Supreme Court of Canada

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Supreme Court of Canada
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{{Use Canadian English|date=May 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2013}}{{stack begin}}

{{Supreme Court of Canada sidebar}}{{stack end}}The Supreme Court of Canada () is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.WEB,weblink Role of the Court, 23 May 2014, Supreme Court of Canada, 2014-05-27, The court grants permission to between 40 and 75 litigants each year to appeal decisions rendered by provincial, territorial and federal appellate courts. Its decisions are the ultimate expression and application of Canadian law and binding upon all lower courts of Canada, except to the extent that they are overridden or otherwise made ineffective by an Act of Parliament or the Act of a provincial legislative assembly pursuant to section 33 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (the "notwithstanding clause").


The creation of the Supreme Court of Canada was provided for by the British North America Act, 1867, renamed in 1982 the Constitution Act, 1867. The first bills for the creation of a federal supreme court, introduced in the Parliament of Canada in 1869 and in 1870, were withdrawn. It was not until 8 April 1875 that a bill was finally passed providing for the creation of a Supreme Court of Canada.File:Interior of the old Supreme Court of Canada.jpg|thumb|left|upright=.85|Courtroom in the Old Supreme Court building ]](File:The Nine.jpg|thumb|left|upright=.85|Courtroom in the current Supreme Court building)However, prior to 1949, the Supreme Court did not constitute the court of last resort: litigants could appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. As well, some cases could bypass the court and go directly to the Judicial Committee from the provincial courts of appeal. The Supreme Court formally became the court of last resort for criminal appeals in 1933 and for all other appeals in 1949. The last decisions of the Judicial Committee on cases from Canada were made in the mid-1950s, as a result of their being heard in a court of first instance prior to 1949.The increase in the importance of the Court was mirrored by the numbers of its members. The Court was established first with six judges, and these were augmented by an additional member in 1927. In 1949, the bench reached its current composition of nine justices.Prior to 1949, most of the appointees to the Court owed their position to political patronage. Each judge had strong ties to the party in power at the time of their appointment. In 1973, the appointment of a constitutional law professor Bora Laskin as chief justice represented a major turning point for the Court. Increasingly in this period, appointees either came from academic backgrounds or were well-respected practitioners with several years experience in appellate courts. Laskin's federalist and liberal views were shared by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who recommended Laskin's appointment to the Court.The Constitution Act, 1982, greatly expanded the role of the Court in Canadian society by the addition of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which greatly broadened the scope of judicial review. The evolution from the Dickson court (1984–90) through to the Lamer court (1990–2000) witnessed a continuing vigour in the protection of civil liberties. Lamer's criminal law background proved an influence on the number of criminal cases heard by the Court during his time as chief justice. Nonetheless, the Lamer court was more conservative with Charter rights, with only about a 1% success rate for Charter claimants.Lamer was succeeded as chief justice by Beverly McLachlin in January 2000. She is the first woman to hold that position.WEB, The Right Honourable Beverley McLachlin, P.C., C.C.,weblink Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, November 18, 2018, McLachlin's appointment resulted in a more centrist and unified Court. Dissenting and concurring opinions were fewer than during the Dickson and Lamer Courts. With the 2005 appointments of Justices Louise Charron and Rosalie Abella, the court became the world's most gender-balanced national high court, four of its nine members being female.NEWS, "New judges fill gaps in spectrum",weblink The Globe and Mail, 5 October 2004, 2016-05-06, NEWS, "Two women named to Canada's supreme court",weblink", UPI, 4 October 2004, 2016-05-06, Justice Marie Deschamps' retirement on 7 August 2012 caused the number to fall to three,NEWS, Supreme Court loses third veteran judge in a year with Justice Marie Deschamps’ departure,weblink Toronto Star, 18 May 2012, 2014-05-27, however the appointment of Suzanne Côté on 1 December 2014 restored the number to four.After serving on the Court for {{ayd|1989|3|30|2017|12|14}} ({{ayd|2000|1|7|2017|12|14}} as chief justice), McLachlin retired in December 2017. Her successor as chief justice is Richard Wagner.

