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Southampton
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{{Other uses}}{{Use British English | date = July 2014}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2019}}







factoids
|subdivision_type = Sovereign state|subdivision_name = United KingdomConstituent country}}|subdivision_type2 = RegionCeremonial county}}|subdivision_type4 = Admin HQ|subdivision_name1 = England|subdivision_name2 = South East England|subdivision_name3 = Hampshire|subdivision_name4 = Southampton|established_title = Settled|established_date = c. AD 43|established_title2 = City status|established_date2 = 1964|established_title3 = Unitary authority|established_date3 = 1997|government_footnotes =Unitary authority, City status in the United Kingdom>City|leader_title = Governing body|leader_name = Southampton City CouncilLocal government in England#Councillors and mayors>Leadership|leader_name1 = Leader and Cabinet|unit_pref = |area_footnotes =|area_magnitude = 1 E7|area_total_km2 = |area_land_km2 = |area_urban_km2 =72.8|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m =|elevation_ft =|population_total = 253,651 (Unitary Authority)|population_as_of = 2011|population_est = 252,400 (Council area) List of English districts by population>Ranked 57)|population_footnotes = GSS=E06000045}}|population_density_sq_mi =|population_urban = 855,569 ACCESSDATE=14 MAY 2011 FORMAT=PDF WORK=ESPON PROJECT 1.4.3 STUDY ON URBAN FUNCTIONS DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=24 SEPTEMBER 2015, |population_density_metro_km2 =|population_density_metro_sq_mi =TITLE=LEAD VIEW TABLE ACCESSDATE=6 MAY 2009 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090112093945/HTTP://WWW.NEIGHBOURHOOD.STATISTICS.GOV.UK/DISSEMINATION/LEADTABLEVIEW.DO?A=3&B=276856&C=SOUTHAMPTON&D=13&E=13&G=411988&I=1001X1003X1004&M=0&R=1&S=1206473372123&ENC=1&DSFAMILYID=1812, 12 January 2009,
  • 85.9% White
  • (77.7% White British)
  • 8.4% Asian
  • 2.2% Black
  • 1.2% other
  • 2.4% Mixed Race}}|population_density_blank2_km2 =|population_density_blank2_sq_mi =
|population_demonym = Sotonian|population_note =UK postcodes>Postcode spanSO postcode area>SO14-SO19|area_code = 023Gross Value Added>GVA|blank_info_sec1 = 2013|blank1_name_sec1 =  â€¢ TotalGBP>£9.7 bn ($15.7 bn) (12th)| blank_name_sec2 = GDPAmerican dollar>US$ 51.6 billion HTTP://WWW.BROOKINGS.EDU/RESEARCH/INTERACTIVES/GLOBAL-METRO-MONITOR-3 >TITLE=GLOBAL CITY GDP 2014 ACCESSDATE=18 NOVEMBER 2014ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WWW.WEBCITATION.ORG/6H7JQL2A9?URL=HTTP://WWW.BROOKINGS.EDU/RESEARCH/INTERACTIVES/GLOBAL-METRO-MONITOR-3, 4 June 2013, | blank1_name_sec2 = GDP per capita| blank1_info_sec2 = US$ 37,832weblink}}|footnotes = |leader_title2 = ExecutiveGSS=E06000045}}List of MPs elected in the 2017 United Kingdom general election>MPs List of UK cities by GVA>15th)|blank4_name_sec1 =  â€¢ Growth|blank4_info_sec1 = {{increase}} 0.6%British national grid reference system>Grid ref.SU4211|SU 42 11}}ONS coding system>ONS code|blank1_info = 00MS (ONS)E06000045 (GSS)}}Southampton ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-uk-Southampton.ogg|s|aÊŠ|θ|ˈ|(|h|)|æ|m|p|t|É™|n}}) is a city in Hampshire, England, and the largest in South East England, {{convert|70|mi|km}} south-west of London and {{convert|15|mi|km}} north-west of Portsmouth.WEB,weblink Distance between London, UK and Southampton, UK (UK), distancecalculator.globefeed.com, 5 February 2019,weblink 7 February 2019, no, WEB,weblink Distance between Southampton, UK and Portsmouth, UK (UK), distancecalculator.globefeed.com, 5 February 2019,weblink 7 February 2019, no, A major port,HTTPS://ASSETS.PUBLISHING.SERVICE.GOV.UK/GOVERNMENT/UPLOADS/SYSTEM/UPLOADS/ATTACHMENT_DATA/FILE/762200/PORT-FREIGHT-STATISTICS-2017.PDF, 30 May 2019, UK Port Statistics: 2017, 22 August 2018, Department for Transport,weblink 4 June 2019, no, , puts Southampton third (by tonnage) after Grimsby and Immingham and the Port of London and close to the New Forest, it lies at the northernmost point of Southampton Water, at the confluence of the River Test and Itchen,WEB,weblink 27 September 2017, Encyclopædia Britannica, Southampton,weblink 28 September 2017, no, with the River Hamble joining to the south. The unitary authority had a population of 253,651 at the 2011 census. A resident of Southampton is called a (:Category:People from Southampton|Sotonian).WEB,weblink 9 October 2008, Visit Southampton, Famous Sotonians,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080402051906weblink">weblink 2 April 2008, Significant employers in the city include Southampton City Council, the University of Southampton, Solent University, Southampton Airport, Ordnance Survey, BBC South, the NHS, Associated British Ports (ABP) and Carnival UK.NEWS,weblink Carnival UK HQ completed ahead of schedule, Gareth, Lewis, 18 December 2008, Daily Echo, 28 August 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180829035034weblink">weblink 29 August 2018, no, Southampton is noted for its association with the {{RMS|Titanic}},WEB,weblink 27 September 2017, Southampton City Council, Southampton's Titanic Story,weblink 28 September 2017, no, the Spitfire,WEB,weblink Solent Sky | Southampton | Spitfire Legend, 27 September 2017, Solent Sky Museum,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170928005810weblink">weblink 28 September 2017, no, as one of the departure points for D-Day, and more recently as the home port of some of the largest cruise ships in the world.WEB,weblink 8 June 200, 19 October 2009, BBC Online, Solent Ship Spotting,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091001102620weblink">weblink 1 October 2009, no, Southampton also has a large shopping centre and retail park, Westquay.

History

Early Southampton

Archaeological finds suggest that the area has been inhabited since the stone age.Southampton Museum of Archeology. God's House Tower, Southampton. Following the Roman invasion of Britain in {{sc|AD}} 43 and the conquering of the local Britons in {{sc|AD}} 70 the fortress settlement of Clausentum was established. It was an important trading port and defensive outpost of Winchester, at the site of modern Bitterne Manor. Clausentum was defended by a wall and two ditches and is thought to have contained a bath house.Southampton Through the Ages: A Short History by Elsie M. Sandell (revised 1980) Clausentum was not abandoned until around 410.The Anglo-Saxons formed a new, larger, settlement across the Itchen centred on what is now the St Mary's area of the city. The settlement was known as Hamwic, which evolved into Hamtun and then Hampton.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, August 2002, British Archaeology Magazine, Great Sites: Hamwic, Hamwic, which is described as a commercial port (mercimonium). Hamwic (also known as Hamtun) must have possessed considerable administrative importance as by the middle of the 8th century it had given its name to the shire – Hamtunscire., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090722084011weblink">weblink 22 July 2009, Archaeological excavations of this site have uncovered one of the best collections of Saxon artefacts in Europe. It is from this town that the county of Hampshire gets its name.Viking raids from 840 onwards contributed to the decline of Hamwic in the 9th century,WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Southampton City Council, Saxon Southampton, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110102011325weblink">weblink 2 January 2011, and by the 10th century a fortified settlement, which became medieval Southampton, had been established.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Southampton City Council, Medieval Southampton, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110102011225weblink">weblink 2 January 2011,

11th–13th century

Following the Norman Conquest in 1066, Southampton became the major port of transit between the then capital of England, Winchester, and Normandy. Southampton Castle was built in the 12th century and surviving remains of 12th-century merchants' houses such as King John's House and Canute's Palace are evidence of the wealth that existed in the town at this time.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History., 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 34, By the 13th century Southampton had become a leading port, particularly involved in the import of French wine in exchange for English cloth and wool.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, August 2002, British Archaeology Magazine, Great Sites: Hamwic, The economic motor driving trade [was] larger-scale trade in relatively low value commodities such as wool, timber and quernstones, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090722084011weblink">weblink 22 July 2009, The Franciscan friary in Southampton was founded circa 1233.Alwyn A. Ruddock, The Greyfriars in Southampton, Papers & Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society, 16:2 (1946), pp. 137–47 The friars constructed a water supply system in 1290, which carried water from Conduit Head (remnants of which survive near Hill Lane, Shirley) some {{convert|1.7|km|1|order=flip}} to the site of the friary inside the town walls.Rev. J. Silvester Davies, A History of Southampton Partly From the Ms. Of Dr Speed In The Southampton Archives, 1883, pp. 114–19{{Verification needed|date=October 2016}} Further remains can be observed at Conduit House on Commercial Road.

