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{{short description|Turkic-speaking ethnic group living in post-Soviet countries}}{{redirect|Tatar}}{{distinguish|Tartary}}

Russia}} (excluding the Republic of Crimea)| pop1 = 5,319,877date=May 2019}}Uzbekistan}}| pop2 = 477,875date=May 2019}}Ukraine}} (including Crimea)| pop3 = 319,377date=May 2019}}Kazakhstan}}| pop4 = 240,000date=May 2019}}Turkey}}| pop5 = 175,500date=May 2019}}Turkmenistan}}| pop6 = 36,355date=May 2019}}Kyrgyzstan}}| pop7 = 28,334date=May 2019}}Azerbaijan}}| pop8 = 25,900date=May 2019}}Romania}}| pop9 = 20,282Mongolia}}| pop10 = 18,567date=May 2019}}Israel}}| pop11 = 15,000date=May 2019}}Belarus}}| pop12 = 7,300date=May 2019}}France}}| pop13 = 7,000date=May 2019}}Lithuania}}| pop14 = 6,800-7,200date=May 2019}}China}}| pop15 = 5,000date=May 2019}}Canada}}| pop16 = 4,825 DATE=2017-02-08, (Includes those of mixed ancestry)Estonia}}| pop17 = 1,981date=May 2019}}Poland}}| pop18 = 1,916date=May 2019}}Bulgaria}}| pop19 = 1,803date=May 2019}}Finland}}| pop20 = 1,000date=May 2019}}Japan}}| pop21 = 600-2,000| ref21 = Представитель культурной ассоциации «Идель-Урал» считал, что количество татар в Японии в 1930-е годы могло достигать 10000 человек {{ref-ru}}Australia}}| pop22 = 500+| ref22 =weblinkCzech Republic}}| pop23 = 300+Switzerland}}| pop24 = 150Tatar language>Tatar, RussianSunni Islam;Orthodox Christianity>Eastern Orthodox and Shamanism minoritiesTATARSWEBSITE=WORLD CULTURE ENCYCLOPEDIA, 14 March 2018, | related = Other Turkic peoples (particularly other descendants of Bulgars such as the Chuvash people)| native_name = | native_name_lang = }}The Tatars ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|t|ɑː|t|ər|z}}; }}; ) are Turkic ethnic groupWEB,weblink Tatar - people, native to Tatarstan and wider Volga region. They speak Tatar, a Kipchak Turkic language. The vast majority of Tatars today reside in post-Soviet countries, primarily in Russia, Uzbekistan and Ukraine.The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as . Historically, the term Tatars (or Tartars) was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass then known as Tartary, which was dominated by various mostly Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More recently, however, the term has come to refer more narrowly to related ethnic groups who refer to themselves as Tatars or who speak languages that are commonly referred to as Tatar, namely Tatar by Tatars and Crimean Tatar by Crimean Tatars.The Mongol Empire, established under Genghis Khan in 1206, subjugated the Tatars during Genghis's unification of the various steppe tribes. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan (c. 1207–1255), the Mongols moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'.{{EB1911|inline=y|wstitle=Tatars|volume=28|pages=448–449 |first=Peter |last=Kropotkin |authorlink=Peter Kropotkin |first2=Charles |last2=Eliot |author2link=Charles Eliot (diplomat)}}The largest group by far that the Russians have called "Tatars" are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region (Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), who for this reason are often also simply known as "Tatars". They compose 53% of the population in Tatarstan. Their language is known as the Tatar language. {{As of | 2002}} they had an estimated population around 5 million in Russia as a whole.


