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Thessaloniki
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factoids
HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=KOQKAAAAYAAJ&Q=%2522NYMPH+OF+THE+THERMAIC+GULF%2522&DQ=%2522NYMPH+OF+THE+THERMAIC+GULF%2522 LAST=MACKRIDGE LAST2=YANNAKAKIS DATE=1997-03-01 ISBN=9781859731338, en, |image_flag = Flag of Thessaloniki.svg|flag_link = List of Greek flags|image_seal = Thessaloniki seal.svg|image_blank_emblem = City of Thessaloniki logo.svg| blank_emblem_type = Logo| blank_emblem_size = 200| blank_emblem_alt = Logo of the City of Thessaloniki. Solun the real Macedonia |pushpin_map = Greece40.65display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>Country|subdivision_name = {{GRC}}Geographic regions of Greece>Geographic regionMacedonia (Greece)>MacedoniaAdministrative regions of Greece>Administrative region|subdivision_name2 = Central MacedoniaRegional units of Greece>Regional unitThessaloniki (regional unit)>Thessaloniki|government_type = Mayor–council governmentIndependent}}List of mayors of Thessaloniki>MayorKonstantinos ZervasΚωνσταντίνος Ζέρβας}}Municipalities of Greece>Municipalities|parts_style = para|p1 = 7|established_title = Founded-3151}} years ago)|established_title2 = Incorporated191226}} years ago)|population_as_of = 2011 PUBLISHER = HELLENIC STATISTICAL AUTHORITY, Greek, |area_total_km2 = 19.307|population_total = 325,182Thessaloniki (municipality)>MunicipalityList of cities in Greece>2nd urban, 2nd metro in GreeceKallikratis Plan>Kallikratis reform it has been made up of the municipalities of Thessaloniki (325,182), Kalamaria (91,518), NeapoliSykies (84,741), Pavlos Melas (99,245), KordelioEvosmos (101,753), AmpelokipoiMenemeni (52,127), and the municipal units of Pylaia and Panorama (34,625 and 17,444; part of the municipality of PylaiaChortiatis). The Thessaloniki metropolitan area was defined by the same law and is made up of the Urban area plus the municipalities of Delta (45,839), Oraiokastro (38,317), Thermaikos (50,264), Thermi (53,201), and the municipal unit of Chortiatis (18,041; part of the municipality of PylaiaChortiatis), for a total of 1,030,338. See HTTP://WWW.ET.GR/IDOCS-NPH/SEARCH/PDFVIEWERFORM.HTML?ARGS=5C7QRTC22WHO1H1F3WMBQHDTVSOCLRL8XSQFXECDVXT5MXD0LZQTLWPU9YLZB8V68KNBZLCMTXKAO6FPVZ6LX9HLSLJUQEIQYNJ0RXGB9L_ZIK4ZLB8JI7AGLFBODNAZ61QOY2Y3UGW. >SCRIPT-TITLE=EL:Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας PUBLISHER=NATIONAL PRINTING HOUSE PAGE=2332 TRANS-TITLE=GOVERNMENT GAZETTE (GREECE) OF THE HELLENIC REPUBLIC >ACCESS-DATE=10 FEBRUARY 2019, |area_urban_km2 = 111.703|population_density_urban_km2 = auto|population_metro = 1,030,338|area_metro_km2 = 1,285.61|population_density_metro_km2 = autoThessalonian)East European Time>EET|utc_offset1 = +2Eastern European Summer Time>EEST|utc_offset1_DST = +3|elevation_min_m = 0|elevation_max_m = 250List of postal codes in Greece>Postal codes|postal_code = 53xxx, 54xxx, 55xxx, 56xxxTelephone numbers in Greece>Telephone|area_code = 2310Vehicle registration plates of Greece>NAx-xxxx to NXx-xxxx|blank_name_sec1 = Patron saintSaint Demetrius {{nowrap>(26 October)}}Gross regional domestic product {{nobold>(PPP 2015)}}(${{toUSDEURPUBLISHER=EUROSTAT, 27 January 2019, |blank1_name_sec2 =  â€¢ Per capita|blank1_info_sec2 = €16,900|website = www.thessaloniki.gr}}Thessaloniki ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|θ|É›|s|É™|l|É™|ˈ|n|iː|k|i}}; {{IPA-el|θesaloˈnici||Thessaloniki.ogg}}), also known as Thessalonica ({{IPAc-en|lang|ËŒ|θ|É›|s|É™|l|É™|'|n|ai|k|É™|,_|ËŒ|θ|É›|s|É™|ˈ|l|É’|n|ɪ|k|É™}}), Saloniki or Salonica ({{IPAc-en|s|É™|ˈ|l|É’|n|ɪ|k|É™|,_|ËŒ|s|æ|l|É™|ˈ|n|iː|k|É™}}), is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of the geographic region of Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100702124802weblink">weblink yes, 2 July 2010, Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης, Kallikratis Programme, 2011, 6 August 2011, Έδρα της περιφέρειας Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας είναι η Θεσσαλονίκη. (The capital of the region of Central Macedonia is Thessaloniki.), 22, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100702124802weblink">weblink yes, 2 July 2010, Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης, Kallikratis Programme, 2011, 6 August 2011, Αποκεντρωμένη Διοίκηση Μακεδονίας – Θράκης, η οποία εκτείνεται στα όρια της περιφέρειας Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας – Θράκης και Κεντρικής Μακεδονίας, με έδρα την Θεσσαλονίκη. ([The creation of the] Decentralized Administration of Macedonia-Thrace, which includes the modern regions of East Macedonia-Thrace and Central Macedonia, with Thessaloniki as capital.), 25, It is also known in Greek as (i Symprōtévousa), literally "the co-capital",BOOK,weblink Regional analysis and policy: the Greek experience, Harry Coccossis, Yannis Psycharis, 2008, 19 August 2011, 9783790820867, a reference to its historical status as the (Symvasilévousa) or "co-reigning" city of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, alongside Constantinople.BOOK,weblink Neoclassical architecture in Greece, Manos G. BirÄ“s, Marō KardamitsÄ“-AdamÄ“, 2004, 10 August 2011, 9780892367757, Thessaloniki is located on the Thermaic Gulf, at the northwest corner of the Aegean Sea. It is bounded on the west by the delta of the Axios/Vardar. The municipality of Thessaloniki, the historical center, had a population of 325,182 in 2011, while the Thessaloniki Urban Area had a population of 824,676 and the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area had 1,030,338 inhabitants in 2011. It is Greece's second major economic, industrial, commercial and political centre; it is a major transportation hub for Greece and southeastern Europe, notably through the Port of Thessaloniki.BOOK,weblink Regional development in Greece, Nicholas Konsolas, Athanassios Papadaskalopoulos, Ilias Plaskovitis, 2002, 16 August 2011, 9783540423959, The city is renowned for its festivals, events and vibrant cultural life in general,WEB,weblink Introducing Thessaloniki, Lonely Planet travel guides, 19 August 2011, and is considered to be Greece's cultural capital. Events such as the Thessaloniki International Fair and the Thessaloniki International Film Festival are held annually, while the city also hosts the largest bi-annual meeting of the Greek diaspora.WEB, AIGES oHG,weblinkweblink SAE – Conventions, En.sae.gr, 5 January 2009, Thessaloniki was the 2014 European Youth Capital.WEB,weblink Η Θεσσαλονίκη Ευρωπαϊκή Πρωτεύουσα Νεολαίας 2014, Thessaloniki the European Youth Capital 2014, Municipality of Thessaloniki, 23 November 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120113201234weblink">weblink 13 January 2012, dmy-all, The city of Thessaloniki was founded in 315 BC by Cassander of Macedon. An important metropolis by the Roman period, Thessaloniki was the second largest and wealthiest city of the Byzantine Empire. It was conquered by the Ottomans in 1430, and remained an important seaport and multi-ethnic metropolis during the nearly five centuries of Turkish rule. It passed from the Ottoman Empire to Greece on 8 November 1912. It is home to numerous notable Byzantine monuments, including the Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as several Roman, Ottoman and Sephardic Jewish structures. The city's main university, Aristotle University, is the largest in Greece and the Balkans.WEB,weblink ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI, www.auth.gr, 19 August 2011, Thessaloniki is a popular tourist destination in Greece. In 2013, National Geographic Magazine included Thessaloniki in its top tourist destinations worldwide,WEB,weblink Best Trips 2013 – Thessaloniki, National Geographic Society, National Geographic, 6 January 2013, while in 2014 Financial Times FDI magazine (Foreign Direct Investments) declared Thessaloniki as the best mid-sized European city of the future for human capital and lifestyle.WEB,weblink Η Θεσσαλονίκη αναδείχθηκε σε ευρωπαϊκή πόλη του μέλλοντος για το 2014 | ΕΛΛΑΔΑ | ΕΙΔΗΣΕΙΣ | LiFO, lifo.gr, 7 December 2014, WEB,weblink 17 February 2014, European Cities and Regions of the Future 2014/15, 7 December 2014, Among street photographers, the center of Thessaloniki is also considered the most popular destination for street photography in Greece.Thessaloniki Street Photography

{{anchor|Names and etymology}}Names and etymology

File:Thessaloniki-ancient inscription.png|thumb|Inscription reading "To Queen Thessalonike, (Daughter) of Philip", Archaeological Museum of ThessalonikiArchaeological Museum of Thessaloniki{{see also|Names of Thessaloniki in different languages}}The original name of the city was Θεσσαλονίκη ThessaloníkÄ“. It was named after princess Thessalonike of Macedon, the half sister of Alexander the Great, whose name means "Thessalian victory", from 'Thessalos', and 'victory' (Nike), honoring the Macedonian victory at the Battle of Crocus Field (353/352 BCE).Minor variants are also found, including Θετταλονίκη ThettaloníkÄ“,Inscriptiones Graecae, X 2. 1 Thessalonica et vicinia, p. 19Πολυβίου Ιστοριών τα σωζόμενα, Editore Ambrosio Firmin Didot, Parisiis, MDCCCXXXIX σελ. 679 Θεσσαλονίκεια Thessaloníkeia,BOOK, Strabo,weblink Geographica, 7, 7, Θεσσαλονείκη ThessaloneíkÄ“, and Θεσσαλονικέων Thessalonikéōn.Inscriptiones Graecae, Χ 2.1 Thessalonica et vicinia - 19, 24, 150, 162, 165, 167, 177-179, 181, 199, 200, 207, 231-233, 283, 838, 1021, 1026, 1028, 1031, 1034, 1035Ioannis Touratsoglou, Die Münzstätte von Thessaloniki in der römischen Kaiserzeit, Berlin 1988 p115-116The name Σαλονίκη Saloníki is first attested in Greek in the Chronicle of the Morea (14th century), and is common in folk songs, but it must have originated earlier, as al-Idrisi called it Salunik already in the 12th century. It is the basis for the city's name in other languages: Солѹнь (Solun) in Old Church Slavonic, סלוניקה (Salonika) in Ladino, Selânik سلانیك in Ottoman Turkish and Selanik in modern Turkish, Salonicco in Italian, Solun or Солун in the local and neighboring South Slavic languages, Салоники (Saloníki) in Russian, and Sãrunã in Aromanian, and Salonica or Salonika in English.Α.Ι. Θαβώρης (Antonios Thavoris), "Θεσσαλονίκη - Σαλονίκη. Η ιστορία του ονόματος της πόλης" (Thessaloniki-Saloniki: The history of the name of the city), "Η Θεσσαλονίκη" (Thessaloniki), Κέντρο Ιστορίας Θεσσαλονίκης (Center for the History of Thessaloniki), Δήμος Θεσσαλονίκης (City of Thessaloniki), 1985, p. 5-21.Thessaloniki was revived as the city's official name in 1912, when it joined the Kingdom of Greece during the Balkan Wars.Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430–1950, 2004, {{ISBN|0-375-41298-0}}, p. 18 In local speech, the city's name is typically pronounced with a dark and deep L characteristic of Modern Macedonian accent.BOOK, Ανδριώτης (Andriotis), Νικόλαος Π. (Nikolaos P.), 1995, Ιστορία της ελληνικής γλώσσας: (τέσσερις μελέτες) (History of the Greek language: four studies), Ίδρυμα Τριανταφυλλίδη, Θεσσαλονίκη (Thessaloniki), 960-231-058-8, Greek, BOOK, Vitti, Mario, 2001, Storia della letteratura neogreca, Carocci, Roma, 88-430-1680-6, Italian, The name is often abbreviated as Θεσ/νίκη.WEB,weblink Results for θεσ/νικη, 4 July 2012,

History

From classical antiquity to the Roman Empire

File:Kassander316BC.jpg|alt=|left|thumb|Ancient coin depicting Cassander, son of AntipaterAntipaterThe city was founded around 315 BC by the King Cassander of Macedon, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma and 26 other local villages.Strabo VIII Fr. 21,24 – Paul's early period By Rainer Riesner, Doug Scott, p. 338, {{ISBN|0-8028-4166-X}} He named it after his wife Thessalonike,BOOK,weblink The three worlds of Paul of Tarsus, Richard Wallace, Wynne Williams, 1998, 13 August 2011, 9780203069738, a half-sister of Alexander the Great and princess of Macedonia as daughter of Philip II. Under the kingdom of Macedonia the city retained its own autonomy and parliamentBOOK,weblink E-Learning Methodologies and Computer Applications in Archaeology, Dionysios Politis, 2008, 18 June 2012, 9781599047614, and evolved to become the most important city in Macedonia.After the fall of the Kingdom of Macedonia in 168 BC, in 148 BC Thessalonica was made the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia.weblink"Thessalonica" in Ancient History Encyclopedia Thessalonica became a free city of the Roman Republic under Mark Antony in 41 BC.BOOK,weblink First and Second Thessalonians, Earl J. Richard, 2007, 24 June 2012, 9780814659748, It grew to be an important trade-hub located on the Via Egnatia,White Tower Museum – A Timeline of Thessaloniki {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110126180435weblink |date=26 January 2011 }} the road connecting Dyrrhachium with Byzantium,BOOK,weblink The Book of Acts in Its Graeco-Roman Setting, David W. J. Gill, Conrad Gempf, 1994, 13 August 2011, 9780802848475, which facilitated trade between Thessaloniki and great centers of commerce such as Rome and Byzantium.BOOK,weblink Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective, Luc-Normand Tellier, 2009, 13 August 2011, 9782760522091, Thessaloniki also lay at the southern end of the main north-south route through the Balkans along the valleys of the Morava and Axios river valleys, thereby linking the Balkans with the rest of Greece.BOOK, The Early Medieval Balkans, V. A. Fine, Jr., John, John V. A. Fine, Jr., 1991, University of Michigan Press, 978-0-472-08149-3, 336, The city later became the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia. Later it became the capital of all the Greek provinces of the Roman Empire because of the city's importance in the Balkan peninsula.At the time of the Roman Empire, about 50 A.D., Thessaloniki was also one of the early centers of Christianity; while on his second missionary journey, Paul the Apostle visited this city's chief synagogue on three Sabbaths and sowed the seeds for Thessaloniki's first Christian church. Later, Paul wrote two letters to the new church at Thessaloniki, preserved in the Biblical canon as First and Second Thessalonians. Some scholars hold that the First Epistle to the Thessalonians is the first written book of the New Testament.BOOK,weblink The Jewish Annotated New Testament, Amy-Jill Levine, Marc Z. Brettler, 2011, 24 June 2012, 9780195297706, File:Aside 00348.JPG|thumb|The 4th-century AD Rotunda of Galerius, one of several Roman monuments in the city and a UNESCO World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteIn 306 AD, Thessaloniki acquired a patron saint, St. Demetrius, a Christian whom Galerius is said to have put to death. Most scholars agree with Hippolyte Delehaye's theory that Demetrius was not a Thessaloniki native, but his veneration was transferred to Thessaloniki when it replaced Sirmium as the main military base in the Balkans.JOURNAL, David, Woods, Thessalonica's Patron: Saint Demetrius or Emeterius?, 2000, Harvard Theological Review, 93, 3, 221–234, 1510028, harv, 10.1017/S001781600002530X, A basilical church dedicated to St. Demetrius, Hagios Demetrios, was first built in the 5th century AD and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.When the Roman Empire was divided into the tetrarchy, Thessaloniki became the administrative capital of one of the four portions of the Empire under Galerius Maximianus Caesar,BOOK,weblink The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Pat Southern, 2001, 13 August 2011, 9780415239431, BOOK,weblink Meaning and geography: the social conception of the region in northern Greece, Alexandros Ph Lagopoulos, Karin Boklund-Lagopoulou, 1992, 13 August 2011, 9783110129564, where Galerius commissioned an imperial palace, a new hippodrome, a triumphal arch and a mausoleum among others.BOOK,weblink A History of Roman Art, Enhanced Edition, Fred S. Kleiner, 2010, 13 August 2011, 978-0495909873, BOOK,weblink The two eyes of the Earth: art and ritual of kingship between Rome and Sasanian Iran, Matthew P. Canepa, 2009, 13 August 2011, 9780520257276, In 379, when the Roman Prefecture of Illyricum was divided between the East and West Roman Empires, Thessaloniki became the capital of the new Prefecture of Illyricum. The following year, the Edict of Thessalonica made Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire. BOOK, 6–7,weblink Church and State Through the Centuries: A Collection of Historic Documents with Commentaries, Ehler, Sidney Zdeneck, Morrall, John B, 1967, 2019-02-28, Edict of the Emperors Gratian, Valentinian II and Theodosius I establishing Catholocism as the State Religion, February 27, 380. [...] Given on the 3rd Kalends of March at Thessalonica., 9780819601896, In 390, Gothic troops under the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, led a massacre against the inhabitants of Thessalonica, who had risen in revolt against the Gothic soldiers. By the time of the Fall of Rome in 476, Thessaloniki was the second-largest city of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Byzantine era and Middle Ages