14th century

(File:Southampton - mur medieval 02.JPG|thumb|left|Part of Southampton's Town Walls)The friars granted use of the water to the town in 1310.Between 1327 and 1330, the King and Council received a petition from the people of Southampton. The community of Southampton claimed that Robert Batail of Winchelsea and other men of the Cinque Ports came to Southampton under the pretence that they were a part of Thomas of Lancaster's rebellion against Edward II. The community thought that they were in conspiracy with Hugh le Despenser the Younger. The petition states that, the supposed rebels in the Despenser War 'came to Southampton harbour, and burnt their ships, and their goods, chattels and merchandise which was in them, and carried off other goods, chattels and merchandise of theirs found there, and took some of the ships with them, to a loss to them of £8000 and more.'The National Archives, SC 8/17/833, Petitioners: People of Southampton. Addressees: King and council. For their petition to the King somewhere after 1321 and before 1327 earned some of the people of Southampton a prison sentence at Portchester Castle, possibly for insinuating the king's advisor Hugh le Despenser the Younger acted in conspiracy with the Cinque Port men to damage Southampton, a flourishing port in the fourteenth century. When King Edward III came to the throne, this petition was given to the king and his mother, Queen Isabella, who was in charge of the town, and the country at this stage likely organised the writ of trespass that took any guilt away from the community at Southampton.The town was sacked in 1338 by French, Genoese and Monegasque ships (under Charles Grimaldi, who used the plunder to help found the principality of Monaco).WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Internet Archive, Monaco and Monte Carlo,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110914032049weblink">weblink 14 September 2011, no, On visiting Southampton in 1339, Edward III ordered that walls be built to "close the town". The extensive rebuilding — part of the walls dates from 1175 — culminated in the completion of the western walls in 1380.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, BBC Online, Southampton Town Walls and Castle,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050323184621weblink">weblink 23 March 2005, no, WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Southampton City Council, God's House Tower: A History of the Museum, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120805150008weblink">weblink 5 August 2012, Roughly half of the walls, 13 of the original towers, and six gates survive.In 1348, the Black Death reached England via merchant vessels calling at Southampton.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 45,

15th century

Prior to King Henry's departure for the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, the ringleaders of the "Southampton Plot"—Richard, Earl of Cambridge, Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, and Sir Thomas Grey of Heton—were accused of high treason and tried at what is now the Red Lion public house in the High Street.WEB,weblink Red Lion Plot, 2 April 2008, 19 October 2009, Southern Daily Echo, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121018233536weblink">weblink 18 October 2012, They were found guilty and summarily executed outside the Bargate.BOOK, Southampton. An Illustrated History, Rance, Adrian, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 48, The city walls include God's House Tower, built in 1417, the first purpose-built artillery fortification in England.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Culture24, God's House Tower Museum of Archaeology, Southampton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120726033016weblink">weblink 26 July 2012, no, Over the years it has been used as home to the city's gunner, the Town Gaol and even as storage for the Southampton Harbour Board. Until September 2011, it housed the Museum of Archaeology.WEB, Museum of archaeology (God's House Tower),weblink Southampton City Council, 6 May 2012, 27 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120712182921weblink">weblink 12 July 2012, The walls were completed in the 15th century, but later development of several new fortifications along Southampton Water and the Solent by Henry VIII meant that Southampton was no longer dependent upon its fortifications.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 59, During the Middle Ages, shipbuilding had become an important industry for the town. Henry V's famous warship {{HMS|Grace Dieu}} was built in Southampton and launched in 1418.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, The friars passed on ownership of the water supply system itself to the town in 1420.On the other hand, many of the medieval buildings once situated within the town walls are now in ruins or have disappeared altogether. From successive incarnations of the motte and bailey castle, only a section of the bailey wall remains today, lying just off Castle Way.Percy G. Stone, A Vanished Castle, Papers & Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society, 12:3 (1934), pp. 241–70.

16th and 17th centuries

The friary was dissolved in 1538 but its ruins remained until they were swept away in the 1940s.The port was the point of departure for the Pilgrim Fathers aboard Mayflower in 1620. In 1642, during the English Civil War, a Parliamentary garrison moved into Southampton.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 71–72, The Royalists advanced as far as Redbridge in March 1644 but were prevented from taking the town.

18th century

Southampton became a spa town in 1740.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 78–79, It had also become a popular site for sea bathing by the 1760s, despite the lack of a good quality beach. Innovative buildings specifically for this purpose were built at West Quay, with baths that were filled and emptied by the flow of the tide. Southampton engineer Walter Taylor's 18th-century mechanisation of the block-making process was a significant step in the Industrial Revolution.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 95–97, The port was used for military embarkation, including during 18th-century wars with the French.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 92,

19th century

The town experienced major expansion during the Victorian era. The Southampton Docks company had been formed in 1835. In October 1838 the foundation stone of the docks was laid and the first dock opened in 1842. The structural and economic development of docks continued for the next few decades. The railway link to London was fully opened in May 1840. Southampton subsequently became known as The Gateway to the Empire.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Southampton City Council, Post-Medieval Southampton, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110102011122weblink">weblink 2 January 2011, In his 1854 book "The Cruise of the Steam Yacht North Star" John Choules described Southampton thus: "I hardly know a town that can show a more beautiful Main Street than Southampton, except it be Oxford. The High Street opens from the quay, and under various names it winds in a gently sweeping line for one mile and a half, and is of very handsome width. The variety of style and color of material in the buildings affords an exhibition of outline, light and colour, that I think is seldom equalled. The shops are very elegant, and the streets are kept exceedingly clean."The port was used for military embarkation, including the Crimean warBOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 120, and the Boer War.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 138,

20th century

File:Titanic Engineers' Memorial, Southampton.jpg|thumb|right|The memorial to the engineersThe memorial to the engineersFrom 1904 to 2004, the Thornycroft shipbuilding yard was a major employer in Southampton, building and repairing ships used in the two World Wars. In 1912, the {{RMS|Titanic}} sailed from Southampton. Four in five of the crew on board the vessel were Sotonians,WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Titanic-Titanic.com, Southampton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090805204138weblink">weblink 5 August 2009, no, with about a third of those who perished in the tragedy hailing from the city. Southampton was subsequently the home port for the transatlantic passenger services operated by Cunard with their Blue Riband liner {{RMS|Queen Mary}} and her running mate {{RMS|Queen Elizabeth}}. In 1938, Southampton docks also became home to the flying boats of Imperial Airways. Southampton Container Terminals first opened in 1968 and has continued to expand.Southampton was designated No. 1 Military Embarkation port during the Great War and became a major centre for treating the returning wounded and POWs. It was also central to the preparations for the Invasion of Europe in 1944.The Supermarine Spitfire was designed and developed in Southampton, evolving from the Schneider trophy-winning seaplanes of the 1920s and 1930s. Its designer, R J Mitchell, lived in the Portswood area of Southampton, and his house is today marked with a blue plaque.A History of Portswood, 2003, Book, P.Wilson Heavy bombing of the Woolston factory in September 1940 destroyed it as well as homes in the vicinity, killing civilians and workers. World War II hit Southampton particularly hard because of its strategic importance as a major commercial port and industrial area. Prior to the Invasion of Europe, components for a Mulberry harbour were built here. After D-Day, Southampton docks handled military cargo to help keep the Allied forces supplied, making it a key target of Luftwaffe bombing raids until late 1944.BOOK, Rance, Adrian, Southampton. An Illustrated History, 1986, 0-903852-95-0, 169, Southampton docks was featured in the television show 24: Live Another Day in Day 9: 9:00 p.m. – 10:00 p.m.WEB,weblink 24 to be filmed in Southampton, 9 July 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714205204weblink">weblink 14 July 2014, no, Some 630 people lost their lives as a result of the air raids on Southampton and nearly 2,000 more were injured, not to mention the thousands of buildings damaged or destroyed.WEB,weblink The War over Southampton – PortCities Southampton, Plimsoll.org, 6 November 1940, 3 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110618065303weblink">weblink 18 June 2011, no, Pockets of Georgian architecture survived the war, but much of the city was levelled. There has been extensive redevelopment since World War II. Increasing traffic congestion in the 1920s led to partial demolition of medieval walls around the Bargate in 1932 and 1938. However, a large portion of those walls remain.A Royal Charter in 1952 upgraded University College at Highfield to the University of Southampton. In 1964 Southampton acquired city status, becoming the City of Southampton, and because of the Local Government Act 1972 was turned into a county borough within the Hampshire county in 1973.The local council for the city of Southampton succeeded Hampshire County Council and became a unitary authority in April 1997.WEB,weblink Your Guide to Southampton City Council, Kieran Hyland, Wessex Scene, 17 November 2016, 11 September 2018,weblink 21 February 2019, no,

21st century

In the 2010s several developments to the inner-city of Southampton were completed. In 2016 the south section of West Quay, or West Quay South, originally known as West Quay Watermark, was opened to the public. Its public plaza has been used for several annual events, such as an ice skating rink during the winter season,WEB,weblink SKATE Southampton set-up ahead of return of Westquay Ice Rink, Emily Liddle, Southern Daily Echo, Newsquest, 5 November 2018,weblink 5 November 2018, no, and a public broadcast of the Wimbledon tennis championship.WEB,weblink Wimbledon comes to Southampton as Westquay opens its own 'Murray Mound', Southern Daily Echo, Newsquest, 5 November 2018,weblink 5 November 2018, no, Two new buildings, the John Hansard Gallery with City Eye and a secondary site for the University of Southampton's Nuffield Theatre, in addition to several flats, have been built in the "cultural quarter" adjacent to Guildhall Square in 2017.WEB,weblink Studio 144: why has Southampton hidden its £30m culture palace behind a Nando's?, Oliver Wainwright, The Guardian, 22 February 2018, 5 November 2018,weblink 5 November 2018, no, In 2019 the retail and accommodation-based "Bargate quarter" redevelopment, replacing the demolished Bargate shopping centre, and enabling public access to the previously hidden sections of the city walls, will be opened.WEB,weblink Southampton medieval walls scheme work under way, BBC News, 24 November 2017, 5 November 2018,weblink 14 November 2018, no,