{{further|Tatarstan|Tartary}}File:Szigetvar 1566.jpg|thumb|Ottoman miniature of the Szigetvár campaign showing Ottoman troops and Tatars as vanguard]]The name "Tatar" likely originated amongst the nomadic Mongolic-speaking Tatar confederation in the north-eastern Gobi desert in the 5th century.Tatar. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 28, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:weblink The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul Tigin (732 CE) and Bilge Khagan (735 CW) monuments as WEB, Kül Tiğin (Gültekin) Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of Kul Tigin monument with Turkish transcription),weblink 5 April 2014, and WEB, Bilge Kağan Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of Bilge Khagan monument with Turkish transcription),weblink 5 April 2014, WEB, The Kultegin's Memorial Complex,weblink 5 April 2014, JOURNAL, Ross, E. Denison, Vilhelm Thomsen, The Orkhon Inscriptions: Being a Translation of Professor Vilhelm Thomsen's Final Danish Rendering, Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, 5, 4, 1930, 861–876, 607024, 1930, 10.1017/S0041977X00090558, BOOK, Thomsen, Vilhelm Ludvig Peter, Inscriptions de l'Orkhon déchiffrées, 1896, Helsingfors, Impr. de la Société de littérature finnoise, 140,weblink referring to the Tatar confederation.Tatar became a name for populations of the former Golden Horde in Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Crimean, Astrakhan, Qasim, and Siberian Khanates. The form Tartar has its origins in either Latin or French, coming to Western European languages from Turkish and the Persian language (, "mounted messenger"). From the beginning, the extra r was present in the Western forms, and according to the Oxford English Dictionary this was most likely due to an association with Tartarus.citing a letter to St Louis of Frances dated 1270 which makes the connection explicit, "In the present danger of the Tartars either we shall push them back into the Tartarus whence they are come, or they will bring us all into heaven"JOURNAL, Wedgwood, Hensleigh, Hensleigh Wedgwood, On False Etymologies, Transactions of the Philological Society,weblink 1855, 6, 72, The Persian word is first recorded in the 13th century in reference to the hordes of Genghis Khan and is of unknown origin, according to OED "said to be" ultimately from tata, a name of the Mongols for themselves. The Arabic word for Tatars is . Tatars themselves wrote their name as or . The Chinese term for Tatars was {{zh|t=韃靼|p=Dádá|labels=no}}, especially after the end of the Yuan period (14th century), but also recorded as a term for Mongolian-speaking peoples of the northern steppes during the Tang period (8th century).Chen Dezhi 陳得芝, Jia Jingyan 賈敬顔 (1992). "Dada 達靼", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史, vol. 1, pp. 132–133. Cited after "Dada 韃靼 Tatars" by Ulrich Theobald, The name Tatars was used as an alternative term for the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which these Tatar people belonged.Russians and Europeans used the name Tatar to denote Mongols as well as Turkic peoples under Mongol rule (especially in the Golden Horde). Later, it applied to any Turkic or Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians. Eventually, however, the name became associated with the Turkic Muslims of Ukraine and Russia, namely the descendants of Muslim Volga Bulgars, Kipchaks, Cumans, and Turkicized Mongols or Turko-Mongols (Nogais), as well as other Turkic-speaking peoples (Siberian Tatars, Qasim Tatars, and Mishar Tatars)Encyclopædia Britannica: Tatar, also spelled Tartar, any member of several Turkic-speaking peoples ... weblinkThe Columbia Encyclopedia: Tatars (tä´tərz) or Tartars (tär´tərz), Turkic-speaking peoples living primarily in Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. weblinkMerriam-Webster: Tatar – a member of any of a group of Turkic peoples found mainly in the Tatar Republic of Russia and parts of Siberia and central Asia weblinkOxford Dictionaries: Tatar – a member of a Turkic people living in Tatarstan and various other parts of Russia and Ukraine.weblinkEncyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa: Turks are an ethnolinguistic group living in a broad geographic expanse extending from southeastern Europe through Anatolia and the Caucasus Mountains and throughout Central Asia. Thus Turks include the Turks of Turkey, the Azeris of Azerbaijan, and the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Turkmen, and Uzbeks of Central Asia, as well as many smaller groups in Asia speaking Turkic languages. weblink in the territory of the former Russian Empire (and as such generally includes all Northwestern Turkic-speaking peoples).Encyclopædia Britannica: Tatar, also spelled Tartar, any member of several Turkic-speaking peoples ... weblink The Columbia Encyclopedia: Tatars (tä´tərz) or Tartars (tär´tərz), Turkic-speaking peoples living primarily in Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. weblink Merriam-Webster: Tatar – a member of any of a group of Turkic peoples found mainly in the Tatar Republic of Russia and parts of Siberia and central Asia weblink Oxford Dictionaries: Tatar – a member of a Turkic people living in Tatarstan and various other parts of Russia and Ukraine. They are the descendants of the Tartars who ruled central Asia in the 14th century. weblink Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa: Turks are an ethnolinguistic group living in a broad geographic expanse extending from southeastern Europe through Anatolia and the Caucasus Mountains and throughout Central Asia. Thus Turks include the Turks of Turkey, the Azeris of Azerbaijan, and the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Turkmen, and Uzbeks of Central Asia, as well as many smaller groups in Asia speaking Turkic languages. weblinkNowadays Tatar is usually used to refer to the people, but Tartar is still almost always used for derived terms such as tartar sauce, steak tartare, and the Tartar missile."Tartar, Tatar, n.2 (a.)". (1989). In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 11 September 2008, from Oxford English Dictionary Online.All Turkic peoples living within the Russian Empire were named Tatar (as a Russian exonym). Some of these populations still use Tatar as a self-designation, others do not.WEB, ru:Татары,weblink Энциклопедия «Вокруг света», 29 May 2014, ru, The name Tatar is also an endonym to a number of peoples of Siberia and Russian Far East, namely the Khakas people.