Canadian judiciary

{{Politics of Canada}}The structure of the Canadian court system is pyramidal, a broad base being formed by the various provincial and territorial courts whose judges are appointed by the provincial or territorial governments. At the next level are the provinces' and territories' superior courts, where judges are appointed by the federal government. Judgments from the superior courts may be appealed to a still higher level, the provincial or territorial courts of appeal.Several federal courts also exist: the Tax Court of Canada, the Federal Court, the Federal Court of Appeal, and the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. Unlike the provincial superior courts, which exercise inherent or general jurisdiction, the federal courts' jurisdiction is limited by statute. In all, there are over 1,000 federally appointed judges at various levels across Canada.

Appellate process

The Supreme Court of Canada rests at the apex of the judicial pyramid. This institution hears appeals from the provincial courts of last resort, usually the provincial or territorial courts of appeal, and the Federal Court of Appeal, although in some matters appeals come straight from the trial courts, as in the case of publication bans and other orders that are otherwise not appealable.In most cases, permission to appeal must first be obtained from the court. Motions for leave to appeal to the Court are generally heard by a panel of three judges of the Court and a simple majority is determinative. By convention, this panel never explains why it grants or refuses leave in any particular case, but the Court typically hears cases of national importance or where the case allows the Court to settle an important issue of law. Leave is rarely granted, meaning that for most litigants, provincial courts of appeal are courts of last resort. But leave to appeal is not required for some cases, primarily criminal cases (in which a Judge below dissented on a point of law) and appeals from provincial references.A final source of cases is the referral power of the federal government. In such cases, the Supreme Court is required to give an opinion on questions referred to it by the Governor-in-Council (the Cabinet). However, in many cases, including the most recent same-sex marriage reference, the Court has declined to answer a question from the Cabinet. In that case, the Court said it would not decide if same-sex marriages were required by the charter of rights, because the government had announced it would change the law regardless of its opinion, and subsequently did.

Constitutional interpretation

The Supreme Court thus performs a unique function. It can be asked by the Governor-in-Council to hear references considering important questions of law. Such referrals may concern the constitutionality or interpretation of federal or provincial legislation, or the division of powers between federal and provincial spheres of government. Any point of law may be referred in this manner. However, the Court is not often called upon to hear references. References have been used to re-examine criminal convictions that have concerned the country as in the cases of David Milgaard and Steven Truscott.The Supreme Court has the ultimate power of judicial review over Canadian federal and provincial laws' constitutional validity. If a federal or provincial law has been held contrary to the division of power provisions of one of the various constitution acts, the legislature or parliament must either live with the result, amend the law so that it complies, or obtain an amendment to the constitution. If a law is declared contrary to certain sections of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Parliament or the provincial legislatures may make that particular law temporarily valid again against by using the "override power" of the notwithstanding clause. In one case, the Quebec National Assembly invoked this power to override a Supreme Court decision (Ford v Quebec (AG)) that held that one of Quebec's language laws banning the display of English commercial signs was inconsistent with the Charter. Saskatchewan has also used it to uphold its labour laws. This override power can be exercised for five years, after which time the override must be renewed or the decision comes into force.In some cases, the Court may stay the effect of its judgments so that unconstitutional laws continue in force for a period of time. Usually, this is done to give Parliament or the legislature sufficient time to enact a new replacement scheme of legislation. For example, in Reference Re Manitoba Language Rights, the Court struck down Manitoba's laws because they were not enacted in the French language, as required by the Constitution. However, the Court stayed its judgment for five years to give Manitoba time to re-enact all its legislation in French. It turned out five years was insufficient so the Court was asked, and agreed, to give more time.Constitutional questions may, of course, also be raised in the normal case of appeals involving individual litigants, governments, government agencies or crown corporations. In such cases the federal and provincial governments must be notified of any constitutional questions and may intervene to submit a brief and attend oral argument at the Court. Usually the other governments are given the right to argue their case in the Court, although on rare occasions this has been curtailed and prevented by order of one of the Court's judges.


