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Tamil Nadu
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{{Short description|State in Southern India}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2016}}{{Use Indian English|date=April 2017}}







factoids
| image_caption = | image_flag = States and union territories of India>State| image_blank_emblem = TamilNadu Logo.svgEmblem of Tamil Nadu>Emblem| blank_emblem_size = 100pxTamil Thai Valthu"{{ref>est|}}(Invocation to Mother Tamil)| image_map = IN-TN.svg| map_alt = | map_caption = Location of Tamil Nadu in India13.09region:IN-TN_type:adm1st|display=inline,title}}| coor_pinpoint = | coordinates_footnotes = | subdivision_type = CountryIndia}}| established_title = Formation†}}| seat_type = Capital and Largest city| seat = Chennai (Madras)List of Indian districts>Districts| parts_style = paraList of districts of India>33| government_footnotes = | governing_body = Government of Tamil NaduGovernors of Tamil Nadu>Governor| leader_name = Banwarilal PurohitChief Ministers of Tamil Nadu>Chief Minister| leader_name1 = Edappadi K. Palaniswami (AIADMK)Deputy Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu>Deputy Chief MinisterO. Panneerselvam (All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam>AIADMK)Legislature of Tamil Nadu>LegislatureUnicameral (234)TAMIL NADU: GIRIJA VAIDYANATHAN IS THE NEW CHIEF SECRETARYACCESSDATE=31 DECEMBER 2016DECCAN CHRONICLE>LOCATION =TAMIL NADU, 23 December 2016, High Courts of India>High CourtMadras High CourtHTTP://WWW.THEHINDU.COM/NEWS/NATIONAL/TAMIL-NADU/RAJENDRAN-IS-NEW-DGP-GEORGE-IS-COMMISSIONER/ARTICLE14628490.ECEWORK=THEHINDU.COM, 18 October 2016, | unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = 130,060List of states and territories of India by area>11th| area_note = | elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = | population_total = 72,147,030| population_as_of = 2011PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, | population_density_km2 = autoList of states and union territories of India by population>6thTamil people>Tamil, Tamilian, Tamilar| population_note = Indian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30| area_code = | area_code_type = UN/LOCODEIN-TN)| registration_plate = TN| demographics_type1 = GDPWEBSITE=PRS LEGISLATIVE RESEARCH ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180301164639/HTTPS://WWW.PRSINDIA.ORG/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/BUDGET_FILES/STATE%20BUDGET%20ANALYSIS%20-%20TAMIL%20NADU%202019-20.PDFDEAD-URL=YES, HTTP://WWW.MOSPI.GOV.IN/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/PRESS_RELEASES_STATEMENTS/STATEWISEDOMESTICPRODUCT_3AUG18.XLS>TITLE=MOSPI GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCTFIRST=WEBSITE=MINISTRY OF STATISTICS AND PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION, List of Indian states and union territories by GDP>Total {{nobold|(2018–19)}}17.25|lc}}List of Indian states and union territories by GDP per capita>Per capita {{nobold|(2017–18)}}186125}}Human Development Index>HDI {{nobold|(2017)}}WEBSITE=GLOBAL DATA LAB ACCESSDATE=25 SEPTEMBER 2018 List of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index>11thLiteracy in India>Literacy {{nobold|(2011)}}weblink Human sex ratio>Sex ratio {{nobold|(2011)}}females>♀/1000 malesSEX RATIO OF TAMIL NADU PUBLISHER=CENSUS OF INDIA, 27 February 2014, | demographics_type2 = Languages| demographics2_title1 = OfficialTamil language>TamilHTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM52NDREPORT.PDF >TITLE=52ND REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA (JULY 2014 TO JUNE 2015) DATE=29 MARCH 2016 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=25 MAY 2017, dmy-all, | demographics2_title2 = Additional officialEnglish language>EnglishestJana Gana Mana is the national anthem, while "Invocation to Mother Tamil" is the state song/anthem.{{note>estTamil Nadu Legislative Assembly history|2012}}







factoids
| official_name = }}Tamil Nadu (Tamiḻ Nāḍu {{IPA-ta|ˈt̪ɐmɨɻ ˈn̪aːɖu|-|Tamil Nadu.ogg}} "Tamil Country", formerly Madras State) is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai (formerly known as Madras). Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest Indian state by area and the sixth largest state by population. It has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with {{INRConvert|17.25|lc}} in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of {{INRConvert|167|k}}. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.WEB, Rajan report: Odisha, Bihar least developed; Goa, Kerala on top,weblink Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.The state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and eight World Heritage sites.{{sfn|UNESCO|2012}}{{sfn|Press Information Bureau releases|2012}} The people of Tamil Nadu have continued to develop their cultural heritage in terms of music, dance, literature, theatre, cuisine, and other art forms.JOURNAL, March 1984, The Living culture of the Tamils; The UNESCO Courier: a window open on the world,weblink The UNESCO Courier, XXXVII, 3; 1984,

History

Prehistory

Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula.{{sfn|Nobrega| 2008| p= 20}} In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa.WEB,weblink Science News : Archaeology - Anthropology : Sharp stones found in India signal surprisingly early toolmaking advances, WEB,weblink The Washington Post : Very old, very sophisticated tools found in India. The question is: Who made them?, In Adichanallur, {{convert|24|km|mi|abbr=on}} from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons, bones, husks, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.{{sfn|The Times of India|1 January 2006}} The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi.{{sfn|The Hindu|17 December 2005}} Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies.{{sfn|The Hindu|26 May 2004}} About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, and most of these are in the Tamil language.{{sfn|The Hindu|22 November 2005}}Skeletons dating back 3,800 years throw light on evolution. The Times of India.WEB,weblink The Hindu : National : 'Rudimentary Tamil-Brahmi script' unearthed at Adichanallur, 27 March 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070128133014weblink">weblink 28 January 2007, yes, dmy-all, Reserve Collections to be Displayed{{dead link|date=October 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} {{sfn|Caldwell|1989|p=88}}{{sfn|Ayyar| 1991| pp=498–499}}K.A.N. Sashtri, A History of South India, pp 109–112K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, OUP (1955) p 124Kamil Veith Zvelebil, Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature, p 12

Indus valley script between 2000 and 1500 BCE

A Neolithic stone celt (a hand-held axe) with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu.According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu.According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, and therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language".The date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE.NEWS, Significance of Mayiladuthurai find,weblink 2 April 2016, The Hindu, 1 May 2006, en-IN, NEWS, T, Saravanan, How a recent archaeological discovery throws light on the history of Tamil script,weblink 22 February 2018,

Sangam period (300 BCE – 300 CE)

File:WLA lacma 12th century Maharishi Agastya.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Sage Agastya father of Tamil literature, Sangam period ]]The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature. Numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries, from 300 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era.Excavation begins at Alagankulam archaeological site

Bhakti Movement

File:Child Saint Sambandar (915580465).jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Sambandar, one of the sixty-three Nayanars, (Bhakti Movement)]]The Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars (4th–10th centuries)BOOK, Embree, Ainslie Thomas, Ainslie Embree, Stephen N. Hay, William Theodore De Bary, Sources of Indian Tradition, Columbia University Press, 1988, 342, 978-0-231-06651-8,weblink and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion.BOOK,weblink The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, 9780631215356, Flood, Gavin, 2003-02-07, The Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition.

Medieval period (600–1300)

File:kallanai.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Kallanai or Grand Anicut, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in Tiruchirappalli district by (Karikala Chola]] around the 2nd century ADNEWS, Flowing waters for fertile fields,weblink The Hindu, 29 August 2011, India, M., Balaganessin,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120717220026weblink">weblink 17 July 2012, yes, dmy-all, BOOK, Singh, Vijay P., Ram Narayan Yadava, Water Resources System Operation: Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Environment, Allied Publishers, 2003,weblink 978-81-7764-548-4, 508, WEB,weblink This is the oldest stone water-diversion or water-regulator structure in the world, 27 May 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070206130842weblink">weblink 6 February 2007, WEB,weblink Cauvery River â€“ Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Britannica.com, 23 September 2013, )File:Mamallapuram view.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Shore Temple built by the Pallavas at Mamallapuram during the 8th century, now a UNESCO World Heritage SiteUNESCO World Heritage SiteDuring the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I.{{sfn|Sastri|2008| pp= 91–92}} The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.File:Maduraitemple.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|The Meenakshi Amman TempleMeenakshi Amman Temple Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century. The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the south east Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. During the 13th century, Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture.{{sfn|Sastri|1970|pp=18–182}} The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south coast of India, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.

