction-events have occurred in the periods between these larger catastrophes, with some standing at the delineation points of the periods and epochs recognized by scientists in geologic time. The Holocene extinction event is currently under way.JOURNAL
, Myers, Norman, Norman Myers
, Knoll, Andrew H., Andrew H. Knoll, May 8, 2001
, The biotic crisis and the future of evolution
, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
, 98, 1, 5389–5392
, 2001PNAS...98.5389M, 10.1073/pnas.091092498
, 0027-8424, 33223, 11344283
, Factors in mass extinctions include continental drift, changes in atmospheric and marine chemistry, volcanism and other aspects of mountain formation, changes in glaciation, changes in sea level, and impact events.

Detailed timeline

{{See also|List of bilateral animal orders}}In this timeline, Ma (for megaannum) means "million years ago," ka (for kiloannum) means "thousand years ago," and ya means "years ago."

Hadean Eon

File:FullMoon2010.jpg|thumb|right|240px|MoonMoon4000 Ma and earlier.{| class="wikitable"! Date! Event
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4600 MaFormation of the Earth>The planet Earth forms from the accretion disc revolving around the young Sun with organic compounds (complex organic molecules) necessary for life having perhaps formed in the protoplanetary disk of cosmic dust grains surrounding it before the formation of the Earth.MOSKOWITZ >FIRST=CLARA TITLE=LIFE'S BUILDING BLOCKS MAY HAVE FORMED IN DUST AROUND YOUNG SUN WORK=SPACE.COM PUBLISHER=PURCH, 2012-03-30,
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4500 Magiant impact hypothesis, the Moon was formed when the planet Earth and the hypothesized planet Theia (planet)>Theia collided, sending a very large number of moonlets into orbit around the young Earth which eventually coalesced to form the Moon.HTTP://WWW.PSI.EDU/EPO/MOON/MOON.HTML >TITLE=THE ORIGIN OF THE MOON FIRST1=GREGG FIRST2=WILLIAM K WEBSITE=PLANETARY SCIENCE INSTITUTE ACCESSDATE=2015-03-04Rotation around a fixed axis>axis of rotation and set up the conditions in which abiogenesis occurred.ASTROBIO >DATE=SEPTEMBER 24, 2001 URL=HTTP://WWW.ASTROBIO.NET/TOPIC/SOLAR-SYSTEM/METEORITESCOMETS-AND-ASTEROIDS/MAKING-THE-MOON/ TYPE=BASED ON A SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE PRESS RELEASE ACCESSDATE=2015-03-04, Because the Moon helps stabilize the tilt of the Earth's rotation, it prevents the Earth from wobbling between climatic extremes. Without the Moon, seasonal shifts would likely outpace even the most adaptable forms of life.,
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4404 MaOrigin of water on Earth#Water in the development of Earth>First appearance of liquid water on Earth.
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4280 MaEarliest life forms>Earliest possible appearance of life on Earth.DODD, MATTHEW S. >AUTHOR2=PAPINEAU, DOMINIC AUTHOR4=SLACK, JOHN F. AUTHOR6=PIRAJNO, FRANCO AUTHOR8=LITTLE, CRISPIN T. S. JOURNAL=NATURE ISSUE=7643 DATE=2 MARCH 2017 PMID=28252057 URL=HTTP://EPRINTS.WHITEROSE.AC.UK/112179/1/PPNATURE21377_DODD_FOR%20SYMPLECTIC.PDF, ZIMMER >FIRST=CARL TITLE=SCIENTISTS SAY CANADIAN BACTERIA FOSSILS MAY BE EARTH’S OLDEST DATE=1 MARCH 2017 THE NEW YORK TIMES >ACCESSDATE=2 MARCH 2017, GHOSH >FIRST=PALLAB URL=HTTPS://WWW.BBC.CO.UK/NEWS/SCIENCE-ENVIRONMENT-39117523 BBC NEWS >DATE=1 MARCH 2017 TITLE=CANADIAN BACTERIA-LIKE FOSSILS CALLED OLDEST EVIDENCE OF LIFE DATE=1 MARCH 2017 ACCESSDATE=1 MARCH 2017,