File:Vladimir mongols.jpg|thumb|Drawing of Mongols of the Golden Horde outside Vladimir, presumably demanding submission, before sacking the city]](File:Witsen - Tartaria.jpg|thumb|Map of Tartaria (1705))As various nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol and Turkic elements took place, and the invaders of Rus' and the Pannonian Basin became known to Europeans as Tatars or Tartars (see Tatar yoke). After the breakup of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars became especially identified with the western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde.The various Tatar khanates of the early modern period represent the remnants of the breakup of the Golden Horde and of its successor, the Great Horde. These include: The Mongol dominance in Central Asia was absolute during the 14th and 15th centuries. The Crimean-Nogai raids into Russia and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth aimed especially at the capture of slaves, most of whom were exported to the Ottoman Empire. The raids were an important drain of the human and economic resources of both countries. They largely prevented the settlement of the "Wild Fields" – the steppe and forest-steppe land that extends from a hundred or so miles south of Moscow to the Black Sea. The raids were also important in the development of the Cossacks.JOURNAL,weblink Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources, Kizilov, Mikhail, Journal of Early Modern History, 11, 1, 1–31, 10.1163/157006507780385125, 2007, The end of absolute Tatar dominance came in the late 15th century, heralded by the Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. During the 16th through 18th centuries, the gradual expansion of Russia led to the absorption of the Tatar khanates into Russian territory. The Crimean Tatars attacked Russia in 1507, followed by two centuries of Russo-Crimean Wars for the Volga basin. Similarly, the Russo-Kazan Wars lasted for the best part of a century and ended with the Russian conquest of the Kazan khanate.The last of the Tatar khanates, the Kazakhs, remained independent until 1822. Their last ruler, Kenesary Khan, was proclaimed khan of the Kazakhs when the Russian Empire was already fully in control of Kazakhstan; Russian law prohibited the Kazakhs from selecting their leader after 1822. The popular rise of Kenesary Khan was in defiance of Russian control of Kazakhstan, and his time as khan was spent on continuous fighting with the Russian imperial forces until his death in 1847.


