Succession to Muhammad

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Succession to Muhammad
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{{For|the book by Wilferd Madelung|The Succession to Muhammad}}{{short description|Overview and history of the succession to Muhammad, the original split between Shias and Sunnis}}{{Islam}}{{Muhammad}}The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history, forming the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam. Shia Islam holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor at Ghadir Khumm.BOOK,weblink On the Khilafah of Ali over Abu Bakr, Olawuyi, Toyib, 2014, 978-1-4928-5884-3, 3, no,weblink" title="">weblink 22 April 2016, dmy-all, Sunni Islam holds Abu Bakr to be the first leader of the community after the Prophet on the basis of the election at Saqifah.After the deaths of Abu Bakr and his successors Umar and Uthman, many of the Muslims went to Ali for political leadership. After Ali died, his son Hasan ibn Ali succeeded him politically and, according to Shias, religiously. After approximately six months, however, he made a peace treaty with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan that stipulated that Muawiya would have political power as long as he did not choose his own successor. Muawiya broke the treaty and named his son Yazid ibn Muawiya his successor,WEB, Nassir, Sheikh Abdillahi Nassir, Yazid was Never Amirul Muminin,weblink, Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2018-11-27,weblink 2019-04-01, no, beginning the Umayyad dynasty. While this was going on, Hasan and his brother and successor Husain ibn Ali remained the religious leaders, according to the Shia. According to Sunnis, whoever held political power was considered the successor to Muhammad, while according to Shias, the twelve Imams (Ali, Hasan, Husain, and Husain's descendants) were the successors to Muhammad, whether or not they held political power.In addition to these two main branches, many other opinions also formed regarding the succession to Muhammad.


{{See also|Historiography of early Islam}}Most of Islamic history was transmitted orally until after the rise of the Abbasid Caliphate.A consideration of oral transmissions in general with some specific early Islamic reference is given in Jan Vansina's Oral Tradition as History. Historical works of later Muslim writers include the traditional biographies of Muhammad and quotations attributed to him—the sira and hadith literature—which provide further information on Muhammad's life.{{harvnb|Reeves|2003|pp=6–7}} The earliest surviving written sira (biographies and quotes attributed to Muhammad) is Sirah Rasul Allah (Life of God's Messenger) by Ibn Ishaq (d. 761 or 767 CE).{{harvnb|Robinson|2003|p=xv}} Although the original work is lost, portions of it survive in the recensions of Ibn Hisham (d. 833) and Al-Tabari (d. 923).{{harvnb|Donner|1998|p=132}} Many scholars accept these biographies although their accuracy is uncertain.{{harvnb|Nigosian|2004|p=6}} Studies by J. Schacht and Ignác Goldziher have led scholars to distinguish between legal and historical traditions. According to William Montgomery Watt, although legal traditions could have been invented, historical material may have been primarily subject to "tendential shaping" rather than being invented.{{harvnb|Watt|1953|p=xv}} Modern Western scholars approach the classic Islamic histories with circumspection and are less likely than Sunni Islamic scholars to trust the work of the Abbasid historians.Hadith compilations are records of the traditions or sayings of Muhammad; his biography is perpetuated by community memory for its guidance. The development of hadith is a crucial element of the first three centuries of Islamic history.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Cragg, Albert Kenneth, Kenneth Cragg, Hadith, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2008-03-30, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2008-04-16, no, Early Western scholars mistrusted the later narrations and reports, regarding them as fabrications. Leone Caetani considered the attribution of historical reports to `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas and Aisha as mostly fictitious, preferring accounts reported without isnad by early historians such as Ibn Ishaq. Wilferd Madelung has rejected the indiscriminate dismissal of everything not included in "early sources", instead judging later narratives in the context of history and compatibility with events and figures.{{harvnb|Madelung|1997|p=xi, 19, and 20}}The only contemporaneous source is The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays (Kitab al-Saqifah) by Sulaym ibn Qays (died 75-95 AH or 694-714 CE). This collection of hadith and historical reports from the first century of the Islamic calendar narrates in detail events relating to the succession.See:
  • {{harvnb|Sachedina|1981|pp=54–55}}
  • {{harvnb|Landolt|Lawson|2005|p=59}}
  • {{harvnb|Modarressi|2003|pp=82–88}}
  • {{harvnb|Dakake|2007|p=270}} However, there have been doubts regarding the reliability of the collection, with some believing that it was a later creation given that the earliest mention of the text only appears in the 11th century.Vinay Khetia, Fatima as a Motif of Contention and Suffering in Islamic Sources (2013), p. 60