Archean Eon

File:Acasta gneiss.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Fragment of the Acasta Gneiss exhibited at the Museum of Natural History in Vienna]]File:Cyanobacterial-algal mat.jpg|thumb|right|240px|The cyanobacterial-algal mat, salty lake on the White SeaWhite SeaFile:Halobacteria.jpg|thumb|right|240px|HalobacteriumHalobacterium4000 Ma – 2500 Ma{| class="wikitable"! Date! Event
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4000 Magreenstone belt of the Acasta Gneiss of the Slave craton in Northwest Territories, Canada, the oldest rock belt in the world.{{harvnb>Bjornerud|2005}}
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4100–3800 MaLate Heavy Bombardment (LHB): extended barrage of impact events upon the inner planets by meteoroids. Thermal flux from widespread hydrothermal activity during the LHB may have been conducive to abiogenesis and life's early diversification.ABRAMOV LAST2=MOJZSIS DATE=MAY 21, 2009 URL=HTTP://ISOTOPE.COLORADO.EDU/2009_ABRAMOV_MOJZSIS_NATURE.PDF NATURE (JOURNAL)>NATURE ISSUE=7245 BIBCODE=2009NATUR.459..419A ISSN=0028-0836 ACCESSDATE=2015-03-04 Biotic material>biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.BORENSTEIN >FIRST=SETH URL=HTTP://APNEWS.EXCITE.COM/ARTICLE/20151019/US-SCI--EARLIEST_LIFE-A400435D0D.HTML WORK=EXCITE PUBLISHER=MINDSPARK INTERACTIVE NETWORK ASSOCIATED PRESS >ACCESSDATE=2015-10-20, BELL >FIRST1=ELIZABETH A. FIRST2=PATRICK FIRST3=T. MARK FIRST4=WENDY L. DATE=NOVEMBER 24, 2015 URL=HTTP://WWW.PNAS.ORG/CONTENT/EARLY/2015/10/14/1517557112.FULL.PDF VOLUME=112 PAGES=14518–14521 ISSN=0027-8424 PMID=26483481 BIBCODE=2015PNAS..11214518B, This is when life most likely arose.
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3900–2500 MaCell (biology)>Cells resembling prokaryotes appear.WOESE >FIRST1=CARL LAST2=GOGARTEN AUTHORLINK2=JOHANN PETER GOGARTEN TITLE=WHEN DID EUKARYOTIC CELLS (CELLS WITH NUCLEI AND OTHER INTERNAL ORGANELLES) FIRST EVOLVE? WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HOW THEY EVOLVED FROM EARLIER LIFE-FORMS? JOURNAL=SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN ACCESSDATE=2015-03-04, These first organisms are chemotroph: they use carbon dioxide as a carbon source and redox>oxidize inorganic materials to extract energy. Later, prokaryotes evolve glycolysis, a set of chemical reactions that free the energy of organic molecules such as glucose and store it in the chemical bonds of Adenosine triphosphate. Glycolysis (and ATP) continue to be used in almost all organisms, unchanged, to this day.ROMANO LAST2=CONWAY DATE=JULY–SEPTEMBER 1996 JOURNAL=RESEARCH IN MICROBIOLOGY ISSUE=6–7 DOI=10.1016/0923-2508(96)83998-2 PMID=9084754 AUTHORLINK=JEREMY R. KNOWLES TITLE=ENZYME-CATALYZED PHOSPHORYL TRANSFER REACTIONS ANNUAL REVIEW OF BIOCHEMISTRY >VOLUME=49 DOI=10.1146/ANNUREV.BI.49.070180.004305 PMID=6250450, harv,
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3800 MaIsua Greenstone Belt>Isua complex of the western Greenland region, whose rocks show an isotope frequency suggestive of the presence of life. The earliest evidences for life on Earth are 3.8 billion-year-old Biogenic substance hematite in a banded iron formation of the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt in Canada,NICOLE MORTILANNOTITLE=OLDEST TRACES OF LIFE ON EARTH FOUND IN QUEBEC, DATING BACK ROUGHLY 3.8 BILLION YEARS PUBLISHER=, graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old Metasediment discovered in western GreenlandOHTOMO LAST2=KAKEGAWA LAST3=ISHIDA LAST4=NAGASE LAST5=ROSING DATE=JANUARY 2014 JOURNAL=NATURE GEOSCIENCE ISSUE=1 DOI=10.1038/NGEO2025 DISPLAY-AUTHORS=3 BIBCODE=2014NATGE...7...25O, and microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia.BORENSTEIN >FIRST=SETH TITLE=OLDEST FOSSIL FOUND: MEET YOUR MICROBIAL MOM WORK=EXCITE PUBLISHER=MINDSPARK INTERACTIVE NETWORK ACCESSDATE=2013-11-15, NOFFKE >FIRST1=NORA FIRST2=DANIEL FIRST3=DAVID FIRST4=ROBERT M. DATE=NOVEMBER 8, 2013 JOURNAL=ASTROBIOLOGY (JOURNAL) >VOLUME=13 PAGES=1103–1124 ISSN=1531-1074 PMID=24205812 BIBCODE=2013ASBIO..13.1103N,
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3500 Malast universal common ancestor (LUCA);DOOLITTLE AUTHORLINK=FORD DOOLITTLE TITLE=UPROOTING THE TREE OF LIFE JOURNAL=SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN ISSUE=2 DOI=10.1038/SCIENTIFICAMERICAN0200-90 PMID=10710791 ARCHIVEDATE=2006-09-07 REF=HARVAUTHOR2=YING XU FIRST3=BERNARD TITLE=THE LAST UNIVERSAL COMMON ANCESTOR: EMERGENCE, CONSTITUTION AND GENETIC LEGACY OF AN ELUSIVE FORERUNNER BIOLOGY DIRECT >VOLUME=3 DOI=10.1186/1745-6150-3-29 PMC=2478661 REF=HARV, the split between bacteria and archaea occurs.HAHN >FIRST1=JüRGEN FIRST2=PAT TITLE=TRACES OF ARCHAEBACTERIA IN ANCIENT SEDIMENTS VOLUME=7 PAGES=178–183 ISSN=0723-2020, harv, Bacteria develop primitive forms of photosynthesis which at first did not produce oxygen.JOURNAL, Olson, John M., May 2006, Photosynthesis in the Archean era, Photosynthesis Research, 88, 2, 109–117, 10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5, 0166-8595, 16453059, harv, These organisms generated Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by exploiting a proton gradient, a mechanism still used in virtually all organisms.WEB,weblink Proton Gradient, Cell Origin, ATP Synthase - Learn Science at Scitable, www.nature.com,
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3200 Maacritarchs.JAVAUXLAST2=MARSHALLLAST3=BEKKERDATE=FEBRUARY 18, 2010JOURNAL=NATUREISSUE=7283BIBCODE=2010NATUR.463..934JISSN=1744-7933, 20139963,
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3000 Macyanobacteria evolved; they used water as a reducing agent, thereby producing oxygen as a waste product.BUICK DATE=AUGUST 27, 2008 JOURNAL=PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B ISSUE=1504 DOI=10.1098/RSTB.2008.0041 PMC=2606769 REF=HARV, The oxygen initially oxidizes dissolved iron in the oceans, creating iron ore. The oxygen concentration in the atmosphere slowly rose, acting as a poison for many bacteria and eventually triggering the Great Oxygenation Event. The Moon, still very close to Earth, caused tides {{convertftsigfig=3}} high.{{citation neededdate=January 2015}} The Earth was continually wracked by hurricane-force winds. These extreme mixing influences are thought to have stimulated evolutionary processes.{{citation needed|date=September 2015}}
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2800 Mapaleosols, Vernal pool>ephemeral ponds and Alluvium sequences, some of them bearing Micropaleontology>microfossils.BERALDI-CAMPESI >FIRST=HUGO TITLE=EARLY LIFE ON LAND AND THE FIRST TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS JOURNAL=ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES ISSUE=1 DOI=10.1186/2192-1709-2-1 REF=HARV,

