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Syria (region)
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{{short description|Region east of the Mediterranean Sea}}{{About|the region of Syria, also called "Greater Syria" or "Syria-Palestine"|other meanings|Syria (disambiguation)}}{{redirects|Shaam|other uses|Shaam (disambiguation)}}







factoids
| native_name_lang = ar| image_skyline = File:Jerusalem-2013-Aerial-Temple Mount 03.jpgTemple Mount with the Dome of the Rock (centre) in the Old City (Jerusalem)>Old City of Jerusalem, 2013Below: Map of the Levant in a narrow sense, with the countries of the Syrian region, including the modern country of Syria, in green, excluding the southern part of Turkey| image_map = Modern Levant.PNG| parts_type = | parts = }}The region of Syria (, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; ; in modern literature called "Greater Syria",NEWS, Mustafa Abu Sway, The Holy Land, Jerusalem and Al-Aqsa Mosque in the Qur’an, Sunnah and other Islamic Literary Source, Central Conference of American Rabbis,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728001911weblink">weblink 2011-07-28, "Syria-Palestine",BOOK, Pfoh, Emanuel, Syria-Palestine in The Late Bronze Age: An Anthropology of Politics and Power, Routledge, 1-3173-9230-2,weblink 2016-02-22, or the Levant)BOOK, Killebrew, A. E., Steiner, M. L., The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: C. 8000-332 BCE,weblink 2014, OUP Oxford, 978-0-19-921297-2, 2, The western coastline and the eastern deserts set the boundaries for the Levant ... The Euphrates and the area around Jebel el-Bishrī mark the eastern boundary of the northern Levant, as does the Syrian Desert beyond the Anti-Lebanon range's eastern hinterland and Mount Hermon. This boundary continues south in the form of the highlands and eastern desert regions of Transjordan., is an area located east of the Mediterranean Sea. Throughout history, the region has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Israelites, Assyria, Babylonia, the Achaemenid Empire, the ancient Macedonians, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Umayyad Caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate, the Fatimid Caliphate, the Crusaders, the Ayyubid dynasty, the Mamluk Sultanate, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom and the French Third Republic.