{{anchor|Succession to Muhammad from historical viewpoint}}History

Feast of Dhul Asheera

In the fourth year of Islam, Muhammad held a banquet to which he invited 40 members of Banu Hashim. At the banquet, Muhammad was about to invite his guests to Islam when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet. The Prophet ordered Ali to invite the 40 people again. The second time, he announced Islam to them and invited them to join.BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 54, He said to them:}}Ali was the only one to answer Muhammad's call. Muhammad told him to sit down, saying, "Wait! Perhaps someone older than you might respond to my call." Muhammad then asked the members of Banu Hashim a second time. Again, Ali was the only one to respond and again Muhammad told him to wait. Muhammad then asked the members of Banu Hashim a third time. Ali was still the only volunteer. This time, Muhammad accepted Ali's offer and "drew [Ali] close, pressed him to his heart, and said to the assembly: 'This is my wazir, my successor and my vicegerent. Listen to him and obey his commands.'"BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 55, In another narration, when Muhammad accepted Ali's eager offer, Muhammad "threw up his arms around the generous youth, and pressed him to his bosom" and said, "Behold my brother, my vizir, my vicegerent ... let all listen to his words, and obey him."BOOK, Irving, Washington, The Life of Mohammed, British 19th-century ethnologist Richard Francis Burton wrote about the banquet, saying, "It won for [Muhammad] a proselyte worth a thousand sabers in the person of Ali, son of Abu Talib".BOOK, Burton, Sir Richard, (The Jew the Gypsy and El Islam, 1898, San Francisco,

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Shortly before his death, Muhammad called the Muslims who had accompanied him on the Farewell Pilgrimage to gather at Ghadir Khumm. Muhammad delivered a long sermon; at one point in the sermon, he raised Ali's arm and asked his audience, "Who has more priority over you than yourself?". The Muslims responded, "Allah and His messenger".BOOK, Majd, Vahid, The Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (saww) at Ghadir Khum, 151, According to Ahmad al-Tabarsi's transcript of the sermon, Muhammad then states:}}Later in the sermon, the following verse of the Quran was revealed: "This day I have perfected your religion for you: Completed my favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion". This was the last verse of the Quran to be revealed. Several sources state that towards the end of the sermon, Muhammad instructed the Muslims to pledge allegiance to Ali, with reports that Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman were among them. Belief in the exact nature of these events tend to be split along sectarian lines between Shia and Sunni denominations. Muhammad's designation of Ali is usually disputed by the latter, who instead believe that Muhammad had merely reminded his companions of the high regard with which he holds Ali and urging them to show him the appropriate level of respect.Hamid Mavani,Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi'ism (2013), p. 2

Expedition of Usama bin Zayd

In Medina, after the Farewell Pilgrimage and the event of Ghadir Khumm, Muhammad ordered an army under the command of Usama bin Zayd. He commanded all of the companions except for his family to go to Syria with Usama to avenge the Muslims' defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah.BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 283, Muhammad gave Usama the banner of Islam on the 18th day of Safar in the year 11 A.H. Abu Bakr and Umar were among those that Muhammad commanded to join Usama's army.BOOK, Haykal, Muhammad Husayn, The Life of Muhammad, 1935, Cairo, BOOK, Muir, Sir William, The Life of Mohammed, 1877, London, Abu Bakr and Umar, however, resisted going under the command of Usama because they thought he, who was between 18 and 20 years old, was too young to lead an army,WEB, 19 – The Life of Imam Ali: Prophet's (pbuh) Death – Dr. Sayed Ammar Nakshwani – Ramadhan 1435,weblink YouTube, despite Muhammad's teachings that age and standing in society did not necessarily correspond with being a good general.BOOK, Bodley, R.V.C., The Messenger, 1946, New York, BOOK, Kelen, Betty, Muhammad, Messenger of God, In response to these worries, the Prophet said: "O Arabs! You are miserable because I have appointed Usama as your general, and you are raising questions if he is qualified to lead you in war. I know you are the same people who had raised the same question about his father. By God, Usama is qualified to be your general just as his father was qualified to be a general. Now obey his orders and go."BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 286, Whenever Muhammad felt relief from his fatal sickness, he would ask whether Usama's army had yet left for Syria and continued urging his companions to do so. Muhammad reportedly said, "Usama's army must leave at once. May Allah curse those men who do not go with him."BOOK, Shahristani, Kitab al-Milal wan-Nihal, 8, BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 288, WEB, 19 – The Life of Imam Ali: Prophet's (pbuh) Death – Dr. Sayed Ammar Nakshwani – Ramadhan 1435,weblink YouTube, (In Islam, someone's "curse" means that God's mercy is removed from them.)BOOK, Zafar, Harris, Demystifying Islam: Tackling the Tough Questions, 2014, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 102, So when the Quran speaks of God cursing someone, it means that God punishes that individual by driving him or her away from Himself or removing all good from his or her life by depriving him or her of His Divine mercy., While a few companions were ready to join Usama's army, many others, including Abu Bakr and Umar, disobeyed Muhammad's orders. This was the only battle expedition where Muhammad urged his companions to go the battle unconditionally; for other battles, he would allow those who could not go to fight stay at home. With his death impending,BOOK, Tabari, History, Volume II, 435, Muhammad ordered his companions but not his family to leave Medina; this is put forward as proof he did not intend his companions to decide his succession.BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 289,