{{See also|Byzantine Greece|Demetrius of Thessaloniki |Kingdom of Thessalonica|Zealots of Thessalonica}}File:Thessaloniki, Nördliche Stadtmauer (Τείχη της Θεσσαλονίκης) (4. Jhdt.) (47052790724).jpg|alt=|thumb|Section of the Walls of ThessalonikiWalls of ThessalonikiFile:ΑΧΕΙΡΟΠΟΙΗΤΟΣ 1.jpg|alt=|thumb|Church of the AcheiropoietosChurch of the AcheiropoietosFrom the first years of the Byzantine Empire, Thessaloniki was considered the second city in the Empire after Constantinople,BOOK,weblink History of the Byzantine empire from DCCXVI to MLVII., George Finlay, 1856, 14 August 2011, BOOK,weblink The Byzantine Empire, Robert Browning, 1992, 14 August 2011, 9780813207544, BOOK,weblink The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, Donald MacGillivray Nicol, 1993, 14 August 2011, 9780521439916, both in terms of wealth and size. with a population of 150,000 in the mid-12th century.BOOK, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Treadgold, W.T., 1997, Stanford University Press, 9780804726306,weblink 702, 7 December 2014, The city held this status until its transfer to Venetian control in 1423. In the 14th century, the city's population exceeded 100,000 to 150,000,BOOK, The Balkans and the Near East: Introduction to a Shared History, Karl Kaser, 2011, Lit, 9783643501905,weblink 196, 7 December 2014, BOOK,weblink The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 1300 – c. 1415, Michael Jones, 1995, 14 August 2011, 9780521362900, BOOK,weblink The Balkans and the Near East: Introduction to a Shared History, Karl Kaser, 2011, 5 August 2011, 9783643501905, making it larger than London at the time.BOOK,weblink Progress and Problems in Medieval England: Essays in Honour of Edward Miller, Richard Britnell, John Hatcher, 2002, 14 August 2011, 9780521522731, During the 6th and 7th centuries, the area around Thessaloniki was invaded by Avars and Slavs, who unsuccessfully laid siege to the city several times, as narrated in the Miracles of Saint Demetrius.BOOK, Skedros, James C., Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki : civic patron and divine protector, 4th–7th centuries CE, 1999, Trinity Press International, Harrisburg, Pa, 978-1-56338-281-9, 105,weblink Traditional historiography stipulates that many Slavs settled in the hinterland of Thessaloniki;BOOK,weblink The early Slavs: culture and society in early medieval Eastern Europe, Paul M. Barford, 18 February 2012, 61, 0801439779, 2001, however, modern scholars consider this migration to have been on a much smaller scale than previously thought.T E Gregory, A History of Byzantium. Wiley- Blackwell, 2010. Pg 169. "It is now generally agreed that the people who lived in the Balkans after the Slavic "invasions" were probably for the most part the same as those who had lived there earlier, although the creation of new political groups and arrival of small immigrants caused people to look at themselves as distinct from their neighbors, including the Byzantines". In the 9th century, the Byzantine Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius, both natives of the city, created the first literary language of the Slavs, the Old Church Slavonic, most likely based on the Slavic dialect used in the hinterland of their hometown.BOOK, Curta, Florin, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages : 500 – 1250, 2006, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 978-0-521-81539-0, 125,weblink At the emperor's request, Constantine and his brother started the translation of religious texts into Old Church Slavonic, a literary language most likely based on the Macedonian dialect allegedly used in the hinterland of their hometown, Thessalonica, BOOK, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250, Cambridge University Press, 2006, Florin Curta, Paul Stephenson, yes, 214, BOOK, Apostolos Euangelou Vakalopoulos, A History of Thessaloniki,weblink 1993, Institute for Balkan Studies, BOOK, Charles Moser, The Cambridge History of Russian Literature,weblink 1992, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-42567-4, BOOK, Dixon-Kennedy, Mike, Encyclopedia of Russian and Slavic myth and legend., 1999, ABC-Clio, Oxford, 978-1-57607-130-4, 56,weblink 2nd printing, An Arab naval attack in 904 resulted in the sack of the city.BOOK, V. A. Fine, Jr., John, John V. A. Fine, Jr., The early medieval Balkans : a critical survey from the sixth to the late twelfth century, 2000, Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 978-0-472-08149-3, 140,weblink 1. paperback ed., 10.[Dr.], The economic expansion of the city continued through the 12th century as the rule of the Komnenoi emperors expanded Byzantine control to the north. Thessaloniki passed out of Byzantine hands in 1204,BOOK,weblink Byzantium and the Crusades, Jonathan Harris, 2006, 14 August 2011, 9781852855017, when Constantinople was captured by the forces of the Fourth Crusade and incorporated the city and its surrounding territories in the Kingdom of ThessalonicaBOOK,weblink The Crusades: A History, Jonathan Riley-Smith, 2005, 14 August 2011, 9780826472694, — which then became the largest vassal of the Latin Empire. In 1224, the Kingdom of Thessalonica was overrun by the Despotate of Epirus, a remnant of the former Byzantine Empire, under Theodore Komnenos Doukas who crowned himself Emperor,BOOK,weblink Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths and Lombards: And of the Empires of Thessalonica, Nicaea and Trebizond in the British Museum, Warwick William Wroth, 1911, 14 August 2011, 9781402189678, and the city became the capital of the short-lived Empire of Thessalonica.BOOK,weblink Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare, Jim Bradbury, 2004, 14 August 2011, 9780415221269, BOOK,weblink The late Byzantine army: arms and society, 1204–1453, Mark C. Bartusis, 1997, 14 August 2011, 0812216202, BOOK,weblink The History of Greece from Its Conquest by the Crusaders to Its Conquest by the Turks, and of the Empire of Trebizond, 1204–1461, George Finlay, 1851, 14 August 2011, Following his defeat at Klokotnitsa however in 1230,BOOK,weblink Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O, Tony Jaques, 2007, 14 August 2011, 9780313335389, the Empire of Thessalonica became a vassal state of the Second Bulgarian Empire until it was recovered again in 1246, this time by the Nicaean Empire.In 1342,BOOK,weblink The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, John, V. A. Fine, Jr., John V. A. Fine, Jr., 1994, 14 August 2011, 0472082604, the city saw the rise of the Commune of the Zealots, an anti-aristocratic party formed of sailors and the poor,BOOK,weblink A History of Byzantium, Timothy E. Gregory, 2010, 14 August 2011, 9781405184717, which is nowadays described as social-revolutionary. The city was practically independent of the rest of the Empire,BOOK,weblink A history of the Byzantine state and society, Warren T. Treadgold, 1997, 14 August 2011, 9780804726306, as it had its own government, a form of republic. The zealot movement was overthrown in 1350 and the city was reunited with the rest of the Empire.The capture of Gallipoli by the Ottomans in 1354 kicked off a rapid Turkish expansion in the southern Balkans, conducted both by the Ottomans themselves and by semi-independent Turkish ghazi warrior-bands. By 1369, the Ottomans were able to conquer Adrianople (modern Edirne), which became their new capital until 1453.{{sfn|Fine|1994|pp=377–378, 406}} Thessalonica, ruled by Manuel II Palaiologos (r. 1391–1425) itself surrendered after a lengthy siege in 1383–1387, along with most of eastern and central Macedonia, to the forces of Sultan Murad I.{{sfn|Vacalopoulos|1973|pp=59–64}} Initially, the surrendered cities were allowed complete autonomy in exchange for payment of the kharaj poll-tax. Following the death of Emperor John V Palaiologos in 1391, however, Manuel II escaped Ottoman custody and went to Constantinople, where he was crowned emperor, succeeding his father. This angered Sultan Bayezid I, who laid waste to the remaining Byzantine territories, and then turned on Chrysopolis, which was captured by storm and largely destroyed.{{sfn|Vacalopoulos|1973|pp=64–65}} Thessalonica too submitted again to Ottoman rule at this time, possibly after brief resistance, but was treated more leniently: although the city was brought under full Ottoman control, the Christian population and the Church retained most of their possessions, and the city retained its institutions.{{sfn|Vacalopoulos|1973|pp=65–67}}{{sfn|Necipoğlu|2009|pp=30, 84–99}}File:Meister der Demetrius-Kirche in Saloniki 001.jpg|alt=|left|180px|thumb|A mosaic of Saint George in Saint Demetrios Church ]]Thessalonica remained in Ottoman hands until 1403, when Emperor Manuel II sided with Bayezid's eldest son Süleyman in the Ottoman succession struggle that broke out following the crushing defeat and capture of Bayezid at the Battle of Ankara against Tamerlane in 1402. In exchange for his support, in the Treaty of Gallipoli the Byzantine emperor secured the return of Thessalonica, part of its hinterland, the Chalcidice peninsula, and the coastal region between the rivers Strymon and Pineios.{{sfn|Vacalopoulos|1973|pp=67, 75}}{{sfn|Bryer|1998|pp=777–778}} Thessalonica and the surrounding region were given as an autonomous appanage to John VII Palaiologos. After his death in 1408, he was succeeded by Manuel's third son, the Despot Andronikos Palaiologos, who was supervised by Demetrios Leontares until 1415. Thessalonica enjoyed a period of relative peace and prosperity after 1403, as the Turks were preoccupied with their own civil war, but was attacked by the rival Ottoman pretenders in 1412 (by Musa Çelebi{{sfn|Magoulias|1975|p=108}}) and 1416 (during the uprising of Mustafa Çelebi against Mehmed I{{sfn|Magoulias|1975|pp=123–125}}).{{sfn|Vacalopoulos|1973|pp=76–77}}{{sfn|Necipoğlu|2009|pp=39, 44, 47}} Once the Ottoman civil war ended, the Turkish pressure on the city began to increase again. Just as during the 1383–1387 siege, this led to a sharp division of opinion within the city between factions supporting resistance, if necessary with Western help, or submission to the Ottomans.{{sfn|Necipoğlu|2009|pp=46–47}}In 1423, Despot Andronikos Palaiologos ceded it to the Republic of Venice with the hope that it could be protected from the Ottomans who were besieging the city. The Venetians held Thessaloniki until it was captured by the Ottoman Sultan Murad II on 29 March 1430.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}

Ottoman period

{{see|Ottoman Greece|Salonica Eyalet|Salonica Vilayet}}{{see also|Committee of Union and Progress}}File:MakThessalonikiH01.jpg|thumb|View of Bey HamamBey HamamWhen Sultan Murad II captured Thessaloniki and sacked it in 1430, contemporary reports estimated that about one-fifth of the city's population was enslaved.BOOK, Nicol, Donald M., Byzantium and Venice: A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations, Cambridge University Press, 1992, 371, 0-521-42894-7, The capture and sack of Thessalonica is vividly described by an eye-witness, John Anagnostes ... He reckoned that 7000 citizens, perhaps one-fifth of the population, were carried off to slavery., Ottoman artillery was used to secure the city's capture and bypass its double walls. Upon the conquest of Thessaloniki, some of its inhabitants escaped,BOOK, Harris, Jonathan, Greek emigres in the West 1400–1520, Porphyrogenitus, 1995, 12, 1-871328-11-X, Many of the inhabitants of Thessalonica fled to the Venetian colonies in the early 15th century, in the face of sporadic attacks which culminated in the city's capture by Murad II in the 1430s., including intellectuals such as Theodorus Gaza "Thessalonicensis" and Andronicus Callistus.BOOK, Milner, Henry, The Turkish Empire: The Sultans, the Territory, and the People, BiblioBazaar, 2009, 87, 978-1-113-22399-9, Theodore Gaza, one of these exiles, escaped from Saloniki, his native city, upon its capture by Amurath., However, the change of sovereignty from the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman one did not affect the city's prestige as a major imperial city and trading hub.BOOK,weblink Balkan economic history, 1550–1950: from imperial borderlands to developing nations, John R. Lampe, Marvin R. Jackson, 1982, 14 August 2011, 0253303680, BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters, 2009, 14 August 2011, 9781438110257, Thessaloniki and Smyrna, although smaller in size than Constantinople, were the Ottoman Empire's most important trading hubs. Thessaloniki's importance was mostly in the field of shipping, but also in manufacturing, while most of the city's trade was controlled by ethnic Greeks.During the Ottoman period, the city's population of Ottoman Muslims (including those of Turkish and Albanian origin, as well as Bulgarian Muslim and Greek Muslim convert origin) grew substantially. According to the 1478 census Selânik (), as the city came to be known in Ottoman Turkish, had 6,094 Greek Orthodox households, 4,320 Muslim ones, and some Catholic. No Jews were recorded in the census suggesting that the subsequent influx of Jewish population was not linkedBOOK, The Jews of the Ottoman Empire, Lowry, Heath W., Darwin Press, 1994, 0878500901, 207, When Did the Sephardim Arrive in Salonica? The Testimony of the Ottoman Tax-Registers, 1478-1613, to the already existing Romaniots community.BOOK, A History of Thessaloniki, Vacalopoulos, Apostolos E., Institute for Balkan Studies, 1963, 79, Soon after the turn of the 15th to 16th century, however, nearly 20,000 Sephardic Jews immigrated to Greece from the Iberian Peninsula following their expulsion from Spain by the 1492 Alhambra Decree.BOOK,weblink Judeo-Spanish and the Jewish Community of 21st Century Thessaloniki: Ethnic Language Shift in the Maintenance of Ethno Cultural Identity, Tina P. Christodouleas, 2008, 18 June 2012, 9781109014518, By c. 1500, the number of households had grown to 7,986 Greek ones, 8,575 Muslim ones, and 3,770 Jewish. By 1519, Sephardic Jewish households numbered 15,715, 54% of the city's population. Some historians consider the Ottoman regime's invitation to Jewish settlement was a strategy to prevent the ethnic Greek population from dominating the city.Rosamond McKitterick, Christopher Allmand, The New Cambridge Medieval History, p. 779Thessaloniki was the capital of the Sanjak of Selanik within the wider Rumeli Eyalet (Balkans)BOOK,weblink The Penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain), 1843, 14 August 2011, until 1826, and subsequently the capital of Selanik Eyalet (after 1867, the Selanik Vilayet).BOOK,weblink Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History: Selected Articles and Essays, Kemal H. Karpat, 2002, 14 August 2011, 9004121013, BOOK,weblink Turkey: Its History and Progress: From the Journals and Correspondence of Sir James Porter Continued to the Present Time, with a Memoir of Sir James Porter, Volume 2, James Porter, George Gerard de Hochepied Larpent, 1854, 14 August 2011, This consisted of the sanjaks of Selanik, Serres and Drama between 1826 and 1912.BOOK,weblink La Turquie à l'exposition universelle de 1867, Turkey at the Universal Exposition of 1867, Salaheddin Bey, 1867, 14 August 2011, file:White Tower and Beach front.jpg|thumb|The White Tower of ThessalonikiWhite Tower of ThessalonikiWith the break out of the Greek War of Independence in the spring of 1821, the governor Yusuf Bey imprisoned in his headquarters more than 400 hostages. On 18 May, when Yusuf learned of the insurrection to the villages of Chalkidiki, he ordered half of his hostages to be slaughtered before his eyes. The mulla of Thessalonica, Hayrıülah, gives the following description of Yusuf's retaliations: "Every day and every night you hear nothing in the streets of Thessaloniki but shouting and moaning. It seems that Yusuf Bey, the Yeniceri Agasi, the Subaşı, the hocas and the ulemas have all gone raving mad."Vacalopoulos, History of Macedonia, pp. 595–596 It would take until the end of the century for the city's Greek community to recover.Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts, pp. 132–139Thessaloniki was also a Janissary stronghold where novice Janissaries were trained. In June 1826, regular Ottoman soldiers attacked and destroyed the Janissary base in Thessaloniki while also killing over 10,000 Janissaries, an event known as The Auspicious Incident in Ottoman history.BOOK,weblink Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2011, 14 August 2011, 9781598843378, In 1870–1917, driven by economic growth, the city's population expanded by 70%, reaching 135,000 in 1917.The last few decades of Ottoman control over the city were an era of revival, particularly in terms of the city's infrastructure. It was at that time that the Ottoman administration of the city acquired an "official" face with the creation of the Government HouseBOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-231-1, A, 91, while a number of new public buildings were built in the eclectic style in order to project the European face both of Thessaloniki and the Ottoman Empire.BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-231-1, A, 95, The city walls were torn down between 1869 and 1889,BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-231-1, A, 82–83, efforts for a planned expansion of the city are evident as early as 1879, the first tram service started in 1888BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-231-1, A, 86, and the city streets were illuminated with electric lamp posts in 1908.BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-231-1, A, 87, In 1888 the Oriental Railway connected Thessaloniki to Central Europe via rail through Belgrade and to Monastir in 1893, while the Thessaloniki-Istanbul Junction Railway connected it to Constantinople in 1896.BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-231-1, A, 85,