Chola Empire

File:Rajendra map new.svg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|The Chola Empire at its greatest extent, during the reign of Rajendra Chola IRajendra Chola IDuring the 9th century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola's new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from Mutharaiyar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II. Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman. Parantaka Chola II expanded the Chola empire into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose to a notable power in south east Asia. Now the Chola Empire stretched as far as Bengal and Sri Lanka. At its peak, the empire spanned almost {{convert|3600000|sqkm|sqmi|abbr=on}}. Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola's navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now ) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya, PhilippinesWEB,weblink Tamil Cultural Association â€“ Tamil Language, Tamilculturewaterloo.org, 23 September 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150413062503weblink">weblink 13 April 2015, dmy-all, in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram.The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the Pallavas, acknowledging their common socio-religious and cultural heritage. The celebrated Nataraja temple at Chidambaram and the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam held special significance for the Cholas which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities. Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three of the above four temples are titled Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.{{multiple image | align= left | direction= horizontal | footer= Architecture from Chola period From left to right: Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram; Natarajan, Shiva as celestial dancer; and Parvathi, the consort of Shiva| footer_align= centre | image1= Horse drawn chariot Darasuram.jpg | width1= {{#expr: (175 * 800 / 599) round 0}} | image2= Shiva as the Lord of Dance LACMA edit.jpg | width2= {{#expr: (175 * 467 / 600) round 0}} | image3= Cholacrop.jpg | width3= {{#expr: (175 * 374 / 599) round 0}}}}

Vijayanagar and Nayak period (1336–1646)

File:Tirumalai Nayak.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal at MaduraiMaduraiThe Muslim invasions of southern India triggered the establishment of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire with Vijayanagara in modern Karnataka as its capital. The Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire Tamil country by c. 1370 and ruled for almost two centuries until its defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by a confederacy of Deccan sultanates. Subsequently, as the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after the mid-16th century, many local rulers, called Nayaks, succeeded in gaining the trappings of independence. This eventually resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many Nayaks declared themselves independent, among whom the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore were the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom.{{sfn|Sastri|1970|pp=18–182}} The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were the most prominent of Nayaks in the 17th century. They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu such as the Meenakshi Temple.

Power struggles of the 18th century (1688–1802)

By the early 18th century, the political scene in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers aspiring to be independent. The fall of the Vijayanagara empire and the Chandragiri Nayakas gave the sultanate of Golconda a chance to expand into the Tamil heartland. When the sultanate was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in 1688, the northern part of current-day Tamil Nadu was administrated by the nawab of the Carnatic, who had his seat in Arcot from 1715 onward. Meanwhile, to the south, the fall of the Thanjavur Nayaks led to a short-lived Thanjavur Maratha kingdom. The fall of the Madurai Nayaks brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called palayams. The chieftains of these Palayams were known as Palaiyakkarar (or 'polygar' as called by British) and were ruling under the nawabs of the Carnatic.File:Fort Dansborg.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Fort Dansborg at Tharangambadi built by the Danish ]]Europeans started to establish trade centres during the 17th century in the eastern coastal regions. Around 1609, the Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat,Bethencourt p.211 while the Danes had their establishment in Tharangambadi also known as Tranquebar.NEWS, Danish flavour,weblink 5 August 2013, Frontline, 6 November 2009, India, In 1639, the British, under the East India Company, established a settlement further south of Pulicat, in present-day Chennai. British constructed Fort St. GeorgeBOOK, Wagret, Paul, Nagel's encyclopedia-guide, Nagel Publishers, Geneva, 1977, "India, Nepal", 556, 978-2-8263-0023-6, 4202160, and established a trading post at Madras.BOOK, A short history of the world,weblink Helicon publishing Ltd., 277, 1997, Roberts J. M, 978-0-19-511504-8, 28 December 2012, The office of mayoralty of Madras was established in 1688. The French established trading posts at Pondichéry by 1693. The British and French were competing to expand the trade in the northern parts of Tamil Nadu which also witnessed many battles like Battle of Wandiwash as part of the Seven Years' War.WEB,weblink Seven Years' War: Battle of Wandiwash, History Net: Where History Comes Alive – World & US History Online, British reduced the French dominions in India to Puducherry. Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company for defeating the Kingdom of Mysore. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company which firmly established the British in the northern parts. In 1762, a tripartite treaty was signed between Thanjavur Maratha, Carnatic and the British by which Thanjavur became a vassal of the Nawab of the Carnatic which eventually ceded to British.In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in series of wars called Polygar war to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar. Puli Thevar was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India.WEB,weblink Puli Thevan : Define, Explore, Discuss, Museumstuff.com, 2012-07-07, Thevar's prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who later rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Rani Velu Nachiyar, was the first woman freedom fighter of India and Queen of Sivagangai.WEB,weblink PIB English Features, pib.nic.in, She was drawn to war after her husband Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar (1750–1772), King of Sivaganga was murdered at Kalayar Kovil temple by British. Before her death, Queen Velu Nachi granted powers to the Maruthu brothers to rule Sivaganga.WEB,weblink index, tn.nic.in, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120130050319weblink">weblink 30 January 2012, Kattabomman (1760–1799), Palaiyakkara chief of Panchalakurichi who fought the British in the First Polygar War.WEB, Yang, Anand A, Bandits and Kings:Moral Authority and Resistance in Early Colonial India,weblink The Journal of Asian Studies, 6 November 2012, He was captured by the British at the end of the war and hanged near Kayattar in 1799. Veeran Sundaralingam (1700–1800) was the General of Kattabomman Nayakan's palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump in 1799 which killed more than 150 British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace. Oomaithurai, younger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the Maruthu brothers, Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised an armyBOOK, Robert Caldwell, A Political and General History of the District of Tinnevelly, in the Presidency of Madras, E. Keys, at the Government Press, 1881,weblink 195–222, . They formed a coalition with Dheeran Chinnamalai and Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja which fought the British in Second Polygar Wars. Dheeran Chinnamalai (1756–1805), Polygar chieftain of Kongu and feudatory of Tipu Sultan who fought the British in the Second Polygar War. After winning the Polygar wars in 1801, the East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the Madras Presidency.File:Andal Temple.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Srivilliputhur Andal Temple Gopuram has been adopted as the official Seal of Tamil NaduSeal of Tamil Nadu

British rule (1801–1947)

At the beginning of the 19th century, the British firmly established governance over entirety of Tamil Nadu. The Vellore mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century.WEB,weblink July 10, 1806 – The Vellore Mutiny Breaks out Against the British, mapsofindia.com, The revolt, which took place in Vellore, was brief, lasting one full day, but brutal as mutineers broke into the Vellore fort and killed or wounded 200 British troops, before they were subdued by reinforcements from nearby Arcot.WEB,weblink July, 1806 Vellore – S. Anand – Jul 17,2006, outlookindia.com, WEB,weblink Vellore Mutiny, Encyclopædia Britannica, The British crown took over the control governance from the Company and the remainder of the 19th century did not witness any native resistance until the beginning of 20th century Indian Independence movements. During the administration of Governor George Harris(1854–1859) measures were taken to improve education and increase representation of Indians in the administration. Legislative powers given to the Governor's council under the Indian Councils Act 1861 and 1909 Minto-Morley Reforms eventually led to the establishment of the Madras Legislative Council. Failure of the summer monsoons and administrative shortcomings of the Ryotwari system resulted in two severe famines in the Madras Presidency, the Great Famine of 1876–78 and the Indian famine of 1896–97. The famine led to migration of people as bonded labours for British to various countries which eventually formed the present Tamil diaspora.

India (1947–present)

When India became independent in 1947, Madras presidency became Madras state, comprising present-day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Odisha, South Canara district Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning "Tamil country".BOOK, Migrant women and urban labour market: concepts and case studies, 105,weblink 9788176299664, Sundari, Dr. S., 2007,

Geography

(File:Tamil Nadu topo deutsch mit Gebirgen.png|thumb|upright=0.9|Topographic map of Tamil Nadu)File:Western Ghats Gobi.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Western GhatsWestern GhatsTamil Nadu covers an area of {{convert|130058|sqkm|sqmi|abbr=on}}, and is the eleventh largest state in India. The bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the north west and Andhra Pradesh to the north. To the east is the Bay of Bengal and the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry. The southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is Kanyakumari which is the meeting point of the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean.The western, southern and the north western parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet at the Nilgiri hills. The Western Ghats traverse the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of the south west monsoon from entering the state. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions.Tamil Nadu has the country's third longest coastline at about {{convert|906.9|km|mi|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Indian States by Coastline,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170828221126weblink">weblink 28 August 2017, yes, dmy-all, Tamil Nadu's coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state. Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II & III. Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5.0 range.{{sfn|Amateur Seismic Centre|2007}}

Climate

Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains, and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. The state has two distinct periods of rainfall: The annual rainfall of the state is about {{convert|945|mm|in|abbr=on}} of which 48 per cent is through the north east monsoon, and 32 per cent through the south west monsoon. Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought.{{sfn|UN, system of organisations|2012}} Tamil Nadu is divided into seven agro-climatic zones: north east, north west, west, southern, high rainfall, high altitude hilly, and Kaveri Delta (the most fertile agricultural zone).

