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Supreme Patriarch of Thailand

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Supreme Patriarch of Thailand
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__NOTOC__{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2010}}







factoids
| flag = | flagsize = | flagborder = | flagcaption = | insignia = Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg| insigniasize = 80px| insigniacaption = Insignia of the Supreme Patriarch| image = Phra Maha Amborn Ambaro in 1965 (2).jpg| imagesize = 160px| alt = Ariyavongsagatanana (Amborn Ambaro)>Ariyavongsagatanana IX| incumbentsince = 12 February 2017| type = | status = | department = | style = His Holiness| member_of = Sangha Supreme Council| reports_to = | residence = | seat = | nominator = | appointer = King of ThailandPrime Minister of Thailand>Prime Minister| termlength = Lifetime| termlength_qualified = | constituting_instrument = | precursor = Buddhist Era>BE (1782/83 CE)Ariyavangsayana, 1st Supreme Patriarch of Thailand>Ariyavongsanana (Sri)| last = | abolished = | succession = | abbreviation = | unofficial_names = | deputy = | salary = | website = }}The Supreme Patriarch of Thailand or Sangharaja (; {{RTGS|Sangkharat}}) is the head of the order of Buddhist monks in Thailand. His full title is Somdet Phra Saṅgharāja Sakalamahāsaṅghapariṇāyaka (; {{RTGS|Somdet Phra Sangkharat Sakonlamahasangkhaparinayok}}; 'the Supreme Patriarch, the Head of all Members of the Sangha').

Ancient history

As early as the Sukhothai period (thirteenth to sixteenth centuries CE), there were city-dwelling and forest-dwelling orders, and there was more than one Supreme Patriarch appointed.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Buswell, Robert E. Jr., Lopez, Donald S. Jr., Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Wat Mahathat, 2013, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 978-0-691-15786-3, In modern times, however, only one position is responsible for all fraternities and orders. From 1992 to 2016, the Supreme Patriarch was chosen from the most senior member of the Supreme Sangha Council and officially endorsed by the King.NEWS,weblink Can Thailand tolerate more than one form of Buddhism? - New Mandala, 2016-12-01, New Mandala, 2017-07-21, en-US,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170911114942weblink">weblink 11 September 2017, no, dmy-all, {{As of|2016|12|post=,}} the Supreme Patriarch was formally appointed by the King of Thailand and countersigned by the Prime Minister, with consultation of the Sangha Supreme Council, an administrative body of the Thai Sangha. The Supreme Patriarch has legal authority to oversee both of Thailand's Theravada fraternities, the Maha Nikaya and the Dhammayuttika Nikaya, as well as the small minority of Mahayana Buddhists in the country. He is also the President of the Sangha Supreme Council.

