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The Open Championship
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{{short description|Golf tournament held in the United Kingdom}}{{redirect2|British Open|The Open||British Open (disambiguation)|and|The Open (disambiguation)}}{{Use British English|date=April 2012}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2012}}







factoids
148 EditionsThe Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews>The R&ARoyal Portrush Golf ClubDunluce CourseCounty Antrim, Northern Ireland (in 2019 Open Championship>2019) | par = 71 (in 2019)7,344abbr=on}}(in 2019)| tour = European TourPGA TourJapan Golf Tour| format = Stroke playUnited States dollar>$10.75 million (in 2019)| month_played = JulyHenrik Stenson (2016 Open Championship>2016)*equals record for all majorsHenrik Stenson (2016 Open Championship>2016)*equals record for all majorsIRL}} Shane Lowry | current = 2019 Open Championship}}The Open Championship, often referred to as The Open or the British Open, is the oldest golf tournament in the world, and one of the most prestigious. Founded in 1860, it was originally held annually at Prestwick Golf Club, Scotland, before evolving to being rotated between a select group of coastal links golf courses in the United Kingdom, under the authority of the R&A.The Open is one of the four major golf tournaments, the others being the Masters Tournament, the PGA Championship and the U.S. Open. Since the PGA Championship moved to May in 2019, the Open has been chronologically the fourth and final major tournament of the year. The tournament traditionally takes place over four days in summer, starting the day before the third Friday in July.It is called the Open, because it is in theory "open" to all, i.e professional and amateur golfers. In practice, the current event is a professional tournament in which a small number of the world’s leading amateurs also play, by invitation or qualification. The success of the tournament has led to many other open golf tournaments to be introduced around the world.The current champion is Shane Lowry, who won the 148th Open at Royal Portrush Golf Club in Northern Ireland with a score of 269. It was also held at Portrush in 1951, the first occasion that it had not been held in Scotland or England.

History

Early tournament years (1860–1870)

missing image!
- Willie Park Senior wearing the Championship Belt.jpg -
Willie Park Sr.
, the first "Champion Golfer of the Year", wearing the Challenge Belt, the winner's prize at The Open until 1870The first Open Championship was played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club in Ayrshire, Scotland, over three rounds of the twelve-hole links course.WEB,weblink The Open Championship: Champion Golfers Through The Years, Professional Golfers Career College, 6 January 2019, In the mid-19th century golf was played mainly by well-off gentlemen, as hand-crafted clubs and balls were expensive. Professionals made a living from playing for bets, caddying, ball and club making, and instruction. Allan Robertson was the most famous of these pros, and was regarded as the undisputed best golfer between 1843 and his death in 1859.BOOK, Bradbeer, Richard, Morrison, Ian, The Golf Handbook, 1-86147-006-1, Abbeydale Press, 2000, registration,weblink James Ogilvie Fairlie of Prestwick Golf Club decided to form a competition in 1860, "to be played for by professional golfers",NEWS, Challenge Belt, Fife Herald, 11 October 1861, 21 December 2014,weblink British Newspaper Archive, subscription, and to decide who would succeed Robertson as the "Champion Golfer". Blackheath (England), Perth, Bruntsfield (Edinburgh), Musselburgh and St Andrews golf clubs were invited to send up to three of their best players known as a “respectable caddie” to represent each of the clubs.MAGAZINE,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160201143332weblink">weblink Preswick Golf Club, Links Magazine, 6 January 2019, The winner received the Challenge Belt, made from red leather with a silver buckle and worth £25, which came about thanks to being donated by the Earl of Eglinton, a man with a keen interest in medieval pageantry (belts were the type of trophy that might have been competed for in archery or jousting).WEB,weblink 1860: The Very First Open, The Open, 6 January 2019, The first rule of the new golf competition was “The party winning the belt shall always leave the belt with the treasurer of the club until he produces a guarantee to the satisfaction of the above committee that the belt shall be safely kept and laid on the table at the next meeting to compete for it until it becomes the property of the winner by being won three times in succession".WEB,weblink The Claret Jug: Explore The History Of The Golf Champion Trophy, Better Known As The Claret Jug, Fairways of Woodside Golf Course, 6 January 2019, Eight golfers contested the event, with Willie Park, Sr. winning the championship by 2 shots from Old Tom Morris, and he was declared "The Champion Golfer of the Year".WEB,weblink 1860: The Very First Open, The Open, 6 January 2019, A year later, it became "open" to amateurs as well as professionals. Ten professionals and eight amateurs contested the event, with Old Tom Morris winning the championship by 4 shots from Willie Park, Sr.WEB,weblink 1861, The Open, 6 January 2019, A prize fund (£10) was introduced in 1863 split between 2nd, 3rd and 4th (the winner only received the Challenge Belt). From 1864 onwards a cash prize was also paid to the winner.WEB,weblink 1863, The Open, 24 January 2019, WEB,weblink 1864, The Open, 24 January 2019, Before this the only financial incentive was scheduling Prestwick's own domestic tournament the same week, this allowed professionals to earn a few days' work caddying for the wealthier gentlemen.WEB,weblink Format, MOCGC, 17 January 2019, Willie Park, Sr. went on to win two more tournaments, and Old Tom Morris three more, before Young Tom Morris won three consecutive titles between 1868 and 1870. The rules stated that he was allowed to keep the belt for achieving this feat. Because no trophy was available, the tournament was not held in 1871.

The introduction of course rotation and the Claret Jug (1872–1889)

On September 11, 1872 agreement was reached between Prestwick, the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers and The Royal and Ancient Golf Club. They decided that each of the three clubs would contribute £10 towards the cost of a new trophy, which was to be a silver claret jug, known officially as The Golf Champion Trophy, and hosting of the Open would be rotated between the three clubs. These decisions were taken too late for the trophy to be presented to the 1872 Open champion, who was once again Young Tom Morris. Instead, he was awarded with a medal inscribed 'The Golf Champion Trophy', although he is the first to be engraved on the Claret Jug as the 1872 winner. Medals have been given to, and kept by the winner ever since. Young Tom Morris died in 1875, aged 24.WEB,weblink 1875: Prestwick, antiquegolfscotland.com, The tournament continued dominated and won by Scottish professionals, to be rotated between the three Scottish golf courses, and played over 36 holes in a single day until 1889.WEB,weblink 1889, The Open, 6 January 2019,
missing image!
- Braid-James-with-Harry-Varden-c-1907.jpg -
Harry Vardon, the record holding six-time winner of the Open, with five-time winner James Braid.

English hosts and winners, and the Great Triumvirate (1890–1914)

In the 1890s, the tournament was won four times by three Englishman (two of whom were amateurs).WEB,weblink Golfers Who Have Won the British Open, ThoughtCo., 6 January 2019, In 1892 the tournament was played for the first time at the newly built Muirfield, which replaced Musselburgh as the host venue used by the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers.WEB,weblink 1892, The Open, 6 January 2019, A few years later St George'sWEB,weblink 1894, The Open, 6 January 2019, and Royal LiverpoolWEB,weblink 1897, The Open, 6 January 2019, in England were added to the rotation. From 1892 the tournament was increased in duration to four 18-hole rounds over two days (Prestwick had been extended to an 18-hole course by thenWEB,weblink 1884, The Open, 6 January 2019, ).Between 1898 and 1925 the tournament either had a cut after 36 holes, or a qualifying event,NEWS, British Golf Ruling On Tourney Practice Will Help Americans, 16 March 1926, The Evening Review, East Liverpool, Ohio, 10, and the largest field was 226 in 1911.WEB,weblink 1911, The Open, 6 January 2019, The large field meant sometimes the tournament was spread across up to four days.NEWS,weblink Golf Championship - First day's play - An Irishman leads, 27 June 1911, Glasgow Herald, 9,10, In 1907 Arnaud Massy from France became the first non-British winner.WEB,weblink 1907, The Open, 6 January 2019, Royal Cinque Ports in England became the 6th different Open host course in 1909.WEB,weblink 1909, The Open, 6 January 2019, The pre-war period is most famous for the Great Triumvirate of Harry Vardon (Jersey), John Henry Taylor (England), and James Braid (Scotland). The trio combined to win The Open Championship 16 times in the 21 tournaments held between 1894 and 1914; Vardon won six times (a record that still stands today) with Braid and Taylor winning five apiece. In the five tournaments in this span the Triumvirate did not win, one or more of them finished runner-up. These rivalries enormously increased the public's interest in golf, but the first world war meant another Open was not held until 1920, and none of the trio won another Open.NEWS,weblink The Great Triumvirate and inter-war years, BBC Sport, 4 July 2004, 2009-08-02, dmy-all,

American success with Walter Hagen and Bobby Jones, and the last Open at Prestwick (1920–1939)

In 1920 the Open returned, and the Royal & Ancient Golf Club became the sole organiser of the Open Championship. In 1926 they standardised the format of the tournament to spread over three days (18 holes on day 1 and 2, and 36 on day 3), and include both qualifying and a cut.NEWS, British Golf Ruling On Tourney Practice Will Help Americans, 16 March 1926, The Evening Review, East Liverpool, Ohio, 10, In 1921 eleven U.S.-based players travelled to Scotland financed by a popular subscription called the "British Open Championship Fund", after a campaign by the American magazine Golf Illustrated.MAGAZINE,weblink Golf Illustrated, March 1921, 32, Month at a Glance, 6 August 2013, Five of these players were actually British born, and had emigrated to America to take advantage of the high demand for club professionals as the popularity of golf grew.NEWS,weblink The Scotsman, 7 March 2016, The history of how Scotland brought golf to America, 6 January 2019, A match was played between the Americans and a team of British professionals, which is seen as a forerunner of the Ryder Cup.NEWS,weblink The Telegraph, 20 September 2014, How the Ryder Cup was born at Gleneagles, 6 January 2019, When the Open was held two weeks later, one of these visitors, Jock Hutchison, a naturalised American citizen, won in St Andrews, the town of his birth.WEB,weblink 1921, The Open, 6 January 2019, In 1922 Walter Hagen won the first of his four Opens, and become the first American-born winner. The period between 1923 and 1933 saw an American-based player win every year (two were British-born), and included three wins by amateur Bobby Jones, and one by Gene Sarazen, who had already won top tournaments in the United States. English players won every year between 1934 and 1939, including two wins by Henry Cotton (he would go on to win a third in 1948).After overcrowding issues at the 1925 Open at Prestwick, it was decided it was no longer suitable for the growing size of the event, being too short, having too many blind shots, and it could not cope with the volume of spectators.WEB,weblink 1925, The Open, 6 January 2019, The Open's original venue was replaced on the rota with Carnoustie,WEB,weblink 1931, The Open, 6 January 2019, which hosted for the first time in 1931. Troon hosted for the first time in 1923,WEB,weblink 1923, The Open, 6 January 2019, and Royal Lytham & St Annes was also added, hosting for the first time in 1926.WEB,weblink 1926, The Open, 6 January 2019, Prince's hosted its one and only Open in 1932.WEB,weblink 1932, The Open, 6 January 2019,
missing image!
- Ben Hogan NYWTS.jpg -
Ben Hogan gets a ticker-tape parade on his return to New York City, after winning the 1953 Open Championship

Bobby Locke, Peter Thomson, and Ben Hogan's Triple Crown (1946–1958)

