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State of Palestine
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{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|De jure state in the Middle East}}{{pp-30-500|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2018}}{{Coord|32|00|N|35|15|E|display=title}}







factoids

|common_name = Palestine
|native_name = {{native name|ar|دولة فلسطين|italics=off}}{{transl|ar|Dawlat Filasṭīn}}
|image_flag = Flag of Palestine.svg
|image_coat = Coat of arms of Palestine.svg
|symbol_width = 70px
|national_anthem = "}}"{{lower|0.1em|"Fida'i"WEB, Palestinian National Authority, 8 June 2014, World Statesmen.org,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140208062450weblink">weblink 8 February 2014, no, Ben Cahoon, WEB, Palestine, 8 June 2014, nationalanthems.info,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140331034257weblink">weblink 31 March 2014, includes audio, no, }}"My Redemption"(File:National Anthem of Palestine (Vocal).ogg)|image_map = State of Palestine (orthographic projection).svg
|map_width = 220px
|map_caption = Territory claimed by the State of Palestine (green)Territory also claimed by Israel (light green)
|capital={hide}unbulleted list! Name !! Area (km2)WEB, Palestine,weblink GeoHive, Johan van der Heyden, 3 October 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714162009weblink">weblink 14 July 2014, !! Population !! Density (per km2) !! muhfaza or district capital
Jerusalem{{ref labeliiLOCATION=MONTEVIDEO ITEM>INSTITUTO DEL TERCER MUNDO PAGE=443 AUTHOR1-LINK=RUTH LAPIDOTH DATE=2011 WEBSITE=THE JERUSALEM INSTITUTE FOR ISRAEL STUDIES ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140605013337/HTTP://WWW.JIIS.ORG/.UPLOAD/LAPIDOTH-JERUSALEM.PDF DEADURL=NO PAGE=26 DF=, Reprinted from: Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed.) (online 2008, print 2011). Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law>The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. Oxford University Press.|Ramallah}}List of states with limited recognition>Partially recognized state, United Nations General Assembly observersInternational recognition of the State of Palestine>Recognized by 137 UN member states|capital_type = {{unbulleted listProclaimed capital|Administrativecenter}}|largest_city = Gaza CityArabic language>Arabic|demonym = PalestinianUnitary state>Unitary Semi-presidential system republicDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (1988) (UN DOC) ACCESSDATE=8 JUNE 2014 URL=HTTP://WWW.UN.INT/WCM/CONTENT/SITE/PALESTINE/CACHE/OFFONCE/PID/12353 ARCHIVE-DATE=8 JUNE 2014 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS, President of the State of Palestine>President|leader_name1 = Mahmoud AbbasbPrime Minister of the State of Palestine>Prime Minister|leader_name2 = Mohammad ShtayyehPalestinian National Council>Speaker of Parliament|leader_name3 = Salim ZanounPalestinian National Council>National CouncilState of Palestine#History>FormationPalestinian Declaration of Independence>Declaration of Independence|established_date1 = 15 November 1988United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19>UNGA observer state resolution|established_date2 = 29 November 2012|established_event3 = Sovereignty dispute with IsraelOngoingc{{ref labeliiiTITLE=PA WEIGHS 'STATE OF PALESTINE' PASSPORT ACCESSDATE=8 JUNE 2014 URL=HTTP://WWW.ISRAELNATIONALNEWS.COM/NEWS/NEWS.ASPX/162844#.U5TD6VMICM6 ARCHIVE-DATE=7 DECEMBER 2012 PUBLISHER=ARUTZ SHEVA AL-QUDS NEWSPAPER. THE CHANGE TO 'STATE' STATUS IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT SHOWS THAT 'THE STATE OF PALESTINE IS OCCUPIED,' HE SAID. >DF=, STATE OF PALESTINE NAME CHANGE SHOWS LIMITATIONS>URL=HTTPS://NEWS.YAHOO.COM/STATE-PALESTINE-NAME-CHANGE-SHOWS-LIMITATIONS-200641448.HTMLDATE=17 JANUARY 2013ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130110025703/HTTP://NEWS.YAHOO.COM/STATE-PALESTINE-NAME-CHANGE-SHOWS-LIMITATIONS-200641448.HTML, 10 January 2013, }}TITLE=DEMOGRAPHIC YEARBOOK DATE=2012 UNITED NATIONS STATISTICS DIVISION >ACCESSDATE=28 JANUARY 2018 ARCHIVE-DATE=15 OCTOBER 2017 DF=DMY-ALL, |area_rank = 163rd |area_footnote =|area_sq_mi = 2,320 WEBSITE=CIA.GOV ARCHIVE-DATE=6 MAY 2014 DATE=7 APRIL 2014 DEADURL=NO, |area_label2 = West Bank2}}|area_label3 = Gaza Strip2}}HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/GZ.HTML >TITLE=THE WORLD FACTBOOK: MIDDLE EAST: GAZA STRIP ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140608204417/HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/GZ.HTML PUBLISHER=CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY ACCESSDATE=8 JUNE 2014 DF=, WEBSITE=PALESTINIAN CENTRAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140608204943/HTTP://WWW.PCBS.GOV.PS/PORTALS/_RAINBOW/DOCUMENTS/GOVER_E.HTM PUBLISHER=STATE OF PALESTINE DF=, |population_estimate_year = 2016|population_estimate_rank = 123rd|population_census_year =|population_density_km2 = 731|population_density_sq_mi = 1,895|population_density_rank =$11.95 billiona}}|GDP_PPP_year = 2008a|GDP_PPP_rank = –|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $2,900a|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = –|Gini = 35.5|Gini_year = 2009|Gini_change = WEBSITE=THE WORLD BANK: DATA ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140608054636/HTTP://DATA.WORLDBANK.ORG/INDICATOR/SI.POV.GINI DEADURL=NO, |Gini_rank =|HDI = 0.677|HDI_year = 2014|HDI_change = increaseDATE=2015 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ARCHIVE-DATE=19 MARCH 2016 DF=DMY-ALL, |HDI_rank = 113thEgyptian pound (ISO 4217) >Israeli new shekel (ILS) Jordanian dinar (JOD)According to Article 4 of the 1994 Paris Protocol {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161001065601weblink West Bank, the Israeli new sheqel and Jordanian dinar are widely accepted; while in the Gaza Strip, the Israeli new sheqel and Egyptian pound are widely accepted.> (see also Palestinian currency)}}|time_zone = Palestine Standard Time|utc_offset = +2|utc_offset_DST = +3|time_zone_DST = Palestine Summer Time|date_format = dd/mm/yyyy|drives_on = right|calling_code = +970|iso3166code = PS|cctld = .psPalestinian Central Bureau of Statistics>PCBS.{{ref labeliv|}}}}Israeli-occupied territories>Israeli occupation.}}Palestine ( {{transl|ar|Filasṭīn}}), officially the State of Palestine{{ref label|naming|i|}} ( {{transl|ar|Dawlat Filasṭīn}}), is a de jure sovereign stateWEB, Al Zoughbi, Basheer, The de jure State of Palestine under Belligerent Occupation: Application for Admission to the United Nations,weblink 29 July 2016, November 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160829174105weblink">weblink 29 August 2016, no, dmy-all, NEWS, Falk, Palma, Is Palestine now a state?,weblink 29 July 2016, CBS News, 30 November 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160814080248weblink">weblink 14 August 2016, no, dmy-all, in Western Asia claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt)WEB, Ban sends Palestinian application for UN membership to Security Council, 23 September 2011, 11 September 2015, United Nations News Centre,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151010151934weblink">weblink 10 October 2015, no, dmy-all, with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.{{ref label|capital|ii|}} The entirety of territory claimed by the State of Palestine has been occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War in 1967.WEB, Tahhan, Zena, The Naksa: How Israel occupied the whole of Palestine in 1967,weblink www.aljazeera.com, 28 December 2018,weblink 28 December 2018, no, dmy-all, Palestine has a population of 4,816,503 as of 2016, ranked 123rd in the world.After World War II, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem.WEB,weblink Resolution 181 (II). Future government of Palestine, 29 November 1947, United Nations, 21 March 2017,weblink 10 October 2017, no, dmy-all, After the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel on 14 May 1948,WEB,weblink Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel, 14 May 1948, 8 April 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116103234weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, no, dmy-all, BOOK, Brenner, Michael, Frisch, Shelley, Zionism: A Brief History, Markus Wiener Publishers, April 2003, 184, WEB,weblink Zionist Leaders: David Ben-Gurion 1886–1973, 13 July 2011, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111113000200weblink">weblink 13 November 2011, no, dmy-all, neighboring Arab armies invaded the former British mandate on the next day and fought the Israeli forces.The Arab-Israeli War of 1948 (US Department of State, Office of the Historian) {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170616085329weblink |date=16 June 2017 }}"Arab forces joining the Palestinian Arabs in attacking territory in the former Palestinian mandate."Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, 2006 — Chap.8 "The Arab Regular Armies' Invasion of Palestine". Later, the All-Palestine Government was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan. Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip.Gelber, Y. Palestine, 1948. Pp. 177-78 Israel later captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria in June 1967 following the Six-Day War.On 15 November 1988, Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), in Algiers proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine. A year after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, the Palestinian National Authority was formed to govern the areas A and B in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Gaza would later be ruled by Hamas in 2007, two years after the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza.The State of Palestine is recognized by 137 UN members and since 2012 has a status of a non-member observer state in the United Nations – which implies recognition of statehood.WEB, Louis, Charbonneau, Palestinians win implicit U.N. recognition of sovereign state, 29 November 2012, 8 June 2014, Reuters,weblinkweblink 5 June 2014, no, Thomson Reuters, WEB, Edith M, Lederer, Live Stream: Palestine asks United Nations for a 'birth certificate' ahead of vote, 30 November 2012, 8 June 2014, www.3news.com,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116091340weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, yes, MediaWorks TV, New Zealand, dmy-all, It is a member of the Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, G77, and the International Olympic Committee and other international bodies.