File:Supreme Court of Canada - 2014 - Night.jpeg|thumb|left|View from the Ottawa RiverOttawa RiverThe Court sits for 18 weeks of the year beginning the first Monday of October and usually runs until the end of June and sometimes into July. Hearings only take place in Ottawa, although litigants can present oral arguments from remote locations by means of a video-conference system. The Court's hearings are open to the public. Most hearings are taped for delayed telecast in both of Canada's official languages. When in session, the Court sits Monday to Friday, hearing two appeals a day. A quorum consists of five members for appeals, but a panel of nine justices hears most cases.On the bench, the chief justice of Canada or, in his or her absence, the senior puisne justice, presides from the centre chair with the other justices seated to his or her right and left by order of seniority of appointment. At sittings of the Court, the justices usually appear in black silk robes but they wear their ceremonial robes of bright scarlet trimmed with Canadian white mink in court on special occasions and in the Senate at the opening of each new session of Parliament.Counsel appearing before the Court may use either English or French. The judges can also use either English or French. There is simultaneous translation available to the judges, counsel and to members of the public who are in the audience.The decision of the Court is sometimes – but rarely – rendered orally at the conclusion of the hearing. In these cases, the Court may simply refer to the decision of the court below to explain its own reasons. In other cases, the Court may announce its decision at the conclusion of the hearing, with reasons to follow.R. v. Beare; R. v. Higgins {{Webarchive|url= |date=18 January 2012 }}, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 387, para. 19.Consortium Developments (Clearwater) Ltd. v. Sarnia (City) {{Webarchive|url= |date=18 January 2012 }}, [1998] 3 S.C.R. 3, para. 1.Rothmans, Benson & Hedges Inc. v. Saskatchewan {{Webarchive|url= |date=18 January 2012 }}, 2005 SCC 13, [2005] 1 S.C.R. 188, para. 1. As well, in some cases, the Court may not call on counsel for the respondent, if it has not been convinced by the arguments of counsel for the appellant.Whitbread v. Walley {{Webarchive|url= |date=18 January 2012 }}, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 1273, para. 2. In very rare cases, the Court may not call on counsel for the appellant and instead calls directly on counsel for the respondent.Rothmans, Benson & Hedges Inc. v. Saskatchewan {{Webarchive|url= |date=18 January 2012 }}, 2005 SCC 13, [2005] 1 S.C.R. 188. However, in most cases, the Court hears from all counsel and then reserves judgment to enable the justices to write considered reasons. Decisions of the Court need not be unanimous – a majority may decide, with dissenting reasons given by the minority. Each justice may write reasons in any case if he or she chooses to do so.A puisne justice of the Supreme Court is referred to as The Honourable Mr/Madam Justice and the chief justice as Right Honourable. At one time, judges were addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady" during sessions of the Court, but the Court discourages this style of address and has directed lawyers to use the simpler "Justice", “Mr Justice” or “Madam Justice”.Supreme Court of Canada - Frequently Asked Questions: "How Does One Address a Judge?" The designation "My Lord/My Lady" continues in many provincial superior courts and in the Federal Court of Canada and Federal Court of Appeal, where it is optional.Every four years, the Judicial Compensation and Benefits Commission makes recommendations to the federal government about the salaries for federally appointed judges, including the judges of the Supreme Court. That recommendation is not legally binding on the federal government, but the federal government is generally required to comply with the recommendation unless there is a very good reason to not do so.Provincial Court Judges’ Assn. of New Brunswick v. New Brunswick (Minister of Justice); Ontario Judges’ Assn. v. Ontario (Management Board); Bodner v. Alberta; Conférence des juges du Québec v. Quebec (Attorney General); Minc v. Quebec (Attorney General) {{Webarchive|url= |date=19 January 2012 }}, [2005] 2 S.C.R. 286, 2005 SCC 44, para. 21. The chief justice receives $370,300 while the puisne justices receive $342,800 annually.WEB, Judges Act,weblink Minister and Attorney General of Canada, 9 June 2014, 23 June 2014,