The Open returned after the war to St Andrews, with a victory for American Sam Snead. Bobby Locke became the first South African winner, winning three times in four years between 1949–1952, and later winning a fourth title in 1957. Having already won the Masters and the U.S. Open earlier in the year, Ben Hogan won in his one and only Open appearance in 1953 to win the "Triple Crown". His achievement was so well regarded he returned to New York City to a ticker-tape parade.MAGAZINE,weblink Golf Digest, 12 July 2018, The Hogan Mystique, reimagined, 6 January 2019, Peter Thomson became the first Australian winner, winning four times in five years between 1954–1958, and later winning a fifth title in 1965. After flooding prevented Royal Cinque Ports from hosting, both in 1938 and 1949, it was removed from the rota.WEB,weblink Royal Cinque Ports, Open Rota, 6 January 2019, The Open was played outside of England and Scotland for the first time in 1951 at Royal Portrush, Northern Ireland.WEB,weblink 1951, The Open, 6 January 2019, The period saw fewer American entrants, as the PGA Tour had grown to be quite lucrative, and the PGA Championship was often played at the same or similar time paying triple the prize money.NEWS,weblink Glasgow Herald, Scotland, Centenary Open Championship: prize money increased, 4 December 1959, 12, WEB,weblink PGA Stats, PGA of America, 6 January 2019, A larger golf ball was also used in America, which meant they had to adjust for the Open.WEB,weblink 1953, The Open, 6 January 2019,

Player, Palmer, Nicklaus - The Big Three (1959–1974)

In 1959, Gary Player, a young South African, won the first of his three Opens. Only four Americans had entered, but in 1960 Arnold Palmer travelled to Scotland after winning the Masters and U.S. Open, in an attempt to emulate Hogan's 1953 feat of winning all three tournaments in a single year. Although he finished second to Kel Nagle, he returned and won the Open in 1961 and 1962. Palmer was hugely popular in America, and his victories are likely to have been the first time many Americans would have seen the Open on television. This, along with the growth of trans-Atlantic jet travel, inspired many more Americans to travel in the future.The period is primarily defined by the competition between Player, Palmer, and Jack Nicklaus. Nicklaus won three times (1966, 1970, 1978) and had a record seven runner-ups. American Lee Trevino also made his mark winning his two Opens back to back in 1971 and 1972. The only British champion in this period was Tony Jacklin,WEB,weblink 1969, The Open, 6 January 2019, and it is also notable for having the first winner from Argentina, Roberto De Vicenzo.WEB,weblink 1967, The Open, 6 January 2019,

Tom Watson, Ballesteros, Faldo, and Norman (1975–1993)

By 1975, the concept of the modern majors had been firmly established, and the PGA Championship had been moved to August since 1969, so no longer clashed with the Open. This meant the Open had a feel similar to the current tournament, with the leaders after 36 holes going off last (1957 onwards),NEWS, Draw for the Open Golf Championship, 13 June 1957, The Times, 3, all players having to use the "bigger ball" (1974 onwards),NEWS, R&A made bigger ball compulsory, 22 January 1974, The Times, 10, NEWS,weblink American-size ball compulsory in Open, Jacobs, Raymond, 22 January 1974, Glasgow Herald, 4, NEWS,weblink Manufacturers criticize Open ball decision, 23 January 1974, Glasgow Herald, 4, play spread over four days (1966 onwards, although the days were Wednesday to Saturday until 1980),WEB,weblink 1966, The Open, 24 January 2019, WEB,weblink 1980, The Open, 24 January 2019, and a field containing all the world's best players.American Tom Watson won in 1975. Turnberry hosted for the first time in 1977, and Watson won the Open for the second time, after one of the most celebrated contests in golf history, when his duel with Jack Nicklaus went to the final shot before Watson emerged as the champion. He would go on to win again in 1980, 1982 and 1983, to win 5 times overall, a record only bettered by Harry Vardon, and he became regarded as one of the greatest links golf players of all time.WEB,weblink Tom Watson may be the best U.S.-born links player, but don't discount Jack and Tiger, Golf.com, 6 January 2019, In 1976, 19-year-old Spaniard Seve Ballesteros gained attention in the golfing world when he finished second.WEB,weblink 1976, The Open, 6 January 2019, He would go on to win three Opens (1979, 1984, 1988), and was the first continental European to win since Arnaud Massy in 1907. Other multiple winners in this period were Englishman Nick Faldo with three (1987, 1990, 1992), and Australian Greg Norman with two (1986, 1993).File:Tiger out of reach - geograph.org.uk - 363460.jpg|thumb|left|350x350px|Tiger WoodsTiger Woods

Tiger Woods and the modern era (1994 onwards)

Every year between 1994 and 2004 had a first-time winner.WEB,weblink Tournament History, European Tour, 6 January 2019, In 1999, the Open at Carnoustie was famously difficult, and Frenchman Jean van de Velde had a three-shot lead teeing off on the final hole. He ended up triple bogeying after finding the Barry Burn, and Scotman Paul Lawrie, ranked 241st in the world, ended up winning in a playoff. He was 10 strokes behind the leader going into the final round, a record for all majors.WEB,weblink 1999, The Open, 6 January 2019, He was not the only unheralded champion during this span, as 396th-ranked Ben CurtisWEB,weblink 2003, The Open, 6 January 2019, and 56th-ranked Todd HamiltonWEB,weblink 2004, The Open, 6 January 2019, won in 2003 and 2004, respectively.In 2000, Tiger Woods, having just won the U.S. Open, became champion by a post-war record 8 strokesWEB,weblink 2000, The Open, 6 January 2019, to become the youngest player to win the career Grand Slam at age 24. After winning the 2002 Masters and U.S. Open, he became the latest American to try to emulate Ben Hogan and win the Open in the same year. His bid came to a halt on Saturday with the worst round of his career up to that time, an 81 (+10) in cold, gusty rain.WEB,weblink 2002, The Open, 6 January 2019, He went on to win again back-to-back in 2005 and 2006 to bring his total to three wins. Other multiple winners in this era are South African Ernie Els (2002, 2012) and Irishman Pádraig Harrington (2007, 2008).In 2009, 59-year-old Tom Watson led the tournament through 71 holes and needed just a par on the last hole to become the oldest ever winner of a major championship, and also match Harry Vardon's six Opens. Watson bogeyed, setting up a four-hole playoff, which he lost to Stewart Cink.WEB,weblink 2009, The Open, 6 January 2019, In 2015, Jordan Spieth became another American to arrive having already won the year's Masters and U.S. Open tournaments. He finished tied for fourth as Zach Johnson became champion.WEB,weblink 2015, The Open, 6 January 2019, Spieth would go on to win the 2017 Open at Royal Birkdale. American Phil Mickelson won his first Open, and fifth major, in 2013. In 2016, he was involved in an epic duel with Sweden's Henrik Stenson, which many people compared to the 1977 Duel in the Sun between Jack Nicklaus and Tom Watson. Stenson emerged the winner with a record Open (and major) score of 264 (−20), three shots ahead of Mickelson, and 14 shots ahead of third place. Jack Nicklaus shared his thought's on the final round, saying "Phil Mickelson played one of the best rounds I have ever seen played in the Open and Henrik Stenson just played better—he played one of the greatest rounds I have ever seen".WEB,weblink 2016, The Open, 6 January 2019, NEWS,weblink Jack: Henrik v. Phil better than Duel in the Sun, Golf Channel, 6 January 2019, Francesco Molinari won the 2018 Open at Carnoustie by two shots, to become the first Italian major winner.WEB,weblink 2018, The Open, 6 January 2019, Shane Lowry won the 2019 Open when the tournament returned to Royal Portrush Golf Club, to become the second champion from the Republic of Ireland.WEB,weblink ESPN, The Open Championship: Leaderboard, July 18, 2019,

Traditions

(File:Royal Portrush Golf Club 5th hole.png|thumb|right|500x500px|The Open is played in a coastal location, such as Royal Portrush (pictured))

Links golf course

The Open is always played on a coastal links golf course. Links golf is often described as the "purest" form of golf and keeps a connection with the way the game originated in Scotland in the 15th century. The terrain is open without any trees, and will generally be undulating with a sandy base. The golf courses are often primarily shaped by nature, rather than 'built'. Weather, particularly wind, plays an important role, and although there will be a prevailing onshore breeze, changes in the wind direction and strength over the course of the tournament can mean each round of golf has to be played slightly differently. The courses are also famous for deep pot bunkers, and gorse bushes that make up the "rough". A golfer playing on a links course will often adapt his game so the flight of the ball is lower and so is less impacted by the wind, but this will make distance control more difficult. Also due to the windy conditions the speed of the greens are often slower than a golfer might be used to on the PGA Tour, to avoid the ball being moved by a gust.NEWS,weblink What Is Links Golf?, 22 July 2018, Golf Monthly, 15 January 2019, WEB,weblink 6. The Putting Greens, R&A, 15 January 2019, File:SwilkenBridge OldCours TheRoyalAndAncientGolfClub Golfhotel .jpg|thumb|left|300px|The Swilken BridgeSwilken Bridge

Old Course at St Andrews

The Old Course at St Andrews is regarded as the oldest golf course in the world, and winning the Open there is often regarded as one of the pinnacles of golf.WEB,weblink Top 10 courses in St Andrews, Fife, Angus and Perthshire, GolfBreaks, 15 January 2019, Given the special status of the Old Course, the Open is generally played there once every five years in the modern era, much more frequently than the other courses used for the Open. Previous champions will often choose St Andrews as their final Open tournament. It has become traditional to come down the 18th fairway to huge applause from the amphitheatre crowds, and to pose for final pictures on the Swilken Bridge with the picturesque clubhouse and town in the background.NEWS,weblink Tom Watson Says Goodbye To British Open At St. Andrews, 18 July 2015, Golf.com, 15 January 2019,

Trophy presentation

The Open trophy is the Claret Jug, which has been presented to the champion since 1873. The original trophy permanently resides on display in the R&A's Clubhouse at St Andrews. Therefore, the trophy that is presented at each Open is a replica which is retained by the winner for a year. The trophy always has the winner's name already engraved on it when presented, which often results in television commentators speculating as to when it is safe for the engraver to start.NEWS,weblink Q&A with the Claret Jug engraver, 1 July 2008, Golf Monthly, 15 January 2019, The winner of the Open is announced as "The Champion Golfer of the Year", a title which has been used since the first Open in 1860. He will nearly always pose for photos with the trophy sitting on one of the distinctive pot bunkers.NEWS,weblink ‘Champion golfer of the year is such a cool title’, 16 July 2018, National Club Golfer, 15 January 2019,

Name

The first event was held as an invitational tournament, but the next year Prestwick Golf Club responded to pleas from outsiders and unanimously resolved that "the belt... on all future occasions, shall be open to all the world".WEB,weblink From Prestwick to Muirfield, BBC, 5 January 2019, In its early years it was often referred to as The Championship but with the advent of the Amateur Championship in 1885, it became more common to refer to it as The Open Championship or simply The Open. The tournament inspired other national bodies to introduce open golf tournaments of their own, such as the U.S. Open, and later many others.WEB,weblink Why it's called 'The Open' and not the 'British Open', 7 April 2017, theopen.com, 1 January 2019, To distinguish it from their own national open, it became common in many countries to refer to the tournament as the "British Open". The R&A (the tournament's organiser) continued to refer to it as The Open Championship. During the interwar years, a period with many U.S.-based winners, the term British Open would occasionally be used during the trophy presentation and in British newspapers.MAGAZINE,weblink We have explosive new evidence in the endless "British Open" vs. "Open Championship" debate, Weinman, Sam, Golf Digest, 20 July 2018, 2019-03-13, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Glasgow Herald, Scotland, Carnoustie's Great Week, 1 June 1931, 13, In 2017, a representative of the R&A openly stated that it is a priority to "eradicate the term British Open" and have a single identity and brand of "The Open" in all countries.NEWS,weblink Open Championship organizers don't want anybody calling it 'The British Open' anymore and it is causing more confusion than ever, Belden, Sam, 20 July 2017, Business Insider, 1 January 2019, Tournament partners, such as the PGA Tour, now refer to it without "British" in the title,WEB,weblink The Open - History, PGA Tour, 1 January 2019, media rightsholders are contractually required to refer to the event as The Open Championship, and the official website has released a statement titled "Why it's called 'The Open' and not the 'British Open'" stating that "The Open is the correct name for the Championship. It is also the most appropriate". The R&A's stance has attracted criticism from some commentators.NEWS,weblink Dear American Twits, This Golf Event Is Properly Called 'The Open', Costa, Brian, 18 July 2017, Wall Street Journal, 18 July 2017, 0099-9660, {{subscription required}}MAGAZINE,weblink Americans: It's okay to call this major "The British Open," and don't let anyone tell you otherwise, Ryan, Shane, Golf Digest, 14 July 2015, 18 July 2017, The R&A also run The Senior Open, the over 50s equivalent of the Open, which was officially known as the "Senior British Open" from its inception in 1987 until 2007, when "British" was dropped from the name.WEB,weblink Senior Open - History, PGA European Tour, 1 January 2019, The Women's British Open, seen by some as the women's equivalent to the Open (although unlike the Open it is not always held on a links course, and was not run by the R&A until 2017) has included the term "British" since its inception in 1976.