Flora and fauna

There are about 2000 species of wildlife that are native to Tamil Nadu. Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including elephants, tigers, leopards, wild dogs, sloth bears, gaurs, lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri langurs, Nilgiri tahrs, grizzled giant squirrels and sambar deer, resident and migratory birds such as cormorants, darters, herons, egrets, open-billed storks, spoonbills and white ibises, little grebes, Indian moorhen, black-winged stilts, a few migratory ducks and occasionally grey pelicans, marine species such as the dugongs, turtles, dolphins, Balanoglossus and a wide variety of fish and insects.Indian Angiosperm diversity comprises 17,672 species with Tamil Nadu leading all states in the country, with 5640 species accounting for 1/3 of the total flora of India. This includes 1559 species of medicinal plants, 533 endemic species, 260 species of wild relatives of cultivated plants and 230 red-listed species. The Gymnosperm diversity of the country is 64 species of which Tamil Nadu has four indigenous species and about 60 introduced species. The Pteridophytes diversity of India includes 1022 species of which Tamil Nadu has about 184 species. Vast numbers of bryophytes, lichen, fungi, algae and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu.Common plant species include the state tree: palmyra palm, eucalyptus, rubber, cinchona, clumping bamboos (Bambusa arundinacea), common teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Indian laurel, grewia, and blooming trees like Indian labumusum, ardisia, and solanaceae. Rare and unique plant life includes Combretum ovalifolium, ebony (Diospyros nilagrica), Habenaria rariflora (orchid), Alsophila, Impatiens elegans, Ranunculus reniformis, and royal fern.{{sfn|Biodiversity of Tamil Nadu|2012}}

National and state parks

File:Elephant Gobi.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Sathyamangalam Tiger ReserveSathyamangalam Tiger ReserveTamil Nadu has a wide range of Biomes extending east from the South Western Ghats montane rain forests in the Western Ghats through the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and Deccan thorn scrub forests to tropical dry broadleaf forests and then to the beaches, estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, Seagrasses and coral reefs of the Bay of Bengal.The state has a range of flora and fauna with many species and habitats. To protect this diversity of wildlife there are Protected areas of Tamil Nadu as well as biospheres which protect larger areas of natural habitat often include one or more National Parks. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve established in 1986 is a marine ecosystem with seaweed seagrassrass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forests. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala and Karnataka. The Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is in the south west of the state bordering Kerala in the Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu is home to five declared National parks located in Anamalai, Mudumalai, Mukurithi, Gulf of Mannar, Guindy located in the centre of Chennai city and Vandalur located in South Chennai. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Mukurthi National Park and Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve are the tiger reserves in the state.

Governance and administration

(File:A building in Chennai.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Madras High Court, Chennai)The Governor is the constitutional head of the state while the Chief Minister is the head of the government and the head of the council of ministers.WEB,weblink Tamil Nadu Government Portal, Information Technology Department – Tamil Nadu Government, 7 June 2017, The Chief Justice of the Madras High Court is the head of the judiciary. The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are Banwarilal Purohit (governor),NEWS, Vidyasagar Rao assumes office as acting Governor of Tamil Nadu,weblink 7 June 2017, The Hindu, 3 September 2016, en, Edappadi K. PalaniswamiNEWS, Mariappan, Julie, Tamil Nadu Governor appoints Edappadi K Palaniswami as chief minister – Times of India,weblink 7 June 2017, The Times of India, 16 February 2017, and Vijaya Kamlesh TahilramaniNEWS, Subramani, A, Justice V.K. Tahilramani sworn-in Chief Justice of Madras HC,weblink respectively. Administratively the state is divided into 33 districts. Chennai (formerly known as Madras) is the state capital. It is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in India and is also one of the major Metropolitan cities of India. The state comprises 39 Lok Sabha constituencies and 234 Legislative Assembly constituencies.WEB, Members of Parliament from Tamil Nadu State {{!, Tamil Nadu Government Portal|url =weblink|website = www.tn.gov.in|access-date = 2016-01-25}}Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature until 1986, when it was replaced with a unicameral legislature, like most other states in India. The term length of the government is five years. The present government is headed by Edappadi K. Palaniswami, after the demise of former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, J. Jayalalithaa of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. The Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is housed at the Fort St. George in Chennai. The state had come under the President's rule on four occasions â€“ first from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991.Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India. A large part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major offices of the state government like Urban Local Bodies â€“ all the corporations and municipal office activities â€“ revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have been computerised. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully.{{sfn|Tamil Nadu Police|2011}} The Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old. It is the fifth largest state police force in India (as of 2015, total police force of TN is 1,11,448) and has the highest proportion of women police personnel in the country (total women police personnel of TN is 13,842 which is about 12.42%) to specifically handled violence against women in Tamil Nadu.WEB,weblink Women police personnel face bias, says report, Rukmini S., The Hindu, {{sfn|TN Police strength|2011}} In 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of 1:717.

Administrative subdivisions

(File:India Tamil Nadu districts numbered.svg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|Districts of Tamil Nadu)Tamil Nadu is subdivided into 33 districts, which are listed below. A district is administered by a District Collector who is mostly an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) member, appointed by State Government. Districts are further divided into 226 Taluks administrated by Tahsildars comprising 1127 Revenue blocks. A District has also one or more Revenue Divisions (in total 76) constituted by many Revenue Blocks. 16,564 Revenue villages (Village Panchayat) are the primary grassroots level administrative units which in turn might include many villages and administered by a Village Administrative Officer (VAO), many of which form a Revenue Block. Cities and towns are administered by Municipal corporations and Municipalities respectively. The urban bodies include 12 city corporations, 125 and 529 town panchayats.WEB,weblink List of Municipalities in Tamil Nadu Gradewise, Commissionerate of Municipal Administration, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 13 November 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111024153945weblink">weblink 24 October 2011, WEB,weblink About Us, Directorate of Town Panchayats, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 13 November 2011, WEB,weblink List of Town Panchayats, Directorate of Town Panchayats, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 13 November 2011, The rural bodies include 31 district panchayats, 385 panchayat unions and 12,524 village panchayats.WEB,weblink District Wise Block Maps, Rural Development and Panchayati Raj Department, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 13 November 2011, WEB,weblink List of District panchayat, Rural Development and Panchayati Raj Department, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 13 November 2011, WEB,weblink Grama Sabha, Rural Development and Panchayati Raj Department, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 13 November 2011, {| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed"Districts of Tamil Nadu}}! !! District !! Headquarters !! Area !! Population(2011) !! Populationdensity 1 Ariyalur District >Ariyalur > {{nts {{nts {{nts|387}} /km2 2 Chennai District >Chennai > {{nts {{nts {{nts|26903}} /km2 3 Coimbatore District >Coimbatore > {{nts {{nts {{nts|648}} /km2 4 Cuddalore District >Cuddalore > {{nts {{nts {{nts|702}} /km2 5 Dharmapuri District >Dharmapuri > {{nts {{nts {{nts|332}} /km2 6 Dindigul District >Dindigul > {{nts {{nts {{nts|357}} /km2 7 Erode District >Erode > {{nts {{nts {{nts|397}} /km2 8 Kallakurichi district >Kallakurichi > {{nts {{nts {{nts|254}} /km2 9 Kanchipuram District >Kanchipuram > {{nts {{nts {{nts|666}} /km2 10 Kanyakumari District >Nagercoil > {{nts {{nts {{nts|1106}} /km2 11 Karur District >Karur > {{nts {{nts {{nts|371}} /km2 12 Krishnagiri District >Krishnagiri > {{nts {{nts {{nts|370}} /km2 13 Madurai District >Madurai > {{nts {{nts {{nts|663}} /km2 14 Nagapattinam District >Nagapattinam > {{nts {{nts {{nts|668}} /km2 15 Namakkal District >Namakkal > {{nts {{nts {{nts|506}} /km2 16 Nilgiris District >Udagamandalam > {{nts {{nts {{nts|288}} /km2 17 Perambalur District >Perambalur > {{nts {{nts {{nts|323}} /km2 18 Pudukkottai District >Pudukkottai > {{nts {{nts {{nts|348}} /km2 19 Ramanathapuram District >Ramanathapuram > {{nts {{nts {{nts|320}} /km2 20 Salem district >Salem (India)>Salem style="text-align:right;"5249}} km2 style="text-align:right;"3480008}} style="text-align:right;"663}} /km2 21 Sivaganga District >Sivaganga > {{nts {{nts {{nts|324}} /km2 22 Thanjavur District >Thanjavur > {{nts {{nts {{nts|661}} /km2 23 Theni District >Theni > {{nts {{nts {{nts|397}} /km2 24 Thoothukudi District >Thoothukudi > {{nts {{nts {{nts|378}} /km2 25 Tiruchirappalli District >Tiruchirappalli > {{nts {{nts {{nts|602}} /km2 26 Tirunelveli District >Tirunelveli > {{nts {{nts {{nts|458}} /km2 27 Tirupur District >Tirupur > {{nts {{nts {{nts|476}} /km2 28 Tiruvallur District >Tiruvallur > {{nts {{nts {{nts|1049}} /km2 29 Tiruvannamalai District >Tiruvannamalai > {{nts {{nts {{nts|667}} /km2 30 Tiruvarur District >Tiruvarur > {{nts {{nts {{nts|533}} /km2 31 Vellore District >Vellore > {{nts {{nts {{nts|671}} /km2 32 Viluppuram District >Viluppuram > {{nts {{nts {{nts|482}} /km2 33 Virudhunagar District >Virudhunagar > {{nts {{nts {{nts|454}} /km2

