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The Art of Computer Programming
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History
(File:KnuthAtOpenContentAlliance.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Donald Knuth in 2005)After winning a Westinghouse Talent Search scholarship, Knuth enrolled at the Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where his performance was so outstanding that the faculty voted to award him a master of science upon his completion of the baccalaureate degree. During his summer vacations, Knuth was hired by the Burroughs Corporation to write compilers, earning more in his summer months than full professors did for an entire year.WEB,weblink 11299/107413, An Interview with Donald E. Knuth, Philip L., Frana, 2001-11-08, Such exploits made Knuth a topic of discussion among the mathematics department, which included Richard S. Varga.Knuth started to write a book about compiler design in 1962, and soon realized that the scope of the book needed to be much larger. In June 1965, Knuth finished the first draft of what was originally planned to be a single volume of twelve chapters. His hand-written first-draft manuscript (completed in 1966) was {{val|3000}} pages long: he had assumed that about five hand-written pages would translate into one printed page, but his publisher said instead that about 1Â½ hand-written pages translated to one printed page. This meant the book would be approximately {{val|2000}} pages in length. The publisher was nervous about accepting such a project from a graduate student. At this point, Knuth received support from Richard S. Varga, who was the scientific adviser to the publisher. Varga was visiting Olga Taussky-Todd and John Todd at Caltech. With Varga's enthusiastic endorsement, the publisher accepted Knuth's expanded plans. In its expanded version, the book would be published in seven volumes, each with just one or two chapters.BOOK, Donald Knuth, Donald J., Albers, Mathematical People: Profiles and Interviews, A K Peters, 2, 2008, 1-56881-340-6, Donald J., Albers, Gerald L., Alexanderson, Gerald L. Alexanderson, Due to the growth in the material, the plan for Volume 4 has since expanded to include Volumes 4A, 4B, 4C, 4D, and possibly more.In 1976, Knuth prepared a second edition of Volume 2, requiring it to be typeset again, but the style of type used in the first edition (called hot type) was no longer available. In 1977, he decided to spend some time creating something more suitable. Eight years later, he returned with TEX, which is currently used for all volumes.The offer of a so-called Knuth reward check worth "one hexadecimal dollar" (100HEX base 16 cents, in decimal, is $2.56) for any errors found, and the correction of these errors in subsequent printings, has contributed to the highly polished and still-authoritative nature of the work, long after its first publication. Another characteristic of the volumes is the variation in the difficulty of the exercises. The level of difficulty ranges from "warm-up" exercises to unsolved research problems. Knuth's dedication reads:This series of books is affectionately dedicatedto the Type 650 computer once installed atCase Institute of Technology,with whom I have spent many pleasant evenings.The dedication was worded slightly differently in the first edition.Assembly language in the book
All examples in the books use a language called "MIX assembly language", which runs on the hypothetical MIX computer. Currently, the MIX computer is being replaced by the MMIX computer, which is a RISC version. Software such as GNU MDK exists to provide emulation of the MIX architecture. Knuth considers the use of assembly language necessary for the speed and memory usage of algorithms to be judged.Critical response
Knuth was awarded the 1974 Turing Award "for his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms [â€¦], and in particular for his contributions to the 'art of computer programming' through his well-known books in a continuous series by this title."WEB,weblink Donald E. Knuth â€“ A. M. Turing Award Winner, AM Turing, 2017-01-25, American Scientist has included this work among "100 or so Books that shaped a Century of Science", referring to the twentieth century,JOURNAL, Philip, Morrison, Philip Morrison, Phylis, Morrison,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080820030403weblink">weblink 2008-08-20, 100 or so Books that shaped a Century of Science, 87, 6, American Scientist, Novemberâ€“December 1999, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, 2008-01-11, and within the computer science community it is regarded as the first and still the best comprehensive treatment of its subject. Covers of the third edition of Volume 1 quote Bill Gates as saying, "If you think you're a really good programmerâ€¦ read (Knuth's) Art of Computer Programmingâ€¦ You should definitely send me a rÃ©sumÃ© if you can read the whole thing."WEB,weblink Bill Gates once said 'definitely send me a rÃ©sumÃ©' if you finish this fiendishly difficult book, Matt, Weinberger, Business Insider, 2016-06-13, The New York Times referred to it as "the profession's defining treatise".NEWS, Lohr, Steve, Frances E. Holberton, 84, Early Computer Programmer, The New York Times, 2001-12-17,weblink 2010-05-17,Volumes