Geography

{{See also|Canaan|Levant}}File:J-m-dent-and-sons atlas-of-ancient-and-classical-geography 1912 syria-mesopotamia-assyria-etc-northern-middle-east 3296 2114 600.jpg|thumb|Map depicting Syria as the land ranging from the Taurus mountains to the Sinai Peninsula to the Euphrates, but not including Upper MesopotamiaUpper MesopotamiaIn the most common historical sense, 'Syria' refers to the entire northern Levant, including Alexandretta and the ancient city of Antioch or in an extended sense the entire Levant as far south as Roman Egypt, but not including Mesopotamia. The area of Greater Syria (; also "Natural Syria" () or "Northern Country" ()) extends roughly over the medieval Arab Caliphate province of Bilad al-Sham, encompassing the Eastern Mediterranean or the Levant, and Western Mesopotamia. The Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 7th century gave rise to this province, which encompassed much of the region of Syria, and became largely overlapping with this concept. Other sources indicate that the term Greater Syria was coined during Ottoman rule, after 1516, to designate the approximate area included in present-day Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine.Thomas Collelo, ed. Lebanon: A Country Study Washington, Library of Congress, 1987.The uncertainty in the definition of the extent of "Syria" is aggravated by the etymological confusion of the similar-sounding names Syria and Assyria. The question of the ultimate etymological identity of the two names remains open today, but regardless of etymology, the two names have often been taken as exchangeable or synonymous from the time of Herodotus. In the Roman Empire, 'Syria' and 'Assyria' already referred to two separate entities, Roman Syria and Roman Assyria.Killebrew and Steiner, treating the Levant as the Syrian region, gave the boundaries of the region as such: the Mediterranean Sea to the west, the Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia to the east, and the Taurus Mountains of Anatolia to the north.For Pliny the Elder and Pomponius Mela, Syria covered the entire Fertile Crescent. In Late Antiquity, "Syria" meant a region located to the East of the Mediterranean Sea, West of the Euphrates River, North of the Arabian Desert and South of the Taurus Mountains,BOOK, Taylor & Francis Group, The Middle East and North Africa 2004,weblink 2003, Psychology Press, 978-1-85743-184-1, 1015, thereby including modern Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, the State of Palestine, and parts of Southern Turkey, namely the Hatay Province and the Western half of the Southeastern Anatolia Region. This late definition is equivalent to the region known in Classical Arabic by the name ' ( {{IPA|/ʔaʃ-ʃaːm/}},ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bosworth, Clifford Edomond, Clifford Edward Bosworth, AL-SHĀM", Encyclopaedia of Islam, 9, 1997, 261, which means the north [country] (from the root ' "left, north")). After the Islamic conquest of Byzantine Syria in the 7th century, the name Syria fell out of primary use in the region itself, being superseded by the Arabic equivalent Shām, but survived in its original sense in Byzantine and Western European usage, and in Syriac Christian literature. In the 19th century the name Syria was revived in its modern Arabic form to denote the whole of Bilad al-Sham, either as Suriyah or the modern form Suriyya, which eventually replaced the Arabic name of Bilad al-Sham.BOOK, Kamal S. Salibi, Kamal Salibi, A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered,weblink 2003, I.B.Tauris, 978-1-86064-912-7, 61–62, To the Arabs, this same territory, which the Roman Empire considered Arabian, formed part of what they called Bilad al-Sham, which was their own name for Syria. From the classical perspective however, Syria, including Palestine, formed no more than the western fringes of what was reckoned to be Arabia between the first line of cities and the coast. Since there is no clear dividing line between what are called today the Syrian Desert, Syrian and Arabian deserts, which actually form one stretch of arid tableland, the classical concept of what actually constituted Syria had more to its credit geographically than the vaguer Arab concept of Syria as Bilad al-Sham. Under the Romans, there was actually a province of Syria, with its capital at Antioch, which carried the name of the territory. Otherwise, down the centuries, Syria, like Arabia and Mesopotamia, was no more than a geographic expression. In Islamic times, the Arab geographers used the name arabicized as Suriyah, to denote one special region of Bilad al-Sham, which was the middle section of the valley of the Orontes river, in the vicinity of the towns of Homs and Hama. They also noted that it was an old name for the whole of Bilad al-Sham which had gone out of use. As a geographic expression, however, the name Syria survived in its original classical sense in Byzantine and Western European usage, and also in the Syriac literature of some of the Eastern Christianity, Eastern Christian churches, from which it occasionally found its way into Christian Arabic usage. It was only in the nineteenth century that the use of the name was revived in its modern Arabic form, frequently as Suriyya rather than the older Suriyah, to denote the whole of Bilad al-Sham: first of all in the Christian Arabic literature of the period, and under the influence of Western Europe. By the end of that century it had already replaced the name of Bilad al-Sham even in Muslim Arabic usage., After World War I, the name 'Syria' was applied to the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, and the contemporaneous but short-lived Arab Kingdom of Syria.

Etymology

Syria

The oldest attestation of the name 'Syria' is from the 8th century BC in a bilingual inscription in Hieroglyphic Luwian and Phoenician. In this inscription the Luwian word Sura/i was translated to Phoenician ʔšr "Assyria."{{citation |last=Rollinger |first=Robert |title=2006 {{!}} The terms "Assyria" and "Syria" Again |access-date=}} For Herodotus in the 5th century BC, Syria extended as far north as the Halys (the modern Kızılırmak River) and as far south as Arabia and Egypt.The name 'Syria' derives from the ancient Greek name for Syrians, {{transl|grc|Syrioi}}, which the Greeks applied without distinction to various Near Eastern peoples living under the rule of Assyria. Modern scholarship confirms the Greek word traces back to the cognate , {{transl|grc|Assyria}}, ultimately derived from the Akkadian {{transl|akk|Aššur}}.First proposed by Theodor Nöldeke in 1881; cf. WEB, Harper, Douglas,weblink Syria, Online Etymology Dictionary, November 2001, 2013-01-22, .The classical Arabic pronunciation of Syria is ' (as opposed to the Modern Standard Arabic pronunciation '). That name was not widely used among Muslims before about 1870, but it had been used by Christians earlier. According to the Syriac Orthodox Church, "Syrian" meant "Christian" in early Christianity.{{citation needed|date=April 2018}} In English, "Syrian" historically meant a Syrian Christian such as Ephrem the Syrian. Following the declaration of Syria in 1936, the term "Syrian" came to designate citizens of that state, regardless of ethnicity. The adjective "Syriac" ( ) has come into common use since as an ethnonym to avoid the ambiguity of "Syrian".Currently, the Arabic term refers to the modern state of Syria, as opposed to the historical region of Syria, but that distinction was not as clear until the mid-20th century.