Politics

(File:Fort St. George, Chennai 2.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Fort St. George hosts the Chief Secretariat of the government of Tamil Nadu)

Pre-Independence

Prior to Indian independence Tamil Nadu was under British colonial rule as part of the Madras Presidency. The main party in Tamil Nadu at that time was the Indian National Congress (INC). Regional parties have dominated state politics since 1916. One of the earliest regional parties, the South Indian Welfare Association, a forerunner to Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu, was started in 1916. The party was called after its English organ, Justice Party, by its opponents. Later, South Indian Liberal Federation was adopted as its official name. The reason for victory of the Justice Party in elections was the non-participation of the INC, demanding complete independence of India.The Justice Party which was under E.V.Ramaswamy was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944. It was a non-political party which demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu. However, due to the differences between its two leaders EVR and C.N. Annadurai, the party was split. Annadurai left the party to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter politics in 1956. style"background:#ccc; vertical-align:top;"">

Post-Independence {| class"toccolours" cellpadding"0" cellspacing"0" style"float:right; margin-left:.5em; margin-top:.4em; font-size:90%;" style"background:#ccc; vertical-align:top;"

!PoliticalAlliance!Assembly(2016)!Lok Sabha(2014) style="text-align:center;"AIADMK+13437 style="text-align:center;"DMK+980 style="text-align:center;"BJP01 style="text-align:center;"PMK01 Source: Election Commission of India.{{sfn2006}}{{sfn2009}}

Demographics

{{Historical populations|align = right|region =collapsed 30119000 33687000 41199000 48408000 55859000 62406000 72138958Census population|2011}}}}Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India. 48.4 per cent of the state's population live in urban areas, the second highest percentage among large states in India. The state has registered the lowest fertility rate in India in year 2005–06 with 1.7 children born for each woman, lower than required for population sustainability.{{sfn|Distribution by language|2002}}{{sfn|Census by religious communities|2002}}At the 2011 India census, Tamil Nadu had a population of 72,147,030.{{sfn|Census of Tamil Nadu|2011}} The sex ratio of the state is 995 with 36,137,975 males and 36,009,055 females. There are a total of 23,166,721 households.{{sfn|Census of Tamil Nadu|2011}} The total children under the age of 6 is 7,423,832. A total of 14,438,445 people constituting 20.01 per cent of the total population belonged to Scheduled Castes (SC) and 794,697 people constituting 1.10 per cent of the population belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST).WEB,weblink SC/ST population in Tamilnadu 2011, {{sfn|Census of Tamil Nadu|2011}}The state has 51,837,507 literates, making the literacy rate 80.33 per cent. There are a total of 27,878,282 workers, comprising 4,738,819 cultivators, 6,062,786 agricultural labourers, 1,261,059 in house hold industries, 11,695,119 other workers, 4,120,499 marginal workers, 377,220 marginal cultivators, 2,574,844 marginal agricultural labourers, 238,702 marginal workers in household industries and 929,733 other marginal workers.{{sfn|Census of Tamil Nadu|2001}}{{Largest cities| name = Populous cities of Tamil Nadu| class = Nav| country = Tamil NaduList of most populous towns in Tamil Nadu>2011 Census| list_by_pop = List of cities in Tamil Nadu| div_name = District| div_link = List of districts in Tamil Nadu{{!}}District| city_1 = Chennai| div_1 = Chennai district{{!}}Chennai| pop_1 = 7,088,000| img_1 = Chennai skyline.JPG| city_2 = Coimbatore| div_2 = Coimbatore district{{!}}Coimbatore| pop_2 = 1,601,438| img_2 = Coimbatore junction.jpg| city_3 = Madurai| div_3 = Madurai district{{!}}Madurai| pop_3 = 1,561,129| img_3 = Madurai, India.jpg| city_4 = Tiruchirappalli| div_4 = Tiruchirappalli district{{!}}Tiruchirappalli| pop_4 = 916,674| img_4 = Rock Fort Temple.jpg| city_5 = Salem, Tamil Nadu{{!}}Salem| div_5 = Salem district{{!}}Salem| pop_5 = 877,267| city_6 = Tiruppur| div_6 = Tiruppur district{{!}}Tiruppur| pop_6 = 829,778| city_7 = Erode| div_7 = Erode district{{!}}Erode| pop_7 = 498,129| city_8 = Tirunelveli| div_8 = Tirunelveli district{{!}}Tirunelveli| pop_8 = 473,637| city_9 = Ambattur| div_9 = Tiruvallur district{{!}}Tiruvallur| pop_9 = 466,205| city_10 = Avadi| div_10 = Tiruvallur district{{!}}Tiruvallur| pop_10 = 345,996}}List of most populous towns in Tamil NaduAmong the cities in 2011, the state capital Chennai, was the most populous city in the state, followed by Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy and Salem respectively.{{sfn|The Hindu|2 June 2013}} India has a human development index calculated as 0.619, while the corresponding figure for Tamil Nadu is 0.736, placing it among the top states in the country.{{sfn|The Hindu|4 July 2008}}{{sfn|Human Development reports|2010}} The life expectancy at birth for males is 65.2 years and for females it is 67.6 years.{{sfn|Business Line|20 October 2004}} However, it has a high level of poverty especially in the rural areas. In 2004–2005, the poverty line was set at {{INR}} 351.86/month for rural areas and {{INR}} 547.42/month for urban areas. Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7 per cent in 1983 to 21.1 per cent in 2001{{sfn|Business Line|9 April 2004}} For the period 2004–2005, the Trend in Incidence of Poverty in the state was 22.5 per cent compared with the national figure of 27.5 per cent. The World Bank is currently assisting the state in reducing poverty, High drop-out and low completion of secondary schools continue to hinder the quality of training in the population. Other problems include class, gender, inter-district and urban-rural disparities. Based on URP â€“ Consumption for the period 2004–2005, percentage of the state's population Below Poverty Line was 27.5 per cent. The Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative ranks Tamil Nadu to have a Multidimensional Poverty Index of 0.141, which is in the level of Ghana among the developing countries.{{sfn|Southasia.oneworld.net|28 July 2010}} Corruption is a major problem in the state with Transparency International ranking it the second most corrupt among the states of India.{{sfn|rediff.com|17 May 2011}}

Religion

{{Pie chart|thumb = rightWEBSITE=CENSUS OF INDIA, 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150825155850/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/C-01/DDW00C-01%20MDDS.XLS, 25 August 2015, |label1 = Hinduism|color1 = Orange|value1 = 87.58|label2 = Christianity|color2 = DodgerBlue|value2 = 6.12|label3 = Islam|color3 = Green|value3 = 5.86|label4 = Jainism|color4 = Brown|value4 = 0.12|label5 = Sikhism|color5 = DarkKhaki|value5 = 0.02|label6 = Buddhism|color6 = Yellow|value6 = 0.01|label7 = Other or not religious|color7 = Black|value7 = 0.3}}As per the religious census of 2011, Tamil Nadu had 87.6% Hindus, 6.1% Christians, 5.9% Muslims, 0.1% Jains and 0.3% following other religions or no religion.WEB, Population By Religious Community – Tamil Nadu, 2011,weblink XLS, Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 13 September 2015,

Language

Tamil is the sole official language of Tamil Nadu while English is declared an additional official language for communication purposes. When India adopted national standards. Tamil was the first language to be recognised as a classical language of India.NEWS,weblink Front Page : Tamil to be a classical language, The Hindu, 18 September 2004, 1 August 2010, Chennai, India, As of 2001 census Tamil is spoken as the first language by nearly 90 percent of the state's population followed by Telugu (5.65%), Kannada (1.67%), Urdu (1.51%), Malayalam (0.89%), Marathi (0.1%) and Saurashtra (0.1%).{{Pie chartWORK=CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 PAGES=13–14, Tamil language>Tamil|value1=88.37Telugu language>Telugu|value2=5.87Kannada language>Kannada|value3=1.78Urdu language>Urdu|value4=1.75Malayalam language>Malayalam|value5=1.01|other=y}}