Governance

File:Southampton-CivicCentre-West.jpg|thumb|left|Southampton Civic CentreSouthampton Civic CentreAfter the establishment of Hampshire County Council, following the act in 1888, Southampton became a county borough within the county of Hampshire, which meant that it had many features of a county, but governance was now shared between the Corporation in Southampton and the new county council. There is scope for confusion in the fact that the ancient shire county, along with its associated assizes, was known as the County of SouthamptonWEB,weblink 21 September 2007, 1826, Greenwood & Co, Map of the County of Southampton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150224152528weblink">weblink 24 February 2015, no, or Southamptonshire.WEB,weblink 21 September 2007, 1870, John Marius Wilson, Southamptonshire, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071022200259weblink">weblink 22 October 2007, no, This was officially changed to Hampshire in 1959 although the county had been commonly known as Hampshire or Hantscire for centuries. Southampton became a non-metropolitan district in 1974.Southampton as a Port and city has had a long history of administrative independence of the surrounding County; as far back as the reign of King John the town and its port were removed from the writ of the King's Sheriff in Hampshire and the rights of custom and toll were granted by the King to the burgesses of Southampton over the port of Southampton and the Port of Portsmouth;Welch E, (1966), "Southampton City Charters", City of Southampton, additional text. this tax farm was granted for an annual fee of £200 in the charter dated at Orival on 29 June 1199. The definition of the port of Southampton was apparently broader than today and embraced all of the area between Lymington and Langstone. The corporation had resident representatives in Newport, Lymington and Portsmouth.WEB,weblink The borough of Southampton: General historical account, William Page, 1908, British History Online, 17 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121014043949weblink">weblink 14 October 2012, no, By a charter of Henry VI, granted on 9 March 1446/7 (25+26 Hen. VI, m. 32), the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of the towns and ports of Southampton and Portsmouth became a County incorporate and separate from Hampshire.The status of the town was changed by a later charter of Charles I by at once the formal separation from Portsmouth and the recognition of Southampton as a county, In the charter dated 27 June 1640 the formal title of the town became "The Town and County of the Town of Southampton". These charters and Royal Grants, of which there were many, also set out the governance and regulation of the town and port which remained the "constitution" of the town until the local government organisation of the later Victorian period which from about 1888 saw the setting up of County Councils across England and Wales and including Hampshire County Council who now took on some of the function of Government in Southampton Town. Under this regime, The Town and County of the Town of Southampton became once more a county borough with responsibility for all aspects of local government. On 24 February 1964 the status changed again by a Charter of Elizabeth II, creating the City and County of the City of Southampton.{{London Gazette |issue=43258 |date=28 February 1964 |page=1856}}The city has undergone many changes to its governance over the centuries and once again became administratively independent from Hampshire County as it was made into a unitary authority in a local government reorganisation on 1 April 1997, a result of the 1992 Local Government Act. The district remains part of the Hampshire ceremonial county.Southampton City Council consists of 48 councillors, 3 for each of the 16 wards. Council elections are held in early May for one third of the seats (one councillor for each ward), elected for a four-year term, so there are elections three years out of four. The Labour Party has held overall control since 2012; after the 2018 council elections the composition of the council is:(File:Southampton constituencies.png|thumb|ConstituenciesData fromweblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171201073104weblink |date=1 December 2017 }} rendered using QGIS){| class="wikitable"! colspan="2" style="text-align:center; vertical-align:bottom;"| Party! style="vertical-align:bottom;"| Members{{party colour| Labour Party (UK)}}Labour Party (UK)>Labour 29{{party colour| Conservative Party (UK)}}Conservative Party (UK)>Conservative 18{{party colour| Independent (politician)}}Independent politician>Independent 1! colspan="2" style="text-align:center;"| Total! style="text-align:center;"| 48WEB, Name of file,weblink Councillors – Southampton City Council, Southampton.gov.uk, 30 May 2019,weblink 1 July 2019, no, There are three members of Parliament for the city: Royston Smith (Conservative) for Southampton Itchen, the constituency covering the east of the city; Dr Alan Whitehead (Labour) for Southampton Test, which covers the west of the city; and Caroline Nokes (Conservative) for Romsey and Southampton North, which includes a northern portion of the city.The city has a Mayor and is one of 16 cities and towns in England and Wales to have a ceremonial sheriff who acts as a deputy for the Mayor. The current and 797th Mayor of Southampton is Peter Baillie. Susan Blatchford is the current and 582nd sheriff.WEB,weblink The Mayor and Sheriff, 30 May 2018, Southampton City Council,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170701180616weblink">weblink 1 July 2017, no, The town crier from 2004 until his death in 2014 was John Melody, who acted as master of ceremonies in the city and who possessed a cry of 104 decibels.WEB, The Town Crier,weblink Southampton City Council, 22 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150222225038weblink">weblink 22 February 2015, Southampton City Council has developed twinning links with Le Havre in France (since 1973),WEB,weblink Le Havre – Les villes jumelées, 7 August 2013, Florence, Jeanne, French, Le Havre – Twin towns,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130807181850weblink">weblink 7 August 2013, yes, WEB,weblink British towns twinned with French towns, 11 July 2013, Archant Community Media Ltd,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130705094933weblink">weblink 5 July 2013, no, ''WEB,weblink Linked cities, 7 January 2009, Southampton City Council, 3 January 2007, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090328184139weblink">weblink 28 March 2009, WEB,weblink Twin Towns in Hampshire, www3.hants.gov.uk, 6 November 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091130120441weblink">weblink 30 November 2009, Rems-Murr-Kreis in Germany (since 1991), Trieste in Italy (since 2002), Hampton, Virginia in USA,WEB,weblink Sister Cities International, 4 November 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120414203700weblink">weblink 14 April 2012, WEB,weblink Sister Cities of Hampton, Virginia, 4 November 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110924220819weblink">weblink 24 September 2011, no, WEB,weblink Interactive City Directory, 30 March 2017, Sister Cities International,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170330174337weblink">weblink 30 March 2017, yes, Qingdao in China (since 1998), Busan in South Korea (since 1978),Port of Busan {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090315200104weblink |date=15 March 2009 }}, Sister Ports, Busan and Miami, Florida (since 14 June 2019).WEB,weblink 14 June 2019, Southampton and Miami, Florida become sister cities at ceremonial signing event, 14 June 2019, Southampton City Council,

Geography

The geography of Southampton is influenced by the sea and rivers. The city lies at the northern tip of the Southampton Water, a deep water estuary, which is a ria formed at the end of the last Ice Age. Here, the rivers Test and Itchen converge.The Port of SouthamptonL. E. Tavener Economic Geography, Vol. 26, No. 4 (October 1950), pp. 260–73 The Test — which has a salt marsh that makes it ideal for salmon fishingWEB,weblink 28 July 2007, Environment Agency, The River Test,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070311192939weblink">weblink 11 March 2007, — runs along the western edge of the city, while the Itchen splits Southampton in two—east and west. The city centre is located between the two rivers.Town Quay is the original public quay, and dates from the 13th century. Today's Eastern Docks were created in the 1830s by land reclamation of the mud flats between the Itchen and Test estuaries. The Western Docks date from the 1930s when the Southern Railway Company commissioned a major land reclamation and dredging programme.WEB,weblink 28 July 2007, The Solent Forum, Western Solent and Southampton Water Shoreline Management Plan, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070922004912weblink">weblink 22 September 2007, dmy-all, Most of the material used for reclamation came from dredging of Southampton Water,WEB,weblink 8 July 2005, 28 July 2007, eGovernment Monitor, Web Maps Out The Past, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070607191222weblink">weblink 7 June 2007, dmy-all, to ensure that the port can continue to handle large ships.Southampton Water has the benefit of a double high tide, with two high tide peaks,WEB,weblink 28 July 2007, Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, Tides, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070810230813weblink">weblink 10 August 2007, dmy-all, making the movement of large ships easier.WEB,weblink 28 July 2007, Associated British Ports, Southampton VTS–ABP Southampton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070705005757weblink">weblink 5 July 2007, no, This is not caused as popularly supposed by the presence of the Isle of Wight, but is a function of the shape and depth of the English Channel. In this area the general water flow is distorted by more local conditions reaching across to France.WEB,weblink 13 July 2009, Captain M J Ridge, FRICS MCIT, English Channel double tides,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090822144340weblink">weblink 22 August 2009, no, The city lies in the Hampshire Basin, which sits atop chalk beds.The River Test runs along the western border of the city, separating it from the New Forest. There are bridges over the Test from Southampton, including the road and rail bridges at Redbridge in the south and the M27 motorway to the north. The River Itchen runs through the middle of the city and is bridged in several places. The northernmost bridge, and the first to be built,BOOK, Holt, John, Anne Cole, A bend in the River, Bitterne Local History Society, February 1992, Southampton, is at Mansbridge, where the A27 road crosses the Itchen. The original bridge is closed to road traffic, but is still standing and open to pedestrians and cyclists. The river is bridged again at Swaythling, where Woodmill Bridge separates the tidal and non tidal sections of the river. Further south is Cobden Bridge which is notable as it was opened as a free bridge (it was originally named the Cobden Free Bridge), and was never a toll bridge. Downstream of the Cobden Bridge is the Northam Railway Bridge, then the Northam Road Bridge, which was the first major pre-stressed concrete bridge to be constructed in the United Kingdom.WEB,weblink 11 March 2008, www.cbdg.org.uk, History of Concrete Bridges,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071007075419weblink">weblink 7 October 2007, no, The southernmost, and newest, bridge on the Itchen is the Itchen Bridge, which is a toll bridge.