Developments since the 2000s

{{See also|Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen#Appointment as Supreme Patriarch stalled (2013–15)|Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen#Appointment withdrawn (2015–17)}}There has been recent discussion about reforming the Thai Sangha's leadership structure, including a 2002 proposal which would have moved many of the Sangha Council's and the Supreme Patriarch's powers to a new executive council.NEWS,weblink registration, Matichon E-library, Matichon, 8 June 2015, 25 January 2017, 8–9, ยุบแล้ว กก.ปฏิรูปพุทธศาสนา สั่งปิดจ็อบ, th, Reform committee dissolved, task is finished, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202094548weblink">weblink 2 February 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202112321weblink">weblink yes, 2 February 2017, registration, Matichon E-library, Matichon, 23 February 2015, 12, ฉุนมติมหาเถรสมาคมอุ้มธรรมกาย พุทธะอิสระยกขบวนพรึบวัดปากน้ำ, th, Angered about decision SSC protecting Dhammakaya, Buddha Issara suddenly moves procession to Wat Paknam, However, in 2015, it seemed the junta was not pushing for new Sangha legislation after all, after the proposals led to many organized protests and heated debate.NEWS,weblink registration, Matichon E-library, Pim Thai, 31 March 2015, 7, มหาเถรสมาคมแจ้งให้พระหนุ่มเณรน้อยหยุดสวดมนต์ลานพระรูป, th, SSC tells young monks and novices not to chant at the Phutthamonthon park, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170204090049weblink">weblink 4 February 2017, dmy-all, The Supreme Patriarch was Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara Suvaddhana, who had served in this position since 1989. After suffering from increasingly serious health problems, died on 24 October 2013, aged a hundred years.NEWS, Charuvastra, Teeranai, King Appoints New Supreme Patriarch in Surprise Announcement,weblink 8 February 2017, Khao Sod English, Matichon Publishing, 7 February 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170208121823weblink">weblink 8 February 2017, no, dmy-all, In 2003, because of questions about the Supreme Patriarch's ability to fulfill his duties, the government of Thailand had appointed a special committee to act in his stead. In early 2004, Somdet Kiaw Upaseṇo was appointed acting Supreme Patriarch, an office that he held until his death in 2013.After the death of Somdet Kiaw, Somdet Chuang Varapuñño of Wat Paknam Bhasicharoen became the next acting Supreme Patriarch. Despite a nomination from the Supreme Sangha Council, his official appointment as Supreme Patriarch was stalled due a refusal of the Thai secular government to forward his nomination to the King. In December 2016, the junta passed an amendment to the Sangha Act changing the rules for appointment of the Supreme Patriarch to bypass the Supreme Sangha Council and allow the King of Thailand to appoint the Supreme Patriarch directly, with the Thai Prime Minister countersigning.NEWS,weblink NLA passes Sangha Act amendment bill, 29 December 2016, The Nation, 2016-12-31,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161230152743weblink">weblink 30 December 2016, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Thai junta restores law allowing king to pick top monk, Constant, Max, 29 December 2016, Anadolu Agency, 2016-12-31,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161230144141weblink">weblink 30 December 2016, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Sangha Act set to pass, 29 December 2016, The Nation, 2016-12-31,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161230213211weblink">weblink 30 December 2016, no, dmy-all, While proponents considered the amendment a good way for politicians to solve the problems the Sangha had not been able to solve, opponents described the amendment as "sneaky" (). Chao Khun Prasarn Candasaro, vice-rector of the Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University and assistant-abbot of Wat Mahathat Yuwaratrangsarit, stated the amendment showed a grave lack of respect for the Sangha Council's authority, because the council had not been involved in the amendment at all. He argued that the Monastic Act had always given the final decision to the King anyway, and pointed out that all conflicts about the appointment were caused by the junta's National Reform Council, not by the Sangha itself.NEWS, สัมภาษณ์สด เจ้าคุณประสาร-ส.ศิวรักษ์ แก้พรบ.สงฆ์, Live interview with Chao Khun Prasarn and S. Sivaraksa about amending the Monastic Act,weblink 4 February 2017, New TV, 27 December 2016, th, {title},weblink 10 February 2017, no, dmy-all, NEWS, Dubus, Arnaud, La junte amende la loi monastique pour écarter Somdet Chuang de la direction de l’Eglise bouddhique,weblink 18 March 2017, Eglises d'Asie, Paris Foreign Missions Information Agency, 2 January 2017, fr, The junta amends the monastic law to remove Somdet Chuang from the leadership of the Buddhist religion,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170319023409weblink">weblink 19 March 2017, no, dmy-all, Finally, on 7 February 2017, Somdet Amborn Ambaro was appointed by King Rama X to serve as the next Supreme Patriarch out of five names given to him by Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-Cha.NEWS,weblink Somdet Phra Maha Muniwong new Supreme Patriarch, PCL., Post Publishing, Bangkok Post, 2017-02-09, The appointment ceremony was held on February 12 at Wat Phra Kaew, Grand Palace.NEWS,weblink The Nation, Somdet Phra Maha Muneewong appointed new supreme patriarch, limited, 7 February 2017, 8 February 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170208033235weblink">weblink 8 February 2017, no, dmy-all,