Proterozoic Eon

File:Endomembrane system diagram en (edit).svg|thumb|right|240px|Detail of the eukaryote endomembrane systemendomembrane systemFile:Ceratium furca.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Dinoflagellate Ceratium furcaCeratium furcaFile:Mikrofoto.de-Blepharisma japonicum 15.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Blepharisma japonicum, a free-living ciliated protozoaprotozoaFile:DickinsoniaCostata.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Dickinsonia costata, an iconic Ediacaran organism, displays the characteristic quilted appearance of Ediacaran enigmata.]]2500 Ma – 542 Ma. Contains the Palaeoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic eras.{| class="wikitable"! Date! Event
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2500 Maplate tectonics with old marine crust dense enough to subduction>subduct.
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By 1850 MaEukaryote>Eukaryotic cells appear. Eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles with diverse functions, probably derived from prokaryotes engulfing each other via phagocytosis. (See Symbiogenesis and Endosymbiont). Bacterial viruses (bacteriophage) emerge before, or soon after, the divergence of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages.BERNSTEIN >FIRST1=HARRIS FIRST2=CAROL TITLE=BACTERIOPHAGE T4 GENETIC HOMOLOGIES WITH BACTERIA AND EUCARYOTES JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY >VOLUME=171 PAGES=2265–2270 PMC=209897 REF=HARVred beds show that an oxidising atmosphere had been produced. Incentives now favoured the spread of eukaryotic life.{{harvnb>Bjornerudp=151}}KNOLL >FIRST1=ANDREW H. FIRST2=EMMANUELLE J. FIRST3=DAVID FIRST4=PHOEBE DATE=JUNE 29, 2006 JOURNAL=PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B ISSUE=1470 DOI=10.1098/RSTB.2006.1843 PMC=1578724 AUTHORLINK=MIKHAIL FEDONKIN TITLE=THE ORIGIN OF THE METAZOA IN THE LIGHT OF THE PROTEROZOIC FOSSIL RECORD VOLUME=7 PAGES=9–41 ISSN=1342-8144, harv,
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1400 Ma| Great increase in stromatolite diversity.
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1300 MaFungus>fungiHTTP://SCIENCE.PSU.EDU/NEWS-AND-EVENTS/2001-NEWS/HEDGES8-2001.HTM > TITLE= FIRST LAND PLANTS AND FUNGI CHANGED EARTH'S CLIMATE, PAVING THE WAY FOR EXPLOSIVE EVOLUTION OF LAND ANIMALS, NEW GENE STUDY SUGGESTS ACCESSDATE=10 APRIL 2018,
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By 1200 MaMeiosis and Sex>sexual reproduction are present in single-celled eukaryotes, and possibly in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes.{{harvnbBernstein2012Sex may even have arisen earlier in the RNA world hypothesis>RNA world.BERNSTEIN >FIRST1=HARRIS FIRST2=HENRY C. FIRST3=FREDERIC A. FIRST4=RICHARD E. TITLE=ORIGIN OF SEX JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY >VOLUME=110 PAGES=323–351 ISSN=0022-5193 REF=HARV, Evolution of sexual reproduction first appears in the Fossil record>fossil records; it may have increased the rate of evolution.BUTTERFIELD >FIRST=NICHOLAS J. TITLE=BANGIOMORPHA PUBESCENS N. GEN., N. SP.: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF SEX, MULTICELLULARITY, AND THE MESOPROTEROZOIC/NEOPROTEROZOIC RADIATION OF EUKARYOTES JOURNAL=PALEOBIOLOGY (JOURNAL) >VOLUME=26 PAGES=386–404 ISSN=0094-8373, harv,
