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Tarantula Nebula
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factoids
SIMBAD
, NAME 30 Dor Nebula
, 2006-12-22,
-69|05.7}}160 ± 10 k}}49 ± 3WEB
, SEDS Students for the Exploration and Development of Space
, Results for Tarantula Nebula
, 30 Doradus .. 49 kpc +- 3 kpc
,weblink
, 2007-05-08, JOURNAL
, 2008ApJ...680..398L
, Chemical Composition and Mixing in Giant H II Regions: NGC 3603, 30 Doradus, and N66
, June 2008
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 680
, 1
, 398–419
, 10.1086/587503
, 4
, Lebouteiller, V.
, Bernard-Salas, J.
, Brandl, B.
, Whelan, D. G.
, Wu, Yanling
, Charmandaris, V.
, Devost, D.
, Houck, J. R.
, 0710.4549, k}}| appmag_v = +8| size_v = 40′ × 25′| constellation = Dorado| radius_ly = 931distance × sin( diameter_angle / 2 ) = 931 ly. radius| absmag_v =
Large Magellanic Cloud>LMCJohann Elert Bode>30 Doradus}}The Tarantula Nebula (also known as 30 Doradus) is an H II region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC).

Discovery

(File:Hubble WFC3 30 Doradus Zoom.ogv|thumb|left|upright=1.2|The brilliant stars in the Tarantula Nebula are unleashing a torrent of ultraviolet light and stellar winds that are etching away at the hydrogen gas cloud in which the stars were born.)The Tarantula Nebula was observed by Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille during an expedition to the Cape of Good Hope between 1751 and 1753. He catalogued it as the second of the "Nebulae of the First Class", "Nebulosities not accompanied by any star visible in the telescope of two feet". It was described as a diffuse nebula 20' across.JOURNAL, 1969JBAA...79..213J, The search for the nebulae - VI, Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 79, 213, Jones, K. G., 1969, Johann Bode included the Tarantula in his 1801 Uranographia star atlas and listed it in the accompanying Allgemeine Beschreibung und Nachweisung der Gestirne catalogue as number 30 in the constellation "Xiphias or Dorado". Instead of being given a stellar magnitude, it was noted to be nebulous.BOOK, Johann Elert Bode, Allgemeine Beschreibung und Nachweisung der Gestirne: Nebst Verzeichniss der geraden Aufsteigung und Abweichung von 17240 Sternen, Doppelsternen, Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen:(zu dessen Uranographie gehörig),weblink 1801, Selbstverl., 1–, The name Tarantula Nebula arose the mid 20th century from the appearance in deep photographic exposures.JOURNAL, 10.1093/mnras/122.1.1, A Study of the 30 Doradus Region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 122, 1-16, 1961, Feast, M. W., 1961MNRAS.122....1F, 30 Doradus has often been treated as the designation of a star,JOURNAL, 1897ApJ.....6..459P, Large Magellanic Cloud, Astrophysical Journal, 6, 459, Pickering, E. C., Fleming, W. P., 1897, 10.1086/140426, JOURNAL, 1893MNRAS..53..273B, New Double Stars, discovered in 1892, and measures, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 53, 273, Burnham, S. W., 1893, 10.1093/mnras/53.4.273, 2018-09-04, or of the central star cluster NGC 2070,JOURNAL, 10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/1347, The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the 30 Doradus Starburst Cluster, The Astrophysical Journal, 707, 2, 1347-1360, 2009, Andersen, M., Zinnecker, H., Moneti, A., McCaughrean, M. J., Brandl, B., Brandner, W., Meylan, G., Hunter, D., 2009ApJ...707.1347A, 0911.2755, but is now generally treated as referring to the whole nebula area of the Tarantula Nebula.JOURNAL, 1984IAUS..108..243W, The stellar content of 30 Doradus, IN: Structure and Evolution of the Magellanic Clouds; Proceedings of the Symposium, 108, 243, Walborn, N. R., 1984, JOURNAL, 10.1086/377601, The Spectrum of Integrated Millimeter Flux of the Magellanic Clouds and 30 Doradus from Top Hat and DIRBE Data, The Astrophysical Journal, 596, 1, 273-286, 2003, Aguirre, J. E., Bezaire, J. J., Cheng, E. S., Cottingham, D. A., Cordone, S. S., Crawford, T. M., Fixsen, D. J., Knox, L., Meyer, S. S., Norgaard‐Nielsen, H. U., Silverberg, R. F., Timbie, P., Wilson, G. W., 2003ApJ...596..273A, astro-ph/0306425,

Properties

The Tarantula Nebula has an apparent magnitude of 8. Considering its distance of about 49 kpc (160,000 light-years), this is an extremely luminous non-stellar object. Its luminosity is so great that if it were as close to Earth as the Orion Nebula, the Tarantula Nebula would cast visible shadowsweblink In fact it is the most active starburst region known in the Local Group of galaxies. It is also one of the largest H II regions in the Local Group with an estimated diameter around 200 to 570 pc, and also because of its very large size, it is sometimes described as the largest although other H II regions such as NGC 604 which is in the Triangulum Galaxy could be larger. The nebula resides on the leading edge of the LMC where ram pressure stripping, and the compression of the interstellar medium likely resulting from this, is at a maximum.