Status

The Open is recognised as one of the four major championships in golf, and is an official event on the PGA Tour, European Tour, and the Japan Golf Tour.The Open began in 1860, and for many years it was not the most-followed event in golf, as challenge matches between top golfers were more keenly followed and drew larger crowds.WEB,weblink The Five Open Championships, MOCGC, 17 January 2019, The Great Triumvirate dominated the Open between 1894 and 1914 and were primarily responsible for the formation of the PGA in 1901 which had a big impact in promoting interest in professional golf (and therefore The Open) and increasing playing standards.BOOK,weblink Handbook on the Economics of Sport, Andreff, Wladimir, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006, 978 184 376 608 7, UK, 235,236, Between the World Wars, the first wins by Americans were widely celebrated when they broke the dominance previously held by British players.WEB,weblink Bobby Jones, Encyclopedia.com, 17 January 2019, After World War II, although the profile of the tournament remained high in the UK and Commonwealth countries, the low prize money compared the US events and the cost of travel meant fewer Americans participated. High-profile visits and wins by Ben Hogan and Arnold Palmer, the growth of cheaper and faster transatlantic flights, and the introduction television coverage recovered its prestige. When the modern concept of the majors was cemented, the Open was included as one of the four events.The Open is now one of the four majors in golf, along with the U.S. Open, PGA Championship, and Masters Tournament. The term "major" is a universally-acknowledged unofficial term used by players, the media, and golf followers to define the most important tournaments, and performance in them is often used to define the careers of the best golfers.WEB,weblink Golf Majors, ThoughtCo, 17 January 2019, There is often discussion amongst the golfing community as to whether the Open, U.S. Open, or the Masters Tournament is the most prestigious major, but opinion varies (often linked to nationality). The PGA Championship is usually seen as the least prestigious of the four.MAGAZINE,weblink Which Golf Major Is The Most Prestigious?, 12 June 2012, Forbes, 17 January 2019, NEWS,weblink USPGA hopes it is winners all round when major moves to May, 11 August 2018, Daily Telegraph, 17 January 2019, In terms of official recognition, the tournament has been an event on the European Tour since its formation in 1972. The PGA Tour added it as its first official event outside of the United States and Canada in 1995, in addition all previous PGA Tour seasons have been retroactively adjusted to include the Open in official money and win statistics. Currently the Open, along with the other three majors and The Players Championship, are the top-tier tournaments in the FedEx cup, offering more points than any other non-playoff event. The Open is also an official event on the Japan Golf Tour.BOOK,weblink Golf: Career Money Leaders, Thakur, Pradeep, Lulu Enterprises Ltd, 2010, 978-0-557-77530-9, India, 99,

Structure

{{see also|The Open Championship format and qualification}}

Qualifying

{{see also|The Open Championship format and qualification#Current qualifying process|l1=Qualifying process}}Qualifying was introduced in 1907, and for much of its history, all players had to go through the qualification process. In the modern era, the majority of players get an exemption from qualification which is awarded for previous performance in the Open, performance in high-profile global tournaments (such as other majors), performance in top golf tours, or a high position in the Official World Golf Ranking (OWGR). Five amateurs are also exempt from qualifying by winning various global amateur titles provided they maintain their amateur status prior to The Open.WEB,weblink Exemptions, The Open, 16 January 2019, Another way of qualifying is to finish in a high position in the Open Qualifying Series of global events, which are about twelve tour events across the globe, run by various local golfing organisations.WEB,weblink Qualification, The Open, 16 January 2019, Any male professional golfer, male amateur golfer whose playing handicap does not exceed 0.4 (i.e. scratch) or has been within World Amateur Golf Ranking listing 1–2,000 during the current calendar year, and any female golfer who finished in the top 5 and ties in the latest edition of any of the five women's majors is eligible to enter local qualifying. If they perform well they will go on to Final Qualifying, which is four simultaneous 36-hole one-day events held across the UK, with 12 players qualifying for the Open. If there are any spots left, then alternates are made up from the highest ranked players in the OWGR who are not already qualified, which brings the total field up to 156 players.NEWS,weblink Graeme McDowell Among 11 Alternates Added to British Open, 27 June 2016, Golf.com, 16 January 2019, In 2018, the OWGR gave the Open a strength of field rating of 902 (the maximum possible is 1000 if the top 200 players in the world were all in a tournament). This was only bettered by the PGA Championship, a tournament which actively targets a high strength of field rating.WEB,weblink Events, OWGR, 16 January 2019, NEWS,weblink World's top 100 ranked players entered in PGA at Valhalla, 29 July 2014, Kentucky.com, 17 January 2019,

Format

Field: 156 playersNEWS,weblink British Open 2018: Frequently Asked Questions, 9 July 2018, GolfWorld, 16 January 2019, Basic Format: 72 hole stroke play. Play 18 holes a day over four days, weather permitting.Date of Tournament: Starts on the day before the third Friday in July.NEWS,weblink Future Men's Major Championships - dates and venues, Supersport, 16 January 2019, Tournament Days: Thursday to Sunday.Tee off times: Each player has one morning and one afternoon tee time in first two days in groups of three, which are mostly randomised (with some organiser discretion). Groupings of two on the last two days with last place going off first and leaders going out last.NEWS,weblink How the PGA Tour determines tee times and groupings each week, 31 January 2018, GNN, 24 January 2019, Cut: After 36 holes, only top 70 and ties play the final 36 holes.Playoff: If there is a tie for the lead after 72 holes, a three-hole aggregate playoff is held; followed by sudden death if the lead is still tied.

Prizes

Up until 2016, the purse was always stated, and paid, in pounds sterling (£), but was changed in 2017 to US dollars ($) in recognition of the fact that it is the most widely adopted currency for prize money in golf.NEWS,weblink Open 2017: Why is the prize money paid in dollars this year instead of pounds?, 21 July 2017, The Express, 14 January 2019,

Champion's prizes and benefits

File:ClaretJug.jpg|thumb|250x250px|The Claret JugClaret JugFile:Young Tom Morris.jpg|thumb|300x300px|Young Tom MorrisYoung Tom MorrisThe champion receives trophies, the winner’s prize money, and several exemptions from world golf tours and tournaments. He is also likely to receive a winner's bonus from his sponsors.NEWS,weblink Baby, You're a Rich Man: What Winning Another Major Means for Rory's Finances, 22 July 2014, Golf Digest, 14 January 2019, The prizes and privileges on offer for the champion included: From 1860 to 1870, the winner received the challenge belt. When this was awarded to Young Tom Morris permanently for winning three consecutive tournaments, it was replaced by the gold medal (1872 onwards), and the claret jug (1873 onwards).

Other prizes and benefits, based upon finishing position

There are several benefits from being placed highly in the Open. These are:
  • The runners up each receive a silver salver.NEWS,weblink The Open 2015: fourth round - as it happened, 13 July 2016, The Guardian, 15 January 2019,
  • If the player is a professional, then a share of the purse. There is a distribution curve for those who make the cut, with 1st place getting 18%, 2nd 10.4%, 3rd 6.7%, 4th 5.2%, and 5th 4.2%. The percentage continues to fall by placing with 21st getting 1% and 37th 0.5%. Professionals who miss the cut received between US$7,375 and US$4,950.
  • The top 10 players, including ties, get entry to the next edition of The Open Championship.
  • The top 4 players, including ties, get entry to the next edition of the Masters Tournament.NEWS,weblink Qualifications for Masters Invitation, 3 January 2018, Augusta Chronicle, 14 January 2019,
  • FedEx Cup, Race to Dubai, Ryder Cup/Presidents Cup, and Official World Golf Ranking points.

Amateur medals

Since 1949 the leading amateur completing the final round receives a silver medal. Since 1972, any other amateur who competes in the final round receives a bronze medal. Amateurs do not receive prize money.NEWS,weblink Open Championship: How is prize money distributed if amateur Paul Dunne wins?, 20 July 2015, Sky Sports, 14 January 2019,

Professional Golfers' Association (of Great Britain and Ireland) awards

The Professional Golfers' Association (of Great Britain and Ireland) also mark the achievements of their own members in The Open. The Braid Taylor Memorial Medal and the Tooting Bec Cup are restricted to members born in, or with a parent or parents born in, the United Kingdom or Republic of Ireland.

Courses

{{see also|List of The Open Championship venues}}The Open Championship has always been held on a coastal links golf course in Scotland, England or Northern Ireland. The hosting pattern has been:WEB,weblink The Open Championship 2018: Complete list of previous winners, Norris, Luke, Fansided, 9 January 2019,
  • 1860–1870: Prestwick Golf Club the sole host.
  • 1872–1892: Three year rotation between Prestwick, St Andrews, and Musselburgh (replaced by Muirfield in 1892) golf clubs.
  • 1893–1907: Five year rotation between Prestwick, Royal St George's, St Andrews, Muirfield, and Royal Liverpool Golf Clubs.NEWS,weblink Special notes on sports, The Glasgow Herald, 19 June 1893, 9, NEWS, The Times, 10 July 1893, 7, The Open Golf Championship,
  • 1908–1939: Six year rotation, initially between Prestwick, Royal Cinque Ports, St Andrews, Royal St George's, Muirfield, and Royal Liverpool Golf Clubs, so alternating between Scotland and England.NEWS,weblink Glasgow Herald, The Open Championship: third English course adopted, 18 November 1907, 13, NEWS, The Times, 18 November 1907, 12, The Open Championship, A few changes were made to the rota of 6 courses after World War I.
  • 1946–1972: Alternating between Scottish and English golf clubs continues, but without a fixed rota. Exceptions were St Andrews hosting pre- and post-World War II, and Northern Ireland hosting in 1951.
  • Since 1973: Usually three Scottish and two English courses hosting in a five-year period, mostly alternating between the two countries, with St Andrews hosting about every five years. Northern Ireland returned in 2019.NEWS,weblink Major changes: Upgraded Dunluce Links at Royal Portrush ready for The Open in 2019, Deegan, Jason, 12 May 2017, Golf Advisor, 10 January 2019,