Areas and suburbs

{{Southampton suburbs map}}{{See also|Category:Areas of Southampton}}Southampton is divided into council wards, suburbs, constituencies, ecclesiastical parishes, and other less formal areas. It has a number of parks and green spaces, the largest being the 148-hectare Southampton Common,WEB,weblink 26 August 2007, Southampton City Council, Southampton Common Green Flag Management Plan, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070925221533weblink">weblink 25 September 2007, dmy-all, parts of which are used to host the annual summer festivals, circuses and fun fairs. The Common includes Hawthorns Urban Wildlife CentreWEB,weblink 9 October 2008, Southampton City Council, The Hawthorns Urban Wildlife Centre, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081202073655weblink">weblink 2 December 2008, dmy-all, on the former site of Southampton Zoo, a paddling pool and several lakes and ponds.Council estates are in the Weston, Thornhill and Townhill Park districts. The city is ranked 96th most deprived out of all 354 Local Authorities in England.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070820102708weblink">weblink yes, 20 August 2007, 24 July 2007, Southampton City Council, Research, Information and Statistics, In 2006–2007, 1,267 residential dwellings were built in the city — the highest number for 15 years. Over 94 per cent of these were flats.WEB,weblink 24 July 2007, Southampton City Council, Southampton Statistics, July 2007, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070809221253weblink">weblink 9 August 2007, dmy-all, There are 16 Electoral Wards in Southampton, each consisting of longer-established neighbourhoods (see below).Settlements outside the city are sometimes considered suburbs of Southampton, including Chartwell Green, Chilworth, Nursling, Rownhams, Totton, Eastleigh and West End. The villages of Marchwood, Ashurst and Hedge End may be considered exurbs of Southampton.

Climate

As with the rest of the UK, Southampton experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb). Its southerly, low-lying and sheltered location ensures it is among the warmer, sunnier cities in the UK. It has held the record for the highest temperature in the UK for June at {{convert|35.6|C|F}} since 1976.WEB,weblink June 1976 maximum, 21 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110117053706weblink">weblink 17 January 2011, no, WEB, Extremes,weblink Fact Sheets, Met Office, 11 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121028123740weblink">weblink 28 October 2012, {{Clear}}{{Southampton weatherbox}}{| class="wikitable"Southampton average sea temperature {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150706160120weblink |date=6 July 2015 }} - seatemperature.org!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!Year{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}{{convert°Cabbr=on}}

Energy

(File:Geothermal plant.jpg|thumb|Southampton's geothermal power station)The centre of Southampton is located above a large hot water aquifer that provides geothermal power to some of the city's buildings. This energy is processed at a plant in the West Quay region in Southampton city centre, the only geothermal power station in the UK. The plant provides private electricity for the Port of Southampton and hot water to the Southampton District Energy Scheme used by many buildings including the Westquay shopping centre. In a 2006 survey of carbon emissions in major UK cities conducted by British Gas, Southampton was ranked as being one of the lowest carbon-emitting cities in the United Kingdom.WEB,weblink 22 May 2006, British Gas News, Reading named as the UK's highest CO2 hot spot, 8 April 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070713092351weblink">weblink 13 July 2007, dmy-all,

Demographics

2016 mid-year population estimates suggests there are 254,275 people within the Southampton area.WEB,weblink Mid year population estimate 2016, 18 July 2018, Office for National Statistics, Southampton City Council,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180718115342weblink">weblink 18 July 2018, no, At the 2011 Census, the Southampton built-up area (which is a little larger than the area controlled by the City Council) had a population of 253,651.{{NOMIS2011|id=E35001237|title=Southampton BUA|accessdate=1 May 2019}} ''Enter E35001237 if requested. There were 127,630 males and 126,021 females. The 30–44 age range is the most populous, with 51,989 people falling in this age range. Next largest is the 45–59 range with 42,317 people and then 20–24 years with 30,290. The ethnic mix is 86.4% white, 8.1% were Asian or British Asian, 2.0% black, 1.1% other ethnic groups, and 2.3% were multi-ethnic.Between 1996 and 2004, the population of the city increased by 4.9 per cent — the tenth-biggest increase in England.WEB,weblink 22 July 2007, Institute for Public Policy Research, Two Track Cities, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070709202915weblink">weblink 9 July 2007, dmy-all, In 2005 the Government Statistics stated that Southampton was the third most densely populated city in the country after London and Portsmouth, respectively.WEB,weblink 11 September 2007, National Statistics Online, South East Profile,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080417052325weblink">weblink 17 April 2008, no, The average age of a Sotonian was 37.6 years in 2016, ranking Southampton as one of the twenty most youthful cities in the UK.WEB,weblink 17 March 2019, Centre for Cities, BBC News report,weblink 1 April 2019, no, In the 2001 census Southampton and Portsmouth were recorded as being parts of separate urban areas; however by the time of the 2011 census they had merged apolitically to become the sixth-largest built-up area in England with a population of 855,569.{{who|date=June 2019}} This built-up area is part of the metropolitan area known as South Hampshire, which is also sometimes referred to as Solent City, particularly in the media when discussing development issues and local governance organisational changes.NEWS,weblink Around 100,000 homes in the offing as ‘Solent City’ moves closer to reality, 13 July 2016, The News (Portsmouth), 17 June 2019,weblink 17 June 2019, no, NEWS,weblink Will Solent City be the death of Hampshire?, Southern Daily Echo, 9 March 2016, Ian, Murray, 17 June 2019,weblink 17 June 2019, no, NEWS,weblink Local Government Chronicle, Hampshire CC leader Roy Perry to stand down, 5 March 2019, Jessica, Hill, 17 June 2019,weblink 17 June 2019, no, With a population of over 1.5 million this makes the region one of the United Kingdom's most populous metropolitan areas.

Economy

In March 2007 there were 120,305 jobs in Southampton, and 3,570 people claiming job seeker's allowance, approximately 2.4 per cent of the city's population.WEB,weblink 22 July 2007, Southampton City Council, Southampton Statistics, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070709202915weblink">weblink 9 July 2007, dmy-all, This compares with an average of 2.5 per cent for England as a whole.In June 2006, 74.7 per cent of the city's population were classed as economically active.Just over a quarter of the jobs available in the city are in the health and education sector. A further 19 per cent are property and other business and the third-largest sector is wholesale and retail, which accounts for 16.2 per cent. Between 1995 and 2004, the number of jobs in Southampton has increased by 18.5 per cent.In January 2007, the average annual salary in the city was £22,267. This was £1,700 lower than the national average and £3,800 less than the average for the South East.WEB,weblink 24 July 2007, Southampton City Council, Southampton Statistics and Research, January 2007, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070809221241weblink">weblink 9 August 2007, dmy-all, File:Carnival House.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Carnival House, Southampton, England. Corporate headquarters of Carnival UKCarnival UKSouthampton has always been a port, and the docks have long been a major employer in the city. In particular, it is a port for cruise ships; its heyday was the first half of the 20th century, and in particular the inter-war years, when it handled almost half the passenger traffic of the UK. Today it remains home to luxury cruise ships, as well as being the largest freight port on the Channel coast and fourth-largest UK port by tonnage,WEB,weblink (DfT) Provisional Port Statistics 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081122054646weblink">weblink 22 November 2008, with several container terminals. Unlike some other ports, such as Liverpool, London, and Bristol, where industry and docks have largely moved out of the city centres leaving room for redevelopment, Southampton retains much of its inner-city industry. Despite the still-active and expanding docklands to the west of the city centre, further enhanced with the opening of a fourth cruise terminal in 2009, parts of the eastern docks have been redeveloped; the Ocean Village development, which included a local marina and small entertainment complex, is a good example. Southampton is home to the headquarters of both the Maritime and Coastguard Agency and the Marine Accident Investigation Branch of the Department for Transport in addition to cruise operator Carnival UK.NEWS,weblink Carnival UK signs for new Southampton cruise terminal, TravelWeekly, 12 December 2007, 5 January 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721203022weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, no, WEB,weblink Carnival UK, businesssouthampton.com, 5 January 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101214052257weblink">weblink 14 December 2010, no, During the latter half of the 20th century, a more diverse range of industry also came to the city, including aircraft and car manufacture, cables, electrical engineering products, and petrochemicals. These now exist alongside the city's older industries of the docks, grain milling and tobacco processing.(File:Arundel Circus entrance to the WestQuay shopping centre - geograph.org.uk - 210260.jpg|thumb|Westquay Shopping Centre)(File:Westquay_South_(previously_Watermark).jpg|thumb|Westquay South)University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust is one of the city's largest employers. It provides local hospital services to 500,000 people in the Southampton area and specialist regional services to more than 3 million people across the South of England. The Trust owns and manages Southampton General Hospital, the Princess Anne Hospital and a palliative care service at Countess Mountbatten House, part of the Moorgreen Hospital site in the village of West End, just outside the city.Other major employers in the city include Ordnance Survey, the UK's national mapping agency, whose headquarters is located in a new building on the outskirts of the city, opened in February 2011.WEB, Duke of Edinburgh to officially open new Ordnance Survey head office,weblink Ordnance Survey, 11 March 2012, yes,weblink 20 January 2012, The Lloyd's Register Group has announced plans to move its London marine operations to a specially developed site at the University of Southampton.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, 21 April 2006, Lloyd's Register, Lloyd's Register announces plans to move Marine operations to Southampton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080801171302weblink">weblink 1 August 2008, Southampton's largest retail centre, and 35th-largest in the UK, is the Westquay Shopping Centre, which opened in September 2000 and hosts major high street stores including John Lewis and Marks and Spencer. The centre was Phase Two of the West Quay development of the former Pirelli undersea cables factory; the first phase of this was the West Quay Retail Park, while the third phase (Watermark WestQuay) was put on hold due to the recession. Work resumed in 2015, with plans for this third stage including shops, housing, an hotel and a public piazza alongside the Town Walls on Western Esplanade.WEB,weblink 6 May 2009, 31 July 2008, Dailyecho.co.uk, A new vision for Southampton (From Daily Echo),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080811222709weblink">weblink 11 August 2008, no, Southampton has also been granted a licence for a large casino.WEB,weblink 11 July 2007, March 2007, Southampton City Council, City Awarded large Casino Licence, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927020542weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, dmy-all, A further part of the redevelopment of the West Quay site resulted in a new store, opened on 12 February 2009, for Swedish home products retailer IKEA.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, IKEA, IKEA Southampton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091104041718weblink">weblink 4 November 2009, no, Marlands is a smaller shopping centre, built in the 1990s on the site of the former bus station and located close to the northern side of Westquay. In October 2014, the city council approved a follow-up from the Westquay park, WestQuay Watermark. Construction by Sir Robert McAlpine commenced in January 2015.WEB, McAlpine wins £70m WestQuay Watermark centre in Southampton,weblink Construction News, 5 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150414205936weblink">weblink 14 April 2015, no, Its owners, Hammerson, aim to have at least 1,550 people employed on site at year-end 2016.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 3 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006074903weblink">weblink 6 October 2014, Opened in 2016–2017, it has been renamed Westquay South.Southampton had two disused shopping centres: the 1970s Eaststreet mall, and the 1980s Bargate centre. Neither of these were ever commercially successful. The former was demolished and the site earmarked for redevelopment as a Morrison's supermarket. It was announced in January 2017 that the Bargate Centre is also scheduled for demolition, to be replaced by retail premises, student accommodation and apartments. Included are also proposals to open access to a section of the medieval city wall in that area.WEB, Southampton's historic centre set for revival as multi-million pound redevelopment approved,weblink Southern Evening Echo, 31 January 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170130102713weblink">weblink 30 January 2017, no, There is also the East Street area which has been designated for speciality shopping, with the aim of promoting smaller retailers, alongside the chain store Debenhams. In 2007, Southampton was ranked 13th for shopping in the UK.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Southampton City Council, 4. An International City of Culture, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120322024642weblink">weblink 22 March 2012, dmy-all, Southampton's strong economy is promoting redevelopment, and major projects are proposed, including the city's first skyscrapers on the waterfront. The three towers proposed will stand 23 storeys high and will be surrounded by smaller apartment blocks, office blocks and shops. There are also plans for a 15-storey hotel at the Ocean Village marina,WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, 25 May 2006, Southern Daily Echo, Grand Designs for New Hotel, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080626112426weblink">weblink 26 June 2008, dmy-all, and a 21-storey hotel on the north eastern corner of the city centre, as part of a £100 m development.WEB,weblink 22 May 2007, Southern Daily Echo, Four Star Hotel for City Centre?, 19 October 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080626112105weblink">weblink 26 June 2008, no, According to 2004 figures, Southampton contributes around £4.2 billion to the regional economy annually. The vast majority of this is from the service sector, with the remainder coming from industry in the city. This figure has almost doubled since 1995.WEB,weblink 22 July 2007, Office for National Statistics, Regional Gross Value Added Report, PDF,weblink 22 July 2007, no,