Incident of the pen and paper

Shortly before his death, Muhammad asked for writing materials so as to issue a statement that would prevent the Muslim nation from "going astray forever".BOOK, Hayaat al-Qulub, Volume 2, 998, {{hadith-usc|usc=yes|Bukhari|7|70|573}} However, those in the room began to quarrel about whether to obey this request, with concerns being raised that Muhammad may be suffering from delirium. When the argument grew heated, Muhammad ordered the group to leave and subsequently did not write anything.Gurdofarid Miskinzoda, The Story of Pen & Paper and its interpretation in Muslim Literary and Historical Tradition, The Study of Shi‘i Islam: History, Theology and Law (2014)Many details regarding the event are disputed, including the nature of Muhammad's planned statement. Though what he had intended to write is unknown, theologians and writers have offered their suggestions, with many believing that he had wished to establish his succession. Shia writers, such as Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid suggest that it would have been a direct appointment of Ali as the new leader, while Sunnis such as Al-Baladhuri states that it was to designate Abu Bakr.


(File:Saqifah Bani Sa'idah 3.jpg|thumb|A modern view of the approximate area where the gathering at Saqifah occurred)During Muhammad's life, the Muslims in Medina were composed of the Muhajirun, who had converted to Islam in Mecca and migrated to Medina with Muhammad, and the Ansar, who were originally from Medina and had invited Muhammad to rule their city. They were satisfied during Muhammad's leadership in Medina and were glad when he announced that Ali would be his successor at the event of Ghadir Khumm,BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 356, because they knew Ali would continue Muhammad's fair policies towards them. Ali was the only Muhajir whom the Ansar were willing to accept to rule over them after Muhammad.BOOK, Hazleton, Lesley, After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam, 2010, Anchor Books, 60-61, Ali was the one Emigrant whom the native Medinans would have freely acknowledged as their leader., When some of the Muhajirun refused to obey some of Muhammad's orders, however, the Ansar knew some of the Muhajirun were trying to take power upon his death.BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 380, They were worried the rule of a Muhajir other than Muhammad or Ali over them would lead to their eventual oppression. When they saw some of the Muhajirun planning to take power upon Muhammad's death, they thought they would be equally good candidates for power as the Muhajirun. When Muhammad died, some of the Ansar went to Saqifah and nominated Sa'd ibn Ubadah as the leader.According to one version of events, Ansar informants told Umar about events at Saqifah. Umar, desperate to prevent the Ansar from declaring Saad ibn Ubada the caliph, offered to pledge allegiance to Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah despite his previous pledge of allegiance to Ali. Abu Ubaidah refused, believing Abu Bakr, who was in Sunh with his new wife, was better suited for leadership than he was.BOOK, al-Suyūṭī, 1881, Baptist Mission Press, 70, Umar proclaimed Muhammad was alive and threatened to kill anyone who said otherwise. Abu Bakr arrived in Medina and confirmed that Muhammad was dead.BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 379, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah then went to Saqifah.BOOK, Al-Bukhari, BOOK, at-Tabari, Volume 3, 208, According to another version, after Abu Bakr persuaded Umar that Muhammad had died, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah went to Abu Ubaidah's house, where they discussed the issue of leadership. Upon hearing of the Ansar's gathering at Saqifah, they left to go to the meeting.BOOK, Jafri, Syed Husain Mohammad, The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam, 2002, Oxford University Press, 1st, The Muslims did not choose Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaydah al-Jarrah to represent them; they left to go to Saqifa on their own.BOOK, al-Samawi, Muhammad al-Tijani, Black Thursday, 2014, Lulu Press, Inc, At Saqifa, the Ansar and the three Muhajirun—Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah—debated who was more qualified for leadership. The Ansar suggested having two leaders, one from each sect.BOOK, El-Hibri, Tayeb, Parable and Politics in Early Islamic History: The Rashidun Caliphs, 2010, Columbia University Press, 354, Abu Bakr stated the Muhajirun should be the leaders and the Ansar their ministers. Debate continued until Bashir ibn Sa'ad gave a speech supporting Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah. Abu Bakr then told the Ansar to pledge allegiance to either Umar or Abu Ubaidah. Umar refused and pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, and Abu Ubaidah and Bashir followed. Hubab ibn al-Mandhir then called Bashir a traitor.BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 365, After a group of Bedouin tribesmen arrived and saw the three pledges of allegiance to Abu Bakr, they also pledged allegiance to him because they were opponents of the Ansar.BOOK, Grunebaum, G. E. Von, Classical Islam - A History 600-1258, A violent and possibly bloody debate between the Ansar and the three Muhajirun followed.WEB, Abdullah, Role of Umar before and In Saqifa,weblink 2018-12-11,weblink" title="">weblink 2018-12-14, no, BOOK, At-Tabari, Volume 3, 208-210, BOOK, ibn Khaldun, Volume 2, 63, The debates between the Ansar and the three Muhajirun at Saqifa were violent and possibly bloody; Al-Tabari reported that it was "truly a scene from the period of Jahiliya (the pre-Islamic era)".WEB, Abdullah, Role of Umar before and In Saqifa,weblink 2018-12-11,weblink" title="">weblink 2018-12-14, no, BOOK, At-Tabari, Volume 3, 208-210, BOOK, ibn Khaldun, Volume 2, 63, The gathering at Saqifah, which was reportedly attended by 14 peopleBOOK, Suhufi, Stories from the Qur'an, 2003, Islamic Seminary Publications, 312, , took place while Ali was conducting Muhammad's funeral and has been labelled as a coup.BOOK, Cooperson, Michael, Classical Arabic Biography: The Heirs of the Prophets in the Age of al-Ma'mun, 2000, Cambridge University Press, 25,