20th century and since

{{see also|Balkan Wars|Macedonian front|Provisional Government of National Defence|Axis occupation of Greece|History of the Jews in Thessaloniki#Destruction of the Jews of Salonika}}{{wide image|Salonique-Vue générale 1917.jpg|600px|align-cap=center|The seafront of Thessaloniki, as it was in 1917.}}In the early 20th century, Thessaloniki was in the center of radical activities by various groups; the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, founded in 1897,BOOK,weblink Nontraditional Warfare, William R. Schilling, 2002, 27 June 2012, 9781612344416, and the Greek Macedonian Committee, founded in 1903.BOOK,weblink The Greek struggle in Macedonia, 1897–1913, Douglas, Dakin, Douglas Dakin, 1966, 27 June 2012, 9789607387004, In 1903 an anarchist group known as the Boatmen of Thessaloniki planted bombs in several buildings in Thessaloniki, including the Ottoman Bank, with some assistance from the IMRO. The Greek consulate in Ottoman Thessaloniki (now the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle) served as the center of operations for the Greek guerillas.During this period, and since the 14th century, Thessaloniki's Jewish element was the most dominant; it was the only city in Europe where the Jews were a majority of the total population.WEB,weblink EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, www.holocausteducenter.gr, en, 2018-09-13, The city was ethnically diverse and cosmopolitan. In 1890 its population had risen to 118,000, 47% of which were Jews, followed by Turks (22%), Greeks (14%), Bulgars (8%), Roma (2%), and others (7%).BOOK, Συλλογικο εργο, "Ιστορια του Ελληνικου Εθνους", History of Greek Nation Том ΙΔ, ΕΚΔΟΤΙΚΗ ΑΘΗΝΩΝ, ATHENS, 1973, g. 340, Greek, English, By 1913, the ethnic composition of the city had changed so that the population stood at 157,889, with Jews at 39%, followed again by Turks (29%), Greeks (25%), Bulgars (4%), Roma (2%), and others at 1%.BOOK, Васил Кънчов, "Избрани произведения", Том II, "Македония. Етнография и статистика",weblink Издателство "Наука и изкуство", София, 1970, g. 440, Bulgarian, 19 October 2007, Many varied religions were practiced and many languages spoken, including Ladino, a dialect of Spanish spoken by the city's Jews.Thessaloniki was also the center of activities of the Young Turks, a political reform movement, which goal was to replace the Ottoman Empire's absolute monarchy with a constitutional government. The Young Turks started out as an underground movement, until finally in 1908, they started the Young Turk Revolution from the city of Thessaloniki, by which their revolutionaries gained control over the Ottoman Empire.BOOK,weblink Italo-Turkish Diplomacy and the War Over Libya, 1911–1912, Timothy Winston Childs, 1990, 27 June 2012, 9004090258, Eleftherias (Liberty) Square, where the Young Turks gathered at the outbreak of the revolution, is named after the event.WEB,weblink Πλατεία Ελευθερίας, www.thessaloniki.gr, Municipality of Thessaloniki, Eleftherias Square, 2018-09-13, File:CapturedeThessalonique1912.jpg|thumb|left|Constantine I of Greece with George I of GreeceGeorge I of Greece(File:Francuska vojksa vo Solun.jpg|thumb|200px|Allied armies in Thessaloniki, World War I)File:1st Battalion of the National Defence army marches for the front.jpeg|thumb|200px|The 1st Battalion of the Army of National Defence marches on its way to the Macedonian frontMacedonian frontAs the First Balkan War broke out, Greece declared war on the Ottoman Empire and expanded its borders. When Eleftherios Venizelos, Prime Minister at the time, was asked if the Greek army should move towards Thessaloniki or Monastir (now Bitola, Republic of North Macedonia), Venizelos replied "Θεσσαλονίκη με κάθε κόστος!" (Thessaloniki, at all costs!).BOOK,weblink Life of Venizelos, S. B. Chester, 1921, 7 December 2011, 159, As both Greece and Bulgaria wanted Thessaloniki, the Ottoman garrison of the city entered negotiations with both armies.BOOK,weblink The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: prelude to the First World War, Richard C. Hall, 2000, 7 December 2011, 9780415229463, On 8 November 1912 (26 October Old Style), the feast day of the city's patron saint, Saint Demetrius, the Greek Army accepted the surrender of the Ottoman garrison at Thessaloniki.BOOK,weblink St Demetrius of Thessalonica – Cult and Devotion in the Middle Ages, Eugenia Russell, 2010, 10 August 2011, 9783034301817, The Bulgarian army arrived one day after the surrender of the city to Greece and Tahsin Pasha, ruler of the city, told the Bulgarian officials that "I have only one Thessaloniki, which I have surrendered". After the Second Balkan War, Thessaloniki and the rest of the Greek portion of Macedonia were officially annexed to Greece by the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913.BOOK,weblink A Short History of Modern Greece, Cambridge University Press, 1979, 10 August 2011, 9781001303413, On 18 March 1913 George I of Greece was assassinated in the city by Alexandros Schinas.BOOK,weblink The Riverside Dictionary of Biography, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004, 27 June 2012, 0618493379, In 1915, during World War I, a large Allied expeditionary force established a base at Thessaloniki for operations against pro-German Bulgaria.BOOK,weblink The Italian Army of World War I, David Nicolle, Raffaele Ruggeri, 2003, 13 August 2011, 9781841763989, This culminated in the establishment of the Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonika Front.BOOK,weblink World War I: encyclopedia, Volume 1, Spencer Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts, 2005, 13 August 2011, 9781851094202, 100 + 1 Years of Greece, Volume I, Maniateas Publishings, Athens, 1995. pp. 148–149 In 1916, pro-Venizelist Greek army officers and civilians, with the support of the Allies, launched an uprising,BOOK,weblink Stillborn republic: social coalitions and party strategies in Greece, 1922–1936, George Th Mavrogordatos, 1983, 13 August 2011, 9780520043589, creating a pro-AlliedBOOK,weblink The Balkan exchange of minorities and its impact on Greece, Dimitri Pentzopoulos, 2002, 10 August 2011, 9781850656746, temporary government by the name of the "Provisional Government of National Defence"BOOK,weblink Eleftherios Venizelos: The Trials of Statesmanship, Paschalis M. Kitromilides, 2008, 13 August 2011, 9780748633647, that controlled the "New Lands" (lands that were gained by Greece in the Balkan Wars, most of Northern Greece including Greek Macedonia, the North Aegean as well as the island of Crete); the official government of the King in Athens, the "State of Athens", controlled "Old Greece" which were traditionally monarchist. The State of Thessaloniki was disestablished with the unification of the two opposing Greek governments under Venizelos, following the abdication of King Constantine in 1917.On 30 December 1915 an Austrian (wikt:air raid|air raid) on Thessaloniki alarmed many town civilians and killed at least one person, and in response the Allied troops based there arrested the German and Austrian and Bulgarian and Turkish vice-consuls and their families and dependents and put them on a battleship, and billeted troops in their consulate buildings in Thessaloniki.Daily Telegraph Saturday 1 January 1916, reprinted on page 28 'Daily Telegraph'' Friday 1 January 1916File:Thessaloniki-Aerialfire1.png|thumb|left|Aerial photograph of the Great Fire of 1917.]]Most of the old center of the city was destroyed by the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917, which was started accidentally by an unattended kitchen fire on 18 August 1917.BOOK, The Redesign of Thessaloniki after the Fire of 1917, Yerolympos, Alexandra Karadimou, 1995, University Studio Press, Thessaloniki, The fire swept through the centre of the city, leaving 72,000 people homeless; according to the Pallis Report, most of them were Jewish (50,000). Many businesses were destroyed, as a result, 70% of the population were unemployed. Two churches and many synagogues and mosques were lost. Nearly one-quarter of the total population of approximately 271,157 became homeless. Following the fire the government prohibited quick rebuilding, so it could implement the new redesign of the city according to the European-style urban plan prepared by a group of architects, including the Briton Thomas Mawson, and headed by French architect Ernest Hébrard. Property values fell from 6.5 million Greek drachmas to 750,000.WEB,weblink Yakov Benmayor, History of Jews in Thessaloniki, Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki, 5 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081226001725weblink">weblink 26 December 2008, After the defeat of Greece in the Greco-Turkish War and during the break-up of the Ottoman Empire, a population exchange took place between Greece and Turkey. Over 160,000 ethnic Greeks deported from the former Ottoman Empire – particularly Greeks from Asia Minor Ionia, Kappadokia, Pontus and Eastern Anatolia and East Thrace were resettled in the city, changing its demographics. Additionally many of the city's Muslims, including Ottoman Greek Muslims, were deported to Turkey, ranging at about 20,000 people.BOOK,weblink Population Exchange in Greek Macedonia: The Rural Settlement of Refugees 1922–1930, Elisabeth Kontogiorgi, 2006, 10 August 2011, 9780199278961, This made the Greek element dominant,BOOK,weblink Walking in the European City: Quotidian Mobility and Urban Ethnography, Brown, Dr Evrick, Shortell, Dr Timothy, 2014-05-28, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 9781472416162, en, while the Jewish population was reduced to a minority for the first time since the 14th century.BOOK,weblink Jewish Salonica: Between the Ottoman Empire and Modern Greece, Naar, Devin E., 2016-09-07, Stanford University Press, 9781503600096, en, File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-168-0894-21A, Griechenland, Saloniki, Erfassung von Juden.jpg|thumb|upright=1.08|Registration of the male Jews of Thessaloniki in July 1942, Eleftherias Square. 96% of deported Jews perished in (Nazi concentration camps]].BOOK,weblink Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews, Longerich, Peter, 2010-04-15, OUP Oxford, 9780191539466, en, )During World War II Thessaloniki was heavily bombarded by Fascist Italy (with 232 people dead, 871 wounded and over 800 buildings damaged or destroyed in November 1940 alone),BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-239-7, B, 723–724, and, the Italians having failed in their invasion of Greece, it fell to the forces of Nazi Germany on 8 April 1941BOOK,weblink Chronology and index of the Second World War, 1938–1945, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1975, 10 August 2011, 9780887365683, and went under German occupation. The Nazis soon forced the Jewish residents into a ghetto near the railroads and on 15 March 1943 began the deportation of the city's Jews to Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps.BOOK,weblink After the War was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation, and State in Greece, 1943–1960, Mazower, Mark, 2000, Princeton University Press, 0691058423, en, BOOK,weblink The Routledge atlas of the Holocaust, Martin Gilbert, 1982, 10 August 2011, 9780415281454, BOOK,weblink The Expulsion of the Jews: Five Hundred Years of Exodus, Yale Strom, 1992, 10 August 2011, 9781561710812, Most were immediately sent to the gas chambers. Of the 45,000 Jews deported to Auschwitz, only 4% survived.WEB, Salonika,weblink United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 16 September 2018, en, NEWS, Christides, Giorgos, Thessaloniki Strives to Revive Its Jewish Past, but Encounters a New Form of anti-Semitism,weblink 16 September 2018, Haaretz, 16 November 2014, en, File:Thessaloniki under the German occupation.png|upright|thumb|Part of Eleftherias Square and Stein mansion during the Axis occupation.]]During a speech in Reichstag, Hitler claimed that the intention of his Balkan campaign, was to prevent the Allies from establishing "a new Macedonian front", like they did during WWI. The importance of Thessaloniki to Nazi Germany can be demonstrated by the fact that, initially, Hitler had planned to incorporate it directly in the Third ReichBOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-239-7, B, 753, (that is, make it part of Germany) and not have it controlled by a puppet state such as the Hellenic State or an ally of Germany (Thessaloniki had been promised to Yugoslavia as a reward for joining the Axis on 25 March 1941).BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-239-7, B, 738, As it was the first major city in Greece to fall to the occupying forces, the first Greek resistance group formed in Thessaloniki (under the name Ελευθερία, Eleutheria, "Freedom")BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-239-7, B, 763, as well as the first anti-Nazi newspaper in an occupied territory anywhere in Europe,BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-239-7, B, 765–766, also by the name Eleutheria. Thessaloniki was also home to a military camp-converted-concentration camp, known in German as "Konzentrationslager Pavlo Mela" (Pavlos Melas Concentration Camp),BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-239-7, B, 766–768, where members of the resistance and other anti-fascists were held either to be killed or sent to other concentration camps. On 30 October 1944, Thessaloniki was liberated by forces of the Greek People's Liberation Army, headed by Markos Vafiadis.BOOK,weblink Greece at the crossroads: the Civil War and its legacy, John O. Iatrídês, Linda Wrigley, Lehrman Institute, 1995, 10 August 2011, 9780271043302, In the 1946 monarchy referendum, the majority of the locals voted in favour of a republic, contrary to the rest of Greece.BOOK, Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos, Θεσσαλονίκη ... εν Θερμώ – Ο συγκλονιστικός 20ός αιώνας της πόλης, Thessaloniki ... on Fire – The City's Sensational 20th Century, Maliaris Paideia, 2009, 978-960-457-239-7, B, 942–943, After the war, Thessaloniki was rebuilt with large-scale development of new infrastructure and industry throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Many of its architectural treasures still remain, adding value to the city as a tourist destination, while several early Christian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki were added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1988.WEB,weblink Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika, whc.unesco.org, 16 August 2011, In 1997, Thessaloniki was celebrated as the European Capital of Culture,WEB,weblink Past European Capitals of Culture, ec.europa.eu, 16 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111019061617weblink">weblink 19 October 2011, dmy-all, sponsoring events across the city and the region. Agency established to oversee the cultural activities of that year 1997 was still in existence by 2010.BOOK, Jason Manolopoulos, Greece's 'Odious' Debt: The Looting of the Hellenic Republic by the Euro, the Political Elite and the Investment Community (Anthem Finance), Anthem Press, 2011, 288, 978-0-85728-771-7, In 2004 the city hosted a number of the football events as part of the 2004 Summer Olympics.WEB,weblink Athens 2004 Olympic Games Tickets, www.olympic.org, 16 August 2011, Today, Thessaloniki has become one of the most important trade and business hubs in Southeastern Europe, with its port, the Port of Thessaloniki being one of the largest in the Aegean and facilitating trade throughout the Balkan hinterland. On 26 October 2012 the city celebrated its centennial since its incorporation into Greece.WEB,weblink Το 2012 συμπληρώνονται 100 ΧΡΟΝΙΑ ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΗΣ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ!, 2012 marks 100 YEARS OF FREE THESSALONIKI!, www.thessaloniki.gr, 16 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120113201219weblink">weblink 13 January 2012, dmy-all, The city also forms one of the largest student centres in Southeastern Europe, is host to the largest student population in Greece and was the European Youth Capital in 2014.WEB,weblink Thessaloniki Candidate City European Youth Capital 2014, www.thessaloniki2014.eu, 20 May 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110409170710weblink">weblink 9 April 2011, dmy-all,

Geography

Geology

Thessaloniki lies on the northern fringe of the Thermaic Gulf on its eastern coast and is bound by Mount Chortiatis on its southeast. Its proximity to imposing mountain ranges, hills and fault lines, especially towards its southeast have historically made the city prone to geological changes.Since medieval times, Thessaloniki was hit by strong earthquakes, notably in 1759, 1902, 1978 and 1995.WEB,weblink 5 Significant Earthquakes where Location Name includes Thessaloniki, United States Department of Interior, US Geological Survey, 18 August 2011, On 19–20 June 1978, the city suffered a series of powerful earthquakes, registering 5.5 and 6.5 on the Richter scale.WEB,weblink Significant earthquakes of the world – 1978, United States Department of Interior, US Geological Survey, 18 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100123173040weblink">weblink 23 January 2010, dmy-all, BOOK, 100+1 Χρόνια Ελλάδα, 100+1 Years of Greece, Maniateas Publishings, 1999, Volume II, 210–211, The tremors caused considerable damage to a number of buildings and ancient monuments, but the city withstood the catastrophe without any major problems. One apartment building in central Thessaloniki collapsed during the second earthquake, killing many, raising the final death toll to 51.{{wide image|Thessaloniki view.jpg|1500px|align-cap=center|Panoramic view of the city from Kedrinos Lofos with Mount Olympus in the background.}}

Climate

Thessaloniki's climate is directly affected by the sea it is situated on.BOOK,weblink Energy and climate in the urban built environment, Volume 1, 2001, Matheos Santamouris, Demosthenes N. Asimakopoulos, 21 August 2011, 9781873936900, The city lies in a transitional climatic zone, so its climate displays characteristics of several climates. According to the Köppen climate classification, it has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) that borders on a Mediterranean climate (Csa), as well as a semi-arid climate (BSk), observed on the periphery of the region. Its average annual precipitation of {{convert|450|mm|in|1|abbr=in}} is due to the Pindus rain shadow drying the westerly winds. However, the city has a summer precipitation between {{convert|20|to|30|mm|in|abbr=in}}, which prevents it from qualifying as a Mediterranean climate (Csa), and increases gradually towards the north and west, turning humid subtropical.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}}Winters are relatively dry, with common morning frost. Snowfalls οccur sporadically more or less every winter, but the snow cover does not last for more than a few days. Fog is common, with an average of 193 foggy days in a year.WEB,weblink Thessaloniki, Greece, www.weatherbase.com, 21 August 2011, During the coldest winters, temperatures can drop to {{convert|−10|C|F}}. The record minimum temperature in Thessaloniki was {{convert|−14|C|F|0}}.WEB,weblink Thessaloniki Mikra, Hellenic National Meteorological Service – Greek Ministry of Defence, 21 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110816212836weblink">weblink 16 August 2011, dmy-all, On average, Thessaloniki experiences frost (sub-zero temperature) 32 days a year. The coldest month of the year in the city is January, with an average 24-hour temperature of {{convert|5|C|F|0}}.WEB,weblink Thessaloniki/Mikra Greece, www.worldclimate.org, 21 August 2011, Wind is also usual in the winter months, with December and January having an average wind speed of {{convert|26|km/h|0|abbr=on}}.Thessaloniki's summers are hot and quite dry. Maximum temperatures usually rise above {{convert|30|°C|0|abbr=on}}, but they rarely approach or go over {{convert|40|C|F}}; the average number of days the temperature is above {{convert|32|C|F|0}} is 32. The maximum recorded temperature in the city was {{convert|44|C|F|0}}. Rain seldom falls in summer, mainly during thunderstorms. In the summer months Thessaloniki also experiences strong heat waves.BOOK,weblink 1999, Climate, change and risk, Thomas E. Downing, Alexander A. Olsthoorn, Richard S. J. Tol, 21 August 2011, 9780415170314, The hottest month of the year in the city is July, with an average 24-hour temperature of {{convert|26|C|F|0}}. The average wind speed for June and July in Thessaloniki is {{convert|20|km/h|mph|0}}.{{Weather box|width = 100%|location=Thessaloniki 1973-2019 (extremes 1963-2019)|metric first=yes|single line=yes|Jan record high C = 23.0|Feb record high C = 24.0|Mar record high C = 32.0|Apr record high C = 31.0|May record high C = 36.0|Jun record high C = 41.4|Jul record high C = 44.0|Aug record high C = 40.4|Sep record high C = 37.3|Oct record high C = 32.2|Nov record high C = 27.0|Dec record high C = 25.1|year record high C = 44.0|Jan high C=9.1|Feb high C=11.0|Mar high C=14.5|Apr high C=19.2|May high C=24.6|Jun high C=29.6|Jul high C=31.9|Aug high C=30.8|Sep high C=27.1|Oct high C=21.1|Nov high C=15.1|Dec high C=10.7|year high C=|Jan mean C=5.3|Feb mean C=6.8|Mar mean C=9.6|Apr mean C=13.6|May mean C=18.7|Jun mean C=23.6|Jul mean C=25.9|Aug mean C=25.0|Sep mean C=21.3|Oct mean C=16.3|Nov mean C=11.0|Dec mean C=6.7|year mean C=|Jan low C=1.4|Feb low C=2.5|Mar low C=4.9|Apr low C=8.0|May low C=12.9|Jun low C=17.5|Jul low C=19.8|Aug low C=19.1|Sep low C=15.8|Oct low C=11.6|Nov low C=7.0|Dec low C=3.0|year low C=|Jan record low C = -14.2|Feb record low C = -10.0|Mar record low C = -7.0|Apr record low C = -2.0|May record low C = 2.8|Jun record low C = 6.0|Jul record low C = 10.0|Aug record low C = 7.8|Sep record low C = 3.0|Oct record low C = -1.0|Nov record low C = -6.2|Dec record low C = -9.8|year record low C = -14.2|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm=41.0|Feb precipitation mm=28.3|Mar precipitation mm=39.3|Apr precipitation mm=28.7|May precipitation mm=39.3|Jun precipitation mm=27.9|Jul precipitation mm=26.8|Aug precipitation mm=17.6|Sep precipitation mm=42.7|Oct precipitation mm=47.1|Nov precipitation mm=34.9|Dec precipitation mm=48.5|Jan precipitation days=8.8|Feb precipitation days=8.3|Mar precipitation days=9.8|Apr precipitation days=7.4|May precipitation days=8.0|Jun precipitation days=5.5|Jul precipitation days=3.8|Aug precipitation days=3.6|Sep precipitation days=6.3|Oct precipitation days=7.3|Nov precipitation days=7.3|Dec precipitation days=9.0|unit precipitation days=|Jan humidity = 76.1|Feb humidity = 73.0|Mar humidity = 72.4|Apr humidity = 67.8|May humidity = 63.8|Jun humidity = 55.9|Jul humidity = 53.2|Aug humidity = 55.3|Sep humidity = 62.0|Oct humidity = 70.2|Nov humidity = 76.8|Dec humidity = 78.0|Jan sun=110.7|Feb sun=118.6|Mar sun=166.9|Apr sun=197.9|May sun=249.5|Jun sun=292.5|Jul sun=323|Aug sun=284|Sep sun=216.6|Oct sun=159.2|Nov sun=112.7|Dec sun=96.3|source 1=weblink weblink weblink}}