Completed
- Volume 1 â€“ Fundamental Algorithms
*Chapter 1 â€“ Basic concepts
*Chapter 2 â€“ Information structures
- Volume 2 â€“ Seminumerical Algorithms
*Chapter 3 â€“ Random numbers
*Chapter 4 â€“ Arithmetic
- Volume 4A â€“ Combinatorial Algorithms
*Chapter 7 â€“ Combinatorial searching (part 1)
Planned
- Volume 4B... â€“ Combinatorial Algorithms (chapters 7 & 8 released in several subvolumes)
*Chapter 7 â€“ Combinatorial searching (continued)
*Chapter 8 â€“ Recursion
- Volume 5 â€“ Syntactic Algorithms ({{as of|2017|lc=on}}, estimated for release in 2025)
*Chapter 9 â€“ Lexical scanning (also includes string search and data compression)
*Chapter 10 â€“ Parsing techniques
- Volume 6 â€“ The Theory of Context-Free Languages
- Volume 7 â€“ Compiler Techniques
Chapter outlines
Completed
Volume 1 â€“ Fundamental Algorithms
- Chapter 1 â€“ Basic concepts
- 1.1. Algorithms
- 1.2. Mathematical Preliminaries
- 1.4. Some Fundamental Programming Techniques
- Chapter 2 â€“ Information Structures
- 2.1. Introduction
- 2.2. Linear Lists
- 2.3. Trees
- 2.4. Multilinked Structures
- 2.5. Dynamic Storage Allocation
- 2.6. History and Bibliography
Volume 2 â€“ Seminumerical Algorithms
- Chapter 3 â€“ Random Numbers
- 3.1. Introduction
- 3.2. Generating Uniform Random Numbers
- 3.3. Statistical Tests
- 3.5. What Is a Random Sequence?
- 3.6. Summary
- Chapter 4 â€“ Arithmetic
- 4.1. Positional Number Systems
- 4.2. Floating Point Arithmetic
- 4.6. Polynomial Arithmetic
- 4.7. Manipulation of Power Series
Volume 3 â€“ Sorting and Searching
- Chapter 5 â€“ Sorting
- 5.1. Combinatorial Properties of Permutations
- 5.2. Internal sorting
- 5.3. Optimum Sorting
- 5.4. External Sorting
- 6.3. Digital Searching
- 6.4. Hashing
- 6.5. Retrieval on Secondary Keys
Volume 4A â€“ Combinatorial Algorithms, Part 1
- Chapter 7 â€“ Combinatorial Searching
- 7.1. Zeros and Ones
- 7.2. Generating All Possibilities
Planned
Volume 4B, 4C, 4D â€“ Combinatorial Algorithms
- Chapter 7 â€“ Combinatorial Searching (continued)
- 7.2. Generating all possibilities (continued)
- 7.3. Shortest paths
- 7.4. Graph algorithms
- 7.5. Network algorithms
- 7.6. Independence theory
- 7.7. Discrete dynamic programming (see also Transfer-matrix method)
- 7.8. Branch-and-bound techniques
- 7.9. Herculean tasks (aka NP-hard problems)
- 7.10. Near-optimization
- Chapter 8 â€“ Recursion (chapter 22 of "Selected Papers on Analysis of Algorithms")
Volume 5 â€“ Syntactic Algorithms
- {{as of|2017|lc=on}}, estimated for release in 2025
- Chapter 9 â€“ Lexical scanning (includes also string search and data compression)
- Chapter 10 â€“ Parsing techniques
Volume 6 â€“ The Theory of Context-free LanguagesWEB, urweblink titleTAOCP â€“ Future plans,
Volume 7 â€“ Compiler Techniques
English editions
Current editions
These are the current editions in order by volume number:- The Art of Computer Programming, Volumes 1-4A Boxed Set. Third Edition (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 2011), 3168pp. {{ISBN|978-0-321-75104-1|0-321-75104-3}}
- Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms. Third Edition (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1997), xx+650pp. {{ISBN|978-0-201-89683-1|0-201-89683-4}}. Errata: weblink (2011-01-08), weblink (2017-09-18, 27th printing). Addenda: weblink (2011).
- Volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms. Third Edition (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1997), xiv+762pp. {{ISBN|978-0-201-89684-8|0-201-89684-2}}. Errata: weblink (2011-01-08), weblink (2017-09-18, 26th printing). Addenda: weblink (2011).
- Volume 3: Sorting and Searching. Second Edition (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1998), xiv+780pp.+foldout. {{ISBN|978-0-201-89685-5|0-201-89685-0}}. Errata: weblink (2011-01-08), weblink (2017-09-18, 27th printing). Addenda: weblink (2011).
- Volume 4A: Combinatorial Algorithms, Part 1. First Edition (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 2011), xv+883pp. {{ISBN|978-0-201-03804-0|0-201-03804-8}}. Errata: weblink (2017-09-18, ? printing).