Appointment of Justices

Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada are appointed by the Governor General-in-Council, a process whereby the governor general, the viceregal representative of the Queen of Canada, makes appointments based on the advice of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada. By tradition and convention, only the Cabinet, a standing committee in the larger council, advises the governor general and this advice is usually expressed exclusively through a consultation with the prime minister. Thus, the provinces and parliament have no formal role in such appointments, sometimes a point of contention.The Supreme Court Act limits eligibility for appointment to persons who have been judges of a superior court, or members of the bar for ten or more years. Members of the bar or superior judiciary of Quebec, by law, must hold three of the nine positions on the Supreme Court of Canada.Supreme Court Act, s. 6. This is justified on the basis that Quebec uses civil law, rather than common law, as in the rest of the country. As explained in the Court's reasons in Reference Re Supreme Court Act, ss 5 and 6, sitting judges of the Federal Court and Federal Court of Appeal cannot be appointed to any of Quebec's three seats. By convention, the remaining six positions are divided in the following manner: three from Ontario; two from the western provinces, typically one from British Columbia and one from the prairie provinces, which rotate among themselves (although Alberta is known to cause skips in the rotation); and one from the Atlantic provinces, almost always{{clarify|date=January 2019}} from Nova Scotia or New Brunswick{{citationneeded|date=March 2019}}.In 2006, an interview phase by an ad hoc committee of members of Parliament was added. Justice Marshall Rothstein became the first justice to undergo the new process. The prime minister still has the final say on who becomes the candidate that is recommended to the governor general for appointment to the Court. The government proposed an interview phase again in 2008, but a general election and minority parliament intervened with delays such that the Prime Minister recommended Justice Cromwell after consulting the Leader of Her Majesty's Official Opposition.As of August 2016, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau opened the process of application to change from the above noted appointment process. Under the revised process, "[A]ny Canadian lawyer or judge who fits a specified criteria can apply for a seat on the Supreme Court, through the Office of the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs."WEB,weblink Why Canada has a new way to choose Supreme Court judges, August 2, 2016, April 24, 2017, Justin Trudeau, The Globe and Mail, PRESS RELEASE,weblink New process for judicial appointments to the Supreme Court of Canada, August 2, 2016, Government of Canada, Justices hold office during good behaviour (which formerly meant life tenure), but are removable by the Governor General on address of the Canadian Senate and House of Commons. Since 1927, justices may sit on the bench until they reach the mandatory retirement age of 75.An Act to amend the Supreme Court Act, S.C. 1927, c. 38, s. 2.Supreme Court Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. S-26, s. 9.