{{further|Kipchak languages}}{{further|Tatar language|Crimean Tatar language}}File:Map-Kypchak Language World.png|thumb|Contemporary distribution of (Kipchak languages]]:  Kipchak–Bolgar  Kipchak–Cuman  Kipchak–Nogay and Kyrgyz–Kipchak )The Tatar language, together with the Bashkir language, forms the Kypchak-Bolgar (also "Uralo-Caspian") group within the Kipchak languages (also known as Northwestern Turkic).There are two Tatar dialects - Central and Western.Akhatov G. "Tatar dialectology". Kazan, 1984. (Tatar language) The Western dialect (Misher) is spoken mostly by Mishärs, the Central dialect is spoken by Kazan and Astrakhan Tatars. All two dialects have subdialects. Central Tatar furnishes the base of literary Tatar.The Siberian Tatar language are independent of Volga–Ural Tatar. The dialects are quite remote from Standard Tatar and from each other, often preventing mutual comprehension. The claim that Siberian Tarar is part of the modern Tatar language is typically supported by linguists in Kazan and denounced by Siberian Tatars.Crimean Tataralso called Crimean language or Crimean Turkishis the indigenous language of the Crimean Tatar people. Because of its common name, Crimean Tatar is sometimes mistakenly seen as a dialect of Kazan Tatar. Although these languages are related (as both are Turkic), the Kypchak languages closest to Crimean Tatar are (as mentioned above) Kumyk and Karachay-Balkar, not Kazan Tatar.

Contemporary groups

The largest Tatar populations are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region, and the Crimean Tatars of Crimea. Smaller groups of Lipka Tatars and Astrakhan Tatars live in Europe and the Siberian Tatars in Asia.

Volga Tatars

(File:Ареал расселения татар в России. По данным Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года.png|thumb|The areas of settlement of Tatars in Russia according to the National Population Census 2010)The Volga Bulgars, who settled on the Volga river in the 7th century AD and converted to Islam in 922 during the missionary work of Ahmad ibn Fadlan, inhabited the present-day territory of Tatarstan.{{Citation needed|date= September 2012}} After the Mongol invasions of 1223–1236, the Golden Horde annexed Volga Bulgaria. Most of the population survived, and there may{{or|date=August 2019}} have been a certain degree of mixing between it and the Kipchaks of the Horde during the ensuing period. The group as a whole accepted the exonym "Tatars" (finally in the end of the 19th century; although the name Bulgars persisted in some places; the majority identified themselves simply as the Muslims) and the language of the Kipchaks; on the other hand, the invaders eventually converted to Islam. As the Golden Horde disintegrated in the 15th century, the area became the territory of the Kazan khanate, which Russia ultimately conquered in the 16th century.Some Volga Tatars speak different dialects of the Tatar language. Accordingly, they form distinct groups such as the Mişär group and the Qasim group: A minority of Christianized Volga Tatars are known as Keräşens.File:Aida Garifullina at the 2018 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Volga Tatar operatic soprano Aida GarifullinaAida GarifullinaThe Volga Tatars used the Turkic Old Tatar language for their literature between the 15th and 19th centuries. It was written in the İske imlâ variant of the Arabic script, but actual spelling varied regionally. The older literary language included a large number of Arabic and Persian loanwords. The modern literary language, however, often uses Russian and other European-derived words instead.Outside of Tatarstan, urban Tatars usually speak Russian as their first language (in cities such as Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, Tashkent, Almaty, and cities of the Ural and western Siberia) and other languages in a worldwide diaspora.File:RIAN archive 477235 U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visits Tatarstan.jpg|thumb| Hillary Clinton with a Volga Tatar woman and President Mintimer Shaimiev of Tatarstan in Kazan, capital of the Russian autonomous Republic of Tatarstan ]]In the 1910s the Volga Tatars numbered about half a million in the Kazan Governorate in Tatarstan, their historical homeland, about 400,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, 100,000 in Samara and Simbirsk, and about 30,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhny Novgorod, Perm and Orenburg. An additional 15,000 had migrated to Ryazan or were settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania (Vilnius, Grodno and Podolia). An additional 2000 resided in St. Petersburg.Most Kazan Tatars practise Sunni Islam. The Kazan Tatars speak the Tatar language, a Turkic language with a substantial amount of Russian and Arabic loanwords.Before 1917, polygamy was practicedBOOK,weblink Culture of Tartars, {{citation needed|date= January 2013}} only by the wealthier classes and was a waning institution.An ethnic nationalist movement among Kazan Tatars that stresses descent from the Bulgars is known as Bulgarism – there have been graffiti on the walls in the streets of Kazan with phrases such as "Bulgaria is alive" (Булгария жива)A significant number of Volga Tatars emigrated during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, mostly to Turkey and to Harbin, China. According to the Chinese government, 5,100 Tatars still live in Xinjiang province.