Overview

A total of 14 courses have hosted the Open, with ten currently active as part of the rotation, and four have been retired from the rotation (shown in italics). The year the golf course was originally built is shown in parenthesis. Prestwick Golf Club (1851):WEB,weblink Prestwick Golf Club, PrestwickGC, 10 January 2019, Prestwick is The Open's original venue, and hosted 24 Opens in all, including the first 12. Old Tom Morris designed the original 12 hole course, but it was subsequently redesigned and expanded to be an 18-hole course in 1882.WEB,weblink A short history of Prestwick, The Open, 10 January 2019, Serious overcrowding problems at Prestwick in 1925 meant that the course was never again used for the Open, and was replaced by Carnoustie Golf Links as the third Scottish course.Old Course at St Andrews (1552):WEB,weblink Scottish Golf History – Oldest Golf Sites, 19 February 2013, Considered the oldest golf course in the world, and referred to as "the home of golf". Famous features include the "Hell Bunker" (14th), the Road Hole (17th).NEWS,weblink Why a British Open at St. Andrews is the best event in golf, Reaske, Trevor, 15 July 2015, SBNation, 10 January 2019, Due to its special status it usually hosts the open every five years in the modern era. It is designed to be played in wind, so can result in low scores in benign conditions.NEWS,weblink The Open 2010: Rory McIlroy equals lowest major round at St Andrews, 15 July 2010, The Guardian, Press Association, 10 January 2019, Musselburgh Links (c1672): A 9-hole course that hosted six Opens as it was used by the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, one of the organisers of The Open between 1872 and 1920. When the Honourable Company built their own course in 1891 (Muirfield), it took over hosting duties.WEB,weblink 1672 Musselburgh - The Lawyer Golfer, Scottish Golf History, 10 January 2010, Musselburgh was unhappy with this and organised another rival 'Open' competition prior to the Muirfield event, one with greater prize money.WEB,weblink The Musselburgh Opens, MOCGC, 17 January 2019, Muirfield (1891): Built by the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers to replace Musselburgh on the rota. Known for the circular arrangement the course has, which means the wind direction on each hole changes, and can make it tricky to navigate.WEB,weblink A short history of Muirfield, The Open, 10 January 2010, Briefly removed from the rota in 2016–17 due to not having any female members.NEWS,weblink Muirfield to lose right to host Open after vote against allowing women members, BBC Sport, 19 May 2016, 19 May 2016, NEWS,weblink Glasgow Herald, 19 January 1957, 9, Change of courses for important events - "Open" switched to St. Andrews, Royal St George's Golf Club (1887):MAGAZINE,weblink Royal St George's Golf Club Course Review, Golf Monthly, 10 January 2010, The first venue to host in England, and the only venue on the current rota in Southern England. It went 32 years without hosting between 1949 and 1981, but returned following the rebuilding of three holes, tee changes to another two holes, and improved road links.MAGAZINE,weblink Today's Golfer, History of Royal St George's, 23 June 2011, Known for having the deepest bunker on the rota (4th hole).MAGAZINE,weblink 7 Of Golf's Most Famous Bunkers, Golf Monthly, 10 January 2019, Royal Liverpool Golf Club (1869):WEB,weblink Royal Liverpool - Cheshire - England, top100golfcourses, 10 January 2010, Often simply referred to as Hoylake. Royal Liverpool went 39 years without hosting between 1967 and 2006, but returned following changes to tees, bunkers, and greens. In 2006, Tiger Woods won by hitting just one driver.WEB,weblink 2006 British Open: Woods Leaves Wood in the Bag, ThoughtCo, 10 January 2010, Royal Cinque Ports Golf Club (1892):WEB,weblink Royal Cinque Ports - Kent - England, top100golfcourses, 10 January 2010, Hosted the 1909 and 1920 Opens, and was scheduled to host in 1938 and 1949 but both had to be moved to Royal St George's Golf Club due to abnormally high tides flooding the course. It was removed from the rota but is still used for qualifying.WEB,weblink Royal Cinque Ports and The Open Rota, Royal Cinque Ports, 10 January 2019, NEWS, The Times, 14 April 1915, 16, The Golf Championship - Official announcement, NEWS, The Times, 14 February 1938, 12, Gales and snow - Damage on east coast - Widespread flooding, NEWS, The Times, 12 February 1938, 4, Golf - The Open and Amateur Championships - New Conditions, NEWS, The Times, 24 May 1949, 6, Open Golf Championship at Sandwich, Royal Troon Golf Club (1878):WEB,weblink Royal Troon (Old) - Ayrshire & Arran - Scotland, top100golfcourses, 10 January 2019, First used in 1923 instead of Muirfield when "some doubts exists as to the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers being desirous of their course being used for the event".NEWS, The Times, 22 May 1922, 22, The Championships, Redesigned, lengthened, and strengthened by James Braid shortly before it held its first Open. Famous features include the "Postage Stamp" 8th hole, and the 601 yards 6th.Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club (1886):WEB,weblink Royal Lytham & St Annes - Lancashire - England, top100golfcourses, 10 January 2019, A relatively short course, but has 167 bunkers which demand accuracy.MAGAZINE,weblink Intimidating bunkers still an effective defense at Royal Lytham, Golfweek, 1 August 2018, Beth Ann, Nichols, 10 January 2019, Slightly inland since some coastal homes have been built since the course first opened.Carnoustie Golf Links (1835): Replaced Prestwick after it was no longer suitable for the Open. It went through modifications prior to the 1999 Open. Thought of as being the toughest of the Open venues, especially the last three holes, and is well remembered for Jean van de Velde triple bogeying on the 18th when he only needed a double bogey to win. (File:Turnberry Lighthouse (29972057257).jpg|thumb|left|300x300px|Turnberry Lighthouse at sunset surrounded by the golf course.)Prince's Golf Club (1906): Only hosted once in 1932. Has been redesigned in 1950 due to war damage.WEB,weblink A short history of Prince's, The Open, 10 January 2019, Royal Portrush Golf Club (1888):WEB,weblink Royal Portrush (Dunluce) - Antrim - Northern Ireland, top100golfcourses, 10 January 2019, The only venue to host the Open outside England and Scotland when it hosted in 1951. With the Troubles in Northern Ireland significantly diminished since the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, and after the successful hosting of the Irish Open it returned as host in 2019. The course underwent significant changes before the 2019 Open, including replacing the 17th and 18th holes, which also provided the space for spectators and corporate hospitality that a modern major requires. Royal Birkdale Golf Club (1894): Extensively redesigned by Fred Hawtree and JH Taylor to create the current layout in 1922, it is known for its sand dunes towering the fairways. Often ranked as England's best Open venue.WEB,weblink Royal Birkdale - Lancashire - England, top100golfcourses, 10 January 2019, NEWS, The Times, 21 January 1939, 4, Golf Championships for 1940, NEWS,weblink Glasgow Herald, Condition of course in Locke's favor, 5 July 1954, 4, Turnberry (1906): Made its Open debut in 1977, when Tom Watson and Jack Nicklaus famously played the Duel in the Sun. Known to be one of the most picturesque Open venues, it was bought by Donald Trump in 2014, who has spent substantial amounts renovating the course.WEB,weblink Trump Turnberry (Ailsa) - Ayrshire & Arran - Scotland, top100golfcourses, 10 January 2019, It is rumoured that some R&A members are reluctant to let Turnberry host while under the current ownership.MAGAZINE,weblink British Open 2018: Trump Turnberry remains without a future Open date, Beall, Joel, 18 July 2018, Golf Digest, 10 January 2019, {{Location map many|United Kingdom||float=right|width=250 Carnoustie Golf Links>Carnoustie pos1=top long1=-2.717Old Course at St Andrews>St Andrews mark2size=5 long2=-2.803Muirfield > pos3=left lat3=56.042 |long3=-2.821Turnberry (golf course)>Turnberry mark4size=5 long4=-4.833Royal Troon Golf Club>Royal Troon mark5size=5 long5=-4.65Royal Birkdale Golf Club>Royal Birkdale pos6=left long6=-3.033Royal Liverpool Golf Club>Royal Liverpool(Hoylake) mark7size=5 long7=-3.190Royal St George's Golf Club>Royal St George's pos8 = left long8=1.367Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club>Royal Lytham pos9 = right long9 = -3.0169Royal Portrush Golf Club>RoyalPortrush mark10size=5 long10 = -6.635|caption = Open Championship venues which are currently part of the rotation.}}{{Location map many|United Kingdom||float=right|width=250Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick pos1=left long1=-4.619Prince's Golf Club>Prince's mark2size=5 long2=1.3729Musselburgh Links>Musselburgh mark3size=5 long3=-3.036389Royal Cinque Ports Golf Club>Royal Cinque Portsmark4size=5 long4=1.3965|caption = Former Open Championship venues which are no longer part of the rotation.}}

Hosting record of each course

{| class="wikitable plainrowheaders sortable" style="font-size:95%"!scope="col"|Course!scope="col"|No.!scope="col"|Years hosted!scope="row" |!scope="row" |!scope="row" |!scope="row" |! scope="row" |!scope="row" |! scope="row" |!scope="row" style="font-weight:bold;background:Khaki"|Scotland! scope="row" |! scope="row" |2022! scope="row" |! scope="row" |! scope="row" |! scope="row" |!scope="row" style="font-weight:bold;background:Khaki"|England! scope="row" |!scope="row" style="font-weight:bold;background:Khaki"|References:

Future venues

{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:95%"!Year!Edition!Course!Town!County!Country!Dates!Last hosted!Ref 2020 149th | Royal St George's Golf Club Sandwich, Kent>Sandwich | Kent | England | 16–19 July 2011 TITLE=ROYAL ST GEORGE'S, 20 October 2015, 2021 150th | Old Course at St Andrews |St Andrews | Fife | Scotland | 15–18 July 2015 TITLE=150TH OPEN, 12 February 2018, |2022151st|Royal Liverpool Golf Club|Hoylake|Merseyside|England|14–17 July2014LAST=SHRIVATHSADATE=26 FEBRUARY 2019ACCESS-DATE=26 FEBRUARY 2019,

Records

  • Oldest winner: Old Tom Morris ({{Age in years and days|1821|06|16|1867|09|26}}), 1867.
  • Youngest winner: Young Tom Morris ({{Age in years and days|1851|04|20|1868|09|23}}), 1868.WEB,weblink Notes: Young Tom Morris gets 20 days older, PGA Tour, 1 August 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060805110648weblink">weblink 5 August 2006,
  • Most victories: 6, Harry Vardon (1896, 1898, 1899, 1903, 1911, 1914).
  • Most consecutive victories: 4, Young Tom Morris (1868, 1869, 1870, 1872 – there was no championship in 1871).
  • Lowest score after 36 holes: 130, Nick Faldo (66-64), 1992; Brandt Snedeker (66-64), 2012
  • Lowest score after 54 holes: 197, Shane Lowry (67-67-63), 2019
  • Lowest final score (72 holes): 264, Henrik Stenson (68-65-68-63, 264), 2016.
  • Lowest final score (72 holes) in relation to par: −20, Henrik Stenson (68-65-68-63, 264), 2016.
  • Greatest victory margin: 13 strokes, Old Tom Morris, 1862. This remained a record for all majors until 2000, when Woods won the U.S. Open by 15 strokes at Pebble Beach. Old Tom's 13-stroke margin was achieved over 36 holes.
  • Lowest round: 62, Branden Grace, 3rd round, 2017; a record for all majors.
  • Lowest round in relation to par: −9, Paul Broadhurst, 3rd round, 1990; Rory McIlroy, 1st round, 2010.
  • Wire-to-wire winners (after 72 holes with no ties after rounds): Ted Ray in 1912, Bobby Jones in 1927, Gene Sarazen in 1932, Henry Cotton in 1934, Tom Weiskopf in 1973, Tiger Woods in 2005, and Rory McIlroy in 2014.WEB,weblink Did you know number 50, The Open Championship, 21 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131125003408weblink">weblink 25 November 2013,
  • Most runner-up finishes: 7, Jack Nicklaus (1964, 1967, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1977, 1979)