Education

Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India.{{sfn|The Times of India|14 May 2003}} Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably well in terms of literacy growth during the decade 2001–2011. A survey conducted by the Industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100 per cent Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education. One of the basic limitations for improvement in education in the state is the rate of absence of teachers in public schools, which at 21.4 per cent is significant.{{sfn|Teachers absence in Indian schools|2008}} The analysis of primary school education in the state by Pratham shows a low drop-off rate but poor quality of state education compared to other states.{{sfn|The Guardian|15 March 2011}}Tamil Nadu has 37 universities, 552 engineering colleges{{citation |url=https://www.findcollegereviews.com/loc/tamil-nadu/ |title=List of Engineering colleges in Tamilnadu, January â€“31, 2015 |publisher=AICTE David |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150105004131weblink |archivedate=5 January 2015 |df=dmy-all }} 449 Polytechnic Colleges{{sfn|District wise Polytechnics|2011}} and 566 arts and science colleges, 34335 elementary schools, 5167 high schools, 5054 higher secondary schools and 5000 hospitals. Some of the notable educational institutes present in Tamil Nadu are Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Madras Institute of Technology, College of Engineering, Guindy, Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, St. Joseph’s Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, Indian Maritime University, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Madras Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, Stanley Medical College, Chennai, Loyola College, Chennai, Ethiraj College for Women, Stella Maris College, Chennai, Anna University, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute.Tamil Nadu now has 69 per cent reservation in educational institutions for socially backward section of the society, the highest among all Indian states.{{sfn|rediff.com|1 May 2006}} The Midday Meal Scheme programme in Tamil Nadu was first initiated by Kamaraj, then it was expanded by M G Ramachandran in 1983.

Culture

{{multiple image | align = right| width = | image1 = Proposed_Tamil_Nadu_Flag_(DMK).png| width1 = | alt1 = | caption1 = A State flag for Tamil Nadu was unilaterally proposed by the Government of Tamil Nadu in 197weblink}}File:அரிய சித்தன்னவாசல் ஒவியம் (Rare Siththanna Vaasal Painting).jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Seventh century paintings in the Sittanavasal Cave, PudukottaiPudukottaiTamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable culture.WEB,weblink The state where modernity meets culture, blog.tricolorvoyages.com, 4 August 2015, Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tradition of literature, art, music and dance which continue to flourish today. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient Hindu temples and classical form of dance Bharata Natyam.BOOK, 21st Century India: View and Vision, 320,weblink 9788182202696, Thakur, A. P., Pandey, Sunil, 2009, Unique cultural features like BharatanatyamWEB,weblink Tamilnadu â€“ The Dance of Celestial Deities, Tamilnadu.com, 12 February 2014, (dance), Tanjore painting,WEB,weblink Thanjavur Painting â€“ Tamil Art, Tamilnadu.com, 18 January 2013, and Tamil architecture were developed and continue to be practised in Tamil Nadu.WEB, Arts Archives â€“ Tamilnadu,weblink Tamilnadu.com, 23 January 2013,

Literature

Tamil written literature has existed for over 2000 years.{{Harvnb|Zvelebil|1992|p=12}}: "...the most acceptable periodisation which has so far been suggested for the development of Tamil writing seems to me to be that of A Chidambaranatha Chettiar (1907–1967): 1. Sangam Literature – 200BC to AD 200; 2. Post Sangam literature – AD 200 – AD 600; 3. Early Medieval literature – AD 600 to AD 1200; 4. Later Medieval literature – AD 1200 to AD 1800; 5. Pre-Modern literature – AD 1800 to 1900" The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca. 300 BC – AD 300.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100707000020weblink">Definitive Editions of Ancient Tamil Works. Classical Tamil, Government of IndiaJOURNAL, 10.1353/asi.2003.0031, Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South India, Asian Perspectives, 42, 2, 207, 2003, Abraham, S. A., 10125/17189, It is the oldest Indian literature amongst all others.JOURNAL, 10.2307/2053325, 2053325, Circulation and the Historical Geography of Tamil Country, The Journal of Asian Studies, 37, 1, 7–26, 1977, Stein, B., The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and hero stones date from around the 3rd century BC.JOURNAL, 10.2307/2943246, 2943246, The Beginnings of Civilization in South India, The Journal of Asian Studies, 29, 3, 603–616, 1970, Maloney, C., at p. 610{{Citation |url=http://www.thehindu.com/news/states/tamil-nadu/article2408091.ece |title=Palani excavation triggers fresh debate |last=Subramaniam |first=T.S |date=29 August 2011 |work=The Hindu |location=Chennai, India}}Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. The Sangam literature collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous.George L. Hart III, The Poems of Ancient Tamil, U of California P, 1975. Sangam literature is primarily secular, dealing with everyday themes in a Tamilakam context.The only religious poems among the shorter poems occur in paripaatal. The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions. See K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, OUP (1955) pp. 330–335 The Sangam literature also deals with human relationship and emotions.{{sfn|Sastri|2008|pp=330–335}} The available literature from this period was categorised and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. The categories are: Pathinenmaelkanakku (The Major Eighteen Anthology Series) comprising Eṭṭuttokai (The Eight Anthologies) and the Pattupattu (Ten Idylls) and Pathinenkilkanakku (The Minor Eighteen Anthology Series'').Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known grammar book for Tamil, the Tolkāppiyam. Modern Tamil writing is largely based on the 1000 B.C grammar {{IAST|Naṉṉūl}} which restated and clarified the rules of the Tolkāppiyam, with some modifications. Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely {{IAST|eḻuttu}}, sol, {{IAST|poruḷ}}, yāppu, {{IAST|aṇi}}. Of these, the last two are mostly applied in poetry.{{Citation |url=http://www.southasia.upenn.edu/tamil/lit.html |title=Five fold grammar of Tamil |work=University of Pennsylvania}} Notable example of Tamil poetry include the Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar before 2000 years.In 1578, the Portuguese published a Tamil book in old Tamil script named 'Thambiraan Vanakkam', thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published.WEB,weblink Tamil saw its first book in 1578, Karthik Madhavan, The Hindu, Tamil Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, is the first among the dictionaries published in any Indian language.NEWS, Kolappan, B., Delay, howlers in Tamil Lexicon embarrass scholars, The Hindu, Chennai, 22 June 2014,weblink 25 December 2014, During the Indian freedom struggle, many Tamil poets and writers sought to provoke national spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts among the common man, notably Subramanya Bharathy and Bharathidasan.

Festivals and traditions

File:Preparation of Pongal.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Pongal is an important festival in Tamil Nadu]]File:Thirukkural-recommended.jpeg|thumb|upright=0.9|ThiruvalluvarThiruvalluvarPongal, also called as Tamizhar Thirunaal (festival of Tamils) or Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day harvest festival is one of the most widely celebrated festivals throughout Tamil Nadu.WEB,weblink Pongal â€“ Tamil festival, Tamilnadu.com, 4 February 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140208233319weblink">weblink 8 February 2014, The Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum â€“ literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way for new opportunities â€“ is often quoted with reference to this festival. The first day, Bhogi Pongal, is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new. The second day, Surya Pongal, is the main day which falls on the first day of the tenth Tamil month Thai (14 January or 15 January in western calendar). The third day, Maattu Pongal, is meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the lands. Jallikattu, a bull taming contest, marks the main event of this day. Alanganallur is famous for its JallikattuWEB, Alanganallur-Jallikattu,weblink Alanganallur-Jallikattu, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, Shadow Chief, 23 September 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927220438weblink">weblink 27 September 2013, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink The Times of India, Alanganallur, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061127035608weblink">weblink 27 November 2006, contest usually held on 3rd day of Pongal. During this final day, Kaanum Pongal â€“ the word "kaanum", means 'to view' in Tamil. In 2011 the Madras High Court Bench ordered the cockfight at Santhapadi and Modakoor Melbegam villages permitted during the Pongal festival while disposing of a petition filed attempting to ban the cockfight.{{sfn|The Hindu|14 January 2011}}The first month in the Tamil calendar is Chittirai and the first day of this month in mid-April is celebrated as Tamil New Year. The Thiruvalluvar calendar is 31 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar, i.e. Gregorian 2000 is Thiruvalluvar 2031. Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river Kaveri. Apart from the major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from place to place. Most of these festivals are related to the goddess Maariyamman, the mother goddess of rain. Other major Hindu festivals including Deepavali (Death of Narakasura), Ayudha Poojai, Saraswathi Poojai (Dasara), Krishna Jayanthi and Vinayaka Chathurthi are also celebrated. Eid ul-Fitr, Bakrid, Milad un Nabi, Muharram are celebrated by Muslims whereas Christmas, Good Friday, Easter are celebrated by Christians in the state. Mahamagam a bathing festival at Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu is celebrated once in 12 years. People from all the corners of the country come to Kumbakonam for the festival. This festival is also called as Kumbamela of South.WEB, Mahamagam Festival,weblink BOOK, Fairs and Festivals of India, 326,weblink Bezbaruah, Madan Prasad, Krishna Gopal, Dr, Girota, Phal S., 2003,