Crimean Tatars

File:Józef Brandt - Potyczka Kozaków z Tatarami.jpg|thumb| Cossacks fighting Tatars of the Crimean KhanateCrimean KhanateThe number of Crimean Tatars is estimated{{by whom?|date=August 2019}} at 650,000. The Crimean Tatars emerged as a nation at the time of the Crimean Khanate (1441–1783). The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic-speaking Muslim state that was among the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the beginning of the 18th century.Halil İnalcik, 1942 {{Page needed|date= June 2011}}The nobles and rulers of the Crimean Tatars descended from Hacı I Giray, a Jochid descendant of Genghis Khan and of his grandson Batu Khan of the Mongol Golden Horde.{{Citation needed|date= October 2015}} The Crimean Tatars mostly adopted Islam in the 14th century and thereafter Crimea became one of the centers of Islamic civilization.{{cn|date=August 2019}} The Khanate officially operated as a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire, with great autonomy after 1448. The Russo-Turkish War of 1768 to 1774 resulted in the defeat of the Ottomans by the Russians, and according to the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774) signed after the war, Crimea became independent and the Ottomans renounced their political right to protect the Crimean Khanate. After a period of political unrest in Crimea, Imperial Russia violated the treaty and annexed the Crimean Khanate in 1783.The Crimean Tatars comprise three sub-ethnic groups:
  • the Tats (not to be confused with Tat people, living in the Caucasus region) who used to inhabit the Crimean Mountains before 1944 (about 55%)
  • the Yalıboyu who lived on the southern coast of the peninsula (about 30%)
  • the NoÄŸay (about 15%)

Crimean Tatars in Romania and Bulgaria

{{further|Tatars of Romania|Crimean Tatars in Romania|Crimean Tatars in Bulgaria}}Some Crimean Tatars have lived in the territory of today's Romania and Bulgaria since the 13th century. In Romania, according to the 2002 census, 24,000 people declared their ethnicity as Tatar, most of them being Crimean Tatars living in Constanța County in the region of Dobrogea. The Ottoman Empire re-settled Crimean Tatars there as colonists by the beginning in the 17th century.