Etymology

{{Further|Palestine (region)#Etymology|Timeline of the name "Palestine"}}Since the British Mandate, the term "Palestine" has been associated with the geographical area that currently covers the State of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.Rubin, 1999, {{Google books |id=A9FVtIjyFtYC |page=186 |title=The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab world }} General use of the term "Palestine" or related terms to the area at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea beside Syria has historically been taking place since the times of Ancient Greece, with Herodotus writing of a "district of Syria, called Palaistine" in which Phoenicians interacted with other maritime peoples in The Histories.Herodotus, Volume 4. P.21. 1806. Rev. William Beloe translation.{{non-primary source needed|reason=Herodotus is probably not the oldest extant use of this name (it's in the Bible), so while I understand a thorough history of the use of the word is out of the scope of this article, this seems like a random factoid. So why is it included? Herodotus himself can't be an adequate source for this factoid being included; a source on the history of modern Palestine that gives a brief history of the name and mentions Herodotus there with an explanation of WHY would be much better.|date=August 2016}}Some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of the geographical region of "Palestine" include Canaan, Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael or Ha'aretz),{{sfn|Biger|2004|p=133, 159}}{{ref label|NewTestament|v|}} Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Judea, Coele-Syria,{{ref label|Strabo|vi|}} "Israel HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Zion, Retenu (Ancient Egyptian), Southern Syria, Southern Levant and Syria Palaestina.

Geography

The areas claimed by the State of Palestine lie in the Levant. The Gaza Strip borders the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Egypt to the south, and Israel to the north and east. The West Bank is bordered by Jordan to the east, and Israel to the north, south, and west. Thus, the two enclaves constituting the area claimed by State of Palestine have no geographical border with one another, being separated by Israel. These areas would constitute the world's 163rd largest country by land area.WEB,weblink The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency, www.cia.gov, en, 21 August 2017,weblink 6 May 2014, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency, www.cia.gov, en, 21 August 2017,weblink 8 June 2014, no, dmy-all, {{Failed verification|reason=The sources describe West Bank and Gaza, not mention of SoP|date=December 2018}}