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1 byaVOLUME=473 PAGES=505–509 PMID=21490597 BIBCODE=2011NATUR.473..505S FIRST1=PAUL K. FIRST2=LEILA FIRST3=MARTIN D. FIRST4=CHARLES H.,
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750 Ma| First protozoa (ex: Melanocyrillium)
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850–630 MaSnowball Earth>global glaciation may have occurred.HOFFMAN >FIRST1=PAUL F. LAST2=KAUFMAN LAST3=HALVERSON LAST4=SCHRAG AUTHORLINK4=DANIEL P. SCHRAG TITLE=A NEOPROTEROZOIC SNOWBALL EARTH JOURNAL=SCIENCE (JOURNAL) >VOLUME=281 PAGES=1342–1346 DOI=10.1126/SCIENCE.281.5381.1342 PMID=9721097 REF=HARV, {{harvnb1992LAST2=LENTON AUTHORLINK2=TIM LENTON FIRST3=HYWEL T. P. TITLE=NEOPROTEROZOIC 'SNOWBALL EARTH' GLACIATIONS AND THE EVOLUTION OF ALTRUISM JOURNAL=GEOBIOLOGY (JOURNAL) >VOLUME=5 PAGES=337–349 ISSN=1472-4677 ARCHIVEDATE=2008-09-10 REF=HARV, CORSETTI >FIRST1=FRANK A. FIRST2=STANLEY M. LAST3=PIERCE DATE=APRIL 15, 2003 JOURNAL=PROC. NATL. ACAD. SCI. U.S.A. ISSUE=8 BIBCODE=2003PNAS..100.4399C ISSN=0027-8424 PMID=12682298 LAST2=OLCOTT LAST3=BAKERMANS DATE=MARCH 22, 2006 JOURNAL=PALAEOGEOGRAPHY, PALAEOCLIMATOLOGY, PALAEOECOLOGY ISSUE=2–4 DOI=10.1016/J.PALAEO.2005.10.030 REF=HARV, It is believed that this was due to evolution of the first land plants, which increased the amount of oxygen and lowered the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.HTTP://SCIENCE.PSU.EDU/NEWS-AND-EVENTS/2001-NEWS/HEDGES8-2001.HTM > TITLE=FIRST LAND PLANTS AND FUNGI CHANGED EARTH'S CLIMATE, PAVING THE WAY FOR EXPLOSIVE EVOLUTION OF LAND ANIMALS, NEW GENE STUDY SUGGESTS ACCESSDATE= 7 APRIL 2018,
600 Maozone layer.HTTP://DISC.SCI.GSFC.NASA.GOV/OZONE/ADDITIONAL/SCIENCE-FOCUS/ABOUT-OZONE/OZONE_FORMATION.SHTML DATE=SEPTEMBER 9, 2009 PUBLISHER=NASA, 2013-05-26, Prior to this, land-based life would probably have required other chemicals to attenuate ultraviolet radiation enough to permit colonisation of the land.
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580–542 MaEdiacara biota represent the first large, complex aquatic multicellular organisms — although their affinities remain a subject of debate.HTTP://GEOL.QUEENSU.CA/PEOPLE/NARBONNE/RECENT_PUBS1.HTML LAST=NARBONNE DATE=JANUARY 2008 QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY >LOCATION=KINGSTON, ONTARIO, CANADA DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=2015-07-24,
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580–500 Maphylum>phyla of animals begin to appear in the fossil record during the Cambrian explosion.HTTP://WWW.UCMP.BERKELEY.EDU/CAMBRIAN/CAMBRIAN.PHP >TITLE=THE CAMBRIAN PERIOD FIRST1=BEN M. FIRST2=ALLEN G. FIRST3=KAREN FIRST4=MYUN FIRST5=AMY FIRST6=KAVITHA FIRST7=CODY EDITOR1-LAST=RIEBOLDT EDITOR2-LAST=SMITH WEBSITE=TOUR OF GEOLOGIC TIME UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA MUSEUM OF PALEONTOLOGY >LOCATION=BERKELEY, CA DISPLAY-AUTHORS=2 LAST=LANE DATE=JANUARY 20, 1999 PUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL ACCESSDATE=2015-03-09,
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550 MaCtenophora (comb jellies), Sponge>Porifera (sponges), Anthozoa (corals and sea anemones)

Phanerozoic Eon

542 Ma – presentThe Phanerozoic Eon, literally the "period of well-displayed life," marks the appearance in the fossil record of abundant, shell-forming and/or trace-making organisms. It is subdivided into three eras, the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which are divided by major mass extinctions.