Attack on Muhammad's family

After the gathering at Saqifah, Abu Bakr allegedly ordered Umar to obtain allegiance from Ali.BOOK, Hazelton, Lesley, After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam, 2010, Anchor Books, 71, Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah—Muhammad's daughter and Ali's wife—where Ali, his family, and some of his supporters were present.BOOK, Cortese, Calderini, Delia, Simonetta, Women And the Fatimids in the World of Islam, Edinburgh University Press; 1 edition (January 5, 2006), 978-0748617333, 8,weblink Umar went to the door and threatened to burn down the house unless its occupants pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr.BOOK, History of Tabari, Volume 1, 1118–1120, Zubayr ibn al-Awam, who had been in Ali's house, came out of the house with his sword drawn but reportedly tripped on something, after which Umar's supporters attacked him.BOOK, History of Tabari, Volume 9, 186–187, BOOK, Wilferd, Madelung, The Succession to Muhammad, 43–44, According to one version of the story, Umar asked for wood. Umar was then informed that Fatimah was inside the house, to which he responded that he did not care.BOOK, Ibn Qutaybah, al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Volume 1, 3, BOOK, Ibn Qutaybah, al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Volume 1, 19–20, It is reported that when Fatimah heard the voices of Umar and his supporters threatening to attack the house, she cried out, "O father, O Messenger of Allah, how are Umar ibn al-Khattab and Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah treating us after you and how do they meet us".WEB, A Shi'ite Encyclopedia,weblink, Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 2018-03-10,weblink 2018-02-18, no, The house was then attacked. Umar and his supporters burned the door, crushed Fatimah between the door and the wall, killed her unborn child Muhsin ibn Ali, and then forced Ali out of the house against his will.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Arthur F., Buehler, Coeli Fitzpatrick, Adam Hani Walker, Fatima, Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God, 1,weblink 2014, Santa Barbara, California, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-61069-178-9, 186, 2018-12-11,weblink 2017-07-30, no, BOOK, {{harvid, Kitab-e- Sulaym Ibn Qays Al-Hilali, |author=Sulaym Ibn Qays al-Hilali |url= |title=Kitab-e- Sulaym Ibn Qays Al-Hilali |chapter=Hadith 4 |pages=48–67 | |accessdate=4 March 2012 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=6 July 2010 }} According to some versions, a rope was tied around Ali's neck.BOOK, As Seraat Al Mustaqeem, Volume 3, 25, According to the Mu'tazilite thelogoian Ibrahim al-Nazzam, "Umar hit Fatimah (sa) on the stomach such that child in her womb died".BOOK, al-Safadi, Salahuddin Khalil, Waafi al-Wafiyyaat, Umar and his companions dragged Ali away. Fatimah urged them to stop. Umar then ordered Qunfuz to whip Fatimah. According to some versions of the story, Qunfuz whipped her back and her arms;BOOK, Ilmul Yaqeen, Volume 2, 677, according to another, he struck her face.BOOK, Seeratul Aimmah Isna Ashar, Volume 1, 145, This incident is said to be the cause of Fatimah's miscarriage of MuhsinBOOK, Al-Masudi, Isbaat al-Wilaayah, 142, They attacked Fatimah's (s.a.) house. They crushed the Chief of All Women behind the door so violently that it resulted in the miscarriage of Mohsin., BOOK, al-Shahrastaani, Muhammad, Al-Milal wa al-Nehal, Volume 1, 57, and Fatimah's death shortly after.BOOK, Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 43, 171, 'Fatimah's (s.a.) death resulted from being pierced by the sword which claimed (the unborn) Mohsin's life. The perpetrator of this crime was Qunfuz, who was acting on his master – Umar's explicit command â€¦', These events have been the subject of dispute between various accounts. The historian Al-Baladhuri states that the altercation never became violent and ended with Ali's compliance.Vinay Khetia, Fatima as a Motif of Contention and Suffering in Islamic Sources (2013), p. 32 Several early historical sources also narrate that Fatimah's child Muhsin had died in early childhood. Al-Baladhuri, along with Al-Ya'qubi and Al-Masudi all list Muhsin among the children of Fatimah, but without any mention of a miscarriage. Similarly, the Shia theologian Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, when writing his Kitab al-Irshad, makes no mention of violence in relation to Muhsin's death. The earliest known reference of the miscarriage during the altercation only appears in the 10th century, in Ibn Qulawayh Al-Qummi's Kamil al-ziyarat.{{harvtxt|Khetia|2013|p=71-5}} Other sources also add that Fatimah and Abu Bakr had ultimately reconciled,Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, Iran: royalty, religion and revolution (1980), p. 115 and that Ali later willingly offered him his oath of allegiance and gave a praise-filled oration during Abu Bakr's funeral.Masudul Hasan, Hadrat Ali Murtada (1988), p. 133 Professor Coeli Fitzpatrick surmises that the story of the altercation reflects the political agendas of the period and should therefore be treated with caution.Coeli Fitzpatrick, Adam Hani Walker Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2014), p. 22