Champions

{{see also|List of The Open Championship champions}}Nationalities assigned below match those used in the official Open records{| class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size:95%"!# !! Year !! Dates{{efn|Dates include all days on which play took place or was planned to take place, including any playoffs}} !! Champion !! Country !! Venue !! Score !! data-sort-type="number"|Topar !! data-sort-type="number"|Winningmargin !! Runner(s)-up !! data-sort-type="number"|Purse !! data-sort-type="number"|Winner'sshare!colspan=10|The Open Championship || colspan=2|US$ 148th align=center2019 Open Championship>2019 align=centerShane Lowry (golfer)>Shane Lowry {{IRL}} Royal Portrush Golf Club > 269 align=center 6 strokes {{flagathleteTommy Fleetwood>ENG}} align="center" 1,935,000 147th align=center2018 Open Championship>2018 align=centerFrancesco Molinari >Italy}} Carnoustie Golf Links > 276 align="center" 2 strokes {{flagathleteKevin Kisner>USA}} {{flagathleteRory McIlroy>NIR}} {{flagathleteJustin Rose>ENG}} {{flagathleteXander Schauffele>USA}} align=center1,890,000 146th align=center2017 Open Championship>2017 align=centerJordan Spieth >United States}} Royal Birkdale Golf Club > 268 align="center" 3 strokes {{flagathleteMatt Kuchar>USA}} align="center" (pound sterling>£7,890,000) align="center" (pound sterling>£1,420,000) Before 2017 the prize fund was always stated, and paid, in pound sterling (£) ! colspan=2|GBP£ 145th align=center2016 Open Championship>2016 align=centerHenrik Stenson >Sweden}} Royal Troon Golf Club > 264 align="center" 3 strokes {{flagathletePhil Mickelson>USA}} align="center" 1,175,000 144th align=center2015 Open Championship>2015 align=centerZach Johnson >United States}} Old Course at St Andrews > 273 align="center" Playoff {{flagathleteMarc Leishman>AUS}}{{flagathleteLouis Oosthuizen>RSA}} align="center" 1,150,000 143rd align=center2014 Open Championship>2014 align=centerRory McIlroy >Northern Ireland}} Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake > 271 align="center" 2 strokes {{flagathleteRickie Fowler>USA}}{{flagathleteSergio García>ESP}} align="center" 975,000 142nd align=center2013 Open Championship>2013 align=centerPhil Mickelson >United States}} Muirfield align="center" −3 align="center" Henrik Stenson 5,250,000 align="center" |945,000 141st align=center2012 Open Championship>2012 align=centerErnie Els (2) >South Africa}} Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club > 273 align="center" 1 stroke {{flagathleteAdam Scott (golfer)>Adam Scott 5,000,000 align="center" | 900,000 140th align=center2011 Open Championship>2011 align=centerDarren Clarke >Northern Ireland}} Royal St George's Golf Club > 275 align="center" 3 strokes {{flagathleteDustin Johnson>USA}}{{flagathletePhil Mickelson>USA}} align="center" 900,000 139th align=center2010 Open Championship>2010 align=centerLouis Oosthuizen >South Africa}} Old Course at St Andrews > 272 align="center" 7 strokes {{flagathleteLee Westwood>ENG}} 4,800,000 align="center" | 850,000 138th align=center2009 Open Championship>2009 align=centerStewart Cink >United States}} Turnberry (golf course) > 278 align="center" Playoff {{flagathleteTom Watson (golfer)>Tom Watson 4,200,000 align="center" | 750,000 137th align=center2008 Open Championship>2008 align=centerPádraig Harrington (2) >Ireland}} Royal Birkdale Golf Club > 283 align="center" 4 strokes {{flagathleteIan Poulter>ENG}} 4,200,000 align="center" | 750,000 136th align=center2007 Open Championship>2007 align=centerPádraig Harrington >Ireland}} Carnoustie Golf Links > 277 align="center" Playoff {{flagathleteSergio García>ESP}} align="center" 750,000 135th align=center2006 Open Championship>2006 align=centerTiger Woods (3) >United States}} Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake > 270 align="center" 2 strokes {{flagathleteChris DiMarco>USA}} align="center" 720,000 134th align=center2005 Open Championship>2005 align=centerTiger Woods (2) >United States}} Old Course at St Andrews > 274 align="center" 5 strokes {{flagathleteColin Montgomerie>SCO}} align="center" 720,000 133rd align=center2004 Open Championship>2004 align=centerTodd Hamilton >United States}} Royal Troon Golf Club > 274 align="center" Playoff {{flagathleteErnie Els>ZAF}} align="center" 720,000 132nd align=center2003 Open Championship>2003 align=centerBen Curtis (golfer)>Ben Curtis {{flagcountryRoyal St George's Golf Club>Royal St George's align="center" −1 align="center" Thomas BjørnVijay Singh 3,900,000 align="center" | 700,000 131st align=center2002 Open Championship>2002 align=centerErnie Els >South Africa}} Muirfield align="center" −6 align="center" ; data-sort-value=0Stuart ApplebySteve ElkingtonThomas Levet 3,800,000 align="center" | 700,000 130th align=center2001 Open Championship>2001 align=centerDavid Duval >United States}} Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club > 274 align="center" 3 strokes {{flagathleteNiclas Fasth>SWE}} align="center" 600,000 129th align=center2000 Open Championship>2000 align=centerTiger Woods >United States}} Old Course at St Andrews > 269 align="center" 8 strokes {{flagathleteThomas Bjørn>DNK}}{{flagathleteErnie Els>ZAF}} align="center" 500,000 128th align=center1999 Open Championship>1999 align=centerPaul Lawrie >Scotland}} Carnoustie Golf Links > 290 align="center" Playoff {{flagathleteJustin Leonard>USA}} {{flagathleteJean van de Velde (golfer)>Jean van de Velde 2,000,000 align="center" | 350,000 127th align=center1998 Open Championship>1998 align=centerMark O'Meara >United States}} Royal Birkdale Golf Club > 280 align="center" Playoff {{flagathleteBrian Watts >USA}} align="center" 300,000 126th align=center1997 Open Championship>1997 align=centerJustin Leonard >United States}} Royal Troon Golf Club > 272 align="center" 3 strokes {{flagathleteDarren Clarke>NIR}}{{flagathleteJesper Parnevik>SWE}} align="center" 250,000 125th align=center1996 Open Championship>1996 align=centerTom Lehman >United States}} Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club > 271 align="center" 2 strokes {{flagathleteErnie Els>ZAF}}{{flagathleteMark McCumber>USA}} align="center" 200,000 124th align=center1995 Open Championship>1995 align=centerJohn Daly (golfer)>John Daly {{flagcountryOld Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align="center" −6 align="center" ; data-sort-value=0Costantino Rocca 1,125,000 align="center" | 125,000 123rd align=center1994 Open Championship>1994 align=centerNick Price >Zimbabwe}} Turnberry (golf course) > 268 align="center" 1 stroke {{flagathleteJesper Parnevik>SWE}} align="center" 110,000 122nd align=center1993 Open Championship>1993 align=centerGreg Norman (2) >Australia}} Royal St George's Golf Club > 267 align="center" 2 strokes {{flagathleteNick Faldo>ENG}} align="center" 100,000 121st align=center1992 Open Championship>1992 align=centerNick Faldo (3) >England}} Muirfield align="center" −12 align="center" John Cook (golfer) >USA}} align="center" 95,000 120th align=center1991 Open Championship>1991 align=centerIan Baker-Finch >Australia}} Royal Birkdale Golf Club > 272 align="center" 2 strokes {{flagathleteMike Harwood>AUS}} align="center" 90,000 119th align=center1990 Open Championship>1990 align=centerNick Faldo (2) >England}} Old Course at St Andrews > 270 align="center" 5 strokes {{flagathleteMark McNulty>ZWE}}{{flagathletePayne Stewart>USA}} align="center" 85,000 118th align=center1989 Open Championship>1989 align=centerMark Calcavecchia >United States}} Royal Troon Golf Club > 275 align="center" Playoff {{flagathleteWayne Grady>AUS}}{{flagathleteGreg Norman>AUS}} align="center" 80,000 117th align=center1988 Open Championship>1988 align=centerSeve Ballesteros (3) >Spain}} Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club > 273 align="center" 2 strokes {{flagathleteNick Price>ZWE}} align="center" 80,000 116th align=center1987 Open Championship>1987 align=centerNick Faldo >England}} Muirfield align="center" −5 align="center" Paul AzingerRodger Davis 650,000 align="center" |75,000115th align=center1986 Open Championship>1986 align=centerGreg Norman >Australia}} Turnberry (golf course) > 280 align=center 5 strokes {{flagathleteGordon J. Brand>ENG}} align=center70,000114th align=center1985 Open Championship>1985 align=centerSandy Lyle >Scotland}} Royal St George's Golf Club >282 align=center1 stroke {{flagathletePayne Stewart>USA}} align=center65,000 113th align=center1984 Open Championship>1984 align=centerSeve Ballesteros (2) >Spain}} Old Course at St Andrews >276 align=center 2 strokes {{flagathleteBernhard Langer>FRG}}{{flagathleteTom Watson (golfer)>Tom Watson 451,000 align="center" |55,000 112th align=center1983 Open Championship>1983 align=centerTom Watson (golfer)>Tom Watson (5) {{flagcountryRoyal Birkdale Golf Club>Royal Birkdale align=center −9 align=centerAndy BeanHale Irwin 310,000 align="center" |40,000111th1982 Open Championship >15–18 Jul Tom Watson (golfer) (4) >United States}} Royal Troon Golf Club > 284 align=center 1 stroke {{flagathletePeter Oosterhuis>ENG}}{{flagathleteNick Price>ZWE}} align=center32,000110th align=center1981 Open Championship>1981 align=centerBill Rogers (golfer)>Bill Rogers {{flagcountryRoyal St George's Golf Club>Royal St George's align=center −4 align=centerBernhard Langer 200,000 align="center" |25,000109th align=center1980 Open Championship>1980 align=centerTom Watson (golfer)>Tom Watson (3) {{flagcountryMuirfield > 271 align=center4 strokes {{flagathleteLee Trevino>USA}} align=center 25,000108th align=center1979 Open Championship>1979 align=centerSeve Ballesteros >SpainRoyal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club>Royal Lytham& St Annes align=center −1 align=centerBen CrenshawJack Nicklaus 155,000 align="center" |15,000107th align=center1978 Open Championship>1978 align=centerJack Nicklaus (3) >United States}} Old Course at St Andrews >281 align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteBen Crenshaw>USA}}{{flagathleteRaymond Floyd>USA}}{{flagathleteTom Kite>USA}}{{flagathleteSimon Owen>NZL}} align=center12,500106th align=center1977 Open Championship>1977 align=centerTom Watson (golfer)>Tom Watson (2) {{flagcountryTurnberry (golf course)>Turnberry align=center−12 align=centerJack Nicklaus100,000 align="center" |10,000105th align=center1976 Open Championship>1976 align=centerJohnny Miller >United States}} Royal Birkdale Golf Club >279 align=center6 strokes {{flagathleteSeve Ballesteros>ESPJack Nicklaus75,000 align="center" |7,500104th align=center1975 Open Championship>1975 align=centerTom Watson (golfer)>Tom Watson {{flagcountryCarnoustie Golf Links>Carnoustie align=center−9 align=center ; data-sort-value=0Jack Newton75,000 align="center" |7,500103rd align=center1974 Open Championship>1974 align=centerGary Player (3) >South AfricaRoyal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club>Royal Lytham& St Annes align=center−2 align=centerPeter Oosterhuis 50,000 align="center" | 5,500102nd align=center1973 Open Championship>1973 align=centerTom Weiskopf >United States}} Troon Golf Club >276 align=center3 strokes {{flagathleteNeil Coles>ENG}}{{flagathleteJohnny Miller>USA}} align=center5,500101st align=center1972 Open Championship>1972 align=centerLee Trevino (2) >United States}} Muirfield align=center−6 align=centerJack Nicklaus50,000 align="center" |5,500100th align=center1971 Open Championship>1971 align=centerLee Trevino >United States}} Royal Birkdale Golf Club >278 align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteLu Liang-Huan>TWN}} align=center 5,50099th align=center1970 Open Championship>1970 align=centerJack Nicklaus (2) >United States}} Old Course at St Andrews >283 align=center Playoff {{flagathleteDoug Sanders>USA}} align=center 5,25098th align=center1969 Open Championship>1969 align=centerTony Jacklin >England}} Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club >280 align=center2 strokes {{flag athleteBob Charles (golfer)>Bob Charles 30,000 align="center" | 4,25097th align=center1968 Open Championship>1968 align=centerGary Player (2) >South AfricaCarnoustie Golf Links>Carnoustie align=center +1 align=centerBob Charles (golfer)>NZL}} {{flagathleteJack Nicklaus>USA}} align=center3,00096th align=center1967 Open Championship>1967 align=centerRoberto De Vicenzo >Argentina}} Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake >278 align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteJack Nicklaus>USA}} align=center2,10095th align=center1966 Open Championship>1966 align=centerJack Nicklaus >United States}} Muirfield align=center−2 align=centerDoug SandersDave Thomas (golfer)>WAL}} align=center2,10094th align=center1965 Open Championship>1965 align=centerPeter Thomson (golfer)>Peter Thomson (5) {{flagcountryRoyal Birkdale Golf Club>Royal Birkdale align=center−7 align=centerBrian HuggettChristy O'Connor Snr10,000 align="center" |1,75093rd align=center1964 Open Championship>1964 align=centerTony Lema >United States}} Old Course at St Andrews >279 align=center5 strokes {{flagathleteJack Nicklaus>USA}} align=center 1,50092nd align=center1963 Open Championship>1963 align=centerBob Charles (golfer)>Bob Charles {{flagcountryRoyal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club>Royal Lytham& St Annes align=center−3 align=center ; data-sort-value=0Phil Rodgers8,500 align="center" |1,50091st align=center1962 Open Championship>1962 align=centerArnold Palmer (2) >United States}} Troon Golf Club >276 align=center6 strokes {{flagathleteKel Nagle>AUS}} align=center1,40090th align=center1961 Open Championship>1961 align=centerArnold Palmer >United States}} Royal Birkdale Golf Club >284 align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteDai Rees>WAL}} align=center 1,40089th align=center1960 Open Championship>1960 align=centerKel Nagle >Australia}} Old Course at St Andrews >278 align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteArnold Palmer>USA}} align=center 1,25088th align=center1959 Open Championship>1959 align=centerGary Player >South AfricaMuirfield >284 align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteFred Bullock (golfer)>Fred BullockFlory Van Donck 5,000 align="center" |1,00087th align=center1958 Open Championship>1958 align=centerPeter Thomson (golfer)>Peter Thomson (4) {{flagcountryRoyal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club>Royal Lytham& St Annes align=center−6 align=center ; data-sort-value=0Dave Thomas (golfer)>WAL 4,850 align="center" |1,00086th align=center1957 Open Championship>1957 align=centerBobby Locke (4) >South AfricaOld Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align=center−9 align=centerPeter Thomson (golfer)>AUS}} align=center 1,00085th align=center1956 Open Championship>1956 align=centerPeter Thomson (golfer)>Peter Thomson (3) {{flagcountryRoyal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake>Royal Liverpool align=center+2 align=centerFlory Van Donck3,750 align="center" |1,00084th align=center1955 Open Championship>1955 align=centerPeter Thomson (golfer)>Peter Thomson (2) {{flagcountryOld Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align=center−7 align=centerJohn Fallon (golfer)>SCO}} align=center 1,00083rd align=center1954 Open Championship>1954 align=centerPeter Thomson (golfer)>Peter Thomson {{flagcountryRoyal Birkdale Golf Club>Royal Birkdale align=center−9 align=centerBobby Locke1928}}{{flagathleteDai Rees>WALSyd Scott3,500 align="center" |75082nd align=center1953 Open Championship>1953 align=centerBen Hogan >USACarnoustie Golf Links>Carnoustie align=center−6 align=centerAntonio CerdáDai Rees1953}}{{flagathleteFrank Stranahan (Amateur sports#Golf>a)1912}}{{flagathletePeter Thomson (golfer)>Peter Thomson2,500 align="center" | 50081st align=center1952 Open Championship>1952 align=centerBobby Locke (3) >South AfricaRoyal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club>Royal Lytham& St Annes align=center−1 align=centerPeter Thomson (golfer)>AUS}} align=center30080th align=center1951 Open Championship>1951 align=centerMax Faulkner >England}} Royal Portrush Golf Club >285 align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteAntonio Cerdá>ARG}} align=center30079th align=center1950 Open Championship>1950 align=centerBobby Locke (2) >South AfricaTroon Golf Club>Troon align=center−1 align=centerRoberto de Vicenzo1,500 align="center" |30078th align=center1949 Open Championship>1949 align=centerBobby Locke >South AfricaRoyal St George's Golf Club>Royal St George's align=center−5 align=center ; data-sort-value=0Harry Bradshaw (golfer)>IRL}} align=center30077th align=center1948 Open Championship>1948 align=centerHenry Cotton (golfer)>Henry Cotton (3) {{flagcountryMuirfield >284 align=center5 strokes {{flagathleteFred Daly (golfer)>Fred Daly 1,000 align="center" | 15076th align=center1947 Open Championship>1947 align=centerFred Daly (golfer)>Fred Daly {{NIR}} Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake >293 align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteReg Horne>ENG}}{{flagathleteFrank Stranahan (Amateur sports#Golf>a)1912}} align=center 15075th align=center1946 Open Championship>1946 align=centerSam Snead >USAOld Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align=center−2 align=centerJohnny Bulla1912}}{{flagathleteBobby Locke>ZAF 1,000 align="center" | 150 1940–1945: No Championships because of World War II74th align=center1939 Open Championship>1939 align=centerDick Burton (golfer)>Dick Burton {{ENG}} Old Course at St Andrews >290 align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteJohnny Bulla>USA 500 align="center" | 10073rd align=center1938 Open Championship>1938 align=centerReg Whitcombe >Royal St George's Golf Club>Royal St George's align=center +15 align=centerJimmy Adams (golfer)>SCO}} align=center10072nd align=center1937 Open Championship>1937 align=centerHenry Cotton (golfer)>Henry Cotton (2) {{ENG}} Carnoustie Golf Links >290 align=centerReg Whitcombe500 align="center" |10071st align=center1936 Open Championship>1936 align=centerAlf Padgham >Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake>Royal Liverpool align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteJimmy Adams (golfer)>Jimmy Adams500 align="center" |10070th align=center1935 Open Championship>1935 align=centerAlf Perry >Muirfield >283 align=centerAlf Padgham500 align="center" |10069th align=center1934 Open Championship>1934 align=centerHenry Cotton (golfer)>Henry Cotton {{ENG}} Royal St George's Golf Club >283 align=centerSid Brews1928}} align=center10068th align=center1933 Open Championship>1933 align=centerDenny Shute >USAOld Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align=center Playoff {{flagathleteCraig Wood (golfer)>Craig Wood1912}} align=center10067th align=center1932 Open Championship>1932 align=centerGene Sarazen >USAPrince's Golf Club>Prince's align=center5 strokes {{flagathleteMacdonald Smith>USAname=Smith|Macdonald Smith is classified as American by Open records, but it is noted he was born in {{SCO}}. He was a naturalised Americancitizen when he competed in the Open.}} || align=center|500|| align="center" |10066th align=center1931 Open Championship>1931 align=centerTommy Armour >USAname=Armour|Tommy Armour is classified as American by Open records, but it is noted he was born in {{SCO}}. He was a naturalised Americancitizen when he won. He was nicknamed the "Silver Scot", and is a member of the Scottish Sports Hall of Fame.WEB,weblink Tommy Armour, Scottish Sports Hall of Fame, 13 January 2019, }} || Carnoustie || align=center|296 || || align=center|1 stroke || {{flagathlete|José Jurado|ARG}} || align=center|500|| align="center" |10065th align=center1930 Open Championship>1930 align=centerBobby Jones (golfer)>Bobby Jones (Amateur sports#Golf) (3) >USARoyal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake>Royal Liverpool align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteLeo Diegel>USAMacdonald Smith1912}}{{efn400 align="center" name=AmateurWin|As the winner was an amateur, he received no prize money.}}64th align=center1929 Open Championship>1929 align=centerWalter Hagen (4) >USAMuirfield >292 align=centerJohnny Farrell1912}} align=center7563rd align=center1928 Open Championship>1928 align=centerWalter Hagen (3) >USARoyal St George's Golf Club>Royal St George's align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteGene Sarazen>USA275 align="center" |7562nd align=center1927 Open Championship>1927 align=centerBobby Jones (golfer)>Bobby Jones (Amateur sports#Golf) (2) >USAOld Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align=center6 strokes {{flagathleteAubrey Boomer>ENG}}{{efnAubrey Boomer was from {{JEYBritish crown dependency. Although Jersey is not part of England, the Open records classify him as English.}}{{flagathlete>Fred Robson275 align="center" name=AmateurWin}}61st align=center1926 Open Championship>1926 align=centerBobby Jones (golfer)>Bobby Jones (Amateur sports#Golf) >USARoyal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club>Royal Lytham& St Annes align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteAl Watrous>USA225 align="center" name=AmateurWin}}60th align=center1925 Open Championship>1925 align=centerJim Barnes >USAname=Barnes|Jim Barnes is classified as American by Open records, but it is noted he was born in {{ENG}}. Open records state he was a naturalised Americancitizen when he won, but the World Golf Hall of Fame notes about Barnes: "He never became an American citizen, remaining an intensely patriotic Cornishman".WEB,weblink Jim Barnes, World Golf Hall of Fame, 13 January 2019, }} || Prestwick || align=center|300 || || align=center|1 stroke || {{flagathlete|Archie Compston|ENG}}{{flagathlete|Ted Ray|ENG}}{{efn|name=Ray|Ted Ray was from {{JEY|old}}, a British crown dependency. Although Jersey is not part of England, the Open records classify him as English. He represented England nine times in the England–Scotland Professional Match, and spent most of his life living in England.}}|| align="center" |225 || align="center" |7559th align=center1924 Open Championship>1924 align=centerWalter Hagen (2) >USARoyal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake>Royal Liverpool align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteErnest Whitcombe>ENG}} align=center7558th align=center1923 Open Championship>1923 align=centerArthur Havers >Troon Golf Club>Troon align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteWalter Hagen>USA225 align="center" |7557th align=center1922 Open Championship>1922 align=centerWalter Hagen >USARoyal St George's Golf Club>Royal St George's align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteJim Barnes>USAname=Barnes}}{{flagathleteGeorge Duncan (golfer)>George Duncan225 align="center" |7556th align=center1921 Open Championship>1921 align=centerJock Hutchison >USAname=HutchisonOld Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align=center Playoff {{flagathleteRoger Wethered (Amateur sports#Golf>a)225 align="center" |7555th align=center1920 Open Championship>1920 align=centerGeorge Duncan (golfer)>George Duncan {{SCO}} Royal Cinque Ports Golf Club >303 align=centerSandy Herd225 align="center" |75 1915–1919: No Championships because of World War I54th align=center1914 Open Championship>1914 align=centerHarry Vardon (6) >ENG}}{{efnHarry Vardon was from {{JEYBritish crown dependency. Although Jersey is not part of England, the Open records classify him as English. He represented England nine times in the England–Scotland Professional Match, and spent most of his life living in England.