Palaeozoic Era

542 Ma – 251.0 Ma and contains the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian periods.File:Nautilus_profile.jpg|240px|thumb|With only a handful of species surviving today, the Nautiloids flourished during the early Paleozoic era, from the Late CambrianLate Cambrian File:Haikouichthys_3d.png|240px|thumb|Haikouichthys, a jawless fish, is popularized as one of the earliest fishes and probably a basal chordate or a basal craniatecraniateFile:Sa-fern.jpg|240px|thumb|Ferns first appear in the fossil record about 360 million years ago in the late (Devonian]] period.WEB,weblink Pteridopsida: Fossil Record, University of California Museum of Paleontology, 2014-03-11, ) {| class="wikitable"! Date! Event
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535 Machordates, arthropods (e.g. trilobites, crustaceans), echinoderms, Mollusca>molluscs, brachiopods, foraminifers and radiolarians, etc.
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530 MaDATE=APRIL 30, 2002 URL=HTTP://WWW.NATURE.COM/NEWS/2002/020430/FULL/NEWS020429-2.HTML DOI=10.1038/NEWS020429-2 ACCESSDATE=2015-03-09, The oldest fossils of footprints ever found on land hint that animals may have beaten plants out of the primordial seas. Lobster-sized, centipede-like animals made the prints wading out of the ocean and scuttling over sand dunes about 530 million years ago. Previous fossils indicated that animals didn't take this step until 40 million years later.,
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525 MaGraptolithina>graptolites
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510 Ma| First cephalopods (nautiloids) and chitons
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505 MaFossil#Fossilization processes>Fossilization of the Burgess Shale
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485 MaAgnatha>jawless fishes)
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450 Maconodonts and Sea urchin>echinoids appear
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440 Ma| First agnathan fishes: Heterostraci, Galeaspida, and Pituriaspida
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420 MaActinopterygii>ray-finned fishes, Trigonotarbida, and land scorpionsGARWOOD LAST2=EDGECOMBE DATE=SEPTEMBER 2011 URL=HTTPS://WWW.ACADEMIA.EDU/891357 VOLUME=4 PAGES=489–501 ISSN=1936-6426, 2015-07-21,
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410 MaNautilida, Lycopodiophyta>lycophytes, and trimerophytes.
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395 Malichens, Charales>stoneworts. Earliest Opiliones, mites, Hexapoda>hexapods (springtails) and ammonoids. The first known tetrapod tracks on land.
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363 MaCarboniferous Period, the Earth begins to resemble its present state. Insects roamed the land and would soon take to the skies; sharks swam the oceans as top predators,HTTP://WWW.ELASMO-RESEARCH.ORG/EDUCATION/EVOLUTION/EVOL_S_PREDATOR.HTM LAST=MARTIN WEBSITE=BIOLOGY OF SHARKS AND RAYS LOCATION=NORTH VANCOUVER, BC, CANADA QUOTE=THE ANCESTRY OF SHARKS DATES BACK MORE THAN 200 MILLION YEARS BEFORE THE EARLIEST KNOWN DINOSAUR., and vegetation covered the land, with seed-bearing plants and forests soon to flourish.Four-limbed tetrapods gradually gain adaptations which will help them occupy a terrestrial life-habit.
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360 Macrabs and Pteridophyte>ferns. Land flora dominated by seed ferns.
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350 MaChimaeridae>ratfishes, and hagfish
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340 Ma| Diversification of amphibians
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330 Ma| First amniote vertebrates (Paleothyris)
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320 MaSynapsids (precursors to mammals) separate from Sauropsida>sauropsids (reptiles) in late Carboniferous.HTTP://WWW.PALAEOS.ORG/AMNIOTA >TITLE=AMNIOTA PALAEOS >ACCESSDATE=2015-03-09,
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305 Ma| Earliest diapsid reptiles (e.g. Petrolacosaurus)
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280 Mabeetles, seed plants and Pinophyta>conifers diversify while Lepidodendraless and Equisetopsida>sphenopsids decrease. Terrestrial temnospondyl amphibians and pelycosaurs (e.g. Dimetrodon) diversify in species.
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275 Ma| Therapsid synapsids separate from pelycosaur synapsids
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251.4 MaPermian–Triassic extinction event eliminates over 90-95% of marine species. Terrestrial organisms were not as seriously affected as the marine biota. This "clearing of the slate" may have led to an ensuing diversification, but life on land took 30 million years to completely recover.SAHNEY LAST2=BENTON AUTHORLINK2=MICHAEL BENTON TITLE=RECOVERY FROM THE MOST PROFOUND MASS EXTINCTION OF ALL TIME JOURNAL=PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B ISSUE=1636 DOI=10.1098/RSPB.2007.1370 PMC=2596898 REF=HARV,