History

{{see also|History of Palestine}}In 1947, the UN adopted a partition plan for a two-state solution in the remaining territory of the mandate. The plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab leaders, and Britain refused to implement the plan. On the eve of final British withdrawal, the Jewish Agency for Israel declared the establishment of the State of Israel according to the proposed UN plan. The Arab Higher Committee did not declare a state of its own and instead, together with Transjordan, Egypt, and the other members of the Arab League of the time, commenced military action resulting in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. During the war, Israel gained additional territories that were designated to be part of the Arab state under the UN plan. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip and Transjordan occupied and then annexed the West Bank. Egypt initially supported the creation of an All-Palestine Government, but disbanded it in 1959. Transjordan never recognized it and instead decided to incorporate the West Bank with its own territory to form Jordan. The annexation was ratified in 1950 but was rejected by the international community. The Six-Day War in 1967, when Israel fought against Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, ended with Israel occupying the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, besides other territories.In 1964, when the West Bank was controlled by Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established there with the goal to confront Israel. The Palestinian National Charter of the PLO defines the boundaries of Palestine as the whole remaining territory of the mandate, including Israel. Following the Six-Day War, the PLO moved to Jordan, but later relocated to Lebanon after Black September in 1971.The October 1974 Arab League summit designated the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" and reaffirmed "their right to establish an independent state of urgency."BOOK, al Madfai, Madiha Rashid, 1993, Jordan, the United States and the Middle East Peace Process, 1974–1991, Cambridge Middle East Library, 28, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-41523-1, 21, In November 1974, the PLO was recognized as competent on all matters concerning the question of Palestine by the UN General Assembly granting them observer status as a "non-state entity" at the UN.{{UN document |docid=A/RES/3237(XXIX) |body=A |type=R |session=29 |resolution_number=3237 (XXIX) |title=Observer status for the Palestine Liberation Organization |date=22 November 1974 |meeting=2296th plenary meeting |accessdate=10 June 2014}}BOOK, Isolated States: A Comparative Analysis, Cambridge Studies in International Relations, 15, 155, Geldenhuys, Deon, Cambridge University Press, 1990, 978-0-521-40268-2, After the 1988 Declaration of Independence, the UN General Assembly officially acknowledged the proclamation and decided to use the designation "Palestine" instead of "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the UN.{{UN document |docid=A/RES/43/117 |body=A |type=R |session=43 |resolution_number=43/117 |title=Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees |date=8 December 1988 |meeting=75th plenary meeting |accessdate=10 June 2014}}BOOK, Tim, Hillier, Sourcebook on Public International Law, 1998, 978-1-84314-380-2, 8 June 2014, {{Google books, ukWq9mMUeesC, 205, yes, |pages=205 |publisher=Cavendish Publishing |edition=Cavendish Publishing sourcebook series}} In spite of this decision, the PLO did not participate at the UN in its capacity of the State of Palestine's government.{{UN document |docid=A/55/PV.54 |body=A |type=A |session=55 |document_number=36 |title=Bethlehem 2000 Draft resolution (A/55/L.3) |page=10 |meeting=54th plenary meeting |date=7 November 2000 |meetingtime=3 p.m. |speakername=Al-Kidwa, Nasser |speakernation=State of Palestine{{!}}Palestine|language=Arabic |accessdate=10 June 2014}} "Moreover, we are confident that in the near future we will truly be able to join the international community, represented in the Organization as Palestine, the State that encompasses Bethlehem."In 1979, through the Camp David Accords, Egypt signaled an end to any claim of its own over the Gaza Strip. In July 1988, Jordan ceded its claims to the West Bank—with the exception of guardianship over Haram al-Sharif—to the PLO. In November 1988, the PLO legislature, while in exile, declared the establishment of the "State of Palestine". In the month following, it was quickly recognised by many states, including Egypt and Jordan. In the Palestinian Declaration of Independence, the State of Palestine is described as being established on the "Palestinian territory", without explicitly specifying further. Because of this, some of the countries that recognised the State of Palestine in their statements of recognition refer to the "1967 borders", thus recognizing as its territory only the occupied Palestinian territory, and not Israel. The UN membership application submitted by the State of Palestine also specified that it is based on the "1967 borders". During the negotiations of the Oslo Accords, the PLO recognised Israel's right to exist, and Israel recognised the PLO as representative of the Palestinian people. Between 1993 and 1998, the PLO made commitments to change the provisions of its Palestinian National Charter that are inconsistent with the aim for a two-state solution and peaceful coexistence with Israel.After Israel took control of the West Bank from Jordan and Gaza Strip from Egypt, it began to establish Israeli settlements there. These were organised into Judea and Samaria district (West Bank) and Hof Aza Regional Council (Gaza Strip) in the Southern District. Administration of the Arab population of these territories was performed by the Israeli Civil Administration of the Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories and by local municipal councils present since before the Israeli takeover. In 1980, Israel decided to freeze elections for these councils and to establish instead Village Leagues, whose officials were under Israeli influence. Later this model became ineffective for both Israel and the Palestinians, and the Village Leagues began to break up, with the last being the Hebron League, dissolved in February 1988.WEB,weblink 40 Years Of Israeli Occupation, arij.org, 19 January 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110718173049weblink">weblink 18 July 2011, no, dmy-all, In 1993, in the Oslo Accords, Israel acknowledged the PLO negotiating team as "representing the Palestinian people", in return for the PLO recognizing Israel's right to exist in peace, acceptance of UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, and its rejection of "violence and terrorism".WEB, Kim, Murphy, Israel and PLO, in Historic Bid for Peace, Agree to Mutual Recognition : Mideast: After decades of conflict, accord underscores both sides' readiness to coexist. Arafat reaffirms the renunciation of violence in strong terms., 10 September 1993, 8 June 2014, Los Angeles Times,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100423205723weblink">weblink 23 April 2010, no, As a result, in 1994 the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) territorial administration, that exercises some governmental functions{{ref label|control|iii|}} in parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.{{UN document |docid=A/RES/52/250 |body=A |type=R |session=52 |resolution_number=52/250 |title=Participation of Palestine in the work of the United Nations |date=13 July 1998}}WEB, Written Statement Submitted by Palestine, 30 January 2004, 8 June 2014, International Court of Justice, International Court of Justice (ICJ),weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090205004758weblink">weblink 5 February 2009, no, PDF, 44–49, none, , in WEB, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (Index), 10 December 2003, 8 June 2014, International Court of Justice,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121007033944weblink">weblink 7 October 2012, yes, PDF, none, dmy-all, , referred to the ICJ by {{UN document |docid=A/RES/ES-10/14 |body=A |type=R |resolution_number=ES-10/14 |document_number=Agenda item 5 |title=Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory |date=12 December 2003 |meeting=Tenth emergency special session; 23rd plenary meeting |accessdate=10 June 2014}} In 2007, the Hamas takeover of Gaza Strip politically and territorially divided the Palestinians, with Abbas's Fatah left largely ruling the West Bank and recognized internationally as the official Palestinian Authority,NEWS, Hamas leader's Tunisia visit angers Palestinian officials, 7 January 2012, 8 June 2014, Al Arabiya News,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120108052540weblink">weblink 8 January 2012, no, Agence France-Presse, Agence France-Presse (AFP), while Hamas secured its control over the Gaza Strip. In April 2011, the Palestinian parties signed an agreement of reconciliation, but its implementation had stalled until a unity government was formed on 2 June 2014.WEB, Palestinian unity government sworn in by Mahmoud Abbas, 2 June 2014, 8 June 2014, BBC News Middle East,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140603033348weblink">weblink 3 June 2014, no, BBC, File:Demonstration against road block, Kafr Qaddum, March 2012 3.JPG|thumb|Demonstration against road block, Kafr QaddumKafr QaddumAs envisioned in the Oslo Accords, Israel allowed the PLO to establish interim administrative institutions in the Palestinian territories, which came in the form of the PNA. It was given civilian control in Area B and civilian and security control in Area A, and remained without involvement in Area C. In 2005, following the implementation of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, the PNA gained full control of the Gaza Strip with the exception of its borders, airspace, and territorial waters.{{ref label|control|iii|}} Following the inter-Palestinian conflict in 2006, Hamas took over control of the Gaza Strip (it already had majority in the PLC), and Fatah took control of the West Bank. From 2007, the Gaza Strip was governed by Hamas, and the West Bank by Fatah.{{anchor|Politics}}On 29 November 2012, in a 138–9 vote (with 41 abstentions and 5 absences),WEB, United Nations Sixty-seventh General Assembly: General Assembly Plenary, 44th & 45th Meetings (PM & Night). GA/11317: General Assembly Votes Overwhelmingly to Accord Palestine 'Non-Member Observer State' Status in United Nations, 29 November 2012, 8 June 2014, un.org,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121130083931weblink">weblink2012/ga11317.doc.htm, 30 November 2012, no, United Nations, the United Nations General Assembly passed resolution 67/19, upgrading Palestine from an "observer entity" to a "non-member observer state" within the United Nations system, which was described as recognition of the PLO's sovereignty.NEWS, General Assembly grants Palestine non-member observer State status at UN, https:www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=43640&Cr=palestin&Cr1=#.ULx5U4agTeo, United Nations News Centre, 29 November 2012, 8 June 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130102181348weblink">weblink 2 January 2013, no, {{UN document |docid=A/67/L.28 |body=A |type=A |session=67 |document_number=37 |title=Question of Palestine |date=26 November 2012 |accessdate=11 June 2014}} and {{UN document |docid=A/RES/67/19 |body=A |type=R |session=67 |resolution_number=67/19 |title=Status of Palestine in the United Nations |date=29 November 2012 |accessdate=11 June 2014}} Palestine's new status is equivalent to that of the Holy See.WEB, Tim, Hume, Ashley, Fantz, Palestinian United Nations bid explained, 30 November 2012, 8 June 2014, CNN International Edition: Middle East,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921053748weblink">weblink 21 September 2013, no, Cable News Network, Cable News Network (CNN), The UN has permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as "The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations",Website of the State of Palestine's Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130131073609weblink |date=31 January 2013 }} and Palestine has instructed its diplomats to officially represent "The State of Palestine"—no longer the Palestinian National Authority. On 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon declared that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents",WEB,weblink U.N. Adds New Name: "State of Palestine", Gharib, Ali, 20 December 2012, 10 January 2013, The Daily Beast,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121221170726weblink">weblink 21 December 2012, no, dmy-all, thus recognising the title 'State of Palestine' as the state's official name for all UN purposes. {{Numrec|Pal|link=N|asof=S}} ({{Numrec|Pal|link=N|pcent=UN}}) of the {{UNnum}} member states of the United Nations have recognised the State of Palestine.Christmas Message from H.E. President Mahmoud Abbas {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141103183155weblink |date=3 November 2014 }}, Christmas 2012: "133 countries that took the courageous step of recognizing the State of Palestine on the 1967 borders." Many of the countries that do not recognise the State of Palestine nevertheless recognise the PLO as the "representative of the Palestinian people". The PLO's Executive Committee is empowered by the Palestinian National Council to perform the functions of government of the State of Palestine.BOOK, Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993, Yezid, Sayigh, illustrated, Oxford University Press, 1999, 624, 9780198296430, harv, ., "The Palestinian National Council also empowered the central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and the executive committee to perform the functions of government until such time as a government-in-exile was established."