{{anchor|The Twelver Shia view of the succession}}Shia view

{{Shia Islam|Beliefs and practices}}File:Ambigram - Muhammad and Ali2.svg|thumb|alt=Multicolored Arabic-script design, where "Muhammad" reads "Ali" when turned upside down|AmbigramAmbigramShias believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God, only God can appoint his successor. Some cite Quranic verses such as (Sad (surah)#Verses 17-26: Story of David and the Two Litigants|38:26)WEB,weblink Sad, June 24, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink June 24, 2016, no, mdy-all, and (Al-Baqara|2:124)WEB,weblink Al-Baqara, June 24, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink June 24, 2016, no, mdy-all, , in which Allah assigned his successor on earth. Shia believe Moses did not ask his people to conduct a shura and assign his successor; Allah selected Aron to succeed Moses for his 40-night absence. Shia scholars refer to hadiths such as the Hadith of the pond of Khumm, Hadith of Position and Hadith of the Twelve Successors to prove that God, through Muhammad, chose Ali as successor. When the chief of Banu Amir asked Muhammad for a share of leadership in return for defeating Muhammad's enemy, Muhammad replied: "That is for God to decide; He will entrust leadership to whomever He will"; community leadership was not decided by the people.BOOK, Sobhani, Jaʻfar., Shah-Kazemi, Reza, 108, Doctrines of Shiʻi Islam : a compendium of Imami beliefs and practices, 2001, I.B. Tauris [u.a.], London, 978-1-86064-780-2, [Online-Ausg.],

Position of Ali before Prophet's death

Ali, the only person to have been born in the Kaaba—the holiest site in Islam—lived with Muhammad since he was five years old. He was the first male to accept Islam after Muhammad stated he had received revelations. When Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina, Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed so Muhammad could leave Mecca safely; when the polytheists of Mecca went to Muhammad's room with the aim of killing him, they found Ali in his bed. Muhammad then did not enter Medina until Ali and some of his other family members arrived; Muhammad waited at Quba, on the outskirts of Medina. Once Ali and their other family members arrived from Mecca, they proceeded to enter Medina.WEB, The Prophet Muhammad (S) Enters Madina,weblink, Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, 20 April 2019, On the eighth day, the Prophet along with his companions reached a place known as Quba, just two kilometres outside Madina. There he rested for several days, awaiting Imam Ali (a) and family members. After their arrival they proceeded to enter the city.,weblink 20 April 2019, no, dmy-all, In Medina, Muhammad assigned each of the Muhajirun (emigrants from Mecca) to be a "brother" to one of the Ansar (natives of Medina). It is widely reported that he chose Ali to be his own brother.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ali ibn Abitalib, Encyclopedia Iranica, 2007-10-25,weblinkweblink 2012-05-31, no, Ali was a leader in many of the battles of Islam. In the Battle of Badr, he killed between 20 and 35 enemy soldiers while all of the other Muslims killed approximately 27 enemy soldiers between them.See:
  • {{Harvnb|Ashraf|2005|p=36}}
  • {{Harvnb|Merrick|2005|p=247}}.
BOOK, Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher, A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims, 139, In the Battle of UhudBOOK, Adel, Farid, The Champions’ of the True Faith, 2016, He had the special role of protecting Muhammad when most of the Muslim army fled from the Battle of Uhud., and the Battle of Hunayn,BOOK, Watr, Muhammad Dhahir, Military Management In the Battles of the Prophet, 2014, In the Battle of Hunayn, where many of the 'great' companions fled from the battlefield, 'Ali ('a) stood next to the Prophet (S) and fought with valor, Ali was one of the few who stayed to defend Muhammad when most of the Muslims fled. Ali was also the husband of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and the father of his grandchildren Hasan, Husayn, Zaynab, Umm Kulthum, and Muhsin.