Government

File:Thessaloniki urban and metropolitan areas map.svg|thumb|Thessaloniki's urban and metropolitanmetropolitanAccording to the Kallikratis reform, as of 1 January 2011 the Thessaloniki Urban Area () which makes up the "City of Thessaloniki", is made up of six self-governing municipalities () and one municipal unit (). The municipalities that are included in the Thessaloniki Urban Area are those of Thessaloniki (the city center and largest in population size), Kalamaria, Neapoli-Sykies, Pavlos Melas, Kordelio-Evosmos, Ampelokipoi-Menemeni, and the municipal units of Pylaia and Panorama, part of the municipality of Pylaia-Chortiatis. Prior to the Kallikratis reform, the Thessaloniki Urban Area was made up of twice as many municipalities, considerably smaller in size, which created bureaucratic problems.The Metropolitan Governance of Thessaloniki! {{webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20120716140044weblink |date=16 July 2012 }} (in Greek)

Thessaloniki Municipality

{{see also|List of mayors of Thessaloniki}}The municipality of Thessaloniki () is the second most populous in Greece, after Athens, with a resident population of 325,182WEB, el:Απογραφή Πληθυσμού – Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός, Detailed census results 2011,weblink Hellenic Statistical Authority, xls, 6 September 2013, 20 February 2015, el, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131225194213weblink">weblink 25 December 2013, (in 2011) and an area of {{convert|19.307|km2|sqmi|3|abbr=off}}. The municipality forms the core of the Thessaloniki Urban Area, with its central district (the city center), referred to as the Kentro, meaning 'center' or 'downtown'.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}The city's first mayor, Osman Sait Bey, was appointed when the institution of mayor was inaugurated under the Ottoman Empire in 1912. The incumbent mayor is {{interlanguage link|Konstantinos Zervas|el|Κωνσταντίνος Ζέρβας}}. In 2011, the municipality of Thessaloniki had a budget of €464.33 millionWEB,weblink Σύντομη Οικονομική Κατάσταση Προϋπολογισμού, Short Economic Situation of the Budget, Municipality of Thessaloniki, 27 June 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141209154023weblink">weblink 9 December 2014, dmy-all, while the budget of 2012 stands at €409.00 million.WEB,weblink Σύντομη Οικονομική Κατάσταση Προϋπολογισμού, Short Economic Situation of the Budget, Municipality of Thessaloniki, 27 June 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130529022646weblink">weblink 29 May 2013, dmy-all,

Other

{{See also|Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace|Thessaloniki A (Hellenic Parliament constituency)}}File:Ministry-Salonika.jpg|thumb|The Government House, now the Ministry for Macedonia and Thrace, designed by Vitaliano PoselliVitaliano PoselliFile:Thessaloniki prefecture building.jpg|thumb|The Prefecture building (Villa AllatiniVilla AllatiniThessaloniki is the second largest city in Greece. It is an influential city for the northern parts of the country and is the capital of the region of Central Macedonia and the Thessaloniki regional unit. The Ministry of Macedonia and Thrace is also based in Thessaloniki, being that the city is the de facto capital of the Greek region of Macedonia.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}It is customary every year for the Prime Minister of Greece to announce his administration's policies on a number of issues, such as the economy, at the opening night of the Thessaloniki International Fair. In 2010, during the first months of the 2010 Greek debt crisis, the entire cabinet of Greece met in Thessaloniki to discuss the country's future.WEB, ΔΗΜΟΣΙΕΥΣΗ, Πρεμιέρα Υπουργικού με τρία νομοσχέδια,weblink Δημοσιογραφικός Οργανισμός Λαμπράκη Α.Ε., 9 April 2011, In the Hellenic Parliament, the Thessaloniki urban area constitutes a 16-seat constituency. As of the 2019 Greek legislative election the largest party in Thessaloniki is the New Democracy with 35.55% of the vote, followed by the Coalition of the Radical Left (31.29%) and the Movement for Change (6.05%).WEB,weblink National elections – July 2019, Ministry of Interior, 4 August 2019, The table below summarises the results of the latest elections.{|class="wikitable"2019 Greek legislative election>2019 election results for Thessaloniki A!Party!Votes!%!Shift!MPs (16)!ChangeNew Democracy107,60735.55%{{increase}}10.26%{{Composition bar16border=none|per=1}}{{increase}}3Coalition of the Radical Left|94,69731.29%{{decrease}}4.52%5{{Coalition of the Radical Left/meta/color}}per=1}}{{decrease}}1Movement for Change|18,3136.05%{{increase}}1.731{{PASOK/meta/color}}per=1}}{{nochange}}0Greek Solution|16,2725.38%{{increase}}5.38%1{{Greek Solution/meta/color}}per=1}}{{increase}}1Communist Party of Greece|16,0285.30%{{decrease}}0.01%1{{Communist Party of Greece/meta/color}}per=1}}{{nochange}}0MeRA25|14,3794.75%{{increase}}4.75%1{{MeRA25/meta/color}}per=1}}{{increase}}1Other parties (unrepresented)|35,36411.68%{{increase}}5.15%{{nochange}}0

Cityscape

{{Refimprove section|date=September 2018}}File:ThessaloniqueHébrard.PNG|thumb|Plan for central Thessaloniki by Ernest HébrardErnest Hébrard

Architecture

Architecture in Thessaloniki is the direct result of the city's position at the centre of all historical developments in the Balkans. Aside from its commercial importance, Thessaloniki was also for many centuries the military and administrative hub of the region, and beyond this the transportation link between Europe and the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine).Merchants, traders and refugees from all over Europe settled in the city. The need for commercial and public buildings in this new era of prosperity led to the construction of large edifices in the city center. During this time, the city saw the building of banks, large hotels, theatres, warehouses, and factories. Architects who designed some of the most notable buildings of the city, in the late 19th and early 20th century, include Vitaliano Poselli, Pietro Arrigoni, Xenophon Paionidis, Salvatore Poselli, Leonardo Gennari, Eli Modiano, Moshé Jacques, Jean Joseph Pleyber, Frederic Charnot, Ernst Ziller, Roubens Max, Levi Ernst, Angelos Siagas, Alexandros Tzonis and others, using mainly the styles of Eclecticism, Art Nouveau and Neobaroque.(File:Thessaloniki Aerial.png|thumb|Overview of the city's centre.)The city layout changed after 1870, when the seaside fortifications gave way to extensive piers, and many of the oldest walls of the city were demolished, including those surrounding the White Tower, which today stands as the main landmark of the city. As parts of the early Byzantine walls were demolished, this allowed the city to expand east and west along the coast.WEB,weblink thessaloniki.gr, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120113204658weblink">weblink 13 January 2012, dmy-all, The expansion of Eleftherias Square towards the sea completed the new commercial hub of the city and at the time was considered one of the most vibrant squares of the city. As the city grew, workers moved to the western districts, because of their proximity to factories and industrial activities; while the middle and upper classes gradually moved from the city-center to the eastern suburbs, leaving mainly businesses. In 1917, a devastating fire swept through the city and burned uncontrollably for 32 hours.Gerolympos, Alexandra Karadimou. The Redesign of Thessaloniki after the Fire of 1917. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki, 1995 It destroyed the city's historic center and a large part of its architectural heritage, but paved the way for modern development and allowed Thessaloniki the development of a proper European city center, featuring wider diagonal avenues and monumental squares; which the city initially lacked – much of what was considered to be 'essential' in European architecture.BOOK, Karadimou-Gerolympou, Alexandra, Urban transformation in the Balkans (1820–1920): Aspects of Balkan town planning and the remaking of Thessaloniki, University Studio Press, 1996, 960-12-0553-5, {{wide image|Thessaloniki-Aristotelous360.png|900px|align-cap=center|Panoramic view of Aristotelous Square, one of Thessaloniki's most recognizable areas, which was designed by Ernest Hébrard.}}

City centre

{{See also|Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917}}File:Θεσσαλονίκη 2014 - panoramio (2).jpg|thumb|The old Hotel Astoria on Tsimiski Street, typical beaux-arts architecturebeaux-arts architectureAfter the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917, a team of architects and urban planners including Thomas Mawson and Ernest Hebrard, a French architect, chose the Byzantine era as the basis of their (re)building designs for Thessaloniki's city centre. The new city plan included axes, diagonal streets and monumental squares, with a street grid that would channel traffic smoothly. The plan of 1917 included provisions for future population expansions and a street and road network that would be, and still is sufficient today. It contained sites for public buildings and provided for the restoration of Byzantine churches and Ottoman mosques.Today, the city center of Thessaloniki includes the features designed as part of the plan and forms the point in the city where most of the public buildings, historical sites, entertainment venues and stores are located. The center is characterized by its many historical buildings, arcades, laneways and distinct architectural styles such as Art Nouveau and Art Deco, which can be seen on many of its buildings.File:Thessalonikki, Macedonia, Greece 777.jpg|thumb|A street in LadadikaLadadikaAlso called the historic centre, it is divided into several districts, including Dimokratias Square (Democarcy Sq. known also as Vardaris) Ladadika (where many entertainment venues and tavernas are located), Kapani (were the city's central Modiano market is located), Diagonios, Navarinou, Rotonda, Agia Sofia and Hippodromio, which are all located around Thessaloniki's most central point, Aristotelous Square. Various commercial stoas around Aristotelous are named from the city's past and historic personalities of the city, like stoa Hirsch, stoa Carasso/Ermou, Pelosov, Colombo, Saul (Modiano), Morpurgo, Mordoch, Simcha, Malakopi, Olympios, Emboron, Rogoti, Vyzantio, Tatti, Karipi etc.The western portion of the city centre is home to Thessaloniki's law courts, its central international railway station and the port, while its eastern side hosts the city's two universities, the Thessaloniki International Exhibition Centre, the city's main stadium, its archaeological and Byzantine museums, the new city hall and its central parks and gardens, namely those of the ΧΑΝΘ and Pedion tou Areos.The central road arteries that pass through the city centre, designed in the Ernest Hebrard plan, include those of Tsimiski, Egnatia, Nikis, Mitropoleos, Venizelou and St Demetrius avenues.

Ano Poli

(File:Thessaloniki-Ano-Poli.png|thumb|Typical architecture of the "Ano Poli" (Upper Town) district.)Ano Poli (also called Old Town and literally the Upper Town) is the heritage listed district north of Thessaloniki's city center that was not engulfed by the great fire of 1917 and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site by ministerial actions of Melina Merkouri, during the 1980s. It consists of Thessaloniki's most traditional part of the city, still featuring small stone paved streets, old squares and homes featuring old Greek and Ottoman architecture.{{wide image|GR-thessalon-pano-1.jpg|700px|align-cap=center|Panorama of the city from Ano Poli.}}Ano Poli also, is the highest point in Thessaloniki and as such, is the location of the city's acropolis, its Byzantine fort, the Heptapyrgion, a large portion of the city's remaining walls, and with many of its additional Ottoman and Byzantine structures still standing. The area provides access to the Seich Sou Forest National ParkWEB,weblink Σεϊχ Σου (Seich-Sou), Seich Sou Forest National Park Web site (in Greek), yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101113050610weblink">weblink 13 November 2010, dmy-all, and features panoramic views of the whole city and the Thermaic Gulf. On clear days Mount Olympus, at about {{convert|100|km|0|abbr=on}} away across the gulf, can also be seen towering the horizon.

Northwestern Thessaloniki

Northwestern Thessaloniki had always been associated with industry and the working class because as the city grew during the 1920s, many workers had moved there, because of its proximity near factories and industrial activities.Today many factories and industries have been moved further out west and the area is experiencing rapid growth as does the southeast. Many factories in this area have been converted to cultural centres, while past military grounds that are being surrounded by densely built neighborhoods are awaiting transformation into parklands.Northwest Thessaloniki forms the main entry point into the city of Thessaloniki with the avenues of Monastiriou, Lagkada and 26is Octovriou passing through it, as well as the extension of the A1 motorway, feeding into Thessaloniki's city center. The area is home to the Macedonia InterCity Bus Terminal (KTEL), the Zeitenlik Allied memorial military cemetery and to large entertainment venues of the city, such as Milos, Fix, Vilka (which are housed in converted old factories). Northwestern Thessaloniki is also home to Moni Lazariston, located in Stavroupoli, which today forms one of the most important cultural centers for the city, including MOMus–Museum of Modern Art–Costakis Collection and two theatres of the National Theatre of Northern Greece.[Official websiteweblink MOMus–Museum of Modern Art–Costakis Collection]WEB,weblink Profile, Monilazariston.gr, 15 November 2011, 11 March 2012, Construction on the Holocaust Museum of Greece began in the city in 2018 in the area of the Old Railway Station.WEB,weblink Mουσείο Ολοκαυτώματος, μνημείο στην Ιστορία, 2018-01-31, Η Εφημερίδα των Συντακτών, el, 2018-09-13, In this area are located the Railway Museum of Thessaloniki and the Water Supply Museum.

Southeastern Thessaloniki

File:Βιλα Μορντοχ.jpg|thumb|160px|Villa Mordoch (arch. Xenophon PaionidisXenophon PaionidisThe area along the today Vasilissis Olgas avenue, was up until the 1920s home to the city's most affluent residents and formed the outermost suburbs of the city at the time, with the area close to the Thermaic Gulf coast called Exochès (des Campagnes), from the 19th century holiday villas which defined the area. Some of them include Villa Allatini, Villa Bianca, Villa Mehmet Kapanci, Villa Modiano, Villa Mordoch and others.such as Hatzilazarou/Siaga Mansion, Villa Morpurgo/Zardinidi, Villa Jeborga/Salem (the old Italian consulate), Villa Nechama, Château Mon Bonheurweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120518093710weblink">Municipal Art Gallery (Thessaloniki) - Official WebsiteToday southeastern Thessaloniki has in some way become a natural extension of the city center, with the avenues of Megalou Alexandrou, Georgiou Papandreou (Antheon), Vasilissis Olgas, Delfon, Konstantinou Karamanli (Nea Egnatia) and Papanastasiou passing through it, enclosing an area traditionally called Dépôt (Ντεπώ), from the name of the old tram station, owned by a French company. The municipality of Kalamaria is also located in southeastern Thessaloniki and was firstly inhabited mainly by Greek refugees from Asia Minor and East Thrace after 1922.ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗ ΣΥΝΤΟΜΟΣ ΤΟΥΡΙΣΤΙΚΟΣ ΟΔΗΓΟΣ, εκδόσεις Μαλλιάρη, 978-960-457-587-9.Southeastern Thessaloniki is also home to three of the city's football stadiums, the Thessaloniki Concert Hall, the Poseidonio aquatic and athletic complex, the Naval Command post of Northern Greece and the old royal palace (called Palataki), located on the most westerly point of Karabournaki cape. Another extended residential area that belongs to southeastern Thessaloniki is Toumba, which is divided in "Ano Toumpa" and "Kato Toumpa". Toumba was named after the homonymous hill of Toumba, situated in the northwest of the area. It was created by refugees after the 1922 Asia Minor disaster and the population exchange (1923-24). Toumba is one of the most famous areas of Thessaloniki, mainly due to the football stadium of the local team PAOK FC and its important archaeological site on the hill of Toumba, where extensive archaeological research takes place.

Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments (UNESCO)

{{See also|Byzantine architecture}}File:Church of Saint Demetrios - panoramio.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|The church of Saint DemetriusSaint DemetriusFile:THES Panaghia Chalkeon 5944.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Panagia ChalkeonPanagia ChalkeonBecause of Thessaloniki's importance during the early Christian and Byzantine periods, the city is host to several paleochristian monuments that have significantly contributed to the development of Byzantine art and architecture throughout the Byzantine Empire as well as Serbia. The evolution of Imperial Byzantine architecture and the prosperity of Thessaloniki go hand in hand, especially during the first years of the Empire, when the city continued to flourish. It was at that time that the Complex of Roman emperor Galerius was built, as well as the first church of Hagios Demetrios.By the 8th century, the city had become an important administrative center of the Byzantine Empire, and handled much of the Empire's Balkan affairs.Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, "The City of Thessaloniki" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110517174744weblink |date=17 May 2011 }} (in Greek) During that time, the city saw the creation of more notable Christian churches that are now UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as Hagia Sophia of Thessaloniki, the Church of the Acheiropoietos, the Church of Panagia Chalkeon. When the Ottoman Empire took control of Thessaloniki in 1430, most of the city's churches were converted into mosques, but have survived to this day. Travelers such as Paul Lucas and Abdulmejid I document the city's wealth in Christian monuments during the years of the Ottoman control of the city.The church of Hagios Demetrios was burnt down during the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917, as did many other of the city's monuments, but it was rebuilt. During World War II, the city was extensively bombed and as such many of Thessaloniki's paleochristian and Byzantine monuments were heavily damaged. Some of the sites were not restored until the 1980s. Thessaloniki has more UNESCO World Heritage Sites listed than any other city in Greece, a total of 15 monuments. They have been listed since 1988.

Urban sculpture

File:Θεσσαλονίκη 2014 (The Statue of Alexander the Great) - panoramio (2).jpg|thumb|200px|The equestrian statue of Alexander the GreatAlexander the GreatThere are around 150 statues or busts in the city.150 αγάλματα της Θεσσαλονίκης Probably the most famous one is the equestrian statue of Alexander the Great on the promenade, placed in 1973 and created by sculptor Evangelos Moustakas. An equestrian statue of Constantine I, by sculptor (:el:Γεώργιος Δημητριάδης|Georgios Dimitriades), is located in Demokratias Square. Other notable statues include that of Eleftherios Venizelos by sculptor (:el:Γιάννης Παππάς|Giannis Pappas), Chrysostomos of Smyrna by Athanase Apartis, such as various creations by George Zongolopoulos.

Thessaloniki 2012 Program

(File:Thessaloniki waterfront - Greece - panoramio.jpg|thumb|200px|Aerial view of the newest section of the promenade (Nea Paralia), which was opened to the public in January 2014.)With the 100th anniversary of the 1912 incorporation of Thessaloniki into Greece, the government announced a large-scale redevelopment program for the city of Thessaloniki, which aims in addressing the current environmental and spatial problemsHellenic Government – Thessaloniki 2012 Program {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110519153237weblink |date=19 May 2011 }} (in Greek) that the city faces. More specifically, the program will drastically change the physiognomy of the city by relocating the Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center and grounds of the Thessaloniki International Fair outside the city centre and turning the current location into a large metropolitan park,Ministry of the Environment, of Energy and of Climate Change – Complete presentation (in Greek) redeveloping the coastal front of the city, relocating the city's numerous military camps and using the grounds and facilities to create large parklands and cultural centers; and the complete redevelopment of the harbor and the Lachanokipoi and Dendropotamos districts (behind and near the Port of Thessaloniki) into a commercial business district, with possible highrise developments.NEWS, Σε επιχειρηματικό πάρκο μεταμορφώνονται οι Λαχανόκηποι ("Laxanokipoi is transformed into business district"),weblink 8 August 2011, VORIA.gr, 26 February 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120327155827weblink">weblink 27 March 2012, dmy-all, The plan also envisions the creation of new wide avenues in the outskirts of the city and the creation of pedestrian-only zones in the city centre. Furthermore, the program includes plans to expand the jurisdiction of Seich Sou Forest National Park and the improvement of accessibility to and from the Old Town. The ministry has said that the project will take an estimated 15 years to be completed, in 2025.Part of the plan has been implemented with extensive pedestrianization's within the city center by the municipality of Thessaloniki and the revitalization the eastern urban waterfront/promenade, Nea Paralia (, literally new beach), with a modern and vibrant design. Its first section opened in 2008, having been awarded as the best public project in Greece of the last five years by the Hellenic Institute of Architecture.WEB,weblink ΝΕΑ ΠΑΡΑΛΙΑ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ Καινούργια και βραβευμένη! – Εφημερίδα Μακεδονία της Θεσσαλονίκης, Makthes.gr, 19 January 2014, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130616005026weblink">weblink 16 June 2013, dmy-all, The municipality of Thessaloniki's budget for the reconstruction of important areas of the city and the completion of the waterfront, opened in January 2014, was estimated at around {{currency|28.2|EUR}} million ({{currency|39.9|USD}} million) for the year 2011 alone.NEWS,weblink el:Στα 28 εκατ. ευρώ το τεχνικό πρόγραμμα του δήμου, Makedonia, Thessaloniki, 23 March 2011, 25 March 2011, Greek, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120906162343weblink">weblink 6 September 2012, dmy-all,

Economy

{{See also|Category:Companies based in Thessaloniki|Economy of Greece}}







factoids
{{dead link>date=December 2017 fix-attempted=yes }}PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT, 10 December 2015, | usebelowbox = no| presentUS$asdefault = no}}(File:Stoa Malakopi.jpg|thumb|200px|The old stock exchange (Banque de Salonique) in Stoa Malakopi)Thessaloniki rose to economic prominence as a major economic hub in the Balkans during the years of the Roman Empire. The Pax Romana and the city's strategic position allowed for the facilitation of trade between Rome and Byzantium (later Constantinople and now Istanbul) through Thessaloniki by means of the Via Egnatia. The Via Egnatia also functioned as an important line of communication between the Roman Empire and the nations of Asia,BOOK,weblink A Companion to Ancient Macedonia, 2011, John Wiley & Sons, Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington, 18 April 2012, 9781444351637, particularly in relation to the Silk Road. With the partition of the Roman Emp. into East (Byzantine) and West, Thessaloniki became the second-largest city of the Eastern Roman Empire after New Rome (Constantinople) in terms of economic might. Under the Empire, Thessaloniki was the largest port in the Balkans.BOOK,weblink Ancient and Medieval Economic Ideas and Concepts of Social Justice, 1998, BRILL, S. Todd Lowry, Barry Lewis, John Gordon, 18 April 2012, 9004099646, As the city passed from Byzantium to the Republic of Venice in 1423, it was subsequently conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Under Ottoman rule the city retained its position as the most important trading hub in the Balkans. Manufacturing, shipping and trade were the most important components of the city's economy during the Ottoman period, and the majority of the city's trade at the time was controlled by ethnic Greeks. Plus, the Jewish community was also an important factor in the trade sector.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}Historically important industries for the economy of Thessaloniki included tobacco (in 1946 35% of all tobacco companies in Greece were headquartered in the city, and 44% in 1979)BOOK,weblink Industrialization in Developing and Peripheral Regions, 1986, Routledge, F. E. Ian Hamilton, 18 April 2012, 9780709938279, and banking (in Ottoman years Thessaloniki was a major center for investment from western Europe, with the Bank of Thessaloniki () having a capital of 20 million French francs in 1909).

Services

{{See also|Port of Thessaloniki}}(File:Port of Thessaloniki.png|thumb|upright=1.4|View of the port)The service sector accounts for nearly two thirds of the total labour force of Thessaloniki.BOOK,weblink Globalisation, Migration and Socio-Economic Change in Contemporary Greece: Processes of Social Incorporation of Balkan Immigrants in Thessaloniki, Amsterdam University Press, Panos Arion Hatziprokopiou, 18 June 2012, 9789053568736, 2006, Of those working in services, 20% were employed in trade, 13% in education and healthcare, 7.1% in real estate, 6.3% in transport, communications & storing, 6.1% in the finance industry & service-providing organizations, 5.7% in public administration & insurance services and 5.4% in hotels & restaurants.The city's port, the Port of Thessaloniki, is one of the largest ports in the Aegean and as a free port, it functions as a major gateway to the Balkan hinterland.WEB,weblink The port CITY, 2010, Thessaloniki Port Authority, 2 December 2011, In 2010, more than 15.8 million tons of products went through the city's port,WEB,weblink Maritime transport – Goods (gross weight) – Annual data – All ports – by direction, 2010, Eurostat, 2 December 2011, making it the second-largest port in Greece after Aghioi Theodoroi, surpassing Piraeus. At 273,282 TEUs, it is also Greece's second-largest container port after Piraeus.WEB,weblink Statistical Data 2010, Thessaloniki Port Authority, 2 December 2011, As a result, the city is a major transportation hub for the whole of south-eastern Europe,WEB,weblink Shipping Agents Association of Thessaloniki, www.snpth.gr, 2 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721083227weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, dmy-all, {{clarify|date=December 2011}} carrying, among other things, trade to and from the neighbouring countries.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}In recent years Thessaloniki has begun to turn into a major port for cruising in the eastern Mediterranean. The Greek ministry of tourism considers Thessaloniki to be Greece's second most important commercial port,WEB,weblink I"Οχημα" η κρουαζιέρα για τον ελληνικό τουρισμό, Cruising as a means for Greek tourism, www.thpa.gr, Port.Thess (July–August 2011 edition), 3, 2011, 16 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110820104815weblink">weblink 20 August 2011, and companies such as Royal Caribbean International have expressed interest in adding the Port of Thessaloniki to their destinations. A total of 30 cruise ships are expected to arrive at Thessaloniki in 2011.(File:GDP of Attica, Thessaloniki and the rest of Greece.svg|thumb|upright=1.4|The GDP of Thessaloniki in comparison to that of Attica (Athens and Piraeus) and the rest of the country.)

Companies

After the Second World War, heavy industrialization of the city's suburbs began in the late 1950s.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}During the 1980s a spate of factory shut downs occurred, mostly of automobile manufacters, such as Agricola (vehicles), AutoDiana, EBIAM, Motoemil, Pantelemidis-TITAN and C.AR (automobiles). Since the 1990s, companies took advantage of cheaper labour markets and more lax regulations in other countries, and among the largest companies to shut down factories were Goodyear,WEB,weblink Pfi (Βφλ), Pfi.gr, 11 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120313053025weblink">weblink 13 March 2012, dmy-all, AVEZ pasta industry (one of the first industrial factories in northern Greece, built in 1926),WEB,weblink Information is in Greek from one of the city's largest dailies, Makthes.gr, 29 December 2007, 22 March 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081228000324weblink">weblink 28 December 2008, dmy-all, Philkeram Johnson and VIAMIL. However, Thessaloniki still remains a major business hub in the Balkans and Greece, with a number of important Greek companies headquartered in the city, such as the Hellenic Vehicle Industry (ELVO), Namco (automobiles), Astra Airlines, Ellinair, Pyramis and MLS Multimedia, which introduced the first Greek-built smartphone in 2012.WEB,weblink Smartphone Made in Greece!, 5 July 2012, Skai TV, 5 July 2012,
  • Industry
In the middle 60s, with the collaboration of Standard Oil and ESSO-Pappas, a large industrial zone was created, containing refineries, oil refinery and steel production. The zone attracted also a series of different factories during the next decades. Today the oil refinery is owned by the Hellenic Petroleum.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}} Titan Cement has also facilities outside the city, on the road to SerresΤΙΤΑΝ: Ο εγχώριος κολοσσός, such as the AGET Heracles, a member of the Lafarge group.Multinational companies such as Air Liquide, Cyanamid, Nestlé and Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company, Vivartia (Delta) have also industrial facilities in the suburbs of the city.Πολυεθνικοί βιομηχανικοί κολοσσοί στην Ελλάδα
  • Foodstuff
Foodstuff or drink companies headquartered in the city include the Macedonian Milk Industry (Mevgal), Allatini, Barbastathis, Hellenic Sugar Industry, Haitoglou Bros, Mythos Brewery, Malamatina, while the Goody's chain started from the city.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}The American Farm School also has an important contribution in food production.American farm school

Macroeconomic indicators

In 2011, the regional unit of Thessaloniki had a Gross Domestic Product of €18.293 billion (ranked 2nd amongst the country's regional units),WEB,weblink Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices at NUTS level 3, 2010, Eurostat, 2 December 2011, comparable to Bahrain or Cyprus, and a per capita of €15,900 (ranked 16th). In Purchasing Power Parity, the same indicators are €19,851 billion (2nd) and €17,200 (15th) respectively. In terms of comparison with the European Union average, Thessaloniki's GDP per capita indicator stands at 63% the EU average and 69% in PPP – this is comparable to the German state of Brandenburg. Overall, Thessaloniki accounts for 8.9% of the total economy of Greece. Between 1995 and 2008 Thessaloniki's GDP saw an average growth rate of 4.1% per annum (ranging from +14.5% in 1996 to −11.1% in 2005) while in 2011 the economy contracted by −7.8%.

Demographics

Historical ethnic statistics

The tables below show the ethnic statistics of Thessaloniki during the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.{|class="wikitable"!Year!colspan="2"|Total Population!colspan="2"|Jewish!colspan="2"|Turkish !colspan="2"|Greek!colspan="2"|Bulgarian!colspan="2"|Roma!colspan="2"|Other align="right"1890|118,000|100%|55,000|47%|39,000|22%|28,000|14%|14,000|8%|5,500|2%|8,500|7% align="right"Around 1913|157,889|100%|61,439|39%|45,889|29% |39,956|25%|11,263|4%|2,721|2%|1,621|1%

Population growth

{{Historical populations|title = Population|type = none|align = right|width = 320px|state = collapsed|shading = on|percentages = offAUTHOR=SIEUR DE LA CROIXWORK=Η Θεσσαλονίκη των Περιηγητών 1430–1930LANGUAGE=GREEKISBN=9789607265913, Molho, Rena. The Jerusalem of the Balkans: Salonica 1856–1919 {{webarchiveweblink >date=26 December 2008 }} The Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki. URL accessed 10 July 2006.HTTP://WWW.STATISTICS.GR/MAIN_ENG.ASP>TITLE=POPULATION OF GREECEPUBLISHER=WWW.STATISTICS.GRYEAR=2001ARCHIVEDATE=1 JULY 2007, HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=DP4UIA4GQNMC&PG=PA687&DQ=POPULATION+OF+THESSALONICA#V=ONEPAGE&Q=POPULATION%2520OF%2520THESSALONICA&F=FALSE >TITLE=BIBLE KNOWLEDGE COMMENTARY ISBN=978-0-88207-812-0 EDITOR-FIRST=JOHN. F. LANGUAGE=EN EDITOR-FIRST2=ROY B., 2000001500004000036000700009000085000118000126000157000230000297164377026406413383967786212788952}}The municipality of Thessaloniki is the most populous in the Thessaloniki Urban Area. Its population has increased in the latest census and the metropolitan area's population rose to over a million. The city forms the base of the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area, with latest census in 2011 giving it a population of 1,030,338.{|class="wikitable" style="width:400px;"|+ Population of the Urban and Metropolitan areas of Thessaloniki! Year !! Municipality !! Urban area !! Metropolitan area !! rankGRE}} 2ndWORK=EUROSTATACCESSDATE=16 APRIL 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111021180259/HTTP://EPP.EUROSTAT.EC.EUROPA.EU/CACHE/ITY_PUBLIC/RY_CH01_2010/EN/RY_CH01_2010-EN.XLSDEADURL=YESGRE}} 2ndGRE}} 2nd