}} >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center3 strokes {{flagathleteJ.H. Taylor>ENG}} align=center5053rd align=center1913 Open Championship>1913 align=centerJ.H. Taylor (5) >Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake>Royal Liverpool align=center8 strokes {{flagathleteTed Ray (golfer)>Ted Rayname=Ray}} align=center5052nd align=center1912 Open Championship>1912 align=centerTed Ray (golfer)>Ted Ray {{flagcountryname=Ray}} Muirfield align=center4 strokes {{flagathleteHarry Vardon>ENG}}{{efn135 align="center" |5051st align=center1911 Open Championship>1911 align=centerHarry Vardon (5) >ENG}}{{efnRoyal St George's Golf Club>Royal St George's align=center Playoff {{flagathleteArnaud Massy>FRA135 align="center" |5050th align=center1910 Open Championship>1910 align=centerJames Braid (golfer)>James Braid (5) {{SCO}} Old Course at St Andrews >299 align=centerSandy Herd135 align="center" |5049th align=center1909 Open Championship>1909 align=centerJ.H. Taylor (4) >Royal Cinque Ports Golf Club>Royal Cinque Ports align=center6 strokes {{flagathleteTom Ball>ENG}}{{flagathleteJames Braid (golfer)>James Braid 125 align="center" | 5048th align=center1908 Open Championship>1908 align=centerJames Braid (golfer)>James Braid (4) {{SCO}} Prestwick Golf Club >291 align=centerTom Ball125 align="center" |5047th align=center1907 Open Championship>1907 align=centerArnaud Massy >FRARoyal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake>Royal Liverpool align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteJ.H. Taylor>ENG}} align=center5046th align=center1906 Open Championship>1906 align=centerJames Braid (golfer)>James Braid (3) {{SCO}} Muirfield align=center4 strokes {{flagathleteJ.H. Taylor>ENG}} align=center5045th align=center1905 Open Championship>1905 align=centerJames Braid (golfer)>James Braid (2) {{SCO}} Old Course at St Andrews >318 align=centerRowland Jones (golfer)>ENG}}{{flagathleteJ.H. Taylor>ENG}} align=center5044th align=center1904 Open Championship>1904 align=centerJack White (golfer)>Jack White {{SCO}} Royal St George's Golf Club >296 align=centerJames Braid (golfer)>SCO}}{{flagathleteJ.H. Taylor>ENG}} align=center5043rd align=center1903 Open Championship>1903 align=centerHarry Vardon (4) >ENG}}{{efnPrestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center6 strokes {{flagathleteTom Vardon>ENG}}{{efnTom Vardon was from {{JEYBritish crown dependency. Although Jersey is not part of England, the Open records classify him as English. He represented England seven times in the England–Scotland Professional Match, and was a club professional in England.}} >125 align="center" |5042nd align=center1902 Open Championship>1902 align=centerSandy Herd >Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake>Royal Liverpool align=center 1 stroke {{flagathleteJames Braid (golfer)>James BraidHarry Vardonname=Vardon}} align=center5041st align=center1901 Open Championship>1901 align=centerJames Braid (golfer)>James Braid {{SCO}} Muirfield align=center3 strokes {{flagathleteHarry Vardon>ENG}}{{efn 125 align="center" |5040th align=center1900 Open Championship>1900 align=centerJ.H. Taylor (3) >Old Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align=center8 strokes {{flagathleteHarry Vardon>ENG}}{{efn125 align="center" |5039th align=center1899 Open Championship>1899 align=centerHarry Vardon (3) >ENG}}{{efnSt George's Golf Club>St George's align=center5 strokes {{flagathleteJack White (golfer)>Jack White100 align="center" |3038th align=center1898 Open Championship>1898 align=centerHarry Vardon (2) >ENG}}{{efnPrestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteWillie Park Jr.>SCO}} align=center3037th align=center1897 Open Championship>1897 align=centerHarold Hilton (Amateur sports#Golf>a) (2) {{ENG}} Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake >314 align=centerJames Braid (golfer)>SCO}} align=center30{{efn|name=AmateurWin}}36th align=center1896 Open Championship>1896 align=centerHarry Vardon >ENG}}{{efnMuirfield >316 align=center ; data-sort-value=0J.H. Taylor|ENG}} 1003035th align=center1895 Open Championship>1895 align=centerJ.H. Taylor (2) >Old Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align=center4 strokes {{flagathleteSandy Herd>SCO}} align=center3034th align=center1894 Open Championship>1894 align=centerJ.H. Taylor >St George's Golf Club>St George's align=center5 strokes {{flagathleteDouglas Rolland>SCO}} align=center3033rd align=center1893 Open Championship>1893 align=centerWilliam Auchterlonie >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteJohnny Laidlay (Amateur sports#Golf>a)100 align="center" |3032nd align=center1892 Open Championship>1892 align=centerHarold Hilton (Amateur sports#Golf>a) {{ENG}} Muirfield align=center3 strokes {{flagathleteJohn Ball (golfer)>John Ball (Amateur sports#Golf)>ENG}}){{flagathleteSandy Herd>SCO}}{{flagathleteHugh Kirkaldy>SCO}} align=center35{{efn|name=AmateurWin}}31st align=center1891 Open Championship>1891 align=centerHugh Kirkaldy >Old Course at St Andrews>St Andrews align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteWillie Fernie (golfer)>Willie FernieAndrew Kirkaldy (golfer)>SCO}} align=center 1030th align=center1890 Open Championship>1890 align=centerJohn Ball (golfer)>John Ball (Amateur sports#Golf) >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center3 strokes {{flagathleteWillie Fernie (golfer)>Willie FernieArchie Simpson 29.50 align="center" name=AmateurWin}}29th align=center1889 Open Championship>1889 align=centerWillie Park Jr. (2) >Musselburgh Links>Musselburgh align=center Playoff {{flagathleteAndrew Kirkaldy (golfer)>Andrew Kirkaldy22 align="center" |828th align=center1888 Open Championship>1888 align=centerJack Burns (golfer)>Jack Burns {{SCO}} Old Course at St Andrews >171 align=centerDavid Anderson Jr.Ben Sayers 20 align="center" |827th align=center1887 Open Championship>1887 align=centerWillie Park Jr. >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center1 stroke {{flagathleteBob Martin (golfer)>Bob Martin20 align="center" |826th align=center1886 Open Championship>1886 align=centerDavid Brown (golfer)>David Brown {{SCO}} Musselburgh Links >157 align=centerWillie Campbell (golfer)>SCO}} align=center825th align=center1885 Open Championship>1885 align=centerBob Martin (golfer)>Bob Martin (2) {{SCO}} Old Course at St Andrews >171 align=centerArchie Simpson35.50 align="center" |1024th align=center1884 Open Championship>1884 align=centerJack Simpson >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center4 strokes {{flagathleteWillie Fernie (golfer)>Willie FernieDouglas Rolland23 align="center" |823rd align=center1883 Open Championship>1883 align=centerWillie Fernie (golfer)>Willie Fernie {{SCO}} Musselburgh Links >159 align=center ; data-sort-value=0Bob Ferguson (golfer)>SCO}} align=center822nd align=center1882 Open Championship>1882 align=centerBob Ferguson (golfer)>Bob Ferguson (3) {{SCO}} Old Course at St Andrews >171 align=centerWillie Fernie (golfer)>SCO}} align=center1221st align=center1881 Open Championship>1881 align=centerBob Ferguson (golfer)>Bob Ferguson (2) {{SCO}} Prestwick Golf Club >170 align=centerJamie Anderson (golfer)>SCO}} align=center 820th align=center1880 Open Championship>1880 align=centerBob Ferguson (golfer)>Bob Ferguson {{SCO}} Musselburgh Links >162 align=centerPeter PaxtonNot known align="center" |819th align=center1879 Open Championship>1879 align=centerJamie Anderson (golfer)>Jamie Anderson (3) {{SCO}} Old Course at St Andrews >169 align=centerJamie AllanAndrew Kirkaldy (golfer)>SCO}} align=center1018th align=center1878 Open Championship>1878 align=centerJamie Anderson (golfer)>Jamie Anderson (2) {{SCO}} Prestwick Golf Club >157 align=centerBob KirkNot known align="center" |817th align=center1877 Open Championship>1877 align=centerJamie Anderson (golfer)>Jamie Anderson {{SCO}} Musselburgh Links >160 align=centerBob Pringle (golfer)>SCO}} align=center816th align=center1876 Open Championship>1876 align=centerBob Martin (golfer)>Bob Martin {{SCO}} Old Course at St Andrews >176 align=center ; data-sort-value=0Davie Strath27 align="center" |1015th align=center1875 Open Championship>1875 align=centerWillie Park Sr. (4) >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteBob Martin (golfer)>Bob Martin20 align="center" |814th align=center1874 Open Championship>1874 align=centerMungo Park (golfer)>Mungo Park {{SCO}} Musselburgh Links >159 align=centerTom Morris Jr.20 align="center" |813th align=center1873 Open Championship>1873 align=centerTom Kidd (golfer)>Tom Kidd {{SCO}} Old Course at St Andrews >179 align=centerJamie Anderson (golfer)>SCO}} align=center1112th align=center1872 Open Championship>1872 align=centerTom Morris Jr. (4) >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center3 strokes {{flagathleteDavie Strath>SCO}} align=center8 1871: Championship cancelled as no trophy available11th align=center1870 Open Championship>1870 align=centerTom Morris Jr. (3) >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center12 strokes {{flagathleteBob Kirk>SCO}} (2nd prize){{flagathleteDavie Strath>SCO}} (3rd prize) align=center610th align=center1869 Open Championship>1869 align=centerTom Morris Jr. (2) >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center11 strokes {{flagathleteBob Kirk>SCO}} align=center69th align=center1868 Open Championship>1868 align=centerTom Morris Jr. >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center3 strokes {{flagathleteTom Morris Sr.>SCO}} align=center68th align=center1867 Open Championship>1867 align=centerTom Morris Sr. (4) >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteWillie Park Sr.>SCO}} align=center77th align=center1866 Open Championship>1866 align=centerWillie Park Sr. (3) >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteDavie Park>SCO}} align=center66th align=center1865 Open Championship>1865 align=centerAndrew Strath >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteWillie Park Sr.>SCO}} align=center85th align=center1864 Open Championship>1864 align=centerTom Morris Sr. (3) >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteAndrew Strath>SCO}} align=center64th1863 Open Championship >18 Sep Willie Park Sr. (2) {{SCO}} Prestwick Golf Club >168 align=centerTom Morris Sr.10 align="center" |-3rd align=center1862 Open Championship>1862 align=centerTom Morris Sr. (2) >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center13 strokes {{flagathleteWillie Park Sr.>SCO}} align="center" -2nd align=center1861 Open Championship>1861 align=centerTom Morris Sr. >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center4 strokes {{flagathleteWillie Park Sr.>SCO}} align="center" -1st align=center1860 Open Championship>1860 align=centerWillie Park Sr. >Prestwick Golf Club>Prestwick align=center2 strokes {{flagathleteTom Morris Sr.>SCO}} align="center" -Reference : The 148th Open 2019 Media GuideWEB,weblink PGA Tour Media – The Open Championship, PGA Tour, 29 July 2019, mdy-all, {{notelist}}