Lipka Tatars

File:Battle of Warsaw 1656.PNG|thumb| Swedish King Charles X Gustav in a skirmish with Tatars near Warsaw during the Second Northern WarSecond Northern WarThe Lipka Tatars are a group of Turkic-speaking Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century. The first settlers tried to preserve their shamanistic religion and sought asylum amongst the non-Christian Lithuanians.{{lt icon}} Lietuvos totoriai ir jų šventoji knyga – Koranas {{webarchive|url=weblink" title="">weblink |date= 2007-10-29 }} Towards the end of the 14th century Grand Duke Vytautas the Great of Lithuania (ruled 1392–1430) invited another wave of Tatars —Muslims, this time— into the Grand Duchy. These Tatars first settled in Lithuania proper around Vilnius, Trakai, Hrodna and Kaunas and spread to other parts of the Grand Duchy that later became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. These areas comprise parts of present-day Lithuania, Belarus and Poland. From the very beginning of their settlement in Lithuania they were known as the Lipka Tatars.From the 13th to 17th centuries various groups of Tatars settled and/or found refuge within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Grand Dukes of Lithuania especially promoted the migrations because of the Tatars' reputation as skilled warriors. The Tatar settlers were all granted szlachta (nobility) status, a tradition that survived until the end of the Commonwealth in the late-18th century. Such migrants included the Lipka Tatars (13th–14th centuries) as well as Crimean and Nogay Tatars (15th–16th centuries), all of which were notable in Polish military history, as well as Volga Tatars (16th–17th centuries). They all mostly settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.File:Tatar attack warsawa 1656.jpg|thumb|left| At the Battle of Warsaw in 1656 Tatars fought with the Poles against the Swedes]]Various estimates of the Tatars in the Commonwealth in the 17th century place their numbers at about 15,000 persons and 60 villages with mosques. Numerous royal privileges, as well as internal autonomy granted by the monarchs, allowed the Tatars to preserve their religion, traditions, and culture over the centuries. The Tatars were allowed to intermarry with Christians,a practice uncommon in Europe at the time. The May Constitution of 1791 gave the Tatars representation in the Polish Sejm (parliament).Although by the 18th century the Tatars had adopted the local language, the Islamic religion and many Tatar traditions (e.g. the sacrifice of bulls in their mosques during the main religious festivals) survived. This led to the formation of a distinctive Muslim culture, in which the elements of Muslim orthodoxy mixed with religious tolerance formed a relatively liberal society. For instance, the women in Lipka Tatar society traditionally had the same rights and status as men, and could attend non-segregated schools.File:Tartares lituaniens (par Richard Knötel).jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|Lithuanian Tartars of the Imperial Guard at the charge, by Richard KnötelRichard KnötelAbout 5,500 Tatars lived within the inter-war boundaries of Poland (1920–1939), and a Tatar cavalry unit had fought for the country's independence. The Tatars had preserved their cultural identity and sustained a number of Tatar organisations, including Tatar archives and a museum in Vilnius.The Tatars suffered serious losses during World War II and furthermore, after the border change in 1945, a large part of them found themselves in the Soviet Union. It is estimated{{by whom?|date=August 2019}} that about 3000 Tatars live in present-day Poland, of which about 500 declared Tatar (rather than Polish) nationality in the 2002 census. There are two Tatar villages (Bohoniki and Kruszyniany) in the north-east of present-day Poland, as well as urban Tatar communities in Warsaw, Gdańsk, Białystok, and Gorzów Wielkopolski. Tatars in Poland sometimes have a Muslim surname with a Polish ending: Ryzwanowicz; another surname sometimes adopted by more assimilated Tatars is Tatara or Tataranowicz or Taterczyński, which literally mean "son of a Tatar".The Tatars played a relatively prominent role for such a small community in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth military as well as in Polish and Lithuanian political and intellectual life.{{Citation needed|date= April 2007}} In modern-day Poland, their presence is also widely known, due in part to their noticeable role in the historical novels of Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846–1916), which are universally recognized in Poland. A number of Polish intellectual figures have also been Tatars, e.g. the prominent historian Jerzy Łojek.A small community of Polish-speaking Tatars settled in Brooklyn, New York City, in the early-20th century. They established a mosque that remained in use {{as of | 2017 | lc = on}}.Amid Tatar Renaissance In Europe, An American Mosque Turns To Its Roots - "A Lipka Tatar -- a Muslim ethnic group native to the Baltic region -- Jakub Szynkiewicz was selected to be Poland's first mufti in 1925, around the time that his community's U.S. diaspora was moving into the very mosque in Brooklyn where his portrait still hangs."

Astrakhan Tatars

File:Grigory Gagarin. Armenie. Djighit a Sardar-Abbat. (Kurdes, tatars).jpg|thumb|right|Tatar cavalry training in their sarai.]]The Astrakhan Tatars (around 80,000) are a group of Tatars, descendants of the Astrakhan Khanate's population, who live mostly in Astrakhan Oblast. In the Russian census in 2010, most Astrakhan Tatars declared themselves simply as Tatars and few declared themselves as Astrakhan Tatars. A large number of Volga Tatars live in Astrakhan Oblast and differences between them have been disappearing.