Politics

Government

{{see also|Politics of the Palestinian National Authority|Politics of the Palestine Liberation Organization}}File:PalestinianLegislativeCouncilGazaCity.jpg|thumb|The destroyed Palestinian Legislative Council building in Gaza City, Gaza–Israel conflictGaza–Israel conflictThe State of Palestine consists of the following institutions that are associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO):
  • President of the State of PalestineWEB, Government of the Dominican Republic, Comunicado Conjunto para Establecimiento Relaciones Diplomaticas entre la Republica Dominican y el Estado de Palestina, Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Dominican Republic and the State of Palestine, Spanish, English, Arabic, PDF,weblink 15 July 2009, Dominican Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 15 June 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110815175157weblink">weblink 15 August 2011, Presidente del Estado de Palestina [President of the State of Palestine]., yes, {{ref label|PLOChair|iv|}} â€“ appointed by the Palestinian Central Council PLO Body Elects Abbas 'President of Palestine' {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170901155712weblink |date=1 September 2017 }} 25 November 2008. Agence France-Presse (via MIFTAH). Retrieved 12 August 2017. "'I announce that the PLO Central Council has elected Mahmud Abbas president of the State of Palestine. He takes on this role from this day, November 23, 2008,' the body's chairman Salem al-Zaanun told reporters."
  • Palestinian National Council â€“ the legislature that established the State of Palestine
  • Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization â€“ performs the functions of a government in exile,WEB, Executive Board of UNESCO, Hundred and Thirty-First Session â€“ Item 9.4 of the Provisional Agenda â€“ Request for the Admission of the State of Palestine to UNESCO as a Member State, 18, Annex II,weblink PDF, UNESCO, 12 May 1989, 28 September 2011, A government-in-exile, having no effective control in the territory and not having had previous control, ... .,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728145954weblink">weblink 28 July 2011, no, dmy-all, WEB, Palestinian National Council (PNC), 16 June 2014, European Institute for Research on Mediterranean and Euro-Arab Cooperation,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110806202216weblink">weblink 6 August 2011, yes, Medea Institute, The Palestinian National Council (PNC), Parliament in exile of the Palestinian people, is the most important institution of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO). The PNC elects the Executive Committee of the organization which makes up the leadership between sessions., maintaining an extensive foreign-relations network
These should be distinguished from the President of the Palestinian National Authority, Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) and PNA Cabinet, all of which are instead associated with the Palestinian National Authority.The State of Palestine's founding document is the Palestinian Declaration of Independence, and it should be distinguished from the unrelated PLO Palestinian National Covenant and PNA Palestine Basic Law.{{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|image1=Zones A and B in the occupied palestinian territories.svg
West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord>Areas A and B)|image2=West Bank and Gaza Strip location map.svg|caption2=Map of the Palestinian Governorates (official)}}