Mesozoic Era

File:Utatsusaurus BW.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Utatsusaurus is the earliest-known form of an ichthyopterygiaichthyopterygiaFile:Plateosaurus panorama.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Plateosaurus engelhardtiPlateosaurus engelhardtiFile:Cycas circinalis.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Cycas circinalisCycas circinalisFrom 251.4 Ma to 66 Ma and containing the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.{| class="wikitable"! Date! Event
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Mesozoic Marine Revolution begins: increasingly well adapted and diverse predators{{who>date=September 2015}} pressurize sessility (zoology) marine groups; the "balance of power" in the oceans shifts dramatically as some groups of prey{{who>date=September 2015}} adapt more rapidly and effectively than others{{who|date=September 2015}}.
|248 Ma|Sturgeon and paddlefish (Acipenseridae) first appear.
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245 MaIchthyopterygia>ichthyosaurs
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240 MaEucynodontia>gomphodont cynodonts and rhynchosaurs
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225 MaPlateosauridae>prosauropods), first Cockle (bivalve) Bivalvia>bivalves, diversity in cycads, Bennettitales, and conifers. First Teleostei>teleost fishes. First mammals (Adelobasileus).
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220 MaGymnosperm forests dominate the land; herbivores grow to huge sizes to accommodate the large guts necessary to digest the nutrient-poor plants.{{Citation needed>date=August 2007}} First Fly and turtles (Odontochelys). First Coelophysoidea>coelophysoid dinosaurs.
|205Ma
Triassic–Jurassic extinction event>Massive extinction of Triassic/Jurassic, that wiped out most of the group of pseudosuchians and was given the opportunity of dinosaurs including the Apatosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, Perrotasaurus, and Stegosaurus to enter its golden age.
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200 Maviruses that infect eukaryotic cells (at least, the group Geminiviridae) existed.HTTP://WWW.MCB.UCT.AC.ZA/TUTORIAL/VIRORIG.HTML LAST=RYBICKI DATE=APRIL 2008 PUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN TYPE=LECTURE QUOTE=VIRUSES OF NEARLY ALL THE MAJOR CLASSES OF ORGANISMS - ANIMALS, PLANTS, FUNGI AND BACTERIA / ARCHAEA - PROBABLY EVOLVED WITH THEIR HOSTS IN THE SEAS, GIVEN THAT MOST OF THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON THIS PLANET HAS OCCURRED THERE. THIS MEANS THAT VIRUSES ALSO PROBABLY EMERGED FROM THE WATERS WITH THEIR DIFFERENT HOSTS, DURING THE SUCCESSIVE WAVES OF COLONISATION OF THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT. ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090509094459/HTTP://WWW.MCB.UCT.AC.ZA/TUTORIAL/VIRORIG.HTML DF=, Viruses are still poorly understood and may have arisen before "life" itself, or may be a more recent phenomenon.Major extinctions in terrestrial vertebrates and large amphibians. Earliest examples of armoured dinosaurs
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195 MaDorygnathus). First Sauropoda>sauropod dinosaurs. Diversification in small, ornithischian dinosaurs: Heterodontosauridaes, Fabrosauridae>fabrosaurids, and scelidosaurids.
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190 MaPliosauroidea>Pliosauroids appear in the fossil record. First Lepidoptera (Archaeolepis), hermit crabs, modern starfish, irregular echinoids, Corbulidae>corbulid bivalves, and tubulipore bryozoans. Extensive development of sponge reefs.
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176 Ma| First members of the Stegosauria group of dinosaurs
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170 Masalamanders, newts, Cryptoclididae>cryptoclidids, Elasmosauridae Plesiosauria>plesiosaurs, and cladotherian mammals. Sauropod dinosaurs diversify.
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165 MaBatoidea>rays and glycymeridid bivalves
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163 MaPterodactyloidea>Pterodactyloid pterosaurs first appearDELL'AMORE >FIRST=CHRISTINE TITLE=MEET KRYPTODRAKON: OLDEST KNOWN PTERODACTYL FOUND IN CHINA WORK=NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC NEWS PUBLISHER=NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 2014-04-25,
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161 Ma| Ceratopsian dinosaurs appear in the fossil record (Yinlong) and the oldest known Eutherian Mammal appear in the fossil record: Juramaia.
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160 MaMultituberculata>Multituberculate mammals (genus Rugosodon) appear in eastern China
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155 MaCeratopogonidae>ceratopogonids), Rudists bivalves, and Cheilostomata>cheilostome bryozoans. Archaeopteryx, a possible ancestor to the birds, appears in the fossil record, along with Triconodontidae and Symmetrodonta>symmetrodont mammals. Diversity in stegosaurian and theropod dinosaurs.
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130 MaFlowering plant>angiosperms: Some of these flowering plants bear structures that attract insects and other animals to spread pollen;other angiosperms were pollinated by wind or water. This innovation causes a major burst of animal evolution through coevolution. First freshwater pelomedusid turtles.
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120 Maheterokonts, including both marine diatoms and Dictyochales>silicoflagellates
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115 Ma| First monotreme mammals
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110 Mahesperornithes, toothed diving birds. Earliest Limopsidae>limopsid, Verticordiidae, and Thyasiridae>thyasirid bivalves.
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106 Ma| Spinosaurus, the largest theropod dinosaur, appears in the fossil record
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100 Ma| Earliest bees
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90 Masnakes and Nuculanidae>nuculanid bivalves. Large diversification in angiosperms: magnoliids, rosids, Hamamelidaceae, Monocotyledon>monocots, and ginger. Earliest examples of ticks. Probable origins of placental mammals (earliest undisputed fossil evidence is 66 Ma).
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80 Ma| First ants
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70 MaYoldiidae>yoldiid bivalves.
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68 MaTyrannosaurus, the largest terrestrial predator of what is now western Laramidia>North America appears in the fossil record. First species of Triceratops.