Music

{{See also|Ancient Tamil music|Carnatic music}}File:Ms subbulakshmi 140x190.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|M. S. Subbulakshmi, was the first musician to be awarded the Bharat RatnaBharat RatnaIn terms of modern cine-music, Ilaiyaraaja was a prominent composer of film music in Tamil cinema during the late 1970s and 1980s. His work highlighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader western musical sensibilities to the south Indian musical mainstream. Tamil Nadu is also the home of the double Oscar Winner A.R. Rahman{{sfn|The Times of India|23 February 2009}}{{sfn|BBC News|23 February 2009}}{{sfn|The Economic Times|23 February 2009}} who has composed film music in Tamil, Telugu, Hindi films, English and Chinese films. He was once referred to by Time magazine as "The Mozart of Madras".

Film industry

Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry nicknamed as "Kollywood", which released the most number of films in India in 2013.WEB,weblink Tamil Nadu leads in film production, The term Kollywood is a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood.BOOK, Hiro, Dilip, After Empire: The Birth of a Multipolar World, 2010, 978-1-56858-427-0, 248,weblink Tamil cinema is one of the largest industries of film production in India.WEB, Business Standard,weblink Tamil, Telugu film industries outshine Bollywood, 25 January 2006, 2012-02-19, In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government. Single screen theatres may charge a maximum of {{INR}}50, while theaters with more than three screens may charge a maximum of {{INR}}120 per ticket.NEWS, Ashok Kumar, S.R., Cinema ticket rate revision reflects a balancing act,weblink The Hindu, 18 January 2013, Chennai, India, 2 January 2007, The first silent film in Tamil Keechaka Vadham, was made in 1916.NEWS,weblink Metro Plus Chennai / Madras Miscellany : The pioneer'Tamil' film-maker, The Hindu, 7 September 2009, 29 June 2011, Chennai, India, The first talkie was a multi-lingual film, Kalidas, which released on 31 October 1931, barely 7 months after India's first talking picture Alam Ara.BOOK, Velayutham, Selvaraj, Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry, 2,weblink 9780415396806, 2008, Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.NEWS,weblink He brought cinema to South, The Hindu, 26 September 2011, Chennai, India, 30 April 2010,

Television industry

There are more than 30 television channels of various genre in Tamil. DD Podhigai, Doordarshan's Tamil language regional channel was launched on 14 April 1993.WEB,weblink Regional Language Satellite Service, 2011-07-10, Doordarshan, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110622215640weblink">weblink 22 June 2011, The first private Tamil channel, Sun TV was founded in 1993 by Kalanidhi Maran. In Tamil Nadu, the television industry is influenced by politics and majority of the channels are owned by politicians or people with political links.WEB,weblink Tamil Nadu TV empire, 6 July 2015, Newslaundry, The government of Tamil Nadu distributed free televisions to families in 2006 at an estimated cost {{INRConvert|3.6|b}} of which has led to high penetration of TV services.WEB,weblink Jayalalithaa govt scraps free TV scheme in Tamil Nadu, DNA India, 6 July 2015, NEWS,weblink What Happens When a State Is Run by Movie Stars, NY Times, 6 July 2015, Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government run operator Arasu Cable.NEWS,weblink Sun TV seals deal with Arasu at Rs 3cr a month, Times of India, 6 July 2015, From the early 2010s, Direct to Home has become increasingly popular replacing cable television services.WEB,weblink FY-2015: Inflection point for DTH companies in India, India Television, 6 July 2015, Tamil television serials form a major prime time source of entertainment and are directed usually by one director unlike American television series, where often several directors and writers work together.{{sfn|Chosun Ilbo|2007}}(File:Veg Full Meals in Tamil Nadu.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Vegetarian food from Tamil Nadu served in a banana leaf)

Cuisine

Salem is renowned for its unique mangoes, Madurai is the place of origin of milk dessert Jigarthanda while Palani is known for its Panchamirtham.WEB,weblink In search of Madurai Jigarthanda, Baradwaj Rangan, The Hindu, 24 January 2015, Coffee and tea are the staple drinks.NEWS, Shankar, Shylashri, A coffee break in tradition,weblink 21 December 2016, Open the magazine, 16 December 2016,

Economy

File:TIDELPark Coimbatore.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|TIDEL Park CoimbatoreTIDEL Park CoimbatoreFor the year 2014–15 Tamil Nadu's GSDP was {{INRConvert|9.767|t}}, and growth was 14.86.{{sfn|GSDP at current prices|2015}} It ranks third in foreign direct investment (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991–2002) of {{INR}} 225.826 billion ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra and Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the country.{{sfn|The Hindu|22 April 2005}} The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was {{INR}} 72,993 ranking third among states with a population over 10 million and has steadily been above the national average.{{sfn|The Economic Times|12 June 2012}}{| class="wikitable collapsible" style="float:right; margin:10px"GSDP at constant prices 2014}}! Year! GSDP! Growth Rate! Share in India 142,065 style="text-align:right;" 7.62% 139,842 style="text-align:right;" 7.09% 142,295 style="text-align:right;" 6.95% 150,815 style="text-align:right;" 6.79% 219,003 style="text-align:right;" 7.37% 249,567 style="text-align:right;" 7.67% 287,530 style="text-align:right;" 8.07% 305,157 style="text-align:right;" 7.83% 321,793 style="text-align:right;" 7.74% 356,632 style="text-align:right;" 7.89% 403,416 style="text-align:right;" 8.20% 433,238 style="text-align:right;" 8.26% 447,944 style="text-align:right;" 8.17% 480,618 style="text-align:right;" 8.37%According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49 per cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban population while only comprising 6 per cent of India's total population.{{sfn|e-census India|2002}}{{sfn|The Hindu|18 May 2008}} Services contributes to 45 per cent of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per cent and agriculture at 21 per cent. Government is the major investor in the state with 51 per cent of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9 per cent and foreign private investors at 14.9 per cent. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 113 industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting infrastructure. According to the publications of the Tamil Nadu government the Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Prices (Base year 2004–2005) for the year 2011–2012 is {{INRConvert|4.281|t}}, an increase of 9.39 per cent over the previous year. The per capita income at current price is {{INR}} 72,993.Tamil Nadu has six Nationalised Home Banks which originated in this state; Two government-sector banks Indian Bank and Indian Overseas Bank in Chennai, and Four private-sector banks City Union Bank in Kumbakonam, Karur Vysya Bank, Lakshmi Vilas Bank in Karur, and Tamilnad Mercantile Bank Limited in Tuticorin.

Agriculture

Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. In 2008, Tamil Nadu was India's fifth biggest producer of rice. The total cultivated area in the State was 5.60 million hectares in 2009–10.{{sfn|Tamil Nadu agricultural department|2009}} The Cauvery delta region is known as the Rice Bowl of Tamil Nadu.WEB,weblink Tanjore, the "Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu", tanjore.net, {{better source|date=December 2016}} In terms of production, Tamil Nadu accounts for 10 per cent in fruits and 6 per cent in vegetables, in India.{{sfn|Tamil Nadu horticulture|2008}} Annual food grains production in the year 2007–08 was 10035,000 mt.{{sfn|Tamil Nadu agricultural department|2009}}File:Turmeric-powder.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of turmericturmericThe state is the largest producer of bananas, turmeric, flowers,{{sfn|Tamil Nadu horticulture|2008}} tapioca,{{sfn|Tamil Nadu horticulture|2008}} the second largest producer of mango,{{sfn|Tamil Nadu horticulture|2008}} natural rubber,{{sfn|Rubber board|2006}} coconut, groundnut and the third largest producer of coffee, sapota,{{sfn|Tamil Nadu horticulture|2008}} Tea{{sfn|Tea production in India|2002}} and Sugarcane. Tamil Nadu's sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India. The state has 17,000 hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in India.{{sfn|Palmoil Study|2004}}(File:Nagercoil paddy fields.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Agriculture forms a major portion of state's economy)Dr M.S. Swaminathan, known as the "father of the Indian Green Revolution" was from Tamil Nadu.{{sfn|MS Swaminathan Research Foundatation|2010}} Tamil Nadu Agricultural University with its seven colleges and thirty two research stations spread over the entire state contributes to evolving new crop varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension agencies. Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in livestock, poultry and fisheries production. Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for 17.7 per cent of the total poultry population in India.{{sfn|Live stock and poultry statistics|2005}} In 2003–2004, Tamil Nadu had produced 3783.6 million of eggs, which was the second highest in India representing 9.37 per cent of the total egg production in the country.{{sfn|Egg production from 1997 to 2004|2004}} With the second longest coastline in India, Tamil Nadu represented 27.54 per cent of the total value of fish and fishery products exported by India in 2006. Namakkal is also one of the major centres of egg production in India. Coimbatore is one of the major centres for poultry production.WEB,weblink India's Gems and Jewellery Market is Glittering, Resource Investor, 30 August 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110926235942weblink">weblink 26 September 2011, yes, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Tamil Nadu Poultry Industry Seeks Export Concessions, 28 March 2015,