Administrative divisions

{{See also|ISO 3166-2:PS}}The State of Palestine is divided into sixteen administrative divisions.{| class="wikitable sortable"
Jenin Governorate>Jenin 583 311,231 533.84 Jenin
Tubas Governorate>Tubas 402 64,719 160.99 Tubas
Tulkarm Governorate>Tulkarm 246 182,053 740.05 Tulkarm
Nablus Governorate>Nablus 605 380,961 629.68 Nablus
Qalqilya Governorate>Qalqiliya 166 110,800 667.46 Qalqilya
Salfit Governorate>Salfit 204 70,727 346.7 Salfit
Ramallah Governorate>Ramallah & Al-Bireh 855 348,110 407.14 Ramallah
Jericho Governorate>Jericho & Al Aghwar 593 52,154 87.94 Jericho
Jerusalem Governorate>Jerusalem 345 419,108a 1214.8a Jerusalem (de Jure and disputed)
Bethlehem Governorate>Bethlehem 659 216,114 927.94 Bethlehem
Hebron Governorate>Hebron 997 706,508 708.63 Hebron
North Gaza Governorate>North Gaza 61 362,772 5947.08 Jabalya{{cit|date=October 2015}}
Gaza Governorate>Gaza 74 625,824 8457.08 Gaza City
Deir al-Balah Governorate>Deir Al-Balah 58 264,455 4559.56 Deir al-Balah
Khan Yunis Governorate>Khan Yunis 108 341,393 3161.04 Khan Yunis
Rafah Governorate>Rafah 64 225,538 3524.03 Rafah
a. Data from Jerusalem includes occupied East Jerusalem with its Israeli populationFile:Westbank Control & Access Restrictions Dec 2012.png|thumb|upright|Map of Israeli settlementIsraeli settlementThe governorates in the West Bank are grouped into three areas per the Oslo II Accord. Area A forms 18% of the West Bank by area, and is administered by the Palestinian government.NEWS, Zahriyeh, Ehab, Maps: The occupation of the West Bank,weblink 4 July 2014, Al Jazeera America, Al Jazeera Media Network, 8 August 2014, 16 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140716232147weblink">weblink no, WEB, Gvirtzman, Haim,weblink Maps of Israeli Interests in Judea and Samaria, Bar-Ilan University, 8 August 2014, no, 11 January 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140111015009weblink">weblink Area B forms 22% of the West Bank, and is under Palestinian civil control, and joint Israeli-Palestinian security control. Area C, except East Jerusalem, forms 60% of the West Bank, and is administered by the Israeli Civil Administration, except that the Palestinian government provides the education and medical services to the 150,000 Palestinians in the area. More than 99% of Area C is off limits to Palestinians.REPORT,weblink West Bank and Gaza – Area C and the future of the Palestinian economy, 2 October 2013, 8 August 2014, 4, 1 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140801210703weblink">weblink no, World Bank Group, There are about 330,000 Israelis living in settlements in Area C,NEWS,weblink Group: Israel Controls 42% of West Bank, CBS News, Associated Press, CBS Interactive, 8 August 2014, 8 August 2014, 6 July 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140808220117weblink">weblink no, in the Judea and Samaria Area. Although Area C is under martial law, Israelis living there are judged in Israeli civil courts.REPORT,weblink Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention, 9 March 2012, 6, UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, 8 August 2014, no, 18 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140718223839weblink">weblink East Jerusalem (comprising the small pre-1967 Jordanian eastern-sector Jerusalem municipality together with a significant area of the pre-1967 West Bank demarcated by Israel in 1967) is administered as part of the Jerusalem District of Israel, but is claimed by Palestine as part of the Jerusalem Governorate. It was effectively annexed by Israel in 1967, by application of Israeli law, jurisdiction and administration under a 1948 law amended for the purpose, this purported annexation being constitutionally reaffirmed (by implication) in Basic Law: Jerusalem 1980, but this annexation is not recognised by any other country.BOOK, Tobias, Kelly, Laws of Suspicion:Legal Status, Space and the Impossibility of Separation in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, Franz, Von Benda-Beckmann, Keebet, Von Benda-Beckmann, Julia M., Eckert, Rules of Law and Laws of Ruling: On the Governance of Law, Ashgate Publishing, May 2009, 91, 9780754672395, In 2010 of the 456,000 people in East Jerusalem, roughly 60% were Palestinians and 40% were Israelis.REPORT,weblink PDF, Jerusalem, Facts and Trends 2009/2010, 11, Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, 8 August 2014, 2 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140702001634weblink">weblink no, 2010, However, since the late 2000s, Israel's West Bank Security Barrier has effectively re-annexed tens of thousands of Palestinians bearing Israeli ID cards to the West Bank, leaving East Jerusalem within the barrier with a small Israeli majority.

Foreign relations

{{See also|Foreign relations of Palestine|List of diplomatic missions of Palestine|List of diplomatic missions to Palestine}}Representation of the State of Palestine is performed by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). In states that recognise the State of Palestine it maintains embassies. The Palestine Liberation Organization is represented in various international organizations as member, associate or observer. Because of inconclusiveness in sourcesSuch as listing "Palestine" or Occupied Palestinian Territory without further explanation. in some cases it is impossible to distinguish whether the participation is executed by the PLO as representative of the State of Palestine, by the PLO as a non-state entity or by the PNA.