Sham

Baalshamin (),BOOK, Teixidor, Javier, The Pagan God: Popular Religion in the Greco-Roman Near East,weblink'Lord%20of%20Heaven(s)'&f=false, 14 August 2017, 2015, Princeton University Press, 9781400871391, 27, BOOK, Beattie, Andrew; Pepper, Timothy, The Rough Guide to Syria,weblink'Lord%20of%20Heaven(s)'&f=false, 14 August 2017, 2001, Rough Guides, 9781858287188, 290, was a Semitic sky-god in Canaan/Phoenicia and ancient Palmyra.BOOK, Dirven, Lucinda, The Palmyrenes of Dura-Europos: A Study of Religious Interaction in Roman Syria,weblink 17 July 2012, 1999, BRILL, 978-90-04-11589-7, 76, BOOK, J.F. Healey, The Religion of the Nabataeans: A Conspectus,weblink 14 August 2017, 2001, BRILL, 9789004301481, 126, Hence, Sham refers to (heaven or sky). Moreover; in Hebrew, sham (שָׁמַ) is derived from Akkadian šamû meaning "sky".BOOK, Caplice, Richard I.; Snell, Daniel C., Introduction to Akkadian,weblink 14 August 2017, 1988, Gregorian Biblical BookShop, 9788876535666, 6, For instance, the Hebrew word for the sun is shemesh, where "shem/sham" from shamayim {{refn|group="note"|In Hebrew, mayim (מַיִם) means "water". In (Genesis 1:6) Elohim separated the "water from the water". The area above the earth was filled by sky-water (sham-mayim) and the earth below was covered by sea-water (yam-mayim). }} (Akkadian: šamû) means "sky" and esh (Akkadian: išātu) means "fire", i.e. "sky-fire".Other sources indicate that the term etymologically means "land of the left hand", referring to the fact that for someone in the Hejaz facing east, north is to the left (so the name of Yemen (, al-Yaman) correspondingly means "the right (side)"). Sham comes from the Semitic root shin–hamza–mim (referring to unluckiness, which is traditionally associated with the left), as seen in alternative Arabic spellings such as and . The Sham region is sometimes defined as the area that was dominated by Damascus, long an important regional centre.{{citation needed|date=March 2018}} —In fact, the word Ash-Shām, on its own, can refer to the city of Damascus.NEWS, Tardif, P., 'I won't give up': Syrian woman creates doll to help kids raised in conflict, CBC News,weblink 2017-09-17, 2018-03-06, There is no connection with the name of Shem son of Noah (whose name appears in Arabic as {Sām} with a different initial consonant and without any internal glottal stop consonant).

History

{{History of Syria}}{{further|Syro-Hittite states}}File:Apamea 02.jpg|thumb|left|The ancient city of Apamea, Syria was an important trading center, and a prosperous city in Hellenistic and Roman timesRoman times

Ancient Syria

Herodotus uses to refer to the stretch of land from the Halys river, including Cappadocia (The Histories, I.6) in today's Turkey to the Mount Casius (The Histories, II.158), which Herodotus says is located just south of Lake Serbonis (The Histories, III.5). According to Herodotus various remarks in different locations, he describes Syria to include the entire stretch of Phoenician coastal line as well as cities such Cadytis (Jerusalem) (The Histories III.159).WEB, Herodotus, Herodotus, Herodotus VII.63,weblink Fordham University, VII.63: The Assyrians went to war with helmets upon their heads made of brass, and plaited in a strange fashion which is not easy to describe. They carried shields, lances, and daggers very like the Egyptian; but in addition they had wooden clubs knotted with iron, and linen corselets. This people, whom the Hellenes call Syrians, are called Assyrians by the barbarians. The Chaldeans served in their ranks, and they had for commander Otaspes, the son of Artachaeus.,

Hellenistic Syria

In Greek usage, Syria and Assyria were used almost interchangeably, but in the Roman Empire, Syria and Assyria came to be used as distinct geographical terms. "Syria" in the Roman Empire period referred to "those parts of the Empire situated between Asia Minor and Egypt", i.e. the western Levant, while "Assyria" was part of the Persian Empire, and only very briefly came under Roman control (116–118 AD, marking the historical peak of Roman expansion).