- Volume 1, Fascicle 1: MMIX â€“ A RISC Computer for the New Millennium. (Addison-Wesley, 2005-02-14) {{ISBN|0-201-85392-2}} (will be in the fourth edition of volume 1). Errata: weblink (2016-08-02).
- Volume 4, Fascicle 5: Mathematical Preliminaries Redux; Backtracking; Dancing Links. (Addison-Wesley, 2019-04-25) 350pp, {{ISBN|978-0-13-467179-6}} (will become part of volume 4B)
- Volume 4, Fascicle 6: Satisfiability. (Addison-Wesley, 2015-12-08) xiii+310pp, {{ISBN|978-0-13-439760-3}}. Errata: weblink (2017-06-01) (will become part of volume 4B)
Previous editions
Complete volumes
These volumes were superseded by newer editions and are in order by date.- Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms. First edition, 1968, xxi+634pp, {{ISBN|0-201-03801-3}}.JOURNAL, Wells, Mark B., Review: The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 1. Fundamental Algorithms and Volume 2. Seminumerical Algorithms by Donald E. Knuth, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 1973, 79, 3, 501â€“509,weblink 10.1090/s0002-9904-1973-13173-8,
- Volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms. First edition, 1969, xi+624pp, {{ISBN|0-201-03802-1}}.
- Volume 3: Sorting and Searching. First edition, 1973, xi+723pp+foldout, {{ISBN|0-201-03803-X}}. Errata: weblink.
- Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms. Second edition, 1973, xxi+634pp, {{ISBN|0-201-03809-9}}. Errata: weblink.
- Volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms. Second edition, 1981, xiii+ 688pp, {{ISBN|0-201-03822-6}}. Errata: weblink.
- The Art of Computer Programming, Volumes 1-3 Boxed Set. Second Edition (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1998), pp. {{ISBN|978-0-201-48541-7|0-201-48541-9}}
Fascicles
Volume 4{{'s}} fascicles 0â€“4 were revised and published as Volume 4A.- Volume 4, Fascicle 0: Introduction to Combinatorial Algorithms and Boolean Functions. (Addison-Wesley Professional, 2008-04-28) vi+240pp, {{ISBN|0-321-53496-4}}. Errata: weblink (2011-01-01).
- Volume 4, Fascicle 1: Bitwise Tricks & Techniques; Binary Decision Diagrams. (Addison-Wesley Professional, 2009-03-27) viii+260pp, {{ISBN|0-321-58050-8}}. Errata: weblink (2011-01-01).
- Volume 4, Fascicle 2: Generating All Tuples and Permutations. (Addison-Wesley, 2005-02-14) v+127pp, {{ISBN|0-201-85393-0}}. Errata: weblink (2011-01-01).
- Volume 4, Fascicle 3: Generating All Combinations and Partitions. (Addison-Wesley, 2005-07-26) vi+150pp, {{ISBN|0-201-85394-9}}. Errata: weblink (2011-01-01).
- Volume 4, Fascicle 4: Generating All Trees; History of Combinatorial Generation. (Addison-Wesley, 2006-02-06) vi+120pp, {{ISBN|0-321-33570-8}}. Errata: weblink (2011-01-01).
- Volume 4, Fascicle 6: Satisfiability. (Addison-Wesley, 2015-12-18) xiii+310pp, {{ISBN|978-0-13-439760-3}}. Errata: weblink (2017-06-01)
Pre-fascicles
Volume 4{{'s}} pre-fascicle 6A was revised and published as fascicle 6.- ''Volume 4B, Pre-fascicle 5A: Mathematical Preliminaries Redux (available for download)
- ''Volume 4B, Pre-fascicle 5B: Introduction to Backtracking (available for download)
- ''Volume 4B, Pre-fascicle 5C: Dancing Links (available for download)
See also
References
Notes{{Notelist}}Citations{{Reflist}}Sources- BOOK, Portraits in Silicon, Robert, Slater, 1987, MIT Press,weblink 0-262-19262-4,
- BOOK, Out of Their Minds: The Lives and Discoveries of 15 Great Computer Scientists, Dennis, Shasha, Dennis Shasha, Cathy, Lazere, 1995, Copernicus, 0-387-97992-1,
External links
- Overview of topics (Knuth's personal homepage)
- Oral history interview with Donald E. Knuth at Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Knuth discusses software patenting, structured programming, collaboration and his development of TeX. The oral history discusses the writing of The Art of Computer Programming.
- "Robert W Floyd, In Memoriam", by Donald E. Knuth - (on the influence of Bob Floyd)
- TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science (Softpanorama)
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