International recognition

(File:Palestine recognition only.svg|right|thumb|upright=1.6|International recognition of the State of Palestine)On 15 December 1988, the State of Palestine's declaration of independence of November 1988 was acknowledged in the General Assembly with Resolution 43/177.UNGA, 15 December 1988; Resolution 43/177. Question of Palestine {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170719204755weblink |date=19 July 2017 }} (doc.nr. A/RES/43/177){{Numrec|Pal|link=N|asof=S}} ({{Numrec|Pal|link=N|pcent=UN}}) of the {{UNnum}} member states of the United Nations have recognised the State of Palestine. Many of the countries that do not recognise the State of Palestine nevertheless recognise the PLO as the "representative of the Palestinian people". The PLO's executive committee is empowered by the PNC to perform the functions of government of the State of Palestine.On 29 November 2012, UN General Assembly resolution 67/19 passed, upgrading Palestine to "non-member observer state" status in the United Nations.WEB, Palestine: What is in a name (change)?, 8 January 2013, 8 June 2014, Aljazeera Inside Story,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130109160021weblink">weblink 9 January 2013, no, Aljazeera, The change in status was described as "de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine".NEWS, Israel defies UN after vote on Palestine with plans for 3,000 new homes in the West Bank,weblink The Independent, 1 December 2012, 15 September 2017,weblink 18 October 2017, no, dmy-all, On 3 October 2014, new Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven used his inaugural address in parliament to announce that Sweden would recognise the state of Palestine. The official decision to do so was made on 30 October, making Sweden the first EU member state outside of the former communist bloc to recognise the state of Palestine. Most of the EU's 28 member states have refrained from recognising Palestinian statehood and those that do – such as Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia – did so before accession.NEWS, Beaumont, Peter, 3 October 2014, Sweden to recognise state of Palestine,weblink The Guardian, London, 14 October 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141015010203weblink">weblink 15 October 2014, no, dmy-all, NEWS, 30 October 2014, Sweden officially recognises state of Palestine,weblink The Guardian, 31 October 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141030183646weblink">weblink 30 October 2014, no, dmy-all, NEWS, Wallström, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Margot, 30 October 2014, Sweden today decides to recognise the State of Palestine,weblink Dagens Nyheter, Stockholm, 21 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150416080150weblink">weblink 16 April 2015, no, dmy-all, On 13 October 2014, the UK House of Commons voted by 274 to 12 in favour of recognising Palestine as a state.WEB,weblink House of Commons – Parliamentary Debates, 13 October 2014, Parliament of the United Kingdom, 28 January 2018,weblink 18 October 2017, no, dmy-all, The House of Commons backed the move "as a contribution to securing a negotiated two-state solution" – although less than half of MPs took part in the vote. However, the UK government is not bound to do anything as a result of the vote: its current policy is that it "reserves the right to recognise a Palestinian state bilaterally at the moment of our choosing and when it can best help bring about peace".WEB,weblink MPs back Palestinian statehood alongside Israel, 14 October 2014, BBC News, BBC, 14 October 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141014081040weblink">weblink 14 October 2014, no, dmy-all, On 2 December 2014, the French parliament voted by 331 to 151 in favour of urging their government to recognise Palestine as a state. The text, proposed by the ruling Socialists and backed by left-wing parties and some conservatives, asked the government to "use the recognition of a Palestinian state with the aim of resolving the conflict definitively".WEB,weblink French parliament votes for recognition of Palestinian state, 2 December 2014, Uk. Reuters, Reuters, 26 December 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141226204902weblink">weblink 26 December 2014, no, dmy-all, On 31 December 2014, the United Nations Security Council voted down a resolution demanding the end of Israeli occupation and statehood by 2017. Eight members voted for the Resolution (Russia, China, France, Argentina, Chad, Chile, Jordan, Luxembourg), however following strenuous US and Israeli efforts to defeat the resolution,WEB,weblink US and Israeli intervention led UN to reject Palestinian resolution, Peter Beaumont, the Guardian, 16 December 2016,weblink 12 March 2017, no, dmy-all, it did not get the minimum of nine votes needed to pass the resolution. Australia and the United States voted against the resolution, with five other nations abstaining.WEB,weblink UNSC rejects resolution on Palestinian state, 31 December 2014, 31 December 2014, Al Jazeera,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141230235943weblink">weblink 30 December 2014, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink UN Security Council rejects Palestinian resolution, 31 December 2014, 31 December 2014, BBC News, British Broadcasting Corporation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141231011254weblink">weblink 31 December 2014, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink UN security council rejects Palestinian statehood bid, 31 December 2014, 31 December 2014, The Guardian, Associated Press,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141231103605weblink">weblink 31 December 2014, no, dmy-all, (File:Al-Khader.jpg|thumb|Children waving a Palestinian flag, West Bank)On 10 January 2015, the first Palestinian embassy in a western European country is opened in Stockholm, Sweden.WEB,weblink Palestine opens first W Europe embassy in Sweden, 10 February 2015, 21 April 2015, PressTV, PressTV,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150426181937weblink">weblink 26 April 2015, no, dmy-all, On 13 May 2015, the Vatican announced it was shifting recognition from the PLO to the State of Palestine, confirming a recognition of Palestine as a state after the UN vote of 2012.'PLO: Vatican accord with Palestine a contribution to justice,' {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150518082828weblink |date=18 May 2015 }} Ma'an News Agency 14 May 2015.:"The Holy See has identified the State of Palestine as such since the vote" by the UN general assembly to recognize it in November 2012, Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi told AFP. Monsignor Antoine Camilleri, Vatican foreign minister, said the change was in line with the evolving position of the Holy See, which has referred unofficially to the State of Palestine since Pope Francis's visit to the Holy Land in May 2014.NEWS,weblink Vatican recognizes state of Palestine in new treaty, 21 April 2015, bigstory.ap.org, Associated Press,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150513201548weblink">weblink 13 May 2015, no, dmy-all, On 23 December 2015 the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution demanding Palestinian sovereignty over the natural resources in the Palestinian territories under Israeli occupation. It called on Israel to desist from the exploitation, damage, cause of loss or depletion and endangerment of Palestinian natural resources, the right of Palestinians to seek restitution for extensive destruction. The motion was passed by 164 votes to 5, with Canada, Federated States of Micronesia, Israel, Marshall Islands, and the United States opposing.'UN adopts resolution on Palestinian sovereignty over natural resources,' {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151223190708weblink |date=23 December 2015 }} Ma'an News Agency 23 December 2015.

Raising the flag at the UN

In August 2015, Palestine's representatives at the UN presented a draft resolution that would allow the non-member observer states Palestine and the Holy See to raise their flags at the United Nations headquarters. Initially, the Palestinians presented their initiative as a joint effort with the Holy See, which the Holy See denied.UN backs raising Palestinian flag at NY headquarters {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150927214530weblink |date=27 September 2015 }}. i24news and AFP, 9 September 2015In a letter to the Secretary General and the President of the General Assembly, Israel's Ambassador at the UN Ron Prosor called the step "another cynical misuse of the UN ... in order to score political points".Response:Palestinian Attempt to Raise Flag at UNHQ {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160321151425weblink |date=21 March 2016 }}. Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations, 1 September 2015.After the vote, which was passed by 119 votes to 8 with 45 countries abstaining,WEB, Historic raising of Palestinian flag at United Nations,weblink CNN, 30 September 2015, 1 June 2019, WEB, Palestinian flag raised at UN in New York,weblink BBC News, 30 September 2015, 1 June 2019, WEB, Palestinian flag to be raised at United Nations for the first time,weblink The Independent, 30 September 2015, 1 June 2019, the US Ambassador Samantha Power said that "raising the Palestinian flag will not bring Israelis and Palestinians any closer together".U.N. General Assembly approves Palestinian request to fly its flag {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171019123910weblink |date=19 October 2017 }}. Louis Charbonneau, Reuters, 10 September 2015 US Department of State spokesman Mark Toner called it a "counterproductive" attempt to pursue statehood claims outside of a negotiated settlement.UN strongly approves Palestinian proposal to raise flag {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160312060207weblink |date=12 March 2016 }}. Al Jazeera, 11 September 2015At the ceremony itself, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said the occasion was a "day of pride for the Palestinian people around the world, a day of hope.",WEB, Palestinian Flag Raised at the United Nations for the First Time,weblink Newsweek, 30 September 2015, 1 June 2019, and declared "Now is the time to restore confidence by both Israelis and Palestinians for a peaceful settlement and, at last, the realization of two states for two peoples."

Legal status

There are a wide variety of views regarding the status of the State of Palestine, both among the states of the international community and among legal scholars. The existence of a state of Palestine, although controversial, is a reality in the opinions of the states that have established bilateral diplomatic relations.Segal, Jerome M., Chapter 9, "The State of Palestine, The Question of Existence", in Philosophical perspectives on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Tomis Kapitan editor, M.E. Sharpe, 1997, {{ISBN|1-56324-878-6}}.Boyle, Francis A. Creation of the State of Palestine; 1 Eur. J. Int'l L. 301 (1990)Kearney, Michael and Denayer, Stijn, Al-Haq Position Paper on Issues Arising from the Palestinian Authority's Submission of a Declaration to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Under Article 12(3) of the Rome Statute (24 December 2009), para 43.a.Dugard, John (22 July 2009; Op-Ed essay). "Take the Case" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160722205420weblink |date=22 July 2016 }}. The New York Times. Retrieved 28 September 2011.

Security

The State of Palestine has a number of security forces, including a Civil Police Force, National Security Forces and Intelligence Services, with the function of maintaining security and protecting Palestinian citizens and the Palestinian State.