Roman Syria

{{further|Roman Syria|Assyria (Roman province)|Coele-Syria}}File:A28 Sergiopolis-Martirion 562.jpg|thumb|left|Ruins at SergiopolisSergiopolisIn the Roman era, the term Syria is used to comprise the entire northern Levant and has an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including, from west to east, the Kingdom of Commagene, Sophene, and Adiabene, "formerly known as Assyria".BOOK, Pliny (AD 77), Pliny the Elder,weblink Natural History, Book 5 Section 66, University of Chicago, 84-249-1901-7, File:The Scene of the Theater in Palmyra.JPG|thumb|PalmyraPalmyraVarious writers used the term to describe the entire Levant region during this period; the New Testament used the name in this sense on numerous occasions.weblink, quote "In the time of the Greek predominance it came into use. as it is employed to-day, as the name of the whole western borderland of the Mediterranean, and in the NT it is used several times in that sense (Mt. 4:24, Lk. 2:2, Ac. 15:23,41, 18:18, 21:3, Gal. 1:21)".In 64 BC, Syria became a province of the Roman Empire, following the conquest by Pompey. Roman Syria bordered Judea to the south, Anatolian Greek domains to the north, Phoenicia to the West, and was in constant struggle with Parthians to the East.In 135 AD, Syria-Palaestina became to incorporate the entire Levant and Western Mesopotamia. In 193, the province was divided into Syria proper (Coele-Syria) and Phoenice. Sometime between 330 and 350 (likely c. 341), the province of Euphratensis was created out of the territory of Syria Coele and the former realm of Commagene, with Hierapolis as its capital.BOOK, Alexander (Ed.), Kazhdan, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991, 978-0-19-504652-6, 748, After c. 415 Syria Coele was further subdivided into Syria I, with the capital remaining at Antioch, and Syria II or Salutaris, with capital at Apamea on the Orontes River. In 528, Justinian I carved out the small coastal province Theodorias out of territory from both provinces.BOOK, Alexander (Ed.), Kazhdan, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991, 978-0-19-504652-6, 1999,

Bilad al-Sham

The region was annexed to the Rashidun Caliphate after the Muslim victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Yarmouk, and became known afterwards by its Arabic name, ash-Shām. During the Umayyad Caliphate, the Shām was divided into five junds or military districts. They were Jund Dimashq (for the area of Damascus), Jund Ḥimṣ (for the area of Homs), Jund Filasṭīn (for the area of Palestine) and Jund al-Urdunn (for the area of Jordan). Later Jund Qinnasrîn was created out of part of Jund Hims. The city of Damascus was the capital of the Islamic Caliphate, until the rise of the Abbasid Caliphate.BOOK, Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500,weblink Le Strange, G., Guy Le Strange, Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, London, 1890, 30–234, 1004386, harv, BOOK, Blankinship, Khalid Yahya, Khalid Yahya Blankinship, The End of the Jihâd State: The Reign of Hishām ibn ʻAbd al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads, Albany, New York, State University of New York Press,weblink 47–50, 0-7914-1827-8, 1994, harv, BOOK, White Banners: Contention in ‘Abbāsid Syria, 750–880, Paul M., Cobb,weblink Albany, NY, State University of New York Press, 2001, 12–182, 0-7914-4880-0, harv,

Ottoman Syria

In the later ages of the Ottoman times, it was divided into wilayahs or sub-provinces the borders of which and the choice of cities as seats of government within them varied over time. The vilayets or sub-provinces of Aleppo, Damascus, and Beirut, in addition to the two special districts of Mount Lebanon and Jerusalem. Aleppo consisted of northern modern-day Syria plus parts of southern Turkey, Damascus covered southern Syria and modern-day Jordan, Beirut covered Lebanon and the Syrian coast from the port-city of Latakia southward to the Galilee, while Jerusalem consisted of the land south of the Galilee and west of the Jordan River and the Wadi Arabah.Although the region's population was dominated by Sunni Muslims, it also contained sizable populations of Shi'ite, Alawite and Ismaili Muslims, Syriac Orthodox, Maronite, Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholics and Melkite Christians, Mizrahi Jews and Druzes.1851 Henry Warren Map of Syria.jpg|Map of Ottoman Syria from 1851Bowen, Frances. Turkey in Asia. 1810.jpg|An 1810 map of the Ottoman Empire in Asia, showing the region of Ottoman SyriaCedid Atlas (Syria) 1803.jpg|1803 Cedid Atlas, showing Ottoman Syria in yellowOttoman Syria 1900.svg|Ottoman Syria until World War I. Present borders in grey.