Jews of Thessaloniki

(File:Diaspora salonika.svg|thumb|upright=1.1|Paths of Jewish immigration to the city){{citations needed|date=February 2019}}The Jewish population in Greece is the oldest in mainland Europe (see Romaniotes). When Paul the Apostle came in Thessaloniki he taught in the area of what today is called Upper City. Later, during the Ottoman period, with the coming of Sephardic Jews from Spain, the community of Thessaloniki became mostly Sephardic. Thessaloniki became the largest center in Europe of the Sephardic Jews, who nicknamed the city la madre de Israel (Israel's mother) and "Jerusalem of the Balkans".Abrams, Dennis (2009); Nicolas Sarkozy (Modern World Leaders), Chelsea House Publishers, p. 26, Library Binding edition, {{ISBN|1-60413-081-4}} It also included the historically significant and ancient Greek-speaking Romaniote community. During the Ottoman era, Thessaloniki's Sephardic community of was half the population according to the Ottoman Census of 1902 and almost 40% the city's population of 157,000 about 1913; Jewish merchants were prominent in commerce until the ethnic Greek population increased after independence in 1912. By the 1680s, about 300 families of Sephardic Jews, followers of Sabbatai Zevi, had converted to Islam, becoming a sect known as the Dönmeh (convert), and migrated to Salonika, whose population was majority Jewish. They established an active community that thrived for about 250 years. Many of their descendants later became prominent in trade.Kirsch, Adam The Other Secret Jews – Review of Marc David Baer's The Dönme: Jewish Converts, Muslim Revolutionaries, and Secular Turks, The New Republic, 15 February 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2010. Many Jewish inhabitants of Thessaloniki spoke Ladino, the Romance language of the Sephardic Jews.WEB, Kushner, Aviya, Is the language of Sephardic Jews, undergoing a revival?,weblink My Jewish Learning, Ladino Today, 9 April 2011, (File:Jews_of_Salonika-1917.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Jewish family of Salonika in 1917.)From the second half of the 19th century with the Ottoman reforms, the Jewish community had a new revival. Many French and especially Italian Jews (from Livorno and other cities), influential in introducing new methods of education and developing new schools and intellectual environment for the Jewish population, were established in Thessaloniki. Such modernists introduced also new techniques and ideas from the industrialized Western Europe and from the 1880s the city began to industrialize. The Italian Jews Allatini brothers led Jewish entrepreneurship, establishing milling and other food industries, brickmaking and processing plants for tobacco. Several traders supported the introduction of a large textile-production industry, superseding the weaving of cloth in a system of artisanal production. Other notable names of the era include the Italian Jewish Modiano family and the Italians Poselli.After the Balkan Wars, Thessaloniki was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece in 1913. At first the community feared that the annexation would lead to difficulties and during the first years its political stance was, in general, anti-Venizelist and pro-royalist/conservative. The Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917 during World War I burned much of the center of the city and left 50,000 Jews homeless of the total of 72,000 residents who were burned out. Having lost homes and their businesses, many Jews emigrated: to the United States, Palestine, and Paris. They could not wait for the government to create a new urban plan for rebuilding, which was eventually done.WEB, The Great Fire in Salonica,weblink Greece History, Hellenica Website, 9 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111018013408weblink">weblink 18 October 2011, dmy-all, After the Greco-Turkish War in 1922 and the expulsion of Greeks from Turkey, many refugees came to Greece. Nearly 100,000 ethnic Greeks resettled in Thessaloniki, reducing the proportion of Jews in the total community. After this, Jews made up about 20% of the city's population. During the interwar period, Greece granted Jewish citizens the same civil rights as other Greek citizens. In March 1926, Greece re-emphasized that all citizens of Greece enjoyed equal rights, and a considerable proportion of the city's Jews decided to stay. During the Metaxas regime the stance towards Jews became even better.File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99237, Griechenland, Saloniki, antijüdisches Plakat.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|"Jews not welcomed" sign during the Axis occupation.]]File:Monastir Synagogue.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Monastir Synagogue ]]World War II brought a disaster for the Jewish Greeks, since in 1941 the Germans occupied Greece and began actions against the Jewish population. Greeks of the Resistance helped save some of the Jewish residents. By the 1940s, the great majority of the Jewish Greek community firmly identified as both Greek and Jewish. According to Misha Glenny, such Greek Jews had largely not encountered "anti-Semitism as in its North European form."Misha Glenny, The Balkans, p. 512.In 1943 the Nazis began brutal, inhumane actions against the historic Jewish population in Thessaloniki, forcing them into a ghetto near the railroad lines and beginning deportation to concentration and labor camps where they dehumanized their captives. They deported and exterminated approximately 96% of Thessaloniki's Jews of all ages during the Holocaust.www.ushmm.org "Jewish Community in Greece" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090506235802weblink |date=6 May 2009 }}, Online Exhibit, US Holocaust Museum. Retrieved 29 December 2010. The Thessaloniki Holocaust memorial in Eleftherias ("Freedom") Square was built in 1997 in memory of all the Jewish people from Thessaloniki, who died in the Holocaust. The site was chosen because it was the place where Jewish residents were rounded up before embarking to trains for concentration camps.WEB, Holocaust Memorial/The Shoah Monument (Thessaloniki),weblink wikimapia, 15 September 2012, WEB, Thessaloniki Holocaust Memorial,weblink Stiftung Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas, 15 September 2012, Today, a community of around 1200 remains in the city. Communities of descendants of Thessaloniki Jews â€“ both Sephardic and Romaniote â€“ live in other areas, mainly the United States and Israel. Israeli singer Yehuda Poliker recorded a song about the Jewish people of Thessaloniki, called "Wait for me, Thessaloniki". Not only did the Jewish-Greek population of Thessaloniki perish during the Holocaust, but a unique civilization filled with rich culture and beauty was lost.{|class="wikitable sortable"! Year! Total population! Jewish population! Jewish percentage! Source|184270,00036,00051%|Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer|187090,00050,00056%|Greek schoolbook (G.K. Moraitopoulos, 1882)|1882/8485,00048,00056%|Ottoman government census|1902126,00062,00049%|Ottoman government census|1913157,88961,43939%|Greek government census|1917271,15752,00019%Histoire des Israélites de Salonique, t. VI-VII, Thessalonique 1978, p. 765 (via (:el:Μεγάλη πυρκαγιά της Θεσσαλονίκης 1917#cite note-2>Greek Wikipedia)): the population was inflated because of refugees from the First World War|194350,000||2000363,9871,0000.27%|

Others

{{citations needed|date=February 2019}}Since the late 19th century, many merchants from Western Europe (mainly from France and Italy) were established in the city. They had an important role in the social and economical life of the city and in many cases introduced new industrial techniques. Their main district was what is known today as the "Frankish district" (near Ladadika), where locates also the Catholic church designed by Vitaliano Poselli. Εκατό χρόνια φιλοξενίαςΗ αρχιτεκτονικη ιστορία του Φραγκομαχαλά Many of them left after the incorporation of the city into the Greek kingdom, others, who were of Jewish faith, were exterminated by the Nazis, while others stayed and their descendants still live in the city.The Bulgarian community of the city was also increased during the late 19th century.Οι Βούλγαροι στη Θεσσαλονίκη The community had a Men's High School, a Girl's High School, a trade union and a gymnastics society. A large part of them were Catholics, as a result of actions by the Lazarists society, which had its base in the city.Another group is the Armenian community which dates back to the Ottoman period. During the 20th century, after the Armenian Genocide and the defeat of the Greek army in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), many fled to Greece and a large part of them was established in Thessaloniki. There is also an Armenian church at the center of the city.Η Παναγία των Αρμενίων

Culture

{{citations needed|date=February 2019}}

Leisure and entertainment

(File:Θέατρο Δάσους.jpg|thumb|left|Theatro Dasous ("Forest Theater"))Thessaloniki is not only regarded as the cultural and entertainment capital of northern GreeceBOOK,weblink Greece, Korina Miller, Kate Armstrong, Michael Stamatios Clark, Chris Deliso, 2010, Lonely Planet, 13 August 2011, 9781742203423, but also the cultural capital of the country. The city's main theaters, run by the National Theatre of Northern Greece (Greek: Κρατικό Θέατρο Βορείου Ελλάδος) which was established in 1961,'History', National Theater of Northern Greece website (in Greek) include the Theater of the Society of Macedonian Studies, where the National Theater is based, the Royal Theater (Vasiliko Theatro) -the first base of the National Theater-, Moni Lazariston, and the Earth Theater and Forest Theater, both amphitheatrical open-air theatres overlooking the city.File:Thessaloniki Concert Hall sea.png|thumb|Thessaloniki Concert HallThessaloniki Concert HallThe title of the European Capital of Culture in 1997 saw the birth of the city's first operaWEB,weblink Cultural Capital, Music.columbia.edu, 6 May 2009, and today forms an independent section of the National Theatre of Northern Greece.WEB, Όπερα Θεσσαλονίκης,weblink Ntng.gr, 9 April 2011, The opera is based at the Thessaloniki Concert Hall, one of the largest concert halls in Greece. Recently a second building was also constructed and designed by Japanese architect Arata Isozaki. Thessaloniki is also the seat of two symphony orchestras, the Thessaloniki State Symphony Orchestra and the Symphony Orchestra of the Municipality of Thessaloniki.Olympion Theater, the site of the Thessaloniki International Film Festival and the Plateia Assos Odeon multiplex are the two major cinemas in downtown Thessaloniki. The city also has a number of multiplex cinemas in major shopping malls in the suburbs, most notably in Mediterranean Cosmos, the largest retail and entertainment development in the Balkans.Thessaloniki is renowned for its major shopping streets and lively laneways. Tsimiski Street and Proxenou Koromila avenue are the city's most famous shopping streets and are among Greece's most expensive and exclusive high streets. The city is also home to one of Greece's most famous and prestigious hotels, Makedonia Palace hotel, the Hyatt Regency Casino and hotel (the biggest casino in Greece and one of the biggest in Europe) and Waterland, the largest water park in southeastern Europe.The city has long been known in Greece for its vibrant city culture, including having the most cafes and bars per capita of any city in Europe; and as having some of the best nightlife and entertainment in the country, thanks to its large young population and multicultural feel. Lonely Planet listed Thessaloniki among the world's "ultimate party cities".WEB, Greg Elms,weblink Ultimate Party Cities – Lonely Planet, Lonelyplanet.com, 15 June 2012, 11 March 2012,

Parks and recreation

File:Aretsou.jpg|thumb|Marina of Aretsou ]]File:Peraia view.jpg|thumb|Part of the coastline of the southeastern suburb of Peraia on the Thermaic GulfThermaic GulfAlthough Thessaloniki is not renowned for its parks and greenery throughout its urban area, where green spaces are few, it has several large open spaces around its waterfront, namely the central city gardens of Palios Zoologikos Kipos (which is recently being redeveloped to also include rock climbing facilities, a new skatepark and paintball range),WEB,weblink el:Χώρος άθλησης και ψυχαγωγίας το πάρκο της ΧΑΝΘ, Greek, www.voria.gr, 22 August 2011, 16 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111101211258weblink">weblink 1 November 2011, dmy-all, the park of Pedion tou Areos, which also holds the city's annual floral expo; and the parks of the Nea Paralia (waterfront) that span for {{convert|3|km|0|abbr=on}} along the coast, from the White Tower to the concert hall.The Nea Paralia parks are used throughout the year for a variety of events, while they open up to the Thessaloniki waterfront, which is lined up with several cafés and bars; and during summer is full of Thessalonians enjoying their long evening walks (referred to as "the volta" and is embedded into the culture of the city). Having undergone an extensive revitalization, the city's waterfront today features a total of 12 thematic gardens/parks.WEB,weblink el:Θεσσαλονίκη: Η νέα κατάφυτη παραλία θα έχει αμμουδιά, σιντριβάνια, λόφο και ελαιώνα σε ξερολιθιές, Greek, www.agelioforos.gr, 16 September 2011, 16 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120323031414weblink">weblink 23 March 2012, dmy-all, Thessaloniki's proximity to places such as the national parks of Pieria and beaches of Chalkidiki often allow its residents to easily have access to some of the best outdoor recreation in Europe; however, the city is also right next to the Seich Sou forest national park, just {{convert|3.5|km|0|abbr=on}} away from Thessaloniki's city center; and offers residents and visitors alike, quiet viewpoints towards the city, mountain bike trails and landscaped hiking paths.WEB,weblink el:Σεϊχ Σου, Greek, www.seihsou.gr, 16 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101113050610weblink">weblink 13 November 2010, dmy-all, The city's zoo, which is operated by the municipality of Thessaloniki, is also located nearby the national park.WEB,weblink el:Ζωολογικός Κήπος, Greek, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130427054827weblink">weblink 27 April 2013, dmy-all, Other recreation spaces throughout the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area include the Fragma Thermis, a landscaped parkland near Thermi and the Delta wetlands west of the city center; while urban beaches that have continuously been awarded the blue flags,WEB,weblink Κολυμπώντας σε βραβευμένες και απόλυτα καθαρές παραλίες ..., Greek, www.typosthes.gr, 12 June 2011, 16 September 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120402120136weblink">weblink 2 April 2012, yes, dmy-all, are located along the {{convert|10|km|0|abbr=on}} coastline of Thessaloniki's southeastern suburbs of Thermaikos, about {{convert|20|km|0|abbr=on}} away from the city center.

Museums and galleries

File:Macedonian Museums-88-Arx Byz Thessaloniknhs-391.jpg|thumb|View of the Museum of Byzantine CultureMuseum of Byzantine CultureBecause of the city's rich and diverse history, Thessaloniki houses many museums dealing with many different eras in history. Two of the city's most famous museums include the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki and the Museum of Byzantine Culture.The Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki was established in 1962 and houses some of the most important ancient Macedonian artifacts,In Macedonia from the 7th c. BC until late antiquity {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111117082211weblink |date=17 November 2011 }} including an extensive collection of golden artwork from the royal palaces of Aigai and Pella.The Gold of Macedon {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111117082459weblink |date=17 November 2011 }} It also houses exhibits from Macedon's prehistoric past, dating from the Neolithic to the Bronze age.5,000, 15,000, 200,000 years ago ... An exhibition about prehistoric life in Macedonia {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111102181204weblink |date=2 November 2011 }} The Prehistoric Antiquities Museum of Thessaloniki has exhibits from those periods as well.File:NOESIS.jpg|thumb|180px|View of the Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum (also known as NOESIS) on the road to ThermiThermiThe Museum of Byzantine Culture is one of the city's most famous museums, showcasing the city's glorious Byzantine past.About the Museum {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721081808weblink |date=21 July 2011 }} (in Greek) The museum was also awarded Council of Europe's museum prize in 2005.Award of the Council of Europe to the Museum of Byzantine Culture {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721081816weblink |date=21 July 2011 }} (in Greek) The museum of the White Tower of Thessaloniki houses a series of galleries relating to the city's past, from the creation of the White Tower until recent years.Introduction video of the White Tower Museum {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110126180435weblink |date=26 January 2011 }}One of the most modern museums in the city is the Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum and is one of the most high-tech museums in Greece and southeastern Europe.NOESIS – About the Museum (in Greek) It features the largest planetarium in Greece, a cosmotheater with the country's largest flat screen, an amphitheater, a motion simulator with 3D projection and 6-axis movement and exhibition spaces. Other industrial and technological museums in the city include the Railway Museum of Thessaloniki, which houses an original Orient Express train, the War Museum of Thessaloniki and others. The city also has a number of educational and sports museums, including the Thessaloniki Olympic Museum.The Atatürk Museum in Thessaloniki is the historic house where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern-day Turkey, was born. The house is now part of the Turkish consulate complex, but admission to the museum is free.WEB,weblink About Ataturk Museum, Hotelrotonda.com, 11 March 2012, The museum contains historic information about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his life, especially while he was in Thessaloniki.Other ethnological museums of the sort include the Historical Museum of the Balkan Wars, the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki and the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle, containing information about the freedom fighters in Macedonia and their struggle to liberate the region from the Ottoman yoke.The Museum of the Macedonian Struggle – Introduction (in Greek) Construction on the Holocaust Museum of Greece began in the city in 2018.The city also has a number of important art galleries. Such include the Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art, housing exhibitions from a number of well-known Greek and foreign artists.WEB,weblink The Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art – List of artists, Mmca.org.gr, 11 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120321043854weblink">weblink 21 March 2012, dmy-all, The Teloglion Foundation of Art is part of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and includes an extensive collection of works by important artists of the 19th and 20th centuries, including works by prominent Greeks and native Thessalonians.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721074706weblink">The Teloglion Foundation of Art – The Collection The Thessaloniki Museum of Photography also houses a number of important exhibitions, and is located within the old port of Thessaloniki.WEB,weblink Photography Museum of Thessaloniki – Exhibitions, Thmphoto.gr, 11 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120321081937weblink">weblink 21 March 2012, dmy-all,

Archaeological sites

{{see also|Thessaloniki Metro#Archaeology}}File:The Roman forum.jpg|The Roman Forum (Ancient Agora)|thumb|View of the Roman Forum (Ancient Agora)]]Thessaloniki is home to a number of prominent archaeological sites. Apart from its recognized UNESCO World Heritage Sites, Thessaloniki features a large two-terraced Roman forumBOOK,weblink Frommer's Greece, John S. Bowman, Sherry Marker, Peter Kerasiotis, Rebecca Tobin, 25 January 2008, Frommer's, 5 December 2011, 9780470260814, featuring two-storey stoas, dug up by accident in the 1960s. The forum complex also boasts two Roman baths,BOOK,weblink A Companion to Ancient Macedonia, Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington, 2011, Wiley-Backwell, 5 December 2011, 9781444351637, one of which has been excavated while the other is buried underneath the city. The forum also features a small theater, which was also used for gladiatorial games. Although the initial complex was not built in Roman times, it was largely refurbished in the 2nd century. It is believed that the forum and the theater continued to be used until at least the 6th century.BOOK,weblink From Roman to early Christian Thessalonikē: studies in religion and archaeology, Laura Salah Nasrallah, Charalambos Bakirtzis, Steven J. Friesen, 2010, Harvard College, 5 December 2011, 9780674053229, Another important archaeological site is the imperial palace complex which Roman emperor Galerius, located at Navarinou Square, commissioned when he made Thessaloniki the capital of his portion of the Roman Empire. The large octagonal portion of the complex, most of which survives to this day, is believed to have been an imperial throne room.BOOK,weblink A guide to biblical sites in Greece and Turkey, Clyde E. Fant, Mitchell Glenn Reddish, 2003, Oxford University Press, 5 December 2011, 9780195139174, Various mosaics from the palatial complex have also survived.BOOK,weblink The archeology of the New Testament: the Mediterranean world of the early Christian Apostles, Jack Finegan, 1981, Westview Press, 5 December 2011, 9780709910060, Some historians believe that the complex must have been in use as an imperial residence until the 11th century.Not far from the palace itself is the Arch of Galerius, known colloquially as the Kamara. The arch was built to commemorate the emperor's campaigns against the Persians. The original structure featured three arches; however, only two full arches and part of the third survive to this day. Many of the arches' marble parts survive as well, although it is mostly the brick interior that can be seen today.Other monuments of the city's past, such as the Incantadas, a Caryatid portico from the ancient forum, have been removed or destroyed over the years. The Incantadas in particular are on display at the Louvre. Thanks to a private donation of €180,000, it was announced on 6 December 2011 that a replica of the Incantadas would be commissioned and later put on display in Thessaloniki.WEB,weblink el:Θεσσαλονίκη: Κατασκευή αντιγράφων από το Λούβρο, Thessaloniki: Construction of replicas from the Louvre, Greek, 6 December 2011, Skai TV, 6 December 2011, The construction of the Thessaloniki Metro inadvertently started the largest archaeological dig not only of the city, but of Northern Greece; the dig spans {{convert|20|sqkm|sqmi|abbr=on}} and has unearthed 300,000 individual artefacts from as early as the Roman Empire and as late as the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917.WEB,weblink el:ΑΤΤΙΚΟ ΜΕΤΡΟ: "Το Μέτρο στη πόλη μας" με το πρώτο του βαγόνι. Συμμετοχή της Αττικό Μετρό Α.Ε. στην 83η Δ.Ε.Θ., www.ametro.gr, el, Attiko Metro: "The Metro in our city" with the first carriage. The participation of Attiko Metro S.A. at the 83rd Thessaloniki International Fair, 2018-09-08, WEB,weblink www.protagon.gr, el:Θεσσαλονίκη: Ολα τα αρχαία που αναδύθηκαν μέσω… Μετρό, Thessaloniki: All the antiquities that surfaced via... the metro, el, 2018-09-09, Ancient Thessaloniki's Decumanus Maximus was also found and {{convert|75|m|ft}} of the marble-paved and column-lined road were unearthed along with shops, other buildings, and plumbing, prompting one scholar to describe the discovery as "the Byzantine Pompeii".NEWS, Giorgos Christides, 14 March 2013,weblink Thessaloniki metro: Ancient dilemma for modern Greece, www.bbc.co.uk, 13 August 2018, Some of the artefacts will be put on display inside the metro stations, while {{Thessaloniki Metro stations|station=Venizelou}} will feature the world's first open archaeological site located within a metro station.WEB, Attiko Metro S.A.,weblink Αρχαιολογικές ανασκαφές, Archaeological excavations, www.ametro.gr, 13 August 2018, Greek, WEB,weblink The first Metro network with ancient monuments, 2018-03-16, www.yougoculture.com, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, en, 2018-09-11,