Demographics

{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! colspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;"|Population{{UN_Population|ref}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Million1950 style="text-align:right;"|0.92000 style="text-align:right;"|3.2{{UN_Population{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN_PopulationR}}/1e6 round 1}}According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the State of Palestine had population of 4,420,549 people in 2013.WEB,weblink Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, State of Palestine, 22 September 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150610214618weblink">weblink 10 June 2015, no, dmy-all, Within an area of {{convert|6220|km2|mi2|lk=on}}, there is a population density of 731 people per square kilometre.{{citation needed|date=September 2014}} To put this in a wider context, the average population density of the world was 53 people per square kilometre based on data from 5 July 2014.{{citation needed|date=October 2015}}

Religion

{{Pie chart|thumb = right|caption = Religion of Palestinians (est. 2014)|label1 = Islam|value1 =93|color1 = MediumSeaGreen|label2 = Christianity|value2 = 6|color2 = DodgerBlue|label3 = Druze/Samaritans|value3 = 1|color3 = SaddleBrown}}File:West Bank-46.jpg|thumb|Palestinian girls in NablusNablusFile:Interior of the House of a Christian Family in Jerusalem.jpg|thumb|Illustration of Palestinian Christian home in Jerusalem, ca 1850. By W. H. Bartlett ]]93% of Palestinians are Muslim,WEB, Are all Palestinians Muslim?,weblink Institute for Middle East Understanding, 16 April 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140413142345weblink">weblink 13 April 2014, dmy-all, the vast majority of whom are followers of the Sunni branch of Islam,Lybarger, 2007, p. 114. with a small minority of Ahmadiyya,WEB,weblink PA's Moderate Muslims Face Threats, 31 May 2010, 26 April 2014, Israel National News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140426235429weblink">weblink 26 April 2014, no, dmy-all, and 15% being nondenominational Muslims.WEB,weblink Religious Identity Among Muslims, Pewforum.org, 6 July 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161226113158weblink">weblink 26 December 2016, no, dmy-all, Palestinian Christians represent a significant minority of 6%, followed by much smaller religious communities, including Druze and Samaritans.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}

Economy

Tourism

Tourism in the Palestinian territories refers to tourism in East Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. In 2010, 4.6 million people visited the Palestinian territories, compared to 2.6 million in 2009. Of that number, 2.2 million were foreign tourists while 2.7 million were domestic.NEWS,weblink PCBS: Marked increase in West Bank tourism in 2010, M'aan, 26 September 2011, M'aan, 10 October 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130618070556weblink">weblink 18 June 2013, no, dmy-all, Most tourists come for only a few hours or as part of a day trip itinerary. In the last quarter of 2012 over 150,000 guests stayed in West Bank hotels; 40% were European and 9% were from the United States and Canada.WEB, Imtiaz Muqbil, Sana Muqbil,weblink Europeans Dominate Visitor Arrivals to Palestine in 2012, Travel-impact-newswire.com, 11 March 2013, 6 July 2016,weblink 29 August 2016, no, dmy-all, Lonely Planet travel guide writes that "the West Bank is not the easiest place in which to travel but the effort is richly rewarded."Israel and the Palestinian Territories. p254. Lonely Planet Publications. 2012 In 2013 Palestinian Authority Tourism minister Rula Ma'ay'a stated that her government aims to encourage international visits to Palestine, but the occupation is the main factor preventing the tourism sector from becoming a major income source to Palestinians.WEB,weblink Tourism in Palestine an Act of Solidarity, says Minister of Tourism, 12 August 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170812211609weblink">weblink 12 August 2017, no, dmy-all, There are no visa conditions imposed on foreign nationals other than those imposed by the visa policy of Israel. Access to Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza is completely controlled by the Government of Israel. Entry to the occupied Palestinian territories requires only a valid international passport.WEB,weblink Entering and Exiting Jerusalem, The west Bank, and Gaza, 15 March 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140318053118weblink">weblink 18 March 2014,

Infrastructure

Communications

The communications infrastructure in the Palestinian territories is growing at a very rapid pace and continually being updated and expanded.{{citation needed|date=May 2016}}

Transportation

Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. The water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord.Generally, the water quality is considerably worse in the Gaza strip when compared to the West Bank. About a third to half of the delivered water in the Palestinian territories is lost in the distribution network. The lasting blockade of the Gaza Strip and the Gaza War have caused severe damage to the infrastructure in the Gaza Strip.WEB
, United Nations
, United Nations
, Gaza water crisis prompts UN call for immediate opening of crossings
, 3 September 2009
,weblink
, 25 November 2009
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100608054238weblink">weblink
, 8 June 2010
, no
, dmy-all
,
WEB,weblink Gaza Strip Water and Sanitation Situation, 2009, Worldbank,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180222212143weblink">weblink 22 February 2018, no, dmy-all, Concerning wastewater, the existing treatment plants do not have the capacity to treat all of the produced wastewater, causing severe water pollution.JOURNAL, Urban Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation for Agricultural Irrigation: The situation in Morocco and Palestine, 2005, 10.1007/s10669-005-0998-x, 24, 4, 227–236, Fatta, D., The Environmentalist, The development of the sector highly depends on external financing.WEB,weblink Water as a human right: The understanding of water in Palestine, 2004, Boell.de, Assaf, Karen,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923222949weblink">weblink 23 September 2015, no, dmy-all,

Education

The literacy rate of Palestine was 96.3% according to a 2014 report by the United Nations Development Programme, which is high by international standards. There is a gender difference in the population aged above 15 with 5.9% of women considered illiterate compared to 1.6% of men.WEB, Education (2014),weblink United Nations Development Programme, United Nations, 30 January 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170311023628weblink">weblink 11 March 2017, no, dmy-all, Illiteracy among women has fallen from 20.3% in 1997 to less than 6% in 2014.

Culture

Media

There are a number of newspapers, news agencies, and satellite television stations in the State of Palestine. News agencies include Ma'an News Agency, Wafa, Palestine News Network and the satellite television includes Al-Aqsa TV, Al-Quds TV, Sanabel TV.

Sports

Football is the most popular sport among the Palestinian people. Rugby is also a popular sport. The Palestine national football team represents the country in international football.

See also

i.  ">

Notes{| style"margin-left:13px; line-height:150%;"i.  