Cenozoic Era

66 Ma – presentFile:Patriofelis-mount.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Mount of oxyaenid Patriofelis from the American Museum of Natural HistoryAmerican Museum of Natural HistoryFile:Icaronycteris index.jpg|thumb|right|240px|The bat IcaronycterisIcaronycteris(File:Grassflowers.jpg|thumb|right|240px|Grass flowers){| class="wikitable"! Date! Event
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66 MaCretaceous–Paleogene extinction event eradicates about half of all animal species, including mosasaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ammonites, Belemnitida>belemnites, rudist and Inoceramidae bivalves, most planktic foraminifers, and all of the dinosaurs excluding the birds.CHIAPPE AUTHORLINK1=LUIS M. CHIAPPE FIRST2=GARETH J. DATE=NOVEMBER 2002 JOURNAL=ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, AND SYSTEMATICS >VOLUME=33 DOI=10.1146/ANNUREV.ECOLSYS.33.010802.150517 REF=HARV,
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From 66 Maginkgos in high latitudes, along with mammals becoming the dominant species. First Psammobiidae>psammobiid bivalves. Earliest rodents. Rapid diversification in ants.
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63 MaCreodonta>creodonts, an important group of meat-eating (carnivorous) mammals
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60 Maflightless birds. Earliest true Primate>primates,{{WhoSemelidae>semelid bivalves, Xenarthra, carnivoran and Insectivora>lipotyphlan mammals, and owls. The ancestors of the carnivorous mammals (miacids) were alive.{{Citation needed|date=January 2019}}
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56 Ma| Gastornis, a large flightless bird, appears in the fossil record
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55 MaPasserine>song birds, parrots, loons, swifts, woodpeckers), first Archaeoceti (Himalayacetus), earliest lagomorphs, armadillos, appearance of sirenian, proboscidean, Odd-toed ungulate>perissodactyl and Even-toed ungulate mammals in the fossil record. Angiosperms diversify. The ancestor (according to theory) of the species in the genus Carcharodon, the early Isurus>mako shark Isurus hastalis, is alive.
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52 Ma| First bats appear (Onychonycteris)
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50 MaCoccolithophore>nannofossils, increase in diversity of Pholadomyoida and heteroconch bivalves, Brontotheriidae>brontotheres, tapirs, rhinoceroses, and camels appear in the fossil record, diversification of primates
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40 Ma| Modern-type butterflies and moths appear. Extinction of Gastornis. Basilosaurus, one of the first of the giant whales, appeared in the fossil record.
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37 MaNimravidae>nimravid ("false saber-toothed cats") carnivores — these species are unrelated to modern-type felines
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35 MaPoaceae>Grasses diversify from among the monocot angiosperms; grasslands begin to expand. Slight increase in diversity of cold-tolerant ostracods and foraminifers, along with major extinctions of Gastropodas, reptiles, amphibians, and multituberculate mammals. Many modern mammal groups begin to appear: first Glyptodontidae>glyptodonts, ground sloths, Canidaes, Peccary>peccaries, and the first eagles and hawks. Diversity in Toothed whale and Baleen whale>baleen whales.
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33 MaThylacinidae>thylacinid marsupials (Badjcinus)
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30 Mabarnacle>balanids and eucalypts, extinction of Embrithopoda and brontothere mammals, earliest pigs and Felidae>cats
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28 Ma| Paraceratherium appears in the fossil record, the largest terrestrial mammal that ever lived
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25 Ma| Pelagornis sandersi appears in the fossil record, the largest flying bird that ever lived
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25 Ma| First deer
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20 Ma| First giraffes, hyenas, bears and giant anteaters, increase in bird diversity
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15 MaMammut appears in the fossil record, first Bovidae>bovids and kangaroos, diversity in Australian megafauna
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10 Masavannas are established, diversity in insects, especially ants and termites, horses increase in body size and develop Hypsodont>high-crowned teeth, major diversification in grassland mammals and snakes
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9.5 MaGreat American Interchange, where various land and freshwater faunas migrated between North and South America. Armadillos, opossums, hummingbirds Phorusrhacidae>Phorusrhacids, Ground sloth, Glyptodonts, and Meridiungulata>Meridiungulates traveled to North America, while horses, tapirs, saber-toothed cats, Jaguars, Bears, Coaties, Ferrets, Otters, Skunks and deer entered South America.
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6.5 MaChimpanzee–human last common ancestor>hominins (Sahelanthropus)
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6 Ma| Australopithecines diversify (Orrorin, Ardipithecus)
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5 Masloth>tree sloths and hippopotami, diversification of grazing herbivores like zebras and elephants, large carnivorous mammals like lions and the genus Canis, burrowing rodents, kangaroos, birds, and small carnivores, vultures increase in size, decrease in the number of perissodactyl mammals. Extinction of nimravid carnivores.
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4.8 Ma| Mammoths appear in the fossil record
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4 Ma| Evolution of Australopithecus, Stupendemys appears in the fossil record as the largest freshwater turtle, first modern elephants, giraffes, zebras, lions, rhinoceros and gazelles appear in the fossil record
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2.7 Ma| Evolution of Paranthropus
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2.5 Ma| The earliest species of Smilodon evolve
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2 MaHomo, Homo habilis>Homo Habilis, appear in the fossil record. Diversification of conifers in high latitudes. The eventual ancestor of cattle, aurochs (Bos primigenus), evolves in India.
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1.7 Ma| Extinction of australopithecines
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1.2 Ma| Evolution of Homo antecessor. The last members of Paranthropus die out.
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800 Ka| Short-faced bears (Arctodus simus) become abundant in North America
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600 ka| Evolution of Homo heidelbergensis
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350 ka| Evolution of Neanderthals
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300 ka| Gigantopithecus, a giant relative of the orangutan from Asia dies out
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250 kaAfrica.KARMIN LAST2=SAAG LAST3=VICENTE DATE=APRIL 2015 JOURNAL=GENOME RESEARCH ISSUE=4 DOI=10.1101/GR.186684.114 NAME-LIST-FORMAT=VANCPMID=25770088 LAST2=FLEAGLE AUTHORLINK2=JOHN G. FLEAGLE FIRST3=IAN DATE=FEBRUARY 16, 2005 URL=HTTP://UNEWS.UTAH.EDU/NEWS_RELEASES/THE-OLDEST-HOMO-SAPIENS/ PUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF UTAH AUTHORLINK1=ZERESENAY ALEMSEGED FIRST2=YVES LAST3=GERAADS DATE=FEBRUARY 2002 JOURNAL=AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY ISSUE=2 DOI=10.1002/AJPA.10032 PMID=11815945, harv, Around 50,000 years before present they start colonising the other continents, replacing the Neanderthals in Europe and other hominins in Asia.
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40 kaMegalania>Varanus priscus) die out
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30 ka| Extinction of Neanderthals, first domestic dogs
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15 ka| The last woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) are believed to have gone extinct
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11 kaMegatheriidae>giant ground sloths dying out. All Equidae become extinct in North America.
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10 kaHolocene Epoch (geology)>epoch starts 10,000HTTP://WWW.STRATIGRAPHY.ORG/ICSCHART/CHRONOSTRATCHART2014-10.JPG >TITLE=INTERNATIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC CHART (V 2014/10) INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON STRATIGRAPHY >LOCATION=BEIJING, CHINA ACCESSDATE=2015-03-11, years ago after the Late Glacial Maximum. The last mainland species of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenus) die out, as does the last Smilodon species.
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8 kaSubfossil lemur>Giant Lemur died out