Festivals

File:Olympion Cinema Thessaloniki.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Olympion Theatre, seat of the International Film Festival ]]Thessaloniki is home of a number of festivals and events.WEB, Thessaloniki Festivals and Events,weblink visitthessalonikigreece.com, The Thessaloniki International Fair is the most important event to be hosted in the city annually, by means of economic development. It was first established in 1926Thessaloniki International Fair – History and actions {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721083359weblink |date=21 July 2011 }} (in Greek) and takes place every year at the {{convert|180000|m²|2|abbr=on}} Thessaloniki International Exhibition Center. The event attracts major political attention and it is customary for the Prime Minister of Greece to outline his administration's policies for the next year, during event. Over 250,000 visitors attended the exposition in 2010.WEB,weblink Παρουσίαση 76ης Δ.Ε.Θ., Presentation of the 76th Thessaloniki International Fair, www.helexpo.gr, 10 August 2011, The new Art Thessaloniki, is starting first time 29.10. – 1 November 2015 as an international contemporary art fair. The Thessaloniki International Film Festival is established as one of the most important film festivals in Southern Europe,Thessaloniki International Film Festival – Profile {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150905090357weblink |date=5 September 2015 }} (in Greek) with a number of notable film makers such as Francis Ford Coppola, Faye Dunaway, Catherine Deneuve, Irene Papas and Fatih Akın taking part, and was established in 1960.WEB,weblink List of posters, Filmfestival.gr, 11 March 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120313022519weblink">weblink 13 March 2012, yes, dmy-all, The Documentary Festival, founded in 1999, has focused on documentaries that explore global social and cultural developments, with many of the films presented being candidates for FIPRESCI and Audience Awards.Thessaloniki Documentary Festival – Awards {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110312142451weblink |date=12 March 2011 }} {{el icon}}The Dimitria festival, founded in 1966 and named after the city's patron saint of St. Demetrius, has focused on a wide range of events including music, theatre, dance, local happenings, and exhibitions.Dimitria Festival official website (in Greek) The "DMC DJ Championship" has been hosted at the International Trade Fair of Thessaloniki, has become a worldwide event for aspiring DJs and turntablists. The "International Festival of Photography" has taken place every February to mid-April.Article on Culturenow {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101218230155weblink |date=18 December 2010 }} (in Greek) Exhibitions for the event are sited in museums, heritage landmarks, galleries, bookshops and cafés. Thessaloniki also holds an annual International Book Fair.WEB, The Exhibition,weblink The Thessaloniki Book Fair, 9 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717034456weblink">weblink 17 July 2011, dmy-all, Between 1962–1997 and 2005–2008 the city also hosted the Thessaloniki Song Festival,WEB,weblink ΦΕΣΤΙΒΑΛ ΤΡΑΓΟΥΔΙΟΥ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ, Tasos Kritsiolis, 2 November 2006, www.musiccorner.gr, 10 August 2011, Greece's most important music festival, at Alexandreio Melathron.WEB,weblink Αλεξάνδρειο Αθλητικό Μέλαθρον, www.alexandreiomelathron.gr, 10 August 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111219123345weblink">weblink 19 December 2011, In 2012 the city hosted its first pride parade, Thessaloniki Pride, which took place between 22 and 23 June.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131206154750weblink">weblink yes, 6 December 2013, Thessaloniki Pride 2012 | Thessaloniki Pride, thessalonikipride.gr, 7 December 2014, dmy-all, It has been held every year ever since, however in 2013 transgender people participating in the parade became victims of police brutality. The issue was soon settled by the government.WEB,weblink Transgender persons in Thessaloniki become victims of police violence, Grreporter.info, 19 January 2014, The city's Greek Orthodox Church leadership has consistently rallied against the event, but mayor Boutaris sided with Thessaloniki Pride, saying also that Thessaloniki would seek to host EuroPride 2020.WEB,weblink Γ. Μπουτάρης: Η Θεσσαλονίκη θα διεκδικήσει το Ευρωπαϊκό Pride του 2020, www.thestival.gr, Thestival, el, Y. Boutaris: Thessaloniki will seek to host EuroPride 2020, 2018-09-13, The event was given to Thessaloniki in September 2017, beating Bergen, Brussels, and Hamburg.WEB,weblink EuroPride 2020 – Thessaloniki, www.epoa.eu, European Pride Organisers Association, en, 2018-09-13,

Sports

File:Kaftanzoglio west stand.jpg|thumb|Kaftanzoglio National Stadium ]]The main stadium of the city is the Kaftanzoglio Stadium (also home ground of Iraklis FC), while other main stadiums of the city include the football Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium and Toumba Stadium home grounds of Aris F.C. and PAOK F.C., respectively, all of whom are founding members of the Greek league.Being the largest "multi-sport" stadium in the city, Kaftanzoglio Stadium regularly plays host to athletics events; such as the European Athletics Association event "Olympic Meeting Thessaloniki" every year; it has hosted the Greek national championships in 2009 and has been used for athletics at the Mediterranean Games and for the European Cup in athletics. In 2004 the stadium served as an official Athens 2004 venue,List of Athens 2004 venues (in Greek) while in 2009 the city and the stadium hosted the 2009 IAAF World Athletics Final.Thessaloniki's major indoor arenas include the state-owned Alexandreio Melathron, PAOK Sports Arena and the YMCA indoor hall. Other sporting clubs in the city include Apollon FC based in Kalamaria, Agrotikos Asteras F.C. based in Evosmos and YMCA. Thessaloniki has a rich sporting history with its teams winning the first ever panhellenic football (Aris FC),WEB,weblink Galanis Sports Data, Galanissportsdata.com, 5 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081212033955weblink">weblink 12 December 2008, dmy-all, basketball (Iraklis BC),WEB,weblink Galanis Sports Data, Galanissportsdata.com, 5 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081014192701weblink">weblink 14 October 2008, dmy-all, and water polo (AC Aris)WEB,weblink Κόκκινος Ποσειδώνας: Πρωταθλητής Ελλάδας στο πόλο ο Ολυμπιακός για 21η φορά στην ιστορία του! – Pathfinder Sports, Sports.pathfinder.gr, 3 May 2008, 5 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090105010403weblink">weblink 5 January 2009, dmy-all, tournaments.During recent years, PAOK FC has emerged as the strongest football club of the city, winning also the Greek championship whithout a defeat (2018-19 season).The city played a major role in the development of basketball in Greece. The local YMCA was the first to introduce the sport to the country, while Iraklis BC won the first ever Greek championship. From 1982 to 1993 Aris BC dominated the league, regularly finishing in first place. In that period Aris won a total of 9 championships, 7 cups and one European Cup Winners' Cup. The city also hosted the 2003 FIBA Under-19 World Championship in which Greece came third. In volleyball, Iraklis has emerged since 2000 as one of the most successful teams in GreeceWEB,weblink Άξιος πρωταθλητής ο Ηρακλής – Παναθηναϊκός, Ηρακλής – Contra.gr, Contra.gr, 5 January 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090103072509weblink">weblink 3 January 2009, yes, and Europe – see 2005–06 CEV Champions League.NEWS, magic moving pixel s.a.,weblink F-004 – TOURS VB vs Iraklis THESSALONIKI, Cev.lu, 27 March 2005, 5 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080516081547weblink">weblink 16 May 2008, In October 2007, Thessaloniki also played host to the first Southeastern European Games.1οι Αγώνες των χωρών της Νοτιανατολικής Ευρώπης – SEE games – Thessaloniki 2007 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080526210032weblink |date=26 May 2008 }}The city is also the finish point of the annual Alexander The Great Marathon, which starts at Pella, in recognition of its Ancient Macedonian heritage.Presentation {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150702080028weblink |date=2 July 2015 }}{|class="wikitable"|+Main sports clubs in Thessaloniki!Club!Founded!Venue!Capacity!NotesGS Iraklis1908(originally as Macedonikos Gymnasticos Syllogos)Kaftanzoglio Stadium>Kaftanzoglio National Stadium (File:Olympic Rings.svglink=2004 Summer Olympics)|27,770|Ivanofeio Indoor Hall||Panhellenic titles in football, basketball, rugby, volleyball. Volleyball Champions League finalists (3 times)|Maccabi Thessaloniki|1908||Jews of Thessaloniki>Jewish community. Today members of any religious faithAC Aris Thessaloniki1914|Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium|22,800Alexandreio Melathron (Palais des Sports (Thessaloniki)>Palais des Sports)|5,500|Panhellenic titles in football, basketball, volleyball, waterpolo. Three European Cups in basketballX.A.N. Thessaloniki B.C.>YMCA Thessaloniki (ΧΑΝΘ)|1921|||Presence in A1 basketball. Major role in introduction of basketball in GreeceMegas Alexandros Thessaloniki>Megas Alexandros|1923|||Presence in First Division of Football Panhellenic ChampionshipP.A.O.K.1926|Toumba Stadium|28,703|PAOK Sports Arena|10,000|Panhellenic titles in football, basketball, volleyball, handball. Two European Cups in basketball. Most time winners in women's footballApollon Kalamarias>Apollon Kalamarias/Pontou|1926|Kalamaria Stadium|6,500|MENT BC>M.E.N.T.|1926|||Presence in A1 basketballVAO (sports club)>V.A.O.|1926|||Presence in A1 basketball. Panhellenic titles in handballMakedonikos F.C.>Makedonikos|1928|Makedonikos Stadium|8,100||Agrotikos Asteras|1932|Evosmos Stadium||

Media

File:Ote toranj - panoramio.jpg|thumb|OTE TowerOTE TowerThessaloniki is home to the ERT3 TV-channel and Radio Macedonia, both services of Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (ERT) operating in the city and are broadcast all over Greece.WEB, PROFILE,weblink EPT TV-Radio, 9 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110313201338weblink">weblink 13 March 2011, dmy-all, The municipality of Thessaloniki also operates three radio stations, namely FM100, FM101 and FM100.6;Media Triposo {{cbignore|bot=medic}} and TV100, a television network which was also the first non-state-owned TV station in Greece and opened in 1988. Several private TV-networks also broadcast out from Thessaloniki, with Makedonia TV being the most popular.The city's main newspapers and some of the most circulated in Greece, include Makedonia, which was also the first newspaper published in Thessaloniki in 1911 and Aggelioforos. A large number of radio stations also broadcast from Thessaloniki as the city is known for its music contributions.

TV broadcasting

Press

Notable Thessalonians

File:Άγιος Δημήτριος Άγιος Δημήτριος Θεσσαλονίκης. Ψηφιδωτό 7ου αιώνα.jpg|alt=|thumb|Mosaic of Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki in the Church of Saint Demetrius in Thessaloniki.]]Throughout its history, Thessaloniki has been home to a number of well-known figures. It is also the birthplace or base of various Saints and other religious figures, such as Demetrius of Thessaloniki, Cyril and Methodius (creators of the first Slavic alphabet), Saint Mitre (Saint Demetrius, not to be confused with the previous), Gregory Palamas, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Patriarch Philotheus I of Constantinople. Other Byzantine-era notables include Constantine Armenopoulos, Theodorus Gaza (Thessalonicensis) and Matthaios Kamariotis.Many of the country's best-known musicians and movie personalities were born in Thessaloniki, such as Zoe Laskari, Costas Hajihristos, Giannis Dalianidis, Harry Klynn, Alberto Eskenazi, Antonis Remos, Paschalis Terzis, Nikos Papazoglou, Nikolas Asimos, Giorgos Hatzinasios, Stella Haskil, Natassa Theodoridou, Katia Zygouli, Kostas Voutsas, Takis Kanellopoulos, Titos Vandis, Manolis Chiotis, Dionysis Savvopoulos, Marinella, Yvonne Sanson and the classical composer Emilios Riadis. Additionally, there have been a number of political leaders born in the city: Evangelos Venizelos, Christos Sartzetakis, fourth President of Greece, and Yiannis Boutaris. Sports personalities from the city include Giannis Ioannidis, Faidon Matthaiou, Alketas Panagoulias, Panagiotis Fasoulas, Eleni Daniilidou, Traianos Dellas, Giorgos Koudas, Kleanthis Vikelidis, Christos Kostis and Nikos Zisis. Benefactor Ioannis Papafis and writers, such as Grigorios Zalykis, Manolis Anagnostakis, Albertos Nar, Giorgos Ioannou (novelist), Elias Petropoulos, (:el:Κωστής Μοσκώφ|Kostis Moskof), Rena Molho and Dinos Christianopoulos were also born in Thessaloniki.The city is also the birthplace of a number of international personalities, which include Bulgarians (Atanas Dalchev), Jews (Moshe Levy, Daniel Zion, Samuel ben Joseph Uziel, Shlomo Halevi Alkabetz, Moses Allatini, Salamo Arouch), Slav Macedonians (Dimo Todorovski), Italians ((:it:Luisa Poselli|Luisa Poselli)), French (Louis Dumont) and Turks (Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Nâzım Hikmet, Afet İnan, Cahit Arf, Mehmet Cavit Bey, Salih Omurtak, Sabiha Sertel, Halil Rifat Pasha).

Cuisine

{{see also|Macedonian cuisine (Greek)}}File:Frappe (4547117210).jpg|left|thumb|upright=0.55|Frappé coffeeFrappé coffeeFile:Bougatsa.png|thumb|BougatsaBougatsaBecause Thessaloniki remained under Ottoman rule for about 100 years more than southern Greece, it has retained a lot of its Eastern character, including its culinary tastes.BOOK, Frommer's Greece,weblink 2008, Wiley Publishing Inc., 9 February 2012, 9780470260814, Spices in particular play an important role in the cuisine of Thessaloniki, something which is not true to the same degree about Greece's southern regions. Thessaloniki's Ladadika borough is a particularly busy area in regards to Thessalonian cuisine, with most tavernas serving traditional meze and other such culinary delights.Bougatsa, a breakfast pastry, which can be either sweet or savory, is very popular throughout the city and has spread around other parts of Greece and the Balkans as well. Another popular snack is koulouri.Notable sweets of the city are Trigona, Roxákia and Armenovíl. A stereotypical Thessalonian coffee drink is Frappé coffee. Frappé was invented in the Thessaloniki International Fair in 1957 and has since spread throughout Greece and Cyprus to become a hallmark of the Greek coffee culture.

Tourism

File:Thessaloniki, Greece - panoramio (2).jpg|thumb|View of the Makedonia PalaceMakedonia PalaceA touristic boom took place in the 2010s, during the years of mayor Boutaris, especially from the neighboring countries, Austria, Israel and Turkey. In 2010 the sleepovers of foreign tourists in the city were around 250.000. In 2018 the sleepovers of foreign tourists was estimated to reach 3.000.000 people.

Music

The city is viewed as a romantic one in Greece, and as such Thessaloniki is commonly featured in Greek songs.WEB, Τραγούδια για τη Θεσσαλονίκη 2,weblink 4 June 2007, homelessmontresor, 9 April 2011, There are a number of famous songs that go by the name 'Thessaloniki' (rebetiko, laïko etc.) or include the name in their title.WEB, Τραγούδια για την Θεσσαλονίκη,weblink 13 February 2010, Musicheaven.gr, 9 April 2011, During the 1930s and 40s the city became a center of the Rebetiko music, partly because of the Metaxas censorship, which was stricter in Athens. Vassilis Tsitsanis wrote some of his best songs in Thessaloniki.The city is the birthplace of significant composers in the Greek music scene, such as Manolis Chiotis, Stavros Kouyioumtzis and Dionysis Savvopoulos. It is also notable for its rock music scene and its many rock groups; some became famous such as Xylina Spathia, Trypes or the pop rock Onirama.Between 1962–1997 and 2005–2008 the city also hosted the Thessaloniki Song Festival. In the Eurovision Song Contest 2013 Greece was represented by Koza Mostra and Agathonas Iakovidis, both from Thessaloniki.