Siberian Tatars

The Siberian Tatars occupy three distinct regions: They originated in the agglomerations of various indigenous North Asian groups which, in the region north of the Altay, reached some degree of culture between the 4th and 5th centuries, but were subdued and enslaved by the Mongols.The 2010 census recorded 6,779 Siberian Tatars in Russia. According to the 2002 census there are 500,000 Tatars in Siberia, but 400,000 of them are Volga Tatars who settled in Siberia during periods of colonization.Siberian Tatars {{webarchive
|url=weblink" title="">weblink
|date= 2002-02-27


According to over 100 samples from the Tatarstan DNA project, the most common Y-DNA haplogroup of the ethnic Volga Tatars is Haplogroup R1a (over 20%), predominantly from the Asian R1a-Z93 subclade.WEB, Family Tree DNA - Tatarstan,weblink, Haplogroup N is the other significant haplogroup. According to different data J2a or J2b may be the more common subclade of Haplogroup J2 in Volga Tatars. The haplogroups C and Q are among the rare haplogroups.Haplogroups of 450 Tatars, summarized from the studies Rootsi 2007, Tambets 2004, Balanovsky in prep., Wells 2001"Балановский О.П., Пшеничнов А.С., Сычев Р.С., Евсеева И.В., Балановская Е.В. Y-base: частоты гаплогрупп Y хромосомы у народов мира, 2010
  • N1c2: 21,0%
  • R1a: 19,0%
  • I1: 13,2%
  • N1c1: 13,0%
  • J2: 8,1%
  • R1b1b2: 6,0%
  • E1b1a: 4,0%
  • O: 3,0%
  • I2a1: 2,8%
  • C: 2,7%
  • I2a2: 1,8%
  • G: 1,0%
  • J1: 1,0%
  • L: 1,0%
  • Q: 1,0%
  • T: 1,0%
Haplogroups in Volga Tatars(122 samples):WEB,weblink Data,,
  • C2: 2%
  • E: 4% (V13: 3%)
  • G2a: 2%
  • I1: 6%
  • I2a1: 5%
  • I2a2: 2%
  • J2a: 7%
  • J2b: 2%
  • L1: 2%
  • N1c2: 9%
  • N1c1: 16%
  • O3: 2%
  • Q1: 2%
  • R1a: 33% (Z282: 19%, Z93: 14%)
Haplogroups in Crimean Tatars(22 samples):WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2016-11-13, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-11-14,
  • R-M17: 32%
  • R-M173: 9%
  • O-M175: 5%
  • O-M122: 5%
  • J-M172: 14%
  • I-M170: 5%
  • F-M89: 18%
  • C-M130: 9%
  • E-M96: 5%
According to Mylyarchuk et al.: among 197 Kazan Tatars and Mishars.JOURNAL, Malyarchuk, Boris, Derenko, Miroslava, Denisova, Galina, Kravtsova, Olga, Mitogenomic Diversity in Tatars from the Volga-Ural Region of Russia, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 1 October 2010, 27, 10, 2220–2226, 10.1093/molbev/msq065,weblink en, 0737-4038, 20457583, The study of Suslova et al. found indications of two non-Kipchak sources of admixture, Finno-Ugric and Bulgar:}}Volga Tatars, along with Maris, Finns, and Karelians, all cluster genetically with northern and eastern Russians, and are distinct from southern and western Russians. The scientists also found differences in relationships among some of the northern and eastern Russians.Boris Abramovich Malyarchuk, Miroslava V. Derenko, Tomasz Grzybowski, A. Lunkina, Jakub Czarny, S. Rychkov, I. Morozova, Galina A. Denisova, and Danuta Miścicka-Śliwka, weblink, Differentiation of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes in Russian populations, Human Biology 76:6, pages 877–900, December 2004According to a genetic admixture study, Volga Tatars reveal roughly 90% Caucasian and 10% Mongoloid.Sardaana A. Fedorova, M. A. Bermisheva, Richard Villems, N. R. Maksimova, and Elza K. Khusnutdinova., weblink, Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Yakuts, Pages 544–553, Table 2, January 27 2003