Textiles and leather

File:Kanchipuram silk sareer.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|KanchipuramKanchipuramTamil Nadu is one of the leading States in the textile sector and it houses the country's largest spinning industry accounting for almost 80 per cent of the total installed capacity in India. When it comes to yarn production, the State contributes 40 per cent of the total production in the country. There are 2,614 Hand Processing Units (25 per cent of total units in the country) and 985 Power Processing Units (40 per cent of total units in the country) in Tamil Nadu. According to official data, the textile industry in Tamil Nadu accounts for 17 per cent of the total invested capital in all the industries.WEB,weblink New textile policy on the anvil, Sangeetha Kandavel, The Hindu, Coimbatore is often referred to as the "Manchester of South India" due to its cotton production and textile industries.WEB,weblink Nicknames of places in India, 28 June 2015, Tirupur is the country's largest exporter of knitwear.{{sfn|Challenges to textile and apparel industry in Tamil Nadu|2000}}WEB,weblink Nick Names of India Places Manchester of India Ahmedabad Cochin Queen of Arabian Sea – General Knowledge in India, winentrance.com, WEB,weblink The Indian Express â€“ Google News Archive Search, 24 January 2015, for its cotton production.

Automobiles

Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles. Chennai is known as the Detroit of India.NEWS, Why Chennai turned into 'Detroit of India',weblink 29 August 2014, Financial Express, 13 March 2014, Major global automobile companies including BMW, Ford, Robert Bosch, Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, Hyundai, Mitsubishi Motors, and Michelin as well as Indian automobile majors like Mahindra & Mahindra, Ashok Leyland, Eicher Motors, Isuzu Motors, TI cycles, Hindustan Motors, TVS Motors, Irizar-TVS, Royal Enfield, MRF, Apollo Tyres, TAFE Tractors, Daimler AG Company also invested ({{INR}}) 4 billion for establishing new plant in Tamil Nadu.{{sfn|Daimler|2012}}

Heavy industries and engineering

Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialised states in India. Over 11% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Tamil Nadu.{{cn|date=February 2019}}The state government owns the Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers,{{sfn|TNPL|2012}} in Karur. Coimbatore is also referred to as "the Pump City" as it supplies two-thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of wet grinders and auto components and the term "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a Geographical indication.WEB,weblink Industry of Coimbatore, 28 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150730121603weblink">weblink 30 July 2015, yes, dmy-all,

Electronics and software

Electronics manufacturing is a growing industry in Tamil Nadu, with many international companies like Nokia, Flextronics, Motorola, Sony-Ericsson, Foxconn, Samsung, Cisco, Moser Baer, Lenovo, Dell, Sanmina-SCI, Texas Instruments having chosen Chennai as their south Asian manufacturing hub. Products manufactured include circuit boards and cellular phone handsets.{{sfn|Business Line|7 October 2005}}Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter by value in India. Software exports from Tamil Nadu grew from {{INR}} 76 billion ($1.6 billion) in 2003–04 to {{INR}} 207 billion {$5 billion} by 2006–07 according to NASSCOM{{sfn|Business Line|7 May 2006}} and to {{INR}} 366 billion in 2008–09 which shows 29 per cent growth in software exports according to STPI. Major national and global IT Companies such as Syntel, Infosys, Wipro, HCL, Tata Consultancy Services, Verizon, Hewlett-Packard, Bosch, Amazon.com, eBay, PayPal, IBM, Accenture, Ramco Systems, DXC Technology, Cognizant Technology solutions, Tech Mahindra, Polaris, Aricent, MphasiS, Mindtree, Hexaware Technologies and many others have offices in Tamil Nadu. The top engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu have been a major recruiting hub for the IT firms. According to estimates, about 50 per cent of the HR required for the IT and ITES industry was being sourced from the State.WEB,weblink TCS jumps the gun in campus hiring, Sangeetha Kandavel, The Hindu, Coimbatore is the second largest software producer in the state, next to Chennai.WEB,weblink Coimbatore: IT sector on the fast track : NATION – India Today, intoday.in,

Infrastructure

Transport

Road

File:Looking-down-National-Highway-Chittode-Junction.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|A view of the NH 544 Expressway between Coimbatore and Salem in Tamil Nadu]]File:Pamban-bridge.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Pamban road (left) and rail (right) bridges, connecting the Indian mainland with the Pamban IslandPamban IslandFile:NMR Train on viaduct 05-02-26 33.jpeg|thumb|upright=0.9|Nilgiri Mountain RailwayNilgiri Mountain RailwayFile:Chennai airport view 4.jpeg|thumb|upright=0.9|Chennai International AirportChennai International AirportTamil Nadu has a transportation system that connects all parts of the state. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing links between urban centres, agricultural market-places and rural areas. There are 29 national highways in the state, covering a total distance of {{convert|5006.14|km|mi|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink National Highways Summary – Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India, morth.nic.in, WEB,weblink Join the Citizen Dialogue on Highway Safety – Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India, Morth.nic.in, 2015-05-29, The state is also a terminus for the Golden Quadrilateral project, that connects Indian metropolises like (New Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai and Kolkata). The state has a total road length of {{convert|167000|km|mi|abbr=on}}, of which {{convert|60628|km|mi|abbr=on}} are maintained by Highways Department. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India road network.{{sfn|Tamil Nadu Highways|2012}} The major road junctions are Chennai, Vellore, Madurai, Trichy, Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Karur, Kumbakonam, Krishnagiri, Dindigul and Kanniyakumari. Road transport is provided by state owned Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation and State Express Transport Corporation. Almost every part of state is well connected by buses 24 hours a day. The State accounted for 13.6 per cent of all accidents in the country With 66,238 accidents in 2013, 11.3 per cent of all road accident deaths and 15 per cent of all road-related injuries, according to data provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Although Tamil Nadu accounts for the highest number of road accidents in India, it also leads in having reduced the number of fatalities in accident-prone areas with deployment of personnel and a sustained awareness campaign. The number of deaths at areas decreased from 1,053 in 2011 to 881 in 2012 and 867 in 2013.WEB,weblink T.N. reduces deaths in road accidents, TCA Sharad Raghavan, The Hindu,

Rail

Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India's southern peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, a small portion of Karnataka and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. Chennai Central is gateway for train towards north whereas Chennai Egmore serves as gateway for south. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of {{convert|5952|km|mi|abbr=on}} and there are 532 railway stations in the state. The network connects the state with most major cities in India. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site connecting Ooty on the hills and Mettupalayam in the foot hills which is in turn connected to Coimbatore city. The centenary old Pamban Bridge over sea connecting Rameswaram in Pamban island to mainland is an engineering marvel. It is one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through Palk Strait in Indian Ocean. The Government of Tamil Nadu created a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for implementing the Chennai Metro Rail Project. This SPV named as “Chennai Metro Rail Limited” was incorporated on 03.12.2007 under the Companies Act. It has now been converted into a Joint Venture of Government of India and Government of Tamil Nadu with equal equity holding. Chennai has a well-established suburban railway network and is constructing a Chennai Metro with phase1 operational since July 2015 . Major railway junctions( 4 & above lines ) in the state are Chennai, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Nagercoil, Tiruchirapalli and Tirunelveli. Chennai Central, Madurai Junction, Katpadi Junction, Chennai Egmore, Salem Junction, Tiruchirappalli Junction, Coimbatore Junction are upgraded to A1 grade level. Loco sheds are located at Erode, Arakkonam, Royapuram in Chennai and Tondaiyarpet in Chennai, Ponmalai (GOC) in Tiruchirappalli as Diesel Loco Shed. The loco shed at Erode is a huge composite Electric and Diesel Loco shed. MRTS which covers from Chennai Beach to Velachery, and metro rail also running between Alandur and koyambedu station.