In popular culture

Education

{{See also|Aristotle University|University of Macedonia}}{{citations needed|date=February 2019}}File:Salonica-Central-Aerial.jpg|thumb|240px|Aerial view of the campus (to the right) of the Aristotle University of ThessalonikiAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessaloniki is a major center of education for Greece. Three of the country's largest universities are located in central Thessaloniki: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the University of Macedonia and the International Hellenic University. Aristotle University was founded in 1926 and is currently the largest university in Greece by number of students, which number at more than 80,000 in 2010, and is a member of the Utrecht Network. For the academic year 2009–2010, Aristotle University was ranked as one of the 150 best universities in the world for arts and humanities and among the 250 best universities in the world overall by the Times QS World University Rankings,WEB,weblink Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings, Topuniversities.com, 11 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110322050626weblink">weblink 22 March 2011, dmy-all, making it one of the top 2% of best universities worldwide.The International Journal of Scientometrics, Infometrics and Bibliometrics estimates that there are 17036 universities in the world. Leiden ranks Aristotle University as one of the top 100 European universities and the best university in Greece, at number 97.WEB,weblink official list, Cwts.nl, 11 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120226140111weblink">weblink 26 February 2012, dmy-all, Since 2010, Thessaloniki is also home to the Open University of Thessaloniki,Open University {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721083550weblink |date=21 July 2011 }} (in Greek). which is funded by Aristotle University, the University of Macedonia and the municipality of Thessaloniki.Additionally, a TEI (Technological Educational Institute), namely the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, is located in the western suburb of Sindos; home also to the industrial zone of the city. Numerous public and private vocational institutes () provide professional training to young students, while a large number of private colleges offer American and UK academic curriculum, via cooperation with foreign universities. In addition to Greek students, the city hence attracts many foreign students either via the Erasmus programme for public universities, or for a complete degree in public universities or in the city's private colleges. {{As of|2006}} the city's total student population was estimated around 200,000.WEB, Thessaloniki has no Apple's real representation,weblink Karakatsanis, Dimitris, 9 April 2011,

Transport

{{citations needed|date=February 2019}}

Bus transport

File:Citaro O530G.jpg|thumb|An OASTHOASTHPublic transport in Thessaloniki is served by buses. The bus company operating in the city is the Thessaloniki Urban Transport Organization (OASTH) and is the only public means of transport in Thessaloniki at the moment. It operates a fleet of 604 vehicles on 75 routes throughout the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area.WEB,weblink OASTH – General characteristics, OASTH, oasth.gr, 14 February 2012, International and regional bus links are provided by KTEL at its Macedonia InterCity Bus Terminal, located to the west of the city centre.WEB,weblink Location of Macedonia Intercity Bus Station, KTEL (Greece), KTEL Makedonia, 14 February 2012,

Metro

File:Thessaloniki Metro Map.svg|thumb|Map of the Thessaloniki Metro under construction (Lines 1 and 2), and its planned extensions.]]The creation of a metro system for Thessaloniki goes back as far as 1918, when Thomas Hayton Mawson and Ernest Hébrard proposed the creation of a Thessaloniki Metropolitan Railway.BOOK, Alexandra, Gerolympou, Η Ανοικοδόμηση της Θεσσαλονίκης Μετά την Πυρκαγιά του 1917, The Rebuilding of Thessaloniki after the Great Fire of 1917, Second, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki University Press, Greek, 1995, In 1968 a circular metro line was proposed, and in 1987 the first serious proposal was presented and construction briefly started in 1988, before stalling and finally being abandoned due to lack of funding.WEB,weblink Κι όμως! Το ΜΕΤΡΟ Θεσσαλονίκης είναι έτοιμο (στα χαρτιά) από το 1987!, It's true! The Thessaloniki Metro was ready (on paper) in 1987 already!, www.karfitsa.gr, 13 August 2018, Greek, Both the 1918 and 1988 proposals ran almost the identical route to the current Line 1.Construction on Thessaloniki's current metro began in 2006 and is classified as a megaproject: it has a budget of €1.57 billion (${{To USD|1.57|EUR|year=2017}} billion).WEB, Attiko Metro A.E.,weblink Funding, www.ametro.gr, 5 June 2018, Athens Metro, Line 1 and Line 2 are currently under construction and will enter service, in phases, between 2020 and 2021.NEWS,weblink el:Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης: Χαμόγελα στα εργοτάξια μετά από χρόνια, Thessaloniki Metro: Smiles at the construction sites after years, www.iefimerida.gr, 2 March 2016, 13 August 2018, Greek, NEWS,weblink el:Θεσσαλονίκη: Νοέμβριο του 2020 παραδίδεται η 1η γραμμή μετρό Νέα Ελβετία-Συντριβάνι, Thessaloniki: The 1st line from Nea Elvetia to Sintrivani will be opened in 2020, www.iefimerida.gr, 20 March 2018, 13 August 2018, Greek, Line 1 is {{convert|9.5|km|mi}} long and stops at 13 stations, while Line 2 is {{convert|4.8|km|mi}} long and stops at a further 5 stations, while also calling at 11 of the Line 1 stations.WEB, Attiko Metro A.E.,weblink History, www.ametro.gr, 19 August 2018, Athens Metro, WEB,weblink Η Συνέντευξη τoυ Γιάννη Μυλόπουλου για το Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης, www.ypodomes.gr, 12 August 2018, Giannis Mylopoulos' interview about the Thessaloniki Metro,weblink 12 August 2018, yes, Important archaeological discoveries have been made during construction, and some of the system's stations will house archaeological exhibitions.WEB,weblink CONCLUSION THESSALONIKI METRO & ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION, 12 April 2007, 13 August 2007, Attiko Metro S.A., www.ametro.gr,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927203721weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, One stop, {{Thessaloniki Metro stations|station=Venizelou}}, will house the only open archaeological site within a metro station anywhere in the world.WEB, Skai TV,weblink Ιστορίες: Μετρό Θεσσαλονίκης, Stories: Thessaloniki Metro, www.skai.gr, 13 August 2018, Greek, Skai TV, Line 2 is to be expanded further, with a loop extension to the western suburbs of the city, towards Evosmos and Stavroupoli, and one overground extension towards the Airport.WEB, Attiko Metro A.E.,weblink Extensions, www.ametro.gr, 10 August 2018, Athens Metro, The western extension is more high-priority than the airport one, as the airport will be served by a 10-minute shuttle bus to the terminus of Line 2, {{Thessaloniki Metro stations|station=Mikra}}.Once opened in 2020, it is expected that 320,000 people will use the metro every day, or 116 million people every year.WEB,weblink Μυλόπουλος: Το 2020 θα κυκλοφορούν καθημερινά 320.000 επιβάτες με το μετρό της Θεσσαλονίκης, www.movenews.gr, 12 August 2018, Mylopoulos: In 2020 320,000 people will travel on the Thessaloniki metro system,

Commuter/suburban rail (Proastiakos)

(File:Thessaloniki Suburban Railway map.svg|thumb|Suburban Railway services.)Commuter rail services have recently been established between Thessaloniki and the city of Larissa (the service is known in Greek as the "Proastiakos", meaning "Suburban Railway"). The service is operated using Siemens Desiro EMU trains on a modernised electrified double track and stops at 11 refurbished stations, covering the journey in 1 hour and 33 minutes.WEB,weblink Επέκταση Προαστιακού στο τμήμα Λιτόχωρο – Λάρισα [Expansion of Proastiakos towards Litohoro – Larissa], Naftemporiki, 15 February 2012, el, Furthermore, an additional line has also been established, although with the use of regional trains, between Thessaloniki and the city of Edessa.

Thessaloniki Airport "Makedonia"

(File:Aeroporto di salonicco.JPG|thumb|200px|Thessaloniki International Airport)International and domestic air traffic to and from the city is served by Thessaloniki Airport "Makedonia". The short length of the airport's two runways means that it does not currently support intercontinental flights, although a major extension – lengthening one of its runways into the Thermaic Gulf – is under construction,WEB,weblink el:Αναβαθμίζεται με 286 εκατ. το αεροδρόμιο "Μακεδονία", The "Macedonia" Airport is being upgraded with 286 million Euros, Express, 30 August 2011, el, despite considerable opposition from local environmental groups. Following the completion of the runway works, the airport will be able to serve intercontinental flights and cater for larger aircraft in the future. Construction of a second terminal began in September 2018, due to be completed in 2021.WEB,weblink el:Θεμελιώνεται το νέο τέρμιναλ του αεροδρομίου "Μακεδονία", Zois, Fanis, 2018-09-19, www.naftemporiki.gr, Naftemporiki, el, 2018-09-26,

Railways and ferry connections

{{See also|New railway station (Thessaloniki)|Port of Thessaloniki}}File:Thessaloniki New Railway Station.jpg|thumb|New railway station ]]Because of the Greek economic crisis, all international train links from the city were suspended in February 2011.WEB,weblink Αναστέλλονται όλα τα διεθνή δρομολόγια του ΟΣΕ [All international routes of OSE have been suspended], Ta Nea, 13 February 2011, el, Until then, the city was a major railway hub for the Balkans, with direct connections to Sofia, Skopje, Belgrade, Moscow, Vienna, Budapest, Bucharest and Istanbul, alongside Athens and other destinations in Greece. Daily through trains to Sofia and Belgrade were restarted in May 2014. Thessaloniki remains one of Greece's most important railway hubs and has the biggest marshalling yard in the country.Regional train services within Greece (operated by TrainOSE, the Hellenic Railways Organization's train operating company), link the city with other parts of the country, from its central railway passenger station, called the "New railway station" located at the western end of Thessaloniki's city center.The Port of Thessaloniki connects the city with seasonal ferries to the Sporades and other north Aegean islands, with its passenger terminal, being one of the largest in the Aegean Sea basin; having handled around 162,731 passengers in 2007.Port of Thessaloniki passenger terminal {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151003102959weblink |date=3 October 2015 }} Meanwhile, ongoing actions have been going on for more connections and the port is recently being upgraded, as Thessaloniki is also slowly turning into a major tourist port for cruising in the eastern Mediterranean.

Motorways

{{Further|Highways in Greece}}File:Thessaloniki Road Map.svg|thumb|Road map of Thessaloniki and its suburbs from OpenStreetMapOpenStreetMapFile:Ο Περιφερειακός της Θεσσαλονίκης - panoramio.jpg|thumb|Part of the ring roadring roadThessaloniki lies on the crossroads of the A1/E75, A2/E90 and A25 motorways; which connect the city with other parts of the country, as well as the Republic of North Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey.The city itself is bypassed by the C-shaped Thessaloniki Inner Ring Road (Esoteriki Peripheriaki Odos, ), which all of the above motorways connect onto it. The western end of the route begins at the junction with the A1/A2 motorways in Lachanagora District. Clockwise it heads northeast around the city, passing through the northwestern suburbs, the forest of Seich Sou and through to the southeast suburb/borough of Kalamaria. The ring road ends at a large junction with the A25 motorway, which then continues south to Chalkidiki, passing through Thessaloniki's outer southeast suburbs.The speed limit on this motorway is {{convert|90|km/h}}, it currently has three traffic lanes for each direction and forms the city's most vital road link; handling more than 120,000 vehicles daily,WEB,weblink Περιφερειακή οδός: Επικίνδυνη εάν δεν γίνουν παρεμβάσεις [Ring Road: Dangerous if measures are not taken], Makedonia (newspaper), Makedonia, 19 June 2010, Koutsabaris, Fotis, el, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120908063721weblink">weblink 8 September 2012, dmy-all, instead of 30,000 as it was meant to handle when designed in 1975.WEB,weblink - Καρμανιόλα" η περιφερειακή οδός Θεσσαλονίκης που θεωρείται πλέον πεπερασμένη [The Ring Road is considered dangerous and outdated], Athens News Agency, 25 April 2006, el, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060506091242weblink">weblink 6 May 2006, dmy-all, An outer ring road known as Eksoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (, outer ring road) carries all traffic that completely bypasses the city. It is Part of Motorway 2.WEB,weblink Ηχορύπανση από τα αυτοκίνητα στο κέντρο της Θεσσαλονίκης [Noise pollution from cars at the center of Thessaloniki], Kathimerini, 16 March 2011, el, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120713010125weblink">weblink 13 July 2012, dmy-all,

Future plans

Despite the large effort that was made in 2004 to improve the motorway features of the Thessaloniki ring road, the motorway is still insufficient to tackle Thessaloniki's increasing traffic and metropolitan population. To tackle this problem, the government has introduced large scale redevelopment plans throughout 2011WEB,weblink Εργα – "ανάσα" στην περιφερειακή οδό ["Relief" works at the Ring Road], Aggelioforos, 12 November 2011, Tasioulas, Tasos, el, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130217212552weblink">weblink 17 February 2013, dmy-all, with tenders expected to be announced within early 2012; that include the total restructuring of the A16 in the western side of the city, with new junctions and new emergency lanes throughout the whole length of the motorway. In the eastern side an even larger scale project has been announced, for the construction of a new elevated motorway section above the existing, which would allow faster travel for drivers heading through to the airport and Chalkidiki that do not wish to exit into the city, and will decongest the existing motorway for city commuters.WEB,weblink Θεσσαλονίκη: Η περιφερειακή οδός... απογειώνεται![" the Ring Road], Aggelioforos, 6 November 2011, Kanitsaki, Ntonia, el, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130217151338weblink">weblink 17 February 2013, dmy-all, The plans also include adding one more lane in each direction on the existing A16 ring road and on the A25 passing through Thessaloniki's southeast suburbs, from its junction with the A16 in Kalamaria, up to the airport exit (ΕΟ67); which will make it an 8 lane highway.Additional long term plans further include the extension of the planned outer ring road known as Eksoteriki Peripheriaki Odos (, outer ring road) to circle around the entire Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area, crossing over the Thermaic Gulf from the east, to join with the A1/E75 motorway. Preliminary plans have been announced which include a {{convert|4.5|km|0|abbr=on}} bridge over the gulf, as part of the southern bypass of the city; to cater for the large number of travellers from Macedonia and the rest of Greece heading to the airport, and to the increasingly popular tourist region of Chalkidiki.WEB,weblink ΤΙ ΠΡΟΤΕΙΝΟΥΝ ΟΙ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΟΝΕΣ "Ματ" στο κυκλοφοριακό με δύο κινήσεις [What scientists are proposing to solve the "traffic problem" ], Makedonia, 25 October 2009, el, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130217162152weblink">weblink 17 February 2013, dmy-all,

International relations

File:Thessaloniki stele, Melbourne.jpg|thumb|upright|Commemorative stele in MelbourneMelbourneConsulates{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}{| class="wikitable" valign="top"|

Twin towns – sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Greece}}Thessaloniki is twinned with:WEB,weblink Αδελφοποιημένες Πόλεις, Municipality of Thessaloniki, 18 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150207232543weblink">weblink 7 February 2015, dmy-all, {| valign="top"|
Twinning
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Hartford, United States since 5 May 1962WEB,weblink Hartford Sister Cities International, 2 February 2008, Harford Public Library, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050414005033weblink">weblink 14 April 2005,
  • {{flagicon|BUL}} Plovdiv, Bulgaria, since 27 February 1984
  • {{flagicon|AUS}} Melbourne, Australia since 19 March 1984WEB,weblink Sister cities: Thessaloniki, Greece, 4 May 2013, City of Melbourne,
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Leipzig, Germany, since 17 October 1984
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Bologna, Italy, since 20 October 1984
  • {{flagicon|CYP}} Limassol, Cyprus, since 30 June 1984WEB,weblink Twinnings, 25 August 2013, Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece, WEB,weblink Limassol Twinned Cities, 29 July 2013, Limassol (Lemesos) Municipality,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130401221134weblink">weblink 1 April 2013,
  • {{flagicon|SVK}} Bratislava, Slovakia, since 23 April 1986WEB,weblink Partner (Twin) towns of Bratislava, 5 August 2013, Bratislava-City.sk,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130728183628weblink">weblink 28 July 2013, (listed as 'Solun)
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Cologne, Germany, since 13 September 1988
  • {{flagicon|ROU}} ConstanÅ£a, Romania, since 5 September 1988
  • {{flagicon|USA}} San Francisco, United States since 7 August 1990WEB,weblink Fun Facts and Statistics, 2 February 2008, City and County of San Francisco, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080201224702weblink">weblink 1 February 2008,
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Marseille, France, since 14 February 1991
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Nice, France, since 20 March 1992WEB,weblink Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice, 24 June 2013, Ville de Nice, French, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121029114949weblink">weblink 29 October 2012,
  • {{flagicon|EGY}} Alexandria, Egypt, since 12 July 1993
  • {{flagicon|ISR}} Tel Aviv, Israel, since 24 November 1994
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Tianjin, China since 4 March 2002
  • {{flagicon|IND}} Kolkata, India since 21 January 2005NEWS, Mazumdar, Jaideep, A tale of two cities: Will Kolkata learn from her sister?,weblink 17 November 2013, Times of India, 17 November 2013, New Delhi,
  • {{flagicon|ALB}} Korçë, Albania since 14 October 2005
  • {{flagicon|KOR}} Busan, South Korea since 8 March 2010
  • {{flagicon|ALB}} Durrës, Albania since 4 April 2012


Collaborations

See also

References

Notes

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • Apostolos Papagiannopoulos,Monuments of Thessaloniki, Rekos Ltd, date unknown.
  • Apostolos P. Vacalopoulos, A History of Thessaloniki, Institute for Balkan Studies,1972.
  • John R. Melville-Jones, 'Venice and Thessalonica 1423–1430 Vol I, The Venetian Accounts, Vol. II, the Greek Accounts, Unipress, Padova, 2002 and 2006 (the latter work contains English translations of accounts of the events of this period by St Symeon of Thessaloniki and John Anagnostes).
  • Thessaloniki: Tourist guide and street map, A. Kessopoulos, MalliareÃŒ"s-Paideia, 1988.
  • Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430–1950, 2004, {{ISBN|0-375-41298-0}}.
  • Naar, Devin E. ''Jewish Salonica: Between the Ottoman Empire and
Modern Greece.'' Stanford Studies in Jewish History and CultureSeries. Stanford Stanford University Press, 2016. 400 pp. {{ISBN|978-1-5036-0008-9}}.
  • Eugenia Russell, St Demetrius of Thessalonica; Cult and Devotion in the Middle Ages, Peter Lang, Oxford, 2010. {{ISBN|978-3-0343-0181-7}}
  • James C. Skedros, Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki: Civic Patron and Divine Protector, 4th-7Th Centuries (Harvard Theological Studies), Trinity Press International (1999).
  • Vilma Hastaoglou-Martinidis (ed.), Restructuring the City: International Urban Design Competitions for Thessaloniki, Andreas Papadakis, 1999.
  • Matthieu Ghilardi, Dynamiques spatiales et reconstitutions paléogéographiques de la plaine de Thessalonique (Grèce) à l'Holocène récent, 2007. Thèse de Doctorat de l'Université de Paris 12 Val-de-Marne, 475 p.

External links

{{Commons}}{{wikivoyage|Thessaloniki}}

Government

Tourism

Cultural

Events

  • Thessaloniki 2012 (celebrations for the 100 years of the incorporation of the city to Greece)
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120611080819weblink">Thessaloniki 2014 (official website of Thessaloniki European Youth Capital 2014)

Local guides

{{Greek Macedonia}}{{Kallikratis-Central Macedonia}}{{Thessaloniki div}}{{European Capital of Culture}}{{European Youth Capital}}{{World Heritage Sites in Greece}}{{Landmarks of Thessaloniki}}{{Neighbourhoods in Thessaloniki}}{{Museums in Thessaloniki}}{{Prefectural capitals of Greece}}{{Capitals of Peripheries of Greece}}{{Second Journey of Paul of Tarsus}}{{Authority control}}

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