Historical extinctions

File:Cms-newyorkzoologicalsociety1910.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Caribbean monk sealCaribbean monk sealFile:Lipotes vexillifer.png|thumb|right|200px|Illustration of a Baiji, declared functionally extinct by the Baiji.org Foundation in 2006.NEWS, Blanchard, Ben, December 13, 2006, INTERVIEW-Chinese river dolphin almost certainly extinct,weblink Reuters, 2015-10-19, NEWS, Lovgren, Stefan, December 14, 2006, China's Rare River Dolphin Now Extinct, Experts Announce,weblink National Geographic News, Washington, D.C., National Geographic SocietyNational Geographic SocietyFile:Diceros bicornis longipes.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Western black rhinoceros, holotypeholotypeFile:Thylacine Stuffed specimen.jpg|thumb|right|200px|ThylacineThylacine{| class=wikitable! Date! Event
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6000 ya (c. 4000 BC)Mastodon>American mastodon die off in places like Utah and Michigan
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4500 ya (c. 2500 BC)| The last members of a dwarf race of woolly mammoths vanish from Wrangel Island near Alaska
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c. 600 ya (c. 1400)| The moa and its predator, Haast's eagle, die out in New Zealand
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{{years ago|1627}} ya (1627)| The last recorded wild aurochs die out
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{{years ago|1688}} ya (1688)| The dodo goes extinct
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{{years ago|1768}} ya (1768)| The Steller's sea cow goes extinct
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{{years ago|1883}} ya (1883)| The quagga, a subspecies of zebra, goes extinct
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{{years ago|1914}} ya (1914)Martha (pigeon)>Martha, last known passenger pigeon, dies
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{{years ago|1936}} ya (1936)| The thylacine goes extinct in a Tasmanian zoo, the last member of the family Thylacinidae
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{{years ago|1952}} ya (1952)Caribbean monk seal goes extinctHTTP://WWW.NBCNEWS.COM/ID/25007277/ AUTHOR= NBCNEWS.COM>MSNBC.COM ACCESSDATE=2015-03-11,
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{{years ago|2008}} ya (2008)baiji, the Yangtze river dolphin, becomes Functional extinction>functionally extinct, according to the IUCN Red List{{IUCN2012.2 assessor2=Zhou, K. assessor4=Reeves, R.R. assessor6=Taylor, B.L. last-assessor-amp=yes id=12119 downloaded=2015-10-19}}
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{{years ago|2011}} ya (2011)| The western black rhinoceros is declared extinct
{{clear}}

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Evolution}}{{Div col}} {{div col end}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Barton, Nicholas H., Nick Barton, Briggs, Derek E.G., Derek Briggs, Eisen, Jonathan A., Jonathan Eisen, Goldstein, David B. Goldstein (geneticist), David B., Patel, Nipam H., 2007, Evolution, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 978-0-87969-684-9, 2007010767, 86090399, harv,
  • BOOK, Bernstein, Harris, Bernstein, Carol, Michod, Richard E., 2012, DNA Repair as the Primary Adaptive Function of Sex in Bacteria and Eukaryotes,weblink Kimura, Sakura, Shimizu, Sora, DNA Repair: New Research, Hauppauge, NY, Nova Science Publishers, 978-1-62100-808-8, 2011038504, 828424701, harv,
  • BOOK, Bjornerud, Marcia, 2005, Reading the Rocks: The Autobiography of the Earth, Cambridge, MA, Westview Press, 978-0-8133-42498, 2004022738, 56672295, harv,
  • BOOK, Kirschvink, Joseph L., 1992, Late Proterozoic Low-Latitude Global Glaciation: the Snowball Earth,weblink Schopf, J. William, J. William Schopf, Klein, Cornelis, The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study, Cambridge; New York, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-36615-1, 91015085, 23583672, harv,
  • BOOK, McKinney, Michael L., 1997, How do rare species avoid extinction? A paleontological view, Kunin, William E., Gaston, Kevin J., The Biology of Rarity: Causes and consequences of rare—common differences, 1st, London; New York, Chapman & Hall, 978-0-412-63380-5, 96071014, 36442106, harv,
  • BOOK, Miller, G. Tyler, Spoolman, Scott E., 2012, Environmental Science, 14th, Belmont, CA, Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, 978-1-111-98893-7, 2011934330, 741539226, harv,
  • BOOK, Stearns, Beverly Peterson, Stearns, Stephen C., Stephen C. Stearns, 1999, Watching, from the Edge of Extinction, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-07606-6, 98034087, 47011675, harv,

Further reading

External links

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