Culture, media and sport

Culture

(File:Southampton - Maison Tudor 02.JPG|thumb|Tudor House, City Centre)(File:SeaCity Museum.jpg|thumb|SeaCity Museum, Civic Centre)The city is home to the longest surviving stretch of medieval walls in England,WEB,weblink 3 December 2014, Southampton County Council, Old Town Development Strategy—Final Report, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141211032859weblink">weblink 11 December 2014, as well as a number of museums such as Tudor House Museum, reopened on 30 July 2011 after undergoing extensive restoration and improvement; Southampton Maritime Museum;WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Southampton County Council, The Maritime Museum, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100425064848weblink">weblink 25 April 2010, dmy-all, God's House Tower, an archaeology museum about the city's heritage and located in one of the tower walls; the Medieval Merchant's House; and Solent Sky, which focuses on aviation.WEB,weblink Solent Sky, 30 July 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100324073251weblink">weblink 24 March 2010, yes, The SeaCity Museum is located in the west wing of the civic centre, formerly occupied by Hampshire Constabulary and the Magistrates' Court, and focuses on Southampton's trading history and on the Titanic. The museum received half a million pounds from the National Lottery in addition to interest from numerous private investors and is budgeted at £28 million.The annual Southampton Boat Show is held in September each year, with over 600 exhibitors present.WEB,weblink 28 July 2007, 16 May 2007, Southampton City Council, Southampton Boat Show, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080913212952weblink">weblink 13 September 2008, dmy-all, It runs for just over a week at Mayflower Park on the city's waterfront, where it has been held since 1968.WEB,weblink 28 July 2007, Southampton Boat Show official website, Southampton Boat Show,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070703204631weblink">weblink 3 July 2007, no, The Boat Show itself is the climax of Sea City, which runs from April to September each year to celebrate Southampton's links with the sea.WEB,weblink 28 July 2007, Celebrating Southampton's Connection With The Sea, Sea City 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070809085236weblink">weblink 9 August 2007, dmy-all, The largest theatre in the city is the 2,300-capacity Mayflower Theatre (formerly known as the Gaumont), which, as the largest theatre in Southern England outside London, has hosted West End shows such as Les Misérables, The Rocky Horror Show and Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, as well as regular visits from Welsh National Opera and English National Ballet. There is also the Nuffield TheatreWEB,weblink 19 October 2009, The Nuffield Theatre, The Nuffield Southampton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090806073812weblink">weblink 6 August 2009, no, based at the University of Southampton's Highfield campus, which is the city's primary producing theatre. It was awarded The Stage Award for Best Regional Theatre in 2015.WEB,weblink 22 November 2015, BBC Online, Stage Awards Honour Theatre Industry,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151001203630weblink">weblink 1 October 2015, no, It also hosts touring companies and local performing societies (such as Southampton Operatic Society, the Maskers and the University Players).There are many innovative art galleries in the city. The Southampton City Art Gallery at the Civic Centre is one of the best known and as well as a nationally important Designated Collection, houses several permanent and travelling exhibitions. The Solent Showcase at Southampton Solent University, the John Hansard Gallery at Southampton University as well as smaller galleries including the Art HouseWEB,weblink 19 October 2009, The Art House Gallery Cafe, The Art House Southampton CIC,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091026010257weblink">weblink 26 October 2009, no, in Above Bar Street provide a different view.WEB,weblink 19 October 2009, Bedford Place, Welcome to Bedford Place,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090916014302weblink">weblink 16 September 2009, no, The city's Bargate is also an art gallery run by the arts organisation "a space". A space also run the Art Vaults project, which creatively uses several of Southampton's medieval vaults, halls and cellars as venues for contemporary art installations.In August 2009, work began on a significant project to create a Cultural Quarter in the city centre, on land adjacent to the Guildhall.WEB,weblink 18 June 2009, 27 November 2007, Invest in Southampton, Plans for the redevelopment of Guildhall Square to be unveiled,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110928193039weblink">weblink 28 September 2011, no,

Music

(File:MayflowerTheatre.JPG|thumb|The Mayflower Theatre)Southampton has two large live music venues, the Mayflower Theatre (formerly the Gaumont Theatre) and the Guildhall. The Guildhall has seen concerts from a wide range of popular artists including Pink Floyd,WEB,weblink Southampton Guildhall Tickets, Live Nation Worldwide, Inc., 9 February 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100201065524weblink">weblink 1 February 2010, no, David Bowie, Delirious?,WEB,weblink d:Tour 1997 Live @ Southampton, 9 February 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100104052441weblink">weblink 4 January 2010, no, Manic Street Preachers, The Killers, The Kaiser Chiefs, Amy Winehouse, Bob Dylan, Suede, Arctic Monkeys and Oasis. It also hosts classical concerts presented by the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091030234601weblink">weblink yes, 30 October 2009, 29 March 2010, Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra, City of Southampton Orchestra,WEB,weblink 29 March 2010, City of Southampton Orchestra,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100106205621weblink">weblink 6 January 2010, no, Southampton Concert Orchestra,WEB,weblink 29 March 2010, Southampton Concert Orchestra,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100428010726weblink">weblink 28 April 2010, no, Southampton Philharmonic ChoirWEB,weblink 29 March 2010, Southampton Philharmonic Choir,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080512091936weblink">weblink 12 May 2008, no, Southampton Choral Society,WEB,weblink 29 March 2010, Southampton Choral Society,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101002154715weblink">weblink 2 October 2010, no, and the City of Southampton (Albion) Band.{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}The city also has several smaller music venues, including the Engine Rooms,WEB,weblink 18 July 2018, The MRJ group, Engine Rooms,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180718114702weblink">weblink 18 July 2018, no, The Talking Heads,WEB,weblink 18 July 2018, Music Venue, The Talking Heads,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180718114819weblink">weblink 18 July 2018, no, The 1865,WEB,weblink 18 July 2018, The 1865: Southampton's newest live venue, Music Venue,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180718123030weblink">weblink 18 July 2018, no, The JoinersWEB,weblink 18 July 2018, The Joiners, Music Venue,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140707182114weblink">weblink 7 July 2014, no, and Turner Sims,WEB,weblink 18 July 2018, Turner Sims, Concert Hall,weblink 18 July 2018, no, as well as smaller "club circuit" venues like Hampton's and Lennon's, and a number of public houses including the Platform tavern, the Dolphin, the Blue Keys and many others. The Joiners has played host to such acts as Oasis, Radiohead, Green Day, Suede, PJ Harvey, the Manic Street Preachers, Coldplay, the Verve, the Libertines and Franz Ferdinand, while Hampton's and Lennon's have hosted early appearances by Kate Nash, Scouting for Girls and Band of Skulls. The city is home or birthplace to a number of contemporary musicians such as popstar Craig David, Coldplay drummer Will Champion, Alt-J singer Joe Newman, singer-songwriter Aqualung, former Holloways singer Rob Skipper, 1980s popstar Howard Jones as well as Grammy Award-winning popstar Foxes. Several active rock and metal bands were formed in Southampton, including Band of Skulls, Bury Tomorrow, Creeper and The Delays. Southampton had a prominent UK Garage scene, championed by the duo Artful Dodger who formed in the city in the late 90's,WEB,weblink RA: Artful Dodger, 5 May 2018,weblink 5 May 2018, no, as well as the UKG, grime and bassline producer, Royal-T, part of the TQD group formed with DJ Q and Flava D.WEB,weblink royaltmusic, 30 May 2018,weblink 26 April 2019, no, Notable bands who are now defunct include Thomas Tantrum (disbanded 2011), Kids Can't Fly (disbanded 2014) and Heart in Hand (disbanded 2015).