List of Supreme Patriarchs

{{refimprove section|talk=Mahanikaya anachronism?|date=February 2017}}{{About||the list of Thai Buddhist monks who hold the title of "Somdet Phra Ariyavongsagatanana"|Ariyavangsagatayana (disambiguation){{!}}Ariyavangsagatayana}}{|width=100% class="wikitable"! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=3% |No.! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=10%|Portrait! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=24%|Name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=7%|Birth name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=7%|Dharma name! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=12%|Tenure from! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=12%|Tenure until! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=14%|Order! style="background-color:#F0DC82" width=14%|Temple1(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsayana (Sri)>Ariyavongsanana I(Sri)Sriunknown1782/832325 BE1794/752337 BEMaha NikayaWat Rakhang Khositaram2(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsayana (Suk)>Ariyavongsanana II(Suk)Sukunknown1794/752337 BE1816/872359 BEMaha NikayaWat Mahathat Yuwaratrangsarit3(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsayana (Mee)>Ariyavongsanana III(Mee)Meeunknown1816/872359 BE1819/202362 BEMaha NikayaWat Mahathat Yuwaratrangsarit4(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsayana (Suk Nyanasamvara)>Ariyavongsanana IV(Suk Nyanasamvara)Sukunknown1820/212363 BE1822/232365 BEMaha NikayaWat Mahathat Yuwaratrangsarit5(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsayana (Don)>Ariyavongsanana V (Don)Donunknown1822/232365 BE1842/432385 BEMaha NikayaWat Mahathat Yuwaratrangsarit6(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsayana (Nag)>Ariyavongsanana VI(Nag)Nagunknown1843/442386 BE1849/502392 BEMaha NikayaWat Ratchaburana7(File:Krom Phra Paramanujit Jinoros.jpg|100px){{smallKromma Phra}}Paramanuchitchinorot(Prince Vasugri Suvaṇṇaraṃsi)Prince VasugriSuvaṇṇaraṃsi1851/522394 BE1853/542396 BEMaha NikayaWat Phra Chetuphon Vimolmangklararm8(File:Pavaresh Variyalongkorn.jpg|100px){{smallKromma Phraya}}Pavares Variyalongkorn(Prince Rurk Paññāaggo)Prince RurkPaññāaggo1853/542396 BE1892/932435 BEDhammayuttika NikayaWat Bowonniwet Vihara9(File:Pussadeva Mahathera.jpg|100px){{smallAriyavangsagatayana (Sa Pussadeva)>Ariyavongsagatanana II(Sa Pussadevo)SaPussadevo1893/942436 BE1899/19002442 BEDhammayuttika NikayaWat Ratchapradit Sathit Mahasimaram10(File:Kromma Phraya Vajirayanavarorosa.jpg|100px){{smallKromma Phraya}}Vajirananavarorasa(Prince Manusyanagamanob Manussanāgo)Prince ManusyanagamanobManussanāgo1910/112453 BE1921/222464 BEDhammayuttika NikayaWat Bowonniwet Vihara11(File:วัดราชบพิธสถิตมหาสีมารามราชวรวิหาร Wat Ratchabopit Satitmahaseemaram.jpg|100px){{smallKromma Luang}}Jinavorn Sirivaddhana{{small|Somdet Phra Sangharaja Chao}}(Prince Bhujong Jombunud Sirivaḍḍhano)Prince Bhujong JombunudSirivaḍḍhano1921/222464 BE1937/382480 BEDhammayuttika NikayaWat Ratchabophit Sathit Maha Simaram12(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsagatayana (Phae Tissadeva)>Ariyavongsagatanana III(Phae Tissadevo)Phae PhongpalaTissadevo1938/392481 BE19442487 BEMaha NikayaWat Suthat Thepphaararam13(File:Somdet Krom Luang Wachirayannawong in 5 May 1950.jpg|100px){{smallKromma Luang}}Vajirananavongs(Prince Chuen Navavongs Sucitto)Mom Rajavongse Chuen NavavongsSucitto19452488 BE19582501 BEDhammayuttika NikayaWat Bowonniwet Vihara14(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsagatayana (Plod Kittisobhaṇa)>Ariyavongsagatanana IV(Plod Kittisobhaṇo)Plod KetuthatKittisobhaṇo19602503 BE19622505 BEMaha NikayaWat Benchamabophit Dusitvanaram15(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsagatayana (Yoo Ñāṇodaya)>Ariyavongsagatanana V(Yoo Ñāṇodayo)Yoo Changsopha (Sae-Chua)Ñāṇodayo19632506 BE19652508 BEMaha NikayaWat Saket16(File:สมเด็จพระสังฆราช (จวน อุฏฺฐายีมหาเถร)11.jpg|100px){{smallAriyavangsagatayana (Chuan Utthayi)>Ariyavongsagatanana VI(Chuan Uṭṭhāyī)Chuan SirisomUṭṭhāyī19652508 BE19712514 BEDhammayuttika NikayaWat Makut Kasattriyaram17(File:Umbrella of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand.svg|60px){{smallAriyavangsagatayana (Pun Puṇṇasiri)>Ariyavongsagatanana VII(Pun Puṇṇasiri)Pun SukcharoenPuṇṇasiri19722515 BE19732516 BEMaha NikayaWat Phra Chetuphon Vimolmangklararm18(File:Somdet Phra Ariyavamsagatanana (Vasna Vasano Nilprapha).jpg|100px){{smallKromma Luang}}Jinavajiralongkorn(Vasana Vāsano)Vasana NilpraphaVāsano19732516 BE19882531 BEDhammayuttika NikayaWat Ratchabophit Sathit Maha Simaram19(File:Somdej Phra Yannasangwon (Suvaddhano) in 1956.jpg|100px){{smallKromma Luang}}Vajirañāṇasaṃvara(Charoen Suvaḍḍhano)Charoen KhachawatSuvaḍḍhano19892532 BE20132556 BEDhammayuttika NikayaWat Bowonniwet Vihara20(File:Phra Maha Amborn Ambaro in 1965 (2).jpg|100px){{smallAriyavongsagatanana (Amborn Ambaro)>Ariyavongsagatanana IX(Amborn Ambaro)Amborn PrasatthaphongAmbaro20172560 BE''PresentDhammayuttika NikayaWat Ratchabophit Sathit Maha Simaram

See also

{{Commons category|Supreme Patriarch of Thailand}}

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Religion in Thailand}}

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