Current members

{{further|List of Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada}}The current Chief Justice of Canada is Richard Wagner. He was appointed to the Court as a puisne judge on 5 October, 2012 and appointed chief justice, 18 December, 2017.WEB, The Right Honourable Richard Wagner, P.C., Chief Justice of Canada,weblink Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, November 13, 2018, The nine justices of the Wagner Court are:{| class="wikitable sortable"! colspan=3 | Justice! rowspan=2 | Prime Minister! rowspan=2 | Date appointed! rowspan=2 | Law school! rowspan=2 class="unsortable" | Prior judicial office! OP! Name(Province)! Birthdatestyle="background: #ffffff;"| 1stQuebec)19572}}){{efn-ua|Mandatory retirement date: 2 April, 2032}} Stephen HarperJustin Trudeau>J. Trudeau{{efn-uaAs chief justice}}format=dmy10format=dmy12name=CJ}}University of Ottawa Faculty of Law>University of Ottawa| Quebec Court of AppealSuperior Court of Quebec | 2nd PUBLISHER=SUPREME COURT OF CANADA ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 13, 2018, (Ontario)19461}}){{efn-ua|Mandatory retirement date: 1 July, 2021}}Paul Martin>Martinformat=dmy4|10}}University of Toronto Faculty of Law>University of TorontoCourt of Appeal for OntarioOntario Court of Justice>Ontario Family Court| 3rd THE HONOURABLE MICHAEL J. MOLDAVER PUBLISHER=SUPREME COURT OF CANADA ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 13, 2018, (Ontario)194723}}){{efn-ua|Mandatory retirement date: 23 December, 2022}}Stephen Harper>Harperformat=dmy10|21}}University of Toronto Faculty of Law>University of TorontoCourt of Appeal for OntarioOntario Superior Court>Ontario Court of Justice (General Division)| 4th PUBLISHER=SUPREME COURT OF CANADA ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 13, 2018, (Ontario)19553}}){{efn-ua|Mandatory retirement date: 3 October, 2030}}Stephen Harper>Harperformat=dmy10|21}}| Osgoode Hall Law SchoolCourt of Appeal for OntarioOntario Superior Court>Ontario Superior Court of Justice| 5th URL=HTTPS://WWW.SCC-CSC.CA/JUDGES-JUGES/BIO-ENG.ASPX?ID=CLEMENT-GASCON LOCATION=OTTAWA, ONTARIO, November 13, 2018, (Quebec)19605}}){{efn-uaDATE= APRIL 15, 2019URL= HTTPS://WWW.CBC.CA/NEWS/POLITICS/JUSTICE-CLEMENT-GASCON-RETIRING-1.5098973 WORK= CBC NEWS, April 15, 2019, }}Stephen Harper>Harperformat=dmy06|09}}McGill University Faculty of Law>McGill University| Quebec Court of AppealSuperior Court of Quebec| 6th URL=HTTPS://WWW.SCC-CSC.CA/JUDGES-JUGES/BIO-ENG.ASPX?ID=SUZANNE-COTE LOCATION=OTTAWA, ONTARIO, November 13, 2018, (Quebec)195821}}){{efn-ua|Mandatory retirement date: 21 September, 2033}}Stephen Harper>Harperformat=dmy12|01}}Université Laval Faculté de droit>Université LavalLaw_firm#Partnership>Partner at Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt| 7th PUBLISHER=SUPREME COURT OF CANADA ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 13, 2018, (Alberta)196515}}){{efn-ua|Mandatory retirement date: 15 September, 2040}}Stephen Harper>Harperformat=dmy08|31}}University of Victoria Faculty of Law>University of VictoriaUniversity of Toronto| Court of Appeal of AlbertaCourt of Queen's Bench of Alberta| 8th PUBLISHER=SUPREME COURT OF CANADA ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 13, 2018, (Newfoundland and Labrador)1953}}){{efn-ua|Mandatory retirement date: during 2028}}Justin Trudeau>J. Trudeauformat=dmy10|28}}| Osgoode Hall Law SchoolSupreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador (Court of Appeal)>Court of Appeal of Newfoundland and LabradorSupreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador| 9th PUBLISHER=SUPREME COURT OF CANADA ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 13, 2018, (Alberta)195631}}){{efn-ua|Mandatory retirement date: 31 May, 2031}}Justin Trudeau>J. Trudeauformat=dmy12|18}}McGill University Faculty of Law>McGill UniversityUniversity of Alberta Faculty of LawUniversity of Toronto Law School>University of TorontoCourt of Appeal of Alberta, Court of Appeal for the Northwest Territories>Northwest Territories, NunavutCourt of Queen's Bench of AlbertaJustice Gascon has announced that he will retire effective September 15, 2019. Following the announcement, the Prime Minister's Office announced that the government intends to have named a replacement prior to the 2019 federal election. The Prime Minister announced that Kim Campbell will lead the Advisory Board to select Gascon's replacement on the Court.