Media

Local media include the Southern Daily Echo newspaper based in Redbridge and BBC South, which has its regional headquarters in the city centre opposite the civic centre. From there the BBC broadcasts South Today, the local television news bulletin and BBC Radio Solent. The local ITV franchise is Meridian, which has its headquarters in Whiteley, around {{convert|9|mi|spell=in|abbr=off}} from the city. Until December 2004, the station's studios were located in the Northam area of the city on land reclaimed from the River Itchen. That's Solent is a local television channel that began broadcasting in November 2014, which will be based in and serve Southampton and Portsmouth.Southampton also has 4 community FM radio stations, the Queens Award-winning Unity 101 Community Radiowww.unity101.org {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110902122351weblink |date=2 September 2011 }}. broadcasting full-time on 101.1 FM since 2006 to the Asian and ethnic communities, and Voice FMweblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190126053315weblink |date=26 January 2019 }}. located in St Mary's, which has been broadcasting full-time on 103.9 FM since September 2011, playing a wide range of music from Rock to Dance music and Top 40. A third station, Awaaz FM,www.awaazfm.co.uk {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190402080618weblink |date=2 April 2019 }}. broadcasts on DAB digital to South Hampshire and on the FM dial (99.8 FM) to Southampton. Awaaz FM is the biggest ethnic community radio in Hampshire. It caters for the Asian and ethnic community. The fourth community station is Fiesta FM and broadcasts on 95 FM. Fiesta FM is the only fully licensed Latin and Hispanic community radio station in the UK.As of November 2017, the most popular commercial radio station is the adult contemporary regional radio station Wave 105 (11.6% listening share in its total survey areaWEB,weblink 28 November 2017, RAJAR, Quarterly Listening,weblink 1 June 2012, no, ) followed by the hit music station Capital South Coast (7%) a networked station from London with local breakfast and drive shows. Other stations include Heart Hampshire and The Breeze (2.2%), and 106 Sam FM (2.7%).weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171005220635weblink |date=5 October 2017 }}. In addition, Southampton University has a radio station called SURGE, broadcasting on AM band as well as through the web.

Sport

File:StMary'sStadium-1.jpg|thumb|left|St Mary's StadiumSt Mary's StadiumSouthampton is home to Southampton Football Club—nicknamed "The Saints"—the club plays in the Premier League at St Mary's Stadium, having relocated in 2001 from their 103-year-old former stadium, "The Dell". They reached the top flight of English football (First Division) for the first time in 1966, staying there for eight years. They lifted the FA Cup with a shock victory over Manchester United in 1976, returned to the top flight two years later, and stayed there for 27 years (becoming founder members of the Premier League in 1992) before they were relegated in 2005. The club was promoted back to the Premier League in 2012 following a brief spell in the third tier and severe financial difficulties. In 2015, "The Saints" finished 7th in the Premier League, their highest league finish in 30 years, after a remarkable season under new manager Ronald Koeman. Their highest league position came in 1984 when they were runners-up in the old First Division. They were also runners-up in the 1979 Football League Cup final and 2003 FA Cup final. Notable former managers include Ted Bates, Lawrie McMenemy, Chris Nicholl, Ian Branfoot and Gordon Strachan. There is a strong rivalry with Portsmouth F.C. ("South Coast derby") which is located only about {{convert|30|km|-1|order=flip}} away.The two local Sunday Leagues in the Southampton area are the City of Southampton Sunday Football League and the Southampton and District Sunday Football League.Hampshire County Cricket Club play close to the city, at the Rose Bowl in West End, after previously playing at the County Cricket Ground and the Antelope Ground, both near the city centre. There is also the Southampton Evening Cricket League.The city hockey club, Southampton Hockey Club, founded in 1938, is now one of the largest and highly regarded clubs in Hampshire, fielding 7 senior men's and 5 senior ladies' teams on a weekly basis along with boys' and girls' teams from 6 upwards.The city is also well provided for in amateur men's and women's rugby with a number of teams in and around the city, the oldest of which is Trojans RFC,WEB,weblink Trojans RFC, 26 August 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190603021532weblink">weblink 3 June 2019, no, which was promoted to London South West 2 division in 2008/9. A notable former player is Anthony Allen, who played with Leicester Tigers as a centre. Tottoniansweblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180807051714weblink |date=7 August 2018 }}. are also in London South West division 2 and Southampton RFCWEB,weblink Archived copy, 26 August 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120618051921weblink">weblink 18 June 2012, no, are in Hampshire division 1 in 2009/10, alongside Millbrook RFC WEB,weblink Archived copy, 26 August 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190421223044weblink">weblink 21 April 2019, no, and Eastleigh RFC. Many of the sides run mini and midi teams from under sevens up to under sixteens for both boys and girls.The city provides for yachting and water sports, with a number of marinas. From 1977 to 2001 the Whitbread Around the World Yacht Race, which is now known as the Volvo Ocean Race was based in Southampton's Ocean Village marina.File:England vs Sri Lanka.jpg|thumb|upright=1.4|The Rose Bowl hosting a Twenty20 InternationalTwenty20 InternationalThe city also has the Southampton Sports Centre which is the focal point for the public's sporting and outdoor activities and includes an Alpine Centre, theme park and athletics centre which is used by professional athletes. With the addition of 11 other additional leisure ventures which are currently operate by the Council leisure executives. However these have been sold the operating rights to "Park Wood Leisure".WEB,weblink 26 August 2007, Southampton City Council, Outdoor Sports Centre, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070925221603weblink">weblink 25 September 2007, dmy-all, Southampton was named "fittest city in the UK" in 2006 by Men's Fitness magazine. The results were based on the incidence of heart disease, the amount of junk food and alcohol consumed, and the level of gym membership.NEWS,weblink 26 July 2007, 1 February 2006, The Guardian, UK, Bradford named UK's fattest city,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070212203824weblink">weblink 12 February 2007, no, In 2007, it had slipped one place behind London, but was still ranked first when it came to the parks and green spaces available for exercise and the amount of television watched by Sotonians was the lowest in the country. Thousands enter and run the Southampton Marathon in April every year.WEB,weblink 26 July 2007, 24 March 2007, JCI Southampton, Southampton Still Amongst The Fittest, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070705150044weblink">weblink 5 July 2007, dmy-all, Speedway and racing took place at Banister Court Stadium in the pre-war era. It returned in the 1940s after WW2 and the Saints operated until the stadium closed down at the end of 1963. A training track operated in the 1950s in the Hamble area. Greyhound racing was also held at the stadium from 1928 to 1963.Southampton is also home to two American football teams, the Solent Thrashers, who play at the Test Park Sports Ground, and the Southampton Stags, who play at the Wide Lane Sports Facility in Eastleigh.The world's oldest surviving bowling green is the Southampton Old Bowling Green, which was first used in 1299.WEB,weblink 6 January 2009, BBC Online, Southampton Old Bowling Green, Southampton, England,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090611021631weblink">weblink 11 June 2009, no,

Emergency services

(File:So'ton Central Police Station.jpg|thumb|Southampton Central Police Station)Southampton's police service is provided by Hampshire Constabulary. The main base of the Southampton operation is a new, eight-storey purpose-built building which cost £30 million to construct. The building, located on Southern Road, opened in 2011 and is near to Southampton Central railway station.NEWS, Southampton's £30m police HQ opens,weblink 11 March 2012, BBC News, 7 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110426232550weblink">weblink 26 April 2011, no, Previously, the central Southampton operation was located within the west wing of the Civic Centre; however, the ageing facilities and the plans of constructing a new museum in the old police station and magistrates court necessitated the move. There are additional police stations at Portswood and Banister Park as well as a British Transport Police station at Southampton Central railway station.Southampton's fire cover is provided by Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service. There are three fire stations within the city boundaries at St Mary's, Hightown and Redbridge.The ambulance service is provided by South Central Ambulance Service.The national headquarters of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency is located in Commercial Road.