Ali in the Quran

While the majority of Islamic commentators do not believe Ali ibn Abi Talib is explicitly mentioned in the Quran, there are many verses of the Quran that are widely regarded as referring to him; these include:
  • Chapter 5, Verse 3: This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. This verse was revealed after Muhammad's sermon at Ghadir Khumm.BOOK, al-Bahrani, Seyyed Hashim, Al-Burhan Fi Tafsir al-Quran, 1, 434–437, Al-Burhan Fi Tafsir al-Quran, BOOK, Makarem Shirazi, Naser, Tafsir Nemooneh, 4, 263–271, Tafsir Nemooneh, BOOK, Sobhani, Ja'far, Al-Iman va al-Kofr fi al-Ketab va al-Sunnah, 1, 244,
  • Chapter 5, Verse 55: Only Allah is Waliyyukum (, "your WalÄ«" (masculine, plural tense)) and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay az-Zakāh (, the Poor-rate) while they bow. Shi'ite scholars, along with Sunni ones such as Tabari,{{efn|See at-Tabari: at-Tarikh, vol.6, p.186}} Al-Suyuti{{efn|See as-Suyuti: Dur al-Manthur, vol.2, pp. 293–4}} and Razi,{{efn|See ar-Razi: at-Tafsiru 'l Kabir, vol.12, p.26}} recorded{{efn|See also az-Zamakhshari: at-Tafsir al-Kashshaf, vol.1, p.469; al-Jassas:Ahkamu 'l-Quran, vol.2, pp. 542–3; al-khazin: at-Tafsir, vol.2, p.68 Imamate: The vicegerency of the Holy Prophet By Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizv p24 }} that one day, when Ali was performing ritual prayers in the Mosque, a beggar began to ask for alms. Ali extended his finger and the beggar removed his ring.BOOK, Akhtar Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed, Imamate: The vicegerency of the Holy Prophet,weblink 1988, Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania, 978-9976-956-13-9, 24–, 2019-03-06,weblink 2016-06-17, no, BOOK, Cornille, Catherine, Conway, Christopher, Interreligious Hermeneutics,weblink 1 July 2010, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 978-1-63087-425-4, 124–, 6 March 2019,weblink 5 May 2016, no, dmy-all, Then Muhammad observed this, and a passage of the Quran was sent down upon him. According to Shi'ites, in this verse, "obedience is absolute and conjoined with obedience to God and his messenger", so the person identified as Wali must be infallible.BOOK, Hamid, Mavani, Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi'ism, 68–73, 2013, New York and London: Routledge, 978-0-415-62440-4,
  • Chapter 5, Verse 67: O Messenger! deliver what has been revealed to you from your Rabb (, Lord); and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people. This verse tells Muhammad to announce Ali as his successor at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
  • Chapter 33, Verse 33: And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the Ignorance of yore; and keep up the Salah, and pay the Zakah, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, Ahlal-Bayt (, People of the House), and purify you a (thorough) purifying. Shi'ite commentators and some Sunni ones wrote that the people of the house in this verse are the Ahl al-Kisā' (, People of the Mantle): Muhammad, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn.BOOK, Leaman, Oliver, Oliver Leaman, The Quran: an Encyclopedia, 2006, Taylor & Francis e-Library, 978-0-415-32639-1, 28–31, {{harvnb|Madelung|1997|p=16}}{{harvnb|Momen|1985|p=14}}{{full citation needed|date=April 2019}}Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition 61Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tafsir al-Tabari vol. XXII. pp. 5–7.WEB,weblink H. Algar, "Al-E Aba," Encyclopædia Iranica, I/7, p. 742; an updated version is available online atweblink (accessed on 14 May 2014)., 6 March 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2014, no, dmy-all, "Fāṭima." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. 08 April 2014{{efn|see also al-Bahrani, Ghayat al-Marum, p. 126:al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. V, p.199; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al Musnad, Vol. I, p.331; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. I, p.783; Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq p.85 }} According to Wilferd Madelung, "the great majority of the reports quoted by al-Tabari in his commentary on this verse support this interpretation".{{efn|See Tabari, Jarir XXII, 5–7.}}{{efn|Madelung writes "the verse addressed to the wives of the Prophet: 'Stay in your houses, and do not show yourselves in spectacular fashion like that of the former time of ignorance. Perform the prayer, give alms, and obey God and His Messenger. God desires only to remove defilement from you, o people of the house (ahl al-bayt)^ and to purify you (yutahhirakum) completely' (XXXIII 33). Who are the 'people of the house' here? The pronoun referring to them is in the masculine plural, while the preceding part of the verse is in the feminine plural. This change of gender has evidently contributed to the birth of various accounts of a legendary character, attaching the latter part of the verse to the five People of the Mantle ahl al-kisa: Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn."{{harvnb|Madelung|1997|pp=14–15}}}}
  • Chapter 42, Verse 23: That is of which Allah gives the good news to His servants, (to) those who believe and do good deeds. Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but al-mawaddah fil-qurbā (, the love for the near relatives), and whoever earns good, We give him more of good therein; surely Allah is Forgiving, Grateful. Shi'ite commentators and some Sunni ones like Baydawi{{efn|See Baydawi, Anwar at-Tanzil. Vol.5 p.53{{harvnb|Momen|1985|p=334}} }} and Razi{{efn|See Razi, Mafatih al-Ghayb, vol. 7, pp. 273–5}} agree that the near relatives in question are Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn.{{harvnb|Momen|1985|p=152}}