Length of tenure

The following graphical timeline depicts the length of each current justice's tenure on the Supreme Court (not their position in the Court's order of precedence) as of {{FULLDATE}}.{{#tag:timeline| ImageSize = width:780 height:auto barincrement:20PlotArea = top:10 bottom:20 right:160 left:14AlignBars = lateDateFormat = x.yPeriod = from:2004.00 till:{{#expr:{{#time:Y}}+{{#time:m}}/12}}TimeAxis = orientation:horizontalScaleMajor = gridcolor:tan2 unit:year increment:2 start:2004ScaleMinor = gridcolor:tan1 unit:year increment:2 start:2005Define $now = {{#expr:{{#time:Y}}+{{#time:m}}/12}}Colors =
id:Martin value:rgb(0.792,0.573,0.557)
id:Harper value:rgb(1,0.882,0.325)
id:JTrudeau value:rgb(0.325,1,0.882)
id:ChiefJ value:rgb(0.96,0.81,0.04)
id:PuisneJ value:rgb(0.96,0.04,0.19)
BarData =
width:6 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till fontsize:10
from:2004.27 till:$now color:PuisneJ text:"Rosalie Abella"
from:2011.80 till:$now color:PuisneJ text:"Michael J. Moldaver"
from:2011.80 till:$now color:PuisneJ text:"Andromache Karakatsanis"
from:2017.96 till:$now color:ChiefJ text:"Richard Wagner"
from:2014.44 till:$now color:PuisneJ text:"Clément Gascon"
from:2014.92 till:$now color:PuisneJ text:"Suzanne Côté"
from:2015.66 till:$now color:PuisneJ text:"Russell Brown"
from:2016.82 till:$now color:PuisneJ text:"Malcolm Rowe"
from:2017.96 till:$now color:PuisneJ text:"Sheilah Martin"
atpos:123 from:2012.76 till:2017.95 color:PuisneJ width:6 # Wagner's puisne appointment

#These are the colored bars of the Legend:
atpos:94 from:2005.20 till:2005.60 color:ChiefJ width:8
atpos:81 from:2005.20 till:2005.60 color:PuisneJ width:8
#This is the text of the Legend
pos:(85, 103)
text:"Chief Justice"
text:"Puisne Justices"
}}Among the current justices, Rosalie Abella is the longest-serving, with a tenure of {{ayd|2004|8|30}}. Michael Moldaver and Andromache Karakatsanis share the distinction of having the second-longest tenure, {{ayd|2011|10|21}} each, as they were both appointed puisne justice on the same day in October 2011. Richard Wagner's cumulative tenure is {{ayd|2012|10|5}}—{{ayd|2012|10|5|2017|12|18}} as puisne justice, and {{ayd|2017|12|18}} as chief justice. Sheilah Martin, who succeeded to Wagner's puisne seat, has the briefest tenure, {{ayd|2017|12|18}}. The length of tenure for the other justices are: Clément Gascon, {{ayd|2014|6|9}}; Suzanne Côté, {{ayd|2014|12|1}}; Russell Brown, {{ayd|2015|8|31}}; and Malcom Rowe, {{ayd|2016|10|28}}.

Rules of the Court

The Rules of the Supreme Court of Canada are located on the website, as well as in the Canada Gazette, as SOR/2002-216 (plus amendments). The Rules are made pursuant to subsection 97(1) of the Supreme Court Act. Fees and taxes are stipulated near the end.

Law clerks

Since 1967, the court has hired law clerks to assist in legal research. Between 1967 and 1982, each puisne justice was assisted by one law clerk and the chief justice had two. From 1982, the number was increased to two law clerks for each justice.BOOK, The Supreme Court of Canada / La Cour Suprême du Canada, Ottawa, Supreme Court of Canada, 2005, 7, Currently, each justice has up to four law clerks.WEB, Law Clerk Program,weblink Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, May 12, 2019, Law clerks conduct research, draft bench memoranda, and assist in drafting judgments, as well as any other research duties assigned by the law clerk's judge such as drafting speeches or articles.