Arab Kingdom and French occupation

The Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (OETA) was a military British and French administration over areas of the former Ottoman Empire between 1917–20, during and following World War I. It officially ended following the assignment of the French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon and British Mandate for Palestine at the 19–26 April 1920 San Remo conference.The Arab Kingdom of Syria was the first modern Arab state to come into existence, but only lasted a little over four months (8 March–24 July 1920). During its brief existence, the kingdom was led by Sharif Hussein bin Ali’s son Faisal bin Hussein. Despite its claims to territory of a Greater Syria, Faisal's government controlled a limited area and was dependent on Britain which, along with France, generally opposed the idea of a Greater Syria and refused to recognise Faisal as its king.Itamar Rabinovich, Symposium: The Greater-Syria Plan and the Palestine Problem in The Jerusalem Cathedra (1982), p. 262. The kingdom surrendered to French forces on 24 July 1920.Following the San Remo conference and the defeat of King Faisal's short-lived monarchy in Syria at the Battle of Maysalun, the French general Henri Gouraud, in breach of the conditions of the mandate, subdivided the French Mandate of Syria into six states. They were the states of Damascus (1920), Aleppo (1920), Alawite State (1920), Jabal Druze (1921), the autonomous Sanjak of Alexandretta (1921) (modern-day Hatay in Turkey), and Greater Lebanon (1920) which later became the modern country of Lebanon.

In pan-Syrian nationalism

{{See also|Greater Syria|Ba'athism|Fertile Crescent Plan|Kingdom of Syria}}File:SadheeSYRIA-ar.jpg|thumb|Antoun Saadeh's SSNP map of a "Natural Syria", based on the etymological connection between the name "Syria" and "Assyria".]]The boundaries of the region have changed throughout history, and were last defined in modern times by the proclamation of the short-lived Arab Kingdom of Syria and subsequent definition by French and British mandatory agreement. The area was passed to French and British Mandates following World War I and divided into Greater Lebanon, various Syrian-mandate states, Mandatory Palestine and the Emirate of Transjordan. The Syrian-mandate states were gradually unified as the State of Syria and finally became the independent Syria in 1946. Throughout this period, Antoun Saadeh and his party, the Syrian Socialist Nationalist Party, envisioned "Greater Syria" or "Natural Syria", based on the etymological connection between the name "Syria" and "Assyria", as encompassing the Sinai Peninsula, Cyprus, modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, the Ahvaz region of Iran, and the Kilikian region of Turkey.BOOK, Sa'adeh, Antoun, Antoun Saadeh, The Genesis of Nations, Beirut, 2004, Translated and ReprintedWEB, Ya'ari, Ehud,weblink Behind the Terror, The Atlantic,