Shia Muslims believe there are a number of hadith (sayings) of Muhammad wherein he left specific instructions about his successor. Some hadith used by Shias to justify Ali's position as the successor of Muhammad are as follows:
  • The Hadith of the pond of Khumm, another name for Muhammad's speech at Ghadir Khumm, is perhaps the best-known appointment of Ali as Muhammad's successor. In the lengthy speech, Muhammad made the statement that is roughly translated as "Of whomsoever I had been Mawla, this Ali is his Mawla". In the sermon, Muhammad also describes Ali with the leadership titles Imam, Ameer, and Khalifah.BOOK, Majd, Vahid, The Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (saww) at Ghadir Khum, 17-18, After the speech, the final verse of the Quran was revealed and the Muslims pledged allegiance to Ali.
  • In the Hadith of the two weighty things, Muhammad said, "Verily, I am leaving with you two precious things, the Book of God and my progeny, my ahl al-bayt; for as long as you cling to these two, you will never go astray; and truly they will not be parted from each other until they join me at al-Kawthar".
  • In the Hadith of position, Muhammad compares Ali's relationship to him with Aaron's relationship to Moses. According to the Quran, Aaron was a prophet, heir, and minister; Ali was an heir and minister.BOOK, Sobhani, JA'afar, Shah-Kazemi, Reza, Doctrines of ShiÊ»i Islam : a compendium of Imami beliefs and practices, 2001, I.B. Tauris [u.a.], London, 978-1-86064-780-2, 102, [Online-Ausg.],
  • In the Hadith of the Ark, Muhammad compares his ahl al-Bayt (family) to Noah's Ark, saying, "Is not the likeness of my ahl al-bayt among you like the ark of Noah among his folk? Whoever takes refuge therein is saved and whoever opposes it is drowned." As Noah's Ark was the sole salvation of his people, ahl al-Bayt was the only salvation for the people of that time.BOOK, Sobhani, JA'afar, Shah-Kazemi, Reza, Doctrines of ShiÊ»i Islam : a compendium of Imami beliefs and practices, 2001, I.B. Tauris [u.a.], London, 978-1-86064-780-2, 103, [Online-Ausg.],
  • In the Hadith of warning, which occurred at the feast of Dhul Asheera, after Muhammad invited his family to Islam, he calls Ali his vicegerent and told the others in attendance to listen to and obey Ali.
All of these hadiths are present in both Shia and Sunni books, although their interpretation differs between the two sects.

{{anchor|The Sunni view of the succession}}Sunni view

{{Sunni Islam}}

Ghadir Khumm

{{Caliphate}}According to a musnad (supported) hadith, Muhammad made a speech at Ghadir Khumm in which he said, "Of whomsoever I am the mawla, Ali is his mawla".ENCYCLOPEDIA, Veccia Vaglieri, Laura, Laura Veccia Vaglieri, G̲h̲adīr K̲h̲umm, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2012, Brill Online,weblink 2017-01-06,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-01-06, no, Mawla has a number of meanings in Arabic; although Shi'ites translate it as "master" or "ruler" and believe Muhammad did not make 120,000 people wait in the desert for three days only to tell them to support Ali, some Sunni scholars say Muhammad was saying his friends should befriend Ali; it was a response to Yemeni soldiers who had complained about Ali.WEB,weblink The Event of Ghadir Khumm in the Qur'an, Hadith, History,, 2005-09-02,weblink" title="">weblink 2006-01-07, no, Sunnis believe interpreting an expression of friendship and support as the appointment of a successor is incorrect and that the leadership dispute after Muhammad's death proved his statement was not an appointment.Others believe Muhammad meant "master" in his use of mawla to describe Ali at Ghadir Khumm; it was a description of Ali's spiritual superiority among the Muslims rather than a decision about succession. These Sunnis also reject the translation of mawla as "friend".The word is discussed in Patronate and Patronage in Early and Classical Islam, edited by Monique Bernards and John Nawas:Mawla may refer to a client, a patron, an agnate (brother, son, father's brother, father' brothers son), an affined kinsman, (brother-in-law, son-in-law), a friend, a supporter, a follower, a drinking companion, a partner, a newly-converted Muslim attached to a Muslim and last but not least an ally. Most of these categories have legal implications ... Mawla is commonly translated as "a client".BOOK, Bernards, Monique, Nawas, John, Patronate And Patronage in Early And Classical Islam, 25, Leiden, Brill Publishers,weblink 9789004144804, 2016-01-07,weblink 2016-05-02, no, Despite this, it has been recorded in some Sunni histories that Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman were all among those who pledged allegiance to Ali at the event of Ghadir Khumm.BOOK, al-Tabrizi, al-Khatib, Mishkat al-Masabih, 557,

{{anchor|Sunni attitude towards Ali}}Attitude towards Ali

Ali's birth in the Kaaba, the holiest site in Islam, has been mentioned in Sunni sources.BOOK, Nishapuri, Al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume III, 483, BOOK, Tantawy, Muhammad Sayyid, Min Fada-il al-'Ashrat al-Mubashireen bil Janna, 1976, Matab'a al-Ahram at-Tijariyya, Cairo, 186, Sunni sources also acknowledge Ali's heroism in the battles of Islam, such as the Battle of Badr WEB, Khan, Adnan, Battle of Badr happened in Ramadan,weblink Arab News, Saudi Research & Publishing Company, 13 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 19 July 2018, no, dmy-all, and the Battle of the Trench.WEB, The courage of Hazrat Ali (RA) in the Battle of the Trench,weblink Prophetic Path,, 2018-12-13,weblink" title="">weblink 2018-12-15, no, Sunnis consider Ali a righteous caliph and accept his hadiths (sayings).