The Supreme Court of Canada Building (), located just west of Parliament Hill at 301 Wellington Street on a bluff high above the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa, is home to the Supreme Court of Canada.WEB, SCC Building,weblink Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, November 18, 2018, It also contains two court rooms used by both the Federal Court of Canada and the Federal Court of Appeal.Construction began in 1939, with the cornerstone laid by Queen Elizabeth, consort to King George VI and later Queen Mother. It was designed by Ernest Cormier. The court began hearing cases in the new building by January 1946. The building is renowned for its Art Deco decorative details,WEB,weblink 1940 – Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario,, 2014-05-27, including two candelabrum-style fluted metal lamp standards that flank the entrance, and the marble walls and floors of the grand interior lobby contrasting with the châteauesque roof.In 2000, it was named by the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium.NEWS,weblink Cultural consequence, Cook, Marcia, 11 May 2000, Ottawa Citizen, Canwest, 11 October 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2010, Canada Post Corporation issued a 'Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa' stamp on 9 June 2011 as part of the Architecture Art Déco series.Two flagstaffs have been erected in front of the building. A flag on one is flown daily, while the other is hoisted only on those days when the court is in session. Also located on the grounds are several statues, notably: Inside there are busts of several chief justices: They were all sculpted by Kenneth Phillips Jarvis (1927–2007), Q.C., RCA, a retired Under Treasurer of the Law Society of Upper Canada.WEB,weblink In Memoriam: Kenneth Jarvis 1927-2007, 2015-02-26, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 20 March 2014, dmy-all, Behind the building, along the cliff edge was once the home of hat maker R.J. Devlin at 41 Cliff Street, but demolished to make way for the court building.The court was housed previously in two other locations in Ottawa:
  • Railway Committee Room and a number of other committee rooms at the Centre Block on Parliament Hill 1876–1889 – later used as official meeting space for the federal Opposition PartyWEB,weblink Liberals take their leave of the Railway Room, Kathryn Blaze Carlson, 11 May 2011, National Post, Room was destroyed in fire and replaced with room built in 1916.
  • Old Supreme Court building on Bank Street 1889–1945 – demolished in 1955 and used as parking for Parliament Hill

Cultural recognition

On 9 June 2011, Canada Post issued "Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa" designed by Ivan Novotny (Taylor|Sprules Corporation) and based on a photograph by Philippe Landreville as part of the Art Deco series. The stamps feature a photo of the Supreme Court of Canada, designed by Ernest Cormier in 1939, and were printed by Lowe-Martin Company, Inc.PRESS RELEASE, Supreme Court of Canada, Ottawa,weblink 9 June 2011, Canada Post, 2014-05-27,

See also

{{Wikipedia books|Canada}}
  • (:Category:Supreme Court of Canada cases|Supreme Court of Canada cases)



Further reading

  • {{citation |last = McCormick |first = Peter|year =2000 |title =Supreme at last: the evolution of the Supreme Court of Canada |url = |publisher=J. Lorimer |isbn=1-55028-693-5 |accessdate = }}
  • {{citation |last = Ostberg|first =Cynthia L|year =2007 |title =Attitudinal decision making in the Supreme Court of Canada |url = |publisher=UBC Press |isbn=978-0-7748-1312-9 |accessdate = }}
  • {{citation |last = Songer |first =Donald R |year =2008 |title =The transformation of the Supreme Court of Canada: an empirical examination |url = |publisher=University of Toronto Press |isbn=978-0-8020-9689-0 |accessdate = }}

External links

{{Commons category}} {{Coord|45.42195|-75.705682|region:CA_type:landmark|display=title}}{{Courts of Canada}}{{Canada topics}}{{Ottawa landmarks}}{{FederalCourtsOfCanada}}{{Supreme Court of Canada}}{{Americas topic|Supreme Court of|title=Supreme Courts of the Americas|countries_only=yes}}

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