Airports

Tamil Nadu has four international airports namely Chennai International Airport, Coimbatore International Airport, Tiruchirapalli International Airport and Madurai International Airport. Salem Airport and Tuticorin Airport are domestic airports. Chennai International Airport is a major international airport and aviation hub in South Asia. Besides civilian airports, the state has four air bases of the Indian Air Force namely Thanjavur AFS, Tambram AFS, Coimbatore AFS and two naval air stations INS Rajali and INS Parundu of Indian Navy.

Seaport

Tamil Nadu has three major seaports located at Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin, as well as seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam.{{sfn|Tamil Nadu agricultural department|2009}} Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast and is the second principal port in the country for handling containers. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005.{{sfn|Ennore Port|2011}}

Energy

File:Aralvaimozhi-Aerial.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Wind farm in Muppandal and Aralvaimozhi region near NagercoilNagercoilFile:KamuthiSolarPark.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Kamuthi Solar Power ProjectKamuthi Solar Power ProjectTamil Nadu has the third largest installed power generation capacity in the country. The Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, Ennore Thermal Plant, Neyveli Lignite Power Plant, many hydroelectric plants including Mettur Dam, hundreds of windmills and the Narimanam Natural Gas Plants are major sources of Tamil Nadu's electricity. Tamil Nadu generates a significant proportion of its power needs from renewable sources with wind power installed capacity at over 7154 MW,Welcome to Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET), Chennai {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222162111weblink |date=22 December 2015 }} accounting for 38 per cent of total installed wind power in India .{{sfn|Tamil Nadu energy policy|2009}} It is presently adding the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant to its energy grid, which on completion would be the largest atomic power plant in the country with 2000MW installed capacity.{{sfn|NPCIL|2009}} The total installed capacity of electricity in the State by January 2014 was 20,716 MW.weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140302093455weblink|date=2 March 2014}} Tamil Nadu ranks first nationwide in diesel-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 34 per cent.{{sfn|Central Electrical Authority|2012}} From a power surplus state in 2005–06, Tamil Nadu has become a state facing severe power shortage over the recent years due to lack of new power generation projects and delay in the commercial power generation at Kudankulam Atomic Power Project. The Tuticorin Thermal Power Station has five 210 megawatt generators. The first generator was commissioned in July 1979. The thermal power plants under construction include the coal-based 1000 MW NLC TNEB Power Plant. From the current 17MW installed Solar power, Tamil Nadu government's new policy aims to increase the installed capacity to 3000MW by 2016weblink

Sports

Kabbadi, is recognised as the state game in Tamil Nadu.{{sfn|Li|2012|p=183}} The traditional sport of Tamil Nadu include Silambam,{{sfn|Crego|2003|pp=32–33}} a Tamil martial arts played with a long bamboo staff, Cockfight, Jallikattu,{{sfn|Ramaswamy| 2007| pp= 73–74}} a bull taming sport famous on festival occasions, ox-wagon racing known as Rekkala,{{sfn|Croker|1907|p=223}}{{sfn|Crego|2003|pp=32–33}} Kite flying also known as Pattam viduthal,{{sfn|Ramaswamy| 2007| pp= 73–74}} Goli, the game with marbles,{{sfn|Ramaswamy| 2007| pp= 73–74}} Aadu Puli, the "goat and tiger" game{{sfn|Ramaswamy| 2007| pp= 73–74}} and Kabaddi also known as Sadugudu.{{sfn|Ramaswamy| 2007| pp= 73–74}} Most of these traditional sports are associated with festivals of land like Thai Pongal and mostly played in rural areas.{{sfn|Ramaswamy| 2007| pp= 73–74}} In urban areas of Tamil Nadu, modern sports like bat and ball games are played.{{sfn|Ramaswamy| 2007| pp= 73–74}} S. Ilavazhagi carrom world champion from 2002–2016(File:The new and old stands at the M. A. Chidambaram Stadium.jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|The M. A. Chidambaram Stadium chennai)File:Viswanathan Anand 08 14 2005.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Viswanathan AnandViswanathan AnandThe M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is an international cricket ground with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association.{{sfn|MA Chidambaram Stadium|2012}} Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan,{{sfn|Srinivas Venkataraghavan|2012}} Krishnamachari Srikkanth,{{sfn|Kris Srikkanth|2012}} Laxman Sivaramakrishnan,{{sfn|Laxman SivaramakrishnanSadagoppan Ramesh, Laxmipathy Balaji,{{sfn|Lakshmipathy Balaji|2012}} Murali Vijay,{{sfn|Murali Vijay|2013}} Ravichandran Ashwin{{sfn|Ravichandran Ashwin|2012}} , Vijay Shankar and Dinesh Karthik are some prominent cricketers from Tamil Nadu. The MRF Pace Foundation in Chennai is a popular fast bowling academy for pace bowlers all over the world. Cricket contests between local clubs, franchises and teams are popular in the state. Chennai Super Kings represent the city of Chennai in the Indian Premier League, a popular Twenty20 league. The Super Kings are the most successful team in the league with three IPL titles at par with Mumbai Indians and two CLT20 titles.Tennis is also a popular sport in Tamil Nadu with notable international players including Ramesh Krishnan,{{sfn|Garg|2010|p=316}} Ramanathan Krishnan,{{sfn|Garg|2010|p=316}} Vijay Amritraj{{sfn|Garg|2010|p=327}} and Mahesh Bhupathi. Nirupama Vaidyanathan, the first Indian women to play in a grandslam tournament also hails from the state. The ATP Chennai Open tournament is held in Chennai every January. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) owns Nungambakkam tennis stadium which hosts Chennai Open and Davis Cup play-off tournaments.The Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the governing body of Hockey in the state. Vasudevan Baskaran was the captain of the Indian team that won gold medal in 1980 Olympics at Moscow. The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium in Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded by the International Hockey Federation as one of the best in the world for its infrastructure.{{sfn|The Hindu|20 October 2004}}Tamil Nadu also has Golf ground in Coimbatore, The Coimbatore Golf Club is an 18-hole golf course located in a place called Chettipalayam in Coimbatore, located within the city limits in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The Club is also a popular venue for major Golf Tournaments held in India.The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT), a government body, is vested with the responsibility of developing sports and related infrastructure in the state.{{sfn|TN Sports and Youth Welfare department|1992}} The SDAT owns and operates world class stadiums and organises sporting events.{{sfn|Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu|2012}} It also accommodates sporting events, both at domestic and international level, organised by other sports associations at its venues. The YMCA College of Physical Education at Nandanam in Chennai was established in 1920 and was the first college for physical education in Asia. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Chennai is a multi-purpose stadium hosting football and track & field events. The Indian Triathlon Federation and the Volleyball Federation of India are headquartered in Chennai. Chennai hosted India's first ever International Beach Volleyball Championship in 2008. The SDAT â€“ TNSRA Squash Academy in Chennai is one of the very few academies in south Asia hosting international squash events.Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Coimbatore, it is a football stadium and also a multi-purpose stadium in Coimbatore constructed in 1971.

Tourism

File:Tanjore Big Temple - Brihadeeswarar Temple.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur is a UNESCOUNESCOThe tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent. Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a Government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. According to Ministry of Tourism statistics, 4.68 million foreign (20.1% share of the country) and 333.5 million domestic tourists (23.3% share of the country) visited the state in 2015 making it the most visited state in India both domestic and foreign touristsweblink The state boasts some of the grand Hindu temples built in Dravidian architecture. The Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple in Darasuram built by the Cholas and the Shore Temple along with the collection of other monuments in Mahabalipuram (also called Mamallapuram) have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.{{sfn|UNESCO Chola temples|2012}}{{sfn|UNESCO Mahabalipuram temples|2012}} Palani Murugan Temple,

See also

{{Div col}} {{Div col end}}

References

Citations

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  • BOOK, Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta, A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, 2002, Indian Branch, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 978-0-19-560686-7,
  • {{Citation |last=Steever |first=Sanford |contribution=Introduction | editor-last=Steever | editor-first=Sanford |title=The Dravidian Languages |publisher=Routledge |year=1998 |place=London |isbn=978-0-415-10023-6 |pages=1–39}}
  • {{citation |title=Places to Visit in Tamil Nadu |work=Tripoto |url=https://www.tripoto.com/places-to-visit/india/tamil-nadu |accessdate=2 November 2014}}

External links

{{Z148}}{{Sister project links|voy=Tamil Nadu}}
Government


General information
  • Tamil Nadu Encyclopædia Britannica entry
  • {{dmoz|Regional/Asia/India/Tamil_Nadu|Tamil Nadu}}
  • {{osmrelation-inline|96905}}
{{Tamil Nadu}}{{States and territories of India}}{{Authority control}}

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