Silver Medal winners

Since 1949, the Silver Medal is awarded to the leading amateur, provided that the player completes all 72 holes. In the 70 Championships from 1949 to 2018, it has been won by 45 players on 51 occasions. Frank Stranahan won it four times in the first five years (and was also the low amateur in 1947), while Joe Carr, Michael Bonallack and Peter McEvoy each won it twice. The medal has gone unawarded 19 times.{{div col|colwidth=25em}} {{div col end}}

Broadcasting

{{details|List of The Open Championship broadcasters}}The distribution of The Open is provided by a partnership between R&A Productions, European Tour Productions (both run by IMG) and CTV Outside Broadcasting. The broadcasters with onsite production are Sky (UK), NBC (USA), BBC (UK), and TV Asahi (Japan).NEWS,weblink Live From The Open Championship: 198 Cameras Keep CTV OB on the Move; RF Support Gets a Lift, Kerschbaumer, Ken, 21 July 2018, SVG News, 18 January 2019, Many non-British broadcasters referred to the Open as the "British" Open in their coverage until 2010, when the R&A introduced use of contractual terms in their media contracts, similar to the Masters, and now rights holders are obliged to refer to the tournament as "The Open". On 7 November 2018, the parent company of the U.S. rights holder, NBC, completed a takeover of the U.K. rights holder, Sky. This means the media rights in the two primary markets are owned by the same company, albeit produced separately by two different subsidiaries.WEB,weblink Recommended mandatory superior cash offer for Sky: Compulsory acquisition of Sky shares, There are over 170 cameras on site during the tournament, including cameras in the face of the Open's pot bunkers.WEB, Live From The Open Championship: A New Era Begins for the R&A,weblink Sports Video Group, 31 July 2016, NEWS,weblink NBC Sports Group Kicks Off All-Encompassing Coverage From The 147th Open, 16 July 2018, Golf Channel, 18 January 2019,

United Kingdom

{{col-begin}}{{Col-2}}Television rights history{| class="wikitable plainrowheaders sortable" style="font-size:95%"! scope="col" |Broadcaster!Broadcast Period!Rights Fee Per YearBBC|1955–2014|Varies|2015|£7.0mSky Sportsname=BBCsold|BBC sold the rights to Sky for £7.0m}}name=BBCsold}}|2017–2021|£15.0m{{notelist}}Ref:NEWS, Sky Sports wins rights to show Open Championship golf live from 2017,weblink The Guardian, Owen, Gibson, 3 February 2015, 26 July 2016, NEWS,weblink Open Championship: Sky wins rights; BBC to show highlights, 3 February 2015, BBC Sport, 13 July 2016, NEWS,weblink Sky Sports Or BBC: Who Covered The Open Better?, Tappin, Neil, 17 July 2017, Golf Monthly, 18 January 2019, {{Col-2}}Current broadcast hours for live coverage{| class="wikitable plainrowheaders sortable" style="font-size:95%"! scope="col" |Channel!Thursday!Friday!Saturday!Sunday|Sky Sports (Main Event & Golf)|6.30am–8.30pm BST|6.30am–8.30pm BST|9.00am–8.00pm BST|8.00am–7.00pm BSTRef:WEB,weblink How to watch The Open 2018 on TV: full Sky Sports and BBC golf coverage guide, Radio Times, 18 January 2019, {{col-end}}The BBC first started to broadcast the Open in 1955, with Peter Alliss involved since 1961, and having the role of lead commentator since 1978.WEB,weblink Peter Alliss – Biography of Golfer and Broadcaster Peter Alliss, Golf.about.com, Brent, Kelley, 29 December 2012, With the growth of pay television, and the increasing value of sporting rights, the BBC's golf portfolio began to reduce. The loss of the rights to the Scottish Open, and BMW PGA Championship in 2012 left the BBC's only golf coverage as the Open, and the final two days of the Masters (which it shared with Sky). With so little golf, the BBC was accused of neglecting investment in production and was criticised about its ‘quality of coverage and innovation’ compared to Sky, which held the rights to most golf events. The tournament is considered a Category B event under the Ofcom Code on Sports and Other Listed and Designated Events, which allows its rights to be held by a pay television broadcaster as long as sufficient secondary coverage is provided by a free-to-air broadcaster.WEB,weblink Code on Sports and Other Listed and Designated Events, March 2008, Ofcom,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110125053653weblink">weblink 25 January 2011, no, NEWS,weblink BBC could lose the Open unless it shows more golf, Reid, Alasdair, 23 April 2012, The Daily Telegraph, 19 January 2019, Many were hoping that a deal similar to the Masters would be reached, where Sky had coverage of all four days, and the BBC also provided live weekend coverage, but Sky were not keen on this and won the full rights in 2015. Some were angered about the demise of golf on terrestrial television, and the impact that could have on the interest in golf in the U.K.,NEWS,weblink What would it mean for golf if the BBC lost the Open Championship?, Murray, Ewan, 14 January 2015, The Guardian, 26 July 2016, NEWS,weblink BBC could lose exclusive Open coverage rights as R&A ponders new deal, 8 January 2015, The Guardian, 26 July 2016, whilst others were pleased about the perceived improved coverage that Sky would give.NEWS,weblink BBC loses live rights to broadcast The Open Championship to Sky Sports from 2017, Rumsby, Ben, 3 February 2015, Daily Telegraph, 18 January 2019, Despite Peter Alliss promising on air that the BBC would cover the 2016 event, the BBC reached a deal for Sky to take the coverage. The BBC still covers the tournament, showing highlights from 8pm–10pm on tournament days and radio coverage on Radio 5 Live. The deal with Sky required the broadcaster to restrict its advertisement breaks to 4 minutes every hour, similar to the Masters. Sky also offers complete coverage online through NOWtv to non subscribers, which is £7.99 for one day, or £12.99 for a weeks access.WEB,weblink Don't miss out on the drama, NOW TV, 18 January 2019,

United States

{{col-begin}}{{Col-2}}Television rights history{| class="wikitable plainrowheaders sortable" style="font-size:95%"! scope="col" |Broadcaster!Broadcast Period!Rights Fee Per YearAmerican Broadcasting Company>ABC|1962–2009|Varies|ESPN|2010–2015|$25.0mNBCname=ESPNsold|ESPN sold the rights to NBC for an undisclosed fee}}|name=ESPNsold}}|2017–2028|$50.0m{{notelist}}Ref:NEWS,weblink NBC, Golf Channel ending ABC/ESPN British Open reign, Ourand, John, 8 June 2015, Sports Business Daily, 18 January 2019, {{Col-2}}Current broadcast hours for live coverage (East Coast){| class="wikitable plainrowheaders sortable" style="font-size:95%"!scope="col"|Channel!Thursday!Friday!Saturday!Sunday|Golf Channel|1.30am–4.00pm ET|1.30am–4.00pm ET|5.00am–7.00am ET|4.00am–7.00am ET|NBC|||7.00am–3.00pm ET|7.00am–2.00pm ETUniverso (TV network)>Universo (Spanish Language)|||1.00pm–3.00pm ET|noon–2.00pm ETRef:NEWS,weblink How to watch The Open on TV and online, 22 July 2018, Golf Channel, 18 January 2019, {{col-end}}ABC began broadcasting the Open in 1962, with taped highlights on Wide World of Sports.NEWS,weblink NBC Announces 12-Year Deal to Televise the British Open, Sandomir, Richard, 8 June 2018, NY Times, 18 January 2019, In the pre-digital age the coverage had to be converted from the U.K.'s PAL colour encoding system, to the U.S.'s NTSC, which meant picture quality could be impacted, especially in the early years.WEB,weblink Color subcarrier and other characteristics of the different NTSC, PAL and SECAM Television Standards compared worldwide., paradiso-design, 18 January 2019, The coverage expanded over the years, and as is common in America, there was a different early round rights holder, which was ESPN until 2003 when TNT took over. Co-owned ESPN became responsible for ABC's sports coverage in 2006; it won the rights to cover all four days of the championship in 2010, and concurrently moved coverage to its channels. The Open became the first golf major to be covered exclusively on pay television in America, as ESPN left only highlights for its partner broadcast network.After losing the rights to the U.S. Open in 2015, NBC bid aggressively to win the rights to the Open, and become a broadcaster of a golf major again. NBC also had a track record of broadcasting European sporting events successfully in the morning U.S. time with the Premier League, Formula One, and "Breakfast at Wimbledon", and was able to place early round coverage on its subsidiary Golf Channel.JOURNAL, Ourand, John, Lombardo, John, 8 June 2015, NBC, Golf Channel ending ABC/ESPN British Open reign,weblink Sports Business Journal, 8 June 2015, NBC won the rights from 2017 to 2028.MAGAZINE, Myers, Alex, 18 May 2016, You won't believe how many hours of British Open coverage NBC/Golf Channel will show,weblink Golf Digest, 2018-12-17, dmy-all, ESPN also sold them the rights for 2016.NEWS,weblink NBC getting British Open a year early, Ourand, John, 12 October 2015, Sports Business Journal, 12 October 2015, The 2019 edition of the Open Championship had a total of 49 hours of coverage in the United States, with 29 hours being on Thursday and Friday, and 20 hours being on Saturday and Sunday; the Golf Channel cable network had a total of 34 hours of coverage, with 29 hours on Thursday and Friday, and 5 hours on Saturday and Sunday. The NBC broadcast network had a total of 15 hours of coverage on the weekend, with 8 hours Saturday, and 7 hours Sunday. The 49 total hours of coverage on Golf Channel and NBC is down 30 minutes from 2018; the difference is that NBC's Sunday coverage is down 30 minutes, from 7.5 hours in 2018, to 7 hours in 2019.

TheOpen.com

The Open provides limited coverage for free on its website including highlights, featured groups, featured holes, and radio coverage. The Open's local rights holders usually provide these feeds as part of their broadcast package.WEB,weblink Live Coverage, The Open, 18 January 2019,

Rest of the World

The Open produces a 'world feed' for use by international broadcasters if they require. The other large golf markets in a similar timezone as the U.K. are the rest of Europe (where Sky, the U.K. broadcast company often has a presence), and South Africa where it is covered by SuperSport.WEB,weblink The Open, SuperSport, 18 January 2019, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand and increasingly China are markets with high media interest in golf and the Open, but the timezone means the prime coverage is shown in the early hours of the morning. {| class="wikitable plainrowheaders sortable" style="font-size:95%"! scope="col" |Channel!Thursday!Friday!Saturday!SundayCurrent broadcast hours for live coverage in Australia's Eastern Time ZoneFox Sports (Australia)>Fox Sports|3.30pm–5.00am AEST|3.30pm–5.00am AEST|7.00pm–5.00am AEST|6.00pm–4.00am AESTRef:WEB,weblink The Open TV and media guide, Golf Australia, 15 July 2019,

Notes and references

{{Reflist|2}}

External links

{{Commons category|The Open Championship (golf)}}{{Wikipedia books|Men's major professional golf championships}} {{The Open Championships}}{{Open Championship Courses}}{{Footer MensMajors}}{{Golf}}{{European Tour}}{{PGA Tour Events}}

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