naming}}Note that the name Palestine (region) can commonly be interpreted as the entire territory of the former Mandatory Palestine>British Mandate, which today also incorporates Israel. The history was expressed by Mahmoud Abbas in his September 2011 speech to the United Nations: "... we agreed to establish the State of Palestine on only 22% of the territory of historical Palestine – on all the Palestinian Territory occupied by Israel in 1967."HTTP://WWW.HAARETZ.COM/NEWS/DIPLOMACY-DEFENSE/FULL-TRANSCRIPT-OF-ABBAS-SPEECH-AT-UN-GENERAL-ASSEMBLY-1.386385>TITLE=FULL TRANSCRIPT OF ABBAS SPEECH AT UN GENERAL ASSEMBLYWORK=HAARETZ.COMARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110930152707/HTTP://WWW.HAARETZ.COM/NEWS/DIPLOMACY-DEFENSE/FULL-TRANSCRIPT-OF-ABBAS-SPEECH-AT-UN-GENERAL-ASSEMBLY-1.386385DEAD-URL=NOPAGE=161 title=Middle East Review editor=Kogan Pagelocation=London Kogan Page >year=2004 isbn=978-0-7494-4066-4}} the Palestine Liberation Organization, and the subject of other proposals for the establishment of a Palestinian state.ii.  capital}}The Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaims the "establishment of the State of Palestine on our Palestinian territory with its capital Jerusalem (Al-Quds Ash-Sharif)." The same decision was taken also by the PLC in May 2002 when it approved the Palestinian Law#Basic Law, which states unambiguously "Jerusalem is the Capital of Palestine".HTTP://WWW.PALESTINIANBASICLAW.ORG/2002-BASIC-LAW PUBLISHER=THE PALESTINIAN BASIC LAW ACCESSDATE=2 AUGUST 2010 ARCHIVE-DATE=16 MARCH 2010 DF=DMY-ALL, Ramallah is the administrative capital where government institutions and List of diplomatic missions to Palestine are located. Jerusalem's final status awaits future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (see HTTP://WWW.PUBLICPOLICY.UMD.EDU/IPPP/FALL97REPORT/NEGOTIATING_JERUSALEM.HTM ACCESS-DATE=5 AUGUST 2009 ARCHIVE-DATE=14 MAY 2006 DF=DMY-ALL, ). The United Nations and most countries do not accept Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem through the Jerusalem Law of 1980 (see {{harvnb1993List of diplomatic missions in Israel>embassies to Israel in Tel Aviv (see The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency). The international community also does not recognize either Israeli or Palestinian sovereignty over Jerusalem.Tobias Kelly, "Laws of Suspicion: Legal Status, Space and the Impossibility of Separation in the Israeli-occupied West Bank", Franz von Benda-Beckmann, Keebet von Benda-Beckmann, Julia M. Eckert (eds.)Rules of Law and Laws of Ruling: On the Governance of Law, Ashgate Publishing 2009, pp. 83–99iii.  control}}Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on the Administrative divisions of the Oslo Accords. It maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: National airspace>air,Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip {{Webarchiveweblink >date=5 June 2011 }}. sea beyond internal waters,Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones" {{Webarchiveweblink >date=26 July 2011 }}. European Union Border Assistance Mission RafahIsrael's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070302014936weblink Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement.") in the Gaza Strip (its interior and Egypt portion of the land border are under Governance of the Gaza Strip>Hamas control), and varying degrees of interference elsewhere.ISRAEL: 'DISENGAGEMENT' WILL NOT END GAZA OCCUPATION >PUBLISHER=HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH URL=HTTPS://WWW.HRW.ORG/ENGLISH/DOCS/2004/10/29/ISRLPA9577.HTM ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20081101210931/HTTP://HRW.ORG/ENGLISH/DOCS/2004/10/29/ISRLPA9577.HTM DEAD-URL=NO DORE GOLD >TITLE=LEGAL ACROBATICS: THE PALESTINIAN CLAIM THAT GAZA IS STILL 'OCCUPIED' EVEN AFTER ISRAEL WITHDRAWS VOLUME=5 PUBLISHER=JERUSALEM CENTER FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS URL=HTTP://WWW.JCPA.ORG/BRIEF/BRIEF005-3.HTM JOURNAL= ARCHIVE-DATE=21 JUNE 2010 DF=DMY-ALL, AVI BELL>BELL, ABRAHAM WORK=JERUSALEM ISSUE BRIEF ISSUE=29 JERUSALEM CENTER FOR PUBLIC AFFAIRS >DATE=28 JANUARY 2008 ACCESSDATE=16 JULY 2010 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100621082606/HTTP://JCPA.ORG/BRIEF/BRIEF005-3.HTM DEAD-URL=NO PUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS (ISRAEL) >DATE=22 JANUARY 2008 ACCESSDATE=26 SEPTEMBER 2011 ARCHIVE-DATE=26 OCTOBER 2011 DF=DMY-ALL, SALIH, ZAK M. >TITLE=PANELISTS DISAGREE OVER GAZA'S OCCUPATION STATUS UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA SCHOOL OF LAW >DATE=17 NOVEMBER 2005 ACCESSDATE=26 SEPTEMBER 2011 ARCHIVE-DATE=3 MARCH 2016 DF=DMY-ALL, See also Israeli-occupied territories.iv.  PLOChair}}So far both presidents of the State of Palestine, Yasser Arafat and his successor Mahmoud Abbas, were appointed beforehand as Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, the committee performing the functions of State of Palestine government. See also Leaders of Palestinian institutions.v.  NewTestament}}The New Testament, taking up a term used once in the Tanakh (1 Samuel 13:19),{{sfn1996Masalhap=32}} speaks of a larger theologically-defined area, of which Palestine is a part, as the "land of Israel"{{sfn1994Book of Exodus.{{sfn>Goldbergp=147|ps=: "The parallels between this narrative and that of Exodus continue to be drawn. Like Pharaoh before him, Herod, having been frustrated in his original efforts, now seeks to achieve his objectives by implementing a program of infanticide. As a result, here - as in Exodus - rescuing the hero's life from the clutches of the evil king necessitates a sudden flight to another country. And finally, in perhaps the most vivid parallel of all, the present narrative uses virtually the same words of the earlier one to provide the information that the coast is clear for the herds safe return: here, in Matthew 2:20, "go [back]… for those who sought the Childs life are dead; there, in Exodus 4:19, go back… for all the men who sought your life are dead."}}vi.  Strabo}}Other writers, such as Strabo, referred to the region as Coele-Syria ("all Syria") around 10–20 CE.{{sfn1996|p=557-8}}

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

Further reading

  • BOOK, Refugees into Citizens: Palestinians and the End of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Donna Arzt, Arzt, Donna E., illustrated, Council on Foreign Relations, 1997, 978-0-87609-194-4,weblink
  • BOOK, Law, Power, and the Sovereign State: The Evolution and Application of the Concept of Sovereignty, Michael, Fowler, Julie Marie, Bunck, Penn State University Press (via Google Books), 1995, 978-0-271-01471-5, {{Google books, oAp_97VvpMIC, 59, yes, }}
  • BOOK, Israel and Africa: The Problematic Friendship, Joel, Peters, illustrated, I.B.Tauris, 1992, 978-1-870915-10-6,weblink
  • BOOK, {{Google books, pP315Mw3S9EC, 1328, yes, |title=The Middle East and North Africa 2004: 2004 |last1=Taylor & Francis Group |first2=Lucy |last2=Dean |edition=illustrated |publisher=Routledge |year=2003 |isbn=978-1-85743-184-1 |ref=harv |postscript=.}}
  • BOOK, A History of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict, Mark A., Tessler, 2nd, illustrated, Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press, 1994, 978-0-253-35848-6,
  • BOOK, The Oslo Accords: International Law and the Israeli–Palestinian Peace Agreements, Geoffrey R., Watson, illustrated, Oxford University Press, 2000, 978-0-19-829891-5, harv, .,

External links

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