File:Nogai flag.svg|Flag of Nogai KhanateFile:Flag of the Crimean Tatar people.svg|Flag of the Crimean TatarsFile:Flag of Tatarstan.svg|Flag of TatarstanFile:Flag of the Kazan Khanate.svg|Flag of the Kazan KhanateFile:Golden Horde flag 1339.svg|Golden Horde flagFile:Tartary flag.jpg|Tartary flag


File:Tatarzy kazańscy w XiX wieku.JPG|Tatars in Kazan, 1871File:RIAN archive 320886 Turkmen President Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov in the Kul Sharif Mosque during his visit to Tatarstan.jpg|Mintimer Shaimiyev (left), the president of the republic of Tatarstan, in the Qolşärif Mosque, Kazan, with Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow (right)File:Siberian Tatars.jpg|Siberian TatarsFile:(Stevens1891Russland) pg261 TATARS OF THE CRIMEA.jpg|Crimean Tatars, 1891File:Crimean-tatar-women.jpg|Crimean Tatar women, early 1900s


File:Tatar.jpg|Tatar elder and his horse.File:Sloane-Tatar.jpg|Tatar in Ottoman service.File:Tatar woman XVIII century.jpg|Tatar womanFile:Markov EL Tatar girl 1890.jpg|Tatar womanFile:Costumes de Differents Pays, 'Femme Tatar Tobolsk' LACMA M.83.190.220.jpg|Tatar womanFile:Costumes de Differents Pays, 'Femme Tatar Kastchintz' LACMA M.83.190.226.jpg|Tatar womanFile:Markov EL Tatar shepherd-boy 1972.jpg|Tatar shepherd-boyFile:Circassians, Tatars, Turkic people, Zaurnåa.jpg|TatarsFile:Tartares lituaniens en reconnaissance.jpg|Lithuanian Tatars of Napoleonic armyFile:Tatar de Khourzouk. Grove, Florence Craufurd. Le Caucase. 1899. P.16.png|Tatar elderFile:Soyembika.jpg|Tatar familyFile:Mercier. Famille Tartare (Asie). Auguste Wahlen. Moeurs, usages et costumes de tous les peuples du monde. 1843.jpg|Tatar family in 1843File:Siberia Tartar Woman, Kalmucks.JPG|Siberian TatarsFile:Tatarka.jpg|Tatar girl in 1682File:Pierre Bellet - Tataroaica.jpg|Tatar girl ca. 19th centuryFile:Nicolae Tonitza - Micuta tataroaica.jpg|Tatar child ca. 19th centuryFile:Vasnetsov Tatary Idut.jpg|Tatars' raid on MoscowFile:Kalmyk and kuban tatar2.jpg|Tatar ridersFile:Recovery of Tartar captives.PNG|Recovery of Tatar captives.File:Yeget-1.jpg|Tatar costumes.File:Франц Рубо - Татарский всадник.jpg|Tatar riderFile:MarkovEL Akmulla 1872.jpg|Tatar elder inviting guests.File:Markov EL Suuksu 1872.jpg|Tatar horsemenFile:Ryszkiewicz Tatars in the vanguard.jpg|Tatars in the vanguard of the Ottoman armyFile:Tatar peopleы1862.jpg|Kazan Tatars 1862


File:Qur'an book made by tartars.JPG|Quran of the Tatars.Kazan Millennium tamğa.svg|The word Qazan – قازان is written in Yaña imlâ in the semblance of a Zilant.Borongi bolgarlar Gaziz cover.jpg|Cover page of Tatar Yana imla book, printed with Separated Tatar language in Arabic script in 1924.Хальфин Азбука татарского языка 1778.pdf|A Tatar alphabet book printed in 1778. Arabic script is used, Cyrillic text is in Russian. Хальфин, Сагит. Азбука татарского языка. — М., 1778. — 52 с.Nizhny-Novgorod-Mosque-inscription-C0274.jpg|Tatar sign on a madrasah in Nizhny Novgorod, written in both Arabic and Cyrilic Tatar scripts.

See also



External links

{{commons category|Tatar people}}{{Tatars}}{{Turkic peoples}}{{European Muslims}}{{Ethnic groups of Russia}}{{Authority control}}

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