Crime

According to Hampshire Constabulary figures, Southampton is currently safer than it has ever been before, with dramatic reductions in violent crime year on year for the last three years.Data from the Southampton Safer City Partnership shows there has been a reduction in all crimes in recent years and an increase in crime detection rates.WEB, Name of file,weblink Safer Southampton – Southampton City Council, Southampton.gov.uk, 15 October 2012, 12 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130309054104weblink">weblink 9 March 2013, According to government figures Southampton has a higher crime rate than the national average.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091207174207weblink">weblink yes, 7 December 2009, 10 September 2007, Home Office, Local Authority Crime Statistics, There is some controversy regarding comparative crime statistics due to inconsistencies between different police forces recording methodologies. For example, in Hampshire all reported incidents are recorded and all records then retained. However, in neighbouring Dorset crimes reports withdrawn or shown to be false are not recorded, reducing apparent crime figures.WEB,weblink Home Office Research Study 204 Review of police forces' crime recording practices, PDF, 12 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131208212735weblink">weblink 8 December 2013, In the violence against the person category, the national average is 16.7 per 1,000 population while Southampton is 42.4 per 1,000 population. In the theft-from-a-vehicle category, the national average is 7.6 per 1,000 compared to Southampton's 28.4 per 1,000. Overall, for every 1,000 people in the city, 202 crimes are recorded. Hampshire Constabulary's figures for 2009/10 show fewer incidents of recorded crime in Southampton than the previous year.WEB,weblink 19 April 2010, Hampshire Constabulary, Southampton OCU Performance Information, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100617212238weblink">weblink 17 June 2010, dmy-all,

Education

{{See also|List of schools in Southampton}}File:National Oceanography Centre Southampton UK seen from waterfront.jpg|thumb|right|The National Oceanography Centre, SouthamptonNational Oceanography Centre, Southampton(File:George Thomas Student Services Building, University of Southampton.jpg|thumb|right|The George Thomas building at the University of Southampton)Southampton has two universities, namely the University of Southampton and Southampton Solent University.NEWS, Will brexit damage UK universities?,weblink 9 November 2018, The Guardian, 20 September 2018,weblink 9 November 2018, no, Together, they have a student population of 40,000. Though students numbers had increased in the 80s, 90s, and up to 2011, they began to reduce due to changes in immigration rules and dropped further after 2016 due to Brexit. Of these, 2,880 are from EU, and the rest are from UK, Asia and Africa.BOOK, Brexit and student housing, 1 May 2017, KPMG, London, 1,weblink 9 November 2018,weblink 9 November 2018, no, WEB, Higher education students - where do they come from. A live report,weblink www.hesa.ac.uk, HESA, 9 November 2018,weblink 9 November 2018, no, The University of Southampton, which was founded in 1862 and received its Royal Charter as a university in 1952, has over 22,000 students. The university is ranked in the top 100 research universities in the world in the Academic Ranking of World Universities 2010. In 2010, the THES - QS World University Rankings positioned the University of Southampton in the top 80 universities in the world. The university considers itself one of the top 5 research universities in the UK.WEB,weblink 28 July 2007, University of Southampton, About Us,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070805031102weblink">weblink 5 August 2007, no, WEB,weblink 28 July 2007, HERO, University of Southampton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070914040144weblink">weblink 14 September 2007, no, NEWS,weblink 1 May 2007, 28 July 2007, Guardian Unlimited, University of Southampton, London, The Guardian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070806154613weblink">weblink 6 August 2007, no, The university has a global reputation for research into engineering sciences,WEB,weblink 19 October 2007, University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080121180950weblink">weblink 21 January 2008, no, oceanography, chemistry, cancer sciences, sound and vibration research,WEB,weblink 9 October 2008, 9 October 2008, University of Southampton, Institute of Sound and Vibration Research,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081108030424weblink">weblink 8 November 2008, no, computer science and electronics and optoelectronics. It is also home to the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOCS), the focus of Natural Environment Research Council-funded marine research.Southampton Solent University has 17,000NEWS,weblink 1 May 2007, 28 July 2007, Guardian Unlimited, Southampton Solent University, London, The Guardian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070806110343weblink">weblink 6 August 2007, no, students and its strengths are in the training, design, consultancy, research and other services undertaken for business and industry.WEB,weblink 28 July 2007, Southampton City Council, Southampton Solent University, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927020139weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, dmy-all, It is also host to the Warsash Maritime Academy, which provides training and certification for the international shipping and off-shore oil industries.In addition to state school sixth forms at St Anne's and Bitterne Park School and an independent sixth form at King Edward's, there are two sixth-form colleges: Itchen College and Richard Taunton Sixth Form College, and a further education college, Southampton City College. A number of Southampton pupils travel outside the city, for example to Barton Peveril College.{{citation needed|date=September 2017}}There are 79 state-run schools in Southampton, comprising:
  • 1 nursery school (The Hardmoor Early Years Centre in Bassett Green)
  • 21 infant schools (ages 4 – 7)
  • 16 junior schools (ages 7 – 11)
  • 24 primary schools (ages 4 – 11)
  • 8 secondary schools (ages 11 – 16)
  • 2 secondary schools with sixth forms (ages 11–18)
  • 2 academies (Oasis Academy Mayfield and Oasis Academy Lord's Hill)
  • 5 special schoolsWEB,weblink School websites and contact details, Southampton City Council, 11 November 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090101161822weblink">weblink 1 January 2009,
There are also independent schools, including The Gregg School, King Edward VI School and St Mary's Independent School.

Transport

{{more citations needed section|date=August 2014}}

Road

Southampton is a major UK port which has good transport links with the rest of the country. The M27 motorway, linking places along the south coast of England, runs just to the north of the city. The M3 motorway links the city to London and also, via a link to the A34 (part of the European route E05) at Winchester, with the Midlands and North. The M271 motorway is a spur of the M27, linking it with the Western Docks and city centre.

Rail

(File:Southamptoncentral.jpg|thumb|Southampton Central railway station)Southampton is also served by the rail network, which is used both by freight services to and from the docks and passenger services as part of the national rail system. The main station in the city is Southampton Central. Rail routes run east towards Portsmouth, north to Winchester, the Midlands and London, and westwards to Bournemouth, Poole, Dorchester, Weymouth, Salisbury, Bristol and Cardiff. The route to London was opened in 1840 by what was to become the London and South Western Railway Company. Both this and its successor, Southern Railway, played a significant role in the creation of the modern port following their purchase and development of the town's docks.Local train services operate in the city and are operated by South Western Railway, with stations at Swaythling, St Denys, Millbrook, Redbridge, Bitterne, Sholing and Woolston. Plans were announced by Hampshire County Council in July 2009 for the introduction of tram-train running from Hythe (on what is now a freight-only line to Fawley) via Totton to Southampton Central Station and on to Fareham via St. Denys, and Swanwick.WEB,weblink Plans for tram-trains through Southampton (From Daily Echo), Dailyecho.co.uk, 1 July 2009, 8 July 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121019012544weblink">weblink 19 October 2012, no, The proposal follows a failed plan to bring light rail to the Portsmouth and Gosport areas in 2005.The town was the subject of an attempt by a separate company, the Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway, to open another rail route to the North in the 1880s and some building work, including a surviving embankment, was undertaken in the Hill Lane area.BOOK, Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Railway, Sands, T.B., 978-0-85361-023-6, 16,

Air

Southampton Airport is a regional airport located in the town of Eastleigh, just north of the city. It offers flights to UK and near European destinations, and is connected to the city by a frequent rail service from Southampton Airport Parkway railway station,WEB,weblink Travel by train to Southampton Airport, www.southamptonairport.com, 28 August 2018,weblink 29 August 2018, no, and by bus services.WEB,weblink Travel by bus to Southampton Airport, www.southamptonairport.com, 28 August 2018,weblink 6 November 2018, no, For longer flights, Gatwick Airport is linked by a regular rail service, and Heathrow Airport is linked by National Express coach services.

Cruise shipping

(File:New Ocean Terminal with Queen Mary 2 - geograph.org.uk - 1577263.jpg|thumb|Queen Mary 2 at the new Ocean Terminal, with Isle of Wight passenger ferry Red Jet 3)Southampton's tradition of luxury cruising began in the 1840s, one of the pioneers being P&O who advertised tours to Egypt.BOOK, Arnott, Alastair, Southampton, Gateway to the World, 68, The History Press, 2010, Many of the world's largest cruise ships can regularly be seen in Southampton water, including record-breaking vessels from Royal Caribbean and Carnival Corporation & plc. The latter has headquarters in Southampton, with its brands including Princess Cruises, P&O Cruises and Cunard Line.The city has a particular connection to Cunard Line and their fleet of ships. This was particularly evident on 11 November 2008 when the Cunard liner {{RMS|Queen Elizabeth 2}} departed the city for the final time amid a spectacular fireworks display after a full day of celebrations.WEB,weblink QE2 Retirement – Southampton, Chris' Cunard Page, 12 July 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190712040811weblink">weblink 12 July 2019, no, Cunard ships are regularly christened in the city, for example {{MS|Queen Victoria|3=2}} was named by HRH The Duchess of Cornwall in December 2007, and the Queen named Queen Elizabeth in the city during October 2011. The Duchess of Cambridge performed the naming ceremony of Royal Princess on 13 June 2013.At certain times of the year, the Queen Mary 2, Queen Elizabeth and Queen Victoria may all visit Southampton at the same time, in an event commonly called 'Arrival of the Three Queens'.The importance of Southampton to the cruise industry was indicated by P&O Cruises' 175th-anniversary celebrations, which included all seven of the company's liners visiting Southampton in a single day. Adonia, Arcadia, Aurora, Azura, Oceana, Oriana and Ventura all left the city in a procession on 3 July 2012.{{Citation |title=Magnificent seven ships to make up 'The Grand Event' at Southampton |newspaper=Southern Daily Echo |date=18 April 2012 |url=http://www.dailyecho.co.uk/news/9655678.Magnificent_seven_ships_to_make_up__The_Grand_Event__at_Southampton/ |accessdate=18 April 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130615220035weblink |archive-date=15 June 2013 |dead-url=no }}