Western academic views

Wilferd Madelung, in his book The Succession to Muhammad, said the succession of Abu Bakr was problematic and that Ali may have expected to assume leadership at Muhammad's death.BOOK, Valerie Jon Hoffman, The Essentials of Ibadi Islam, 6–7, Syracuse, New York, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2012, 978-0-8156-5084-3,weblink According to Madelung:}}Some early western scholars based their studies on the Sunni books of history because the Sunnis were in power at the time; some early books by western scholars may therefore include a Sunni bias.WEB, Orientalists and the Event of Ghadir Khumm,weblink 2018-12-09,weblink 2018-12-09, no, This changed in books like God's Caliph: Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam by Patricia Crone and Martin Hinds, which challenges the established view that Shia Islam was deviant and instead argues that the Shia Imamate "[preserved] the concept of religious authority".BOOK, Crone, Patricia, Hinds, Martin, God's Caliph: Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam, 2003, Cambridge University Press, Edward Gibbon, in his History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, takes a favorable view of Muhammad's family, writing about the Banu Umayya's rule; "The persecutors of Mohammed usurped the inheritance of his children; and the champions of idolatry became the supreme heads of his religion and empire".BOOK, Gibbon, Edward, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, In A Concise History of Sunnis and Shi'is, John McHugo writes that "the story of what happened at Ghadir Khumm ... can be interpreted to suggest that the Prophet had intended Ali to follow him as leader of the community after his death", before mentioning some of Ali's other merits.BOOK, McHugo, John, A Concise History of Sunnis and Shi'is, 2018, Georgetown University Press, 102,

See also





Academic books

  • {{citation |last=Ashraf |first=Shahid |title=Holy Prophet and Companions (15 Vol Set) |url= |accessdate=3 January 2013 |date=1 January 2004 |publisher=Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd |isbn=978-81-261-1940-0}}
  • {{citation |last=Chirri |first=Mohamad Jawad |title=The brother of the prophet Mohammad (the Imam Ali): a reconstruction of Islamic history and an extensive research of the Shi-ite Islamic school of thought |url= |accessdate=3 January 2013 |year=1982 |publisher=Islamic Center of Detroit}}
  • {{citation |last=Dakake |first=Maria Massi |title=The Charismatic Community: ShiÊ»ite Identity in Early Islam |url= |accessdate=3 January 2013 |year=2007 |publisher=SUNY Press |isbn=978-0-7914-7033-6}}
  • {{citation |last=Donner |first=Fred McGraw |title=Narratives of Islamic origins: the beginnings of Islamic historical writing |url= |accessdate=3 January 2013 |year=1998 |publisher=Darwin Press |isbn=978-0-87850-127-4}}
  • {{citation |last1=Holt |first1=P. M. |author-link2=Bernard Lewis |last2=Lewis |first2=Bernard |title=Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1 |year=1977 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=0-521-29136-4}}
  • {{Citation |last1=Landolt |first1=Hermann |last2=Lawson |first2=Todd |title=Reason and inspiration in Islam : theology, philosophy and mysticism in Muslim thought : essays in honour of Hermann Landolt |year=2005 |publisher=I.B. Tauris |location=London ; New York |isbn=978-1-85043-470-2}}
  • {{citation |last=Lapidus |first=Ira |title=A History of Islamic Societies |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2002 |edition=2nd |isbn=978-0-521-77933-3}}
  • {{citation |last=Madelung |first=Wilferd |authorlink=Wilferd Madelung |title=The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=1997 |isbn=0-521-64696-0}}
  • {{citation |last=Modarressi |first=Hossein |title=Tradition and survival: a bibliographical survey of early ShÄ«'ite literature |url= |accessdate=3 January 2013 |year=2003 |publisher=Oneworld |isbn=978-1-85168-331-4}}
  • {{citation |last=Nigosian |first=Solomon Alexander |title=Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices |url= |accessdate=3 January 2013 |date=1 January 2004 |publisher=Indiana University Press |isbn=978-0-253-21627-4}}
  • {{Citation |last=Reeves |first=Minou |title=Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making |year=2003 |publisher=NYU Press |isbn=978-0-8147-7564-6}}
  • {{citation |last=Robinson |first=Chase F. |title=Islamic Historiography |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2003 |isbn=0-521-62936-5}}
  • {{citation |last1=Sachedina |first1=Abdulaziz Abdulhussein |title=Islamic messianism : the idea of MahdÄ« in twelver ShÄ«Ê»is |year=1981 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=Albany |isbn=0-87395-458-0}}
  • {{citation |last1=Tabatabae |first1=Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn |author-link2=Hossein Nasr |last2=Nasr |first2=Hossein (translator) |author-link1=Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i |title=Shi'ite Islam |publisher=Suny press |year=1979 |isbn=0-87395-272-3}}
  • {{citation |last=Watt |first=William Montgomery |title=Muhammad at Mecca |url= |accessdate=3 January 2013 |year=1953 |publisher=Clarendon Press}}

Shia books

Sunni books

External links

{{anchor|Sunni Perspective}}Sunni perspective

Shia perspective


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