NGC 2070

30 Doradus has at its centre the star cluster NGC 2070 which includes the compact concentration of stars known as R136JOURNAL
, 1998ApJ...493..180M
, Star Formation in R136: A Cluster of O3 Stars Revealed by Hubble Space Telescope Spectroscopy
, January 1998
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 493
, 1
, 180
, 10.1086/305126
, Massey, P
, Hunter, D.
,
, that produces most of the energy that makes the nebula visible. The estimated mass of the cluster is 450,000 solar masses, suggesting it will likely become a globular cluster in the future.JOURNAL, Bosch, Guillermo, Terlevich, Elena, Terlevich, Roberto, Gemini/GMOS Search for Massive Binaries in the Ionizing Cluster of 30 Dor, Astronomical Journal, 137, 2, 3437–3441, 2009, 2009AJ....137.3437B, 10.1088/0004-6256/137/2/3437, 0811.4748, In addition to NGC 2070, the Tarantula Nebula contains a number of other star clusters including the much older Hodge 301. The most massive stars of Hodge 301 have already exploded in supernovae.JOURNAL, Grebel, Eva K., Chu, You-Hua, Hubble Space Telescope Photometry of Hodge 301: An "Old" Star Cluster in 30 Doradus, 2000, Astronomical Journal, 119, 2, 787–799, 2000AJ....119..787G, 10.1086/301218, astro-ph/9910426,

Supernova 1987A

The closest supernova observed since the invention of the telescope,WEB, Tarantula Nebula's Cosmic Web a Thing of Beauty,weblink SPACE.com, 2011-03-26, 2011-03-21, Supernova 1987A, occurred in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula."Encyclopedia of Space". Authors: Couper,Heather; Henbest, Nigel. Retrieved 2 January 2013. There is a prominent supernova remnant enclosing the open cluster NGC 2060, but the remnants of many other supernovae are difficult to detect in the complex nebulosity.JOURNAL, 10.1086/377630, Supernova Remnant Candidates in the 30 Doradus Nebula, The Astrophysical Journal, 596, 1, 287, 2003, Lazendic, J. S., Dickel, J. R., Jones, P. A., 2003ApJ...596..287L,

Image gallery

Image:The rich region around the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud.jpg|Tarantula Nebula reveals a cosmic landscape of star clusters, glowing gas clouds and the scattered remains of supernova explosions.WEB, A Crowded Neighbourhood,weblink www.eso.org, 31 May 2018, Image:The Tarantula Nebula region imaged with HAWK-I with the Adaptive Optics Facility.jpg|Tarantula Nebula region imaged with HAWK-I with the Adaptive Optics Facility.WEB, Sharper Images for VLT Infrared Camera - Adaptive optics facility extended to HAWK-I instrument,weblink www.eso.org, 31 January 2018, Image:30 Doradus, Tarantula Nebula.jpg|Hubble's Panoramic View of a Star-Forming Region in the super star cluster called R136.Image:The brilliant star VFTS 682 in the Large Magellanic Cloud.jpg|Brilliant star VFTS 682 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Credit ESO et al.Image:Close-up Tarantula Nebula.jpg|Close-up of the Tarantula Nebula.Image:The young cluster RMC 136a.jpg|The young cluster RMC 136a.Image:Tarantula Nebula - Hubble.jpg|Central region of the Tarantula Nebula – a mosaic of 15 Hubble images. Credit: NASA/ESA/Danny LaCrue.Image:ESO-Ring-shaped-Nebula-phot-34a-04-fullres.jpg|LMC Region near the Tarantula Nebula.Image:Tarantula Nebula.jpg|Heart of the Tarantula Nebula: R136 is located in the center of the image while Hodge 301 is in upper right. Credit: ESO.Image:Tarantula Nebula and its surroundings.jpg|Tarantula Nebula and its surroundings. Credit: ESO.Image:ESO-Filaments in the Tarantula Nebula-phot-34b-04-fullres.jpg|Filaments in The Tarantula Nebula in the LMC. Credit: ESO.Image:ESO 2.2-m WFI Image of the Tarantula Nebula (4598317299).jpg|The nebula can be seen at the centre of this image.Image:Tarantula nebula WISE.jpg|Tarantula nebula from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE).{{Milky Way}}{{Sky|05|38|38|-|69|5.7|0|157000}}{{Clear}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Commons category|NGC 2070|Tarantula Nebula}} {{Caldwell catalogue}}{{Ngc25}}

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