Religious significance

{{See also|Religious significance of Jerusalem}}The region has sites that are significant to Abrahamic religions:WEB, World Heritage Committee, Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage, 34,weblink 2007-07-02, 2008-07-08, {| class="wikitable"! Place !! Description !! ImageAcre, Israel>AcreAcre is home to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, which is the holiest site for the Bahá'í Faith.NATIONAL SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED STATES >TITLE=SHRINE OF BAHá'U'LLáH ISSUE=418 URL=HTTPS://BAHAI.BWC.ORG/PILGRIMAGE/INTRO/VISIT_2.ASP ACCESS-DATE=2006-08-12, UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE CENTRE >TITLE=BAHá’I HOLY PLACES IN HAIFA AND THE WESTERN GALILEE DATE=2008-07-08, 2008-07-08, (File:Bahá´i Holy Place Bahji near Akká.jpg)|AleppoAleppo is home to a Great Mosque of Aleppo, which is believed to house the remains of Zechariah (priest)>Zechariah,HTTP://WWW.MUSLIMHERITAGE.COM/ARTICLE/GREAT-MOSQUE-ALEPPO >TITLE=THE GREAT MOSQUE OF ALEPPO {{!, Muslim Heritage access-date=2016-06-30}} who is revered in both ChristianityGospel of Luke, {{bibleref21:5-791:5–79}} and Islam.15>S=NS, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, (The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary), Note. 905: "The third group consists not of men of action, but Preachers of Truth, who led solitary lives. Their epithet is: "the Righteous." They form a connected group round Jesus. Zachariah was the father of John the Baptist, who is referenced as "Elias, which was for to come" (Matt 11:14); and John the Baptist is said to have been present and talked to Jesus at the Transfiguration on the Mount (Matt. 17:3)."(File:Aleppo. Great Mosque (1265181739).jpg)|DamascusDamascus has a Great Mosque of Damascus, which is considered to be one of the largest and best preserved mosques from the Umayyad era. It is believed to house the remains of Zechariah's son John the Baptist,Burns, 2005, p.88. who is revered in Christianity and Islam, like his father. Other important sites include Bab al-SaghirLOVE DAMASCUS URL=HTTP://WWW.LOVEDAMASCUS.COM/EN/WHAT-TO-SEE/TOURIST-ATTRACTIONS/SHAGHOUR-JOWANI/004TA013/BAB-AL-SAGHIR PUBLISHER=SYRIA PHOTO GUIDE DATE=2014-09-24 Sayyidah Ruqayyah Mosque.'Summary of the Tragedy of Sayyeda Ruqayya', Booklet at Ruqayya Mosque, 2008KRAMER, H. PUBLISHER=THE COMPLETE PILGRIM DATE=2015-04-12, 2018-03-12, (File:Umayyad Mosque night.jpg)|HaifaHaifa is where the Shrine of the Báb is located. It is holy to the Bahá'í Faith.BAHá'í WORLD NEWS SERVICE >TITLE=BEAUTY OF RESTORED SHRINE SET TO DAZZLE VISITORS AND PILGRIMS DATE=2011-04-12, 2011-04-12, Nearby is Mount Carmel. Being associated with the Biblical figure Elijah, it is important to Christians, Druze, Jews and Muslims.BOOK, Breger, M. J., Hammer, L., and Reiter, Y., Holy Places in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Confrontation and Co-existence, Routledge,weblink 2009-12-16, 231–246, (File:Shrine of the Bab (highres).jpg)|HittinHittin is near what is believed to near the shrine of Shuaib (possibly Jethro). It is holy to Druze and Muslims.FIRRO, K. M. >TITLE=THE DRUZES IN THE JEWISH STATE: A BRIEF HISTORY BRILL PUBLISHERS >LOCATION=LEIDEN, THE NETHERLANDS PAGES=22–240 ISBN=90-04-11251-0, DANA, N. >TITLE=THE DRUZE IN THE MIDDLE EAST: THEIR FAITH, LEADERSHIP, IDENTITY AND STATUS URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.AE/BOOKS?ID=2NCWISYZJXUC&PG=PA28&DQ= YEAR=2003, (File:Nabi-shurayb.jpg)|JerusalemHaving sites such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre,SACRED-DESTINATIONS.COM >TITLE=CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE, JERUSALEM URL=HTTP://WWW.SACRED-DESTINATIONS.COM/ISRAEL/JERUSALEM-CHURCH-OF-HOLY-SEPULCHRE.HTM ACCESS-DATE=2012-07-07, Western Wall,Frishman, Avraham; Kum Hisalech Be’aretz, Jerusalem, 2004 and Al-Aqsa Mosque, the Old City (Jerusalem) is holy to Christianity, Holiest sites in Islam>Islam and Judaism.(File:Western Wall In Old City Of Jerusalem (29461011663).jpg)

See also

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Notes

{{reflist|group="note"}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • Pipes, Daniel (1990). Greater Syria: the History of an Ambition. New York: Oxford University Press. viii, 240 p., ill. with b&w photos and maps. {{ISBN|978-0-19-506022-5}} pbk.; alternative ISBN on back cover, 0-19-506002-4
{{Syria topics}}{{Lebanon topics}}{{Jordan topics}}{{Palestine (historic region) topics}}{{Israel topics}}{{Palestine topics}}{{Regions of Turkey}}

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