Ferry

While Southampton is no longer the base for any cross-channel ferries, it is the terminus for three internal ferry services, all of which operate from terminals at Town Quay. Two of these, a car ferry service and a fast catamaran passenger ferry service, provide links to East Cowes and Cowes, respectively, on the Isle of Wight and are operated by Red Funnel. The third ferry is the Hythe Ferry, providing a passenger service to Hythe on the other side of Southampton Water.Southampton used to be home to a number of ferry services to the continent, with destinations such as San Sebastian, Lisbon, Tangier and Casablanca. A ferry port was built during the 1960s.The result appeared to be very successful {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080416223023weblink |date=16 April 2008 }} Retrieved 2 January 2008 However, a number of these relocated to Portsmouth and by 1996, there were no longer any car ferries operating from Southampton with the exception of services to the Isle of Wight. The land used for Southampton Ferry Port was sold off and a retail and housing development was built on the site. The Princess Alexandra Dock was converted into a marina. Reception areas for new cars now fill the Eastern Docks where passengers, dry docks and trains used to be.

Bus

(File:Buses by Guildhall.jpg|thumb|Bluestar and First buses outside the Guildhall)The main bus operators are First Southampton, Bluestar, Xelabus and Wheelers. The other large service provider is the Unilink bus service (running from early in the morning to midnight), which was commissioned by the University of Southampton to provide transport from the university to the town. Previously run by Enterprise, it is now run by Bluestar. Free buses were provided by City-link',Southampton Local Transport Plan 2001/2 to 2005/6 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070615191259weblink |date=15 June 2007}} Retrieved 10 May 2007 but the subsidy provided by Southampton City Council was pulled in 2014 and the service now charges passengers £1 flat-rate single fare, with Red Funnel ticket holders continuing to travel free.WEB,weblink Bluestar - Shining across your city, www.bluestarbus.co.uk, 5 February 2019,weblink 22 January 2019, no, The service was rebranded as QuayConnect in May 2016, with a red and white livery on the bus instead of blue. It runs from the Red Funnel ferry terminals at Town Quay to Central station via Westquay and is operated by Bluestar.Bluestar – Route list {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080828054755weblink |date=28 August 2008}}. Retrieved 4 October 2008. There is also a door-to-door minibus service called Southampton Dial a Ride, for residents who cannot access public transport. This is funded by the council and operated by SCA Support Services.There are two main termini for bus services. First uses stops around Pound Tree Road and Vincent's Walk, except the X4 to Portsmouth and X5 to Gosport, which start and end their journeys from Westquay. This leaves the other terminal of West Quay available for other operators. Unilink passes West Quay in both directions, and the Salisbury Reds X7 service to Salisbury drops passengers off and pick them up there, terminating at a series of bus stands along the road. Certain Bluestar services also do this, while others stop at Bargate and some loop round West Quay, stopping at Hanover Buildings.

Tram

There was a tram system from 1879 to 1949. More recent proposals to reintroduce them surfaced in 2016NEWS, The News (Portsmouth), Kimberley, Barbe, 22 March 2016, Plans for a tram line linking Portsmouth and Southampton have been revealed today – however they have been labelled as 'pie in the sky' by authority leaders,weblink 1 May 2019,weblink 1 May 2019, no, and 2017NEWS, Daily Echo, Richard, Percival, Multi-million pound Southampton tram scheme to undergo feasibility study,weblink 1 May 2019,weblink 1 May 2019, no, and a monorail system was proposed in 1988.BOOK, Garth, Groombridge, 2014, Southampton in the 1980s: Ten Years that Changed a City, Amberley Publishing,weblink 1 May 2019,

Cycling

Cycling within Southampton is becoming popular and Southampton City Council announced that it would adopt a new ten year 'Cycling Strategy' from 2017, which would include the construction of multiple cycling highways throughout the city and surrounding suburbs.WEB, Southampton Cycle Network - transforming cycling in Southampton,weblink Southampton City Council, 1 May 2019,weblink 1 May 2019, no,

Notable people

(File:Craig David.jpg|thumb|Craig David was brought up on the Holyrood estate in the city centre)People hailing from Southampton are called Sotonians.The city has produced a large number of musicians throughout its history, ranging from hymn writer Isaac Watts, who was born in Southampton in 1674BOOK,weblink Memoirs of the Rev. Isaac Watts, Gibbons, Thomas, 1780-01-01, Buckland, en, and whose composition O God, Our Help in Ages Past is played by the bells of Southampton Civic Centre,BOOK,weblink Bus-Pass Britain: 50 of the nation's favourite bus journeys, Kries, Susanne, Gardner, Nicky, Locke, Tim, 5 May 2016, Bradt Travel Guides, 9781784770198, 44, en, to more recent musical acts such as singer Craig David, who grew up on the Holyrood estate,WEB,weblink Craig David to headline Common People 2016 in Southampton, Daily Echo, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161005075859weblink">weblink 5 October 2016, no, Coldplay drummer Will ChampionWEB,weblink Coldplay drummer's journey from Hampshire primary school to the Superbowl, Daily Echo, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161005083438weblink">weblink 5 October 2016, no, and solo popstar Foxes.Television personalities from Southampton include comedian Benny HillNEWS,weblink Benny Hill, 67, English Comedian And Creator of TV Show, Is Dead, Wolff, Craig, 21 April 1992, The New York Times, 0362-4331, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160630063426weblink">weblink 30 June 2016, no, and naturalist Chris Packham,WEB,weblink Chris Packham: As soon as I could crawl I was looking for creatures to capture and own, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161012154934weblink">weblink 12 October 2016, no, and in recent years the city has also produced a number of competitive reality television winners such as Matt Cardle (The X Factor, 2010)WEB,weblink REVEALED: What's happened to Southampton's X Factor hopefuls?, Daily Echo, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161005081937weblink">weblink 5 October 2016, no, and Shelina Permalloo (MasterChef, 2012), who operates a Mauritian restaurant named Lakaz Maman in Bedford Place.WEB,weblink There's a new Masterchef in town, Nigella! Shelina crowned first female champion in seven years, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160504203822weblink">weblink 4 May 2016, no, Radio personality Scott Mills was also born in Southampton.WEB,weblink BBC - Press Office - Scott Mills, 15 September 2007, 14 December 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070915061027weblink">weblink 15 September 2007, Novelist Jane Austen lived in Southampton for a number of yearsBOOK,weblink A Jane Austen Encyclopedia, Poplawski, Paul, 1 January 1998, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780313300172, 15, en, and the city has also been home to a number of artists, including Edward John Gregory,WEB,weblink Art by Southampton's famous artist Edward John Gregory could sell for £10k, Daily Echo, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161005080739weblink">weblink 5 October 2016, no, Hubert von HerkomerBOOK,weblink Benezit Dictionary of British Graphic Artists and Illustrators, Press, Oxford University, 21 June 2012, OUP USA, 9780199923052, 542, en, Google Books, and John Everett Millais.BOOK,weblink From Realism to Art Nouveau, Lombardi, Laura, 1 January 2009, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 9781402759260, 56, en, Google Books, The feminist and suffragist Emily Davies was born there in 1830.ODNB, 32741, Davies, (Sarah) Emily, Sara, Delamont, Sports people born in Southampton include rugby union player Mike BrownWEB,weblink Hampshire rugby star Mike Brown helps England rewrite history books against Australia, Daily Echo, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161005083434weblink">weblink 5 October 2016, no, and Australian tennis player Wally Masur.NEWS,weblink Andy Murray beats body and Bernard Tomic to put GB in Davis Cup final, Arena, Kevin Mitchell at the Emirates, 20 September 2015, The Guardian, en-GB, 0261-3077, 3 October 2016,weblink 5 October 2016, no, Being a port city, Southampton has been home to a number of seafarers including Charles Fryatt, who rammed a German U-boat with his civilian ship during World War I;WEB,weblink BBC - Southampton's Capt Charles Fryatt remembered at IWM, news.bbc.co.uk, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161010180633weblink">weblink 10 October 2016, no, John Jellicoe, who served as Admiral of the Fleet during the same war and later became Governor-General of New Zealand;WEB,weblink BBC - History - Historic Figures: Admiral John Jellicoe (1859 - 1935), 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161009203842weblink">weblink 9 October 2016, no, and the last survivor of the RMS Titanic, Millvina Dean.WEB,weblink Millvina Dean, 3 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161010050038weblink">weblink 10 October 2016, no, Richard Aslatt Pearce, the first deaf-mute Anglican clergyman, was born in Portswood, Southampton.WEB,weblink Full text of "Anecdotes & Incidents of the Deaf and Dumb", Ally Law, Youtuber and parkour practitioner, was born in Southampton.NEWS, Southampton YouTuber Ally Law given ban after Big Brother stunt,weblink 1 April 2019, The Daily Echo, 15 December 2018,weblink 1 April 2019, no,

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Commons category|Southampton}} {{Districts of Southampton}}{{SE England}}{{Hampshire}}{{UK cities}}{{Unitary authorities of England}}{{Associated British Ports}}{{